WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrothermal process part

  1. Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  2. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  3. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  4. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO 2 and H 2 O, with 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture

  5. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.J.; Worl, L.; Harradine, D.; Padilla, D.; McInroy, R.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization. Investigation of process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrueck, J.; Rossbach, M.; Reichert, D.; Bockhorn, H. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Technical Chemistry and Polymerchemistry; Walz, L. [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany); Eyler, D. [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For energetic use and as a raw material lignocellulosic biomass becomes more and more important. Among pyrolytic refining, the hydrothermal treatment can be an alternative way to deoxygenerate biomass. The objective of this study is to gain deeper insights into the Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) process and also to define basic parameters for the construction of a small pilot plant. The biomass is converted in an autoclave at temperatures between 180 C and 240 C establishing the respective vapour pressure. Reaction times between 1 and 12 hours are applied and various catalysts in different concentrations are tested. Elemental analysis of the product, a brown coal-like solid, shows a composition of ca. C{sub 4}H{sub 3}O{sub 1}, corresponding to a carbon recovery of 60% of initial carbon mass. The elemental composition of the product is independent of the process temperature and the applied biomass, if a minimal reaction time is adhered, which however heavily depends on the reaction temperature. The remaining carbon species in intermediate reaction products in the liquid and gas phase are characterised by use of GC/MS, HPLC and FTIR. From the experimental data a two-way mechanism is deduced that includes a rapid formation of an initial solid and dehydration and decomposition reactions which lead to smaller organic molecules, e.g. furfural and aromatic species, and can be promoted by acid catalysis, e.g. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. (orig.)

  7. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  8. Effects of process parameters on hydrothermal carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Helal

    In recent years there has been increased research activity in renewable energy, especially upgrading widely available lignicellulosic biomass, in a bid to counter the increasing environmental concerns related with the use of fossil fuels. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), also known as wet torrefaction or hot water pretreatment, is a process for pretreatment of diverse lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, where biomass is treated under subcritical water conditions in short contact time to produce high-value products. The products of this process are: a solid mass characterized as biochar/biocoal/biocarbon, which is homogeneous, energy dense, and hydrophobic; a liquid stream composed of five and six carbon sugars, various organic acids, and 5-HMF; and a gaseous stream, mainly CO2. A number of process parameters are considered important for the extensive application of the HTC process. Primarily, reaction temperature determines the characteristics of the products. In the solid product, the oxygen carbon ratio decreases with increasing reaction temperature and as a result, HTC biochar has the similar characteristics to low rank coal. However, liquid and gaseous stream compositions are largely correlated with the residence time. Biomass particle size can also limit the reaction kinetics due to the mass transfer effect. Recycling of process water can help to minimize the utility consumption and reduce the waste treatment cost as a result of less environmental impact. Loblolly pine was treated in hot compressed water at 200 °C, 230 °C, and 260 °C with 5:1 water:biomass mass ratio to investigate the effects of process parameters on HTC. The solid product were characterized by their mass yields, higher heating values (HHV), and equilibrium moisture content (EMC), while the liquid were characterized by their total organic carbon content and pH value.

  9. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported

  10. Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Sanchez, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. They also examined products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide

  11. Hydrothermal processing of inorganic components of Hanford tank sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborg, R.; Buelow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Anderson, G.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Funk, K.; Wilmanns, E.; Knutsen, K.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrothermal Processing (HTP) is an attractive approach for the treatment of Hanford tank sludge. Hydrothermal Processing refers to a waste treatment technique in which an aqueous waste stream is fed through a chemical reactor at elevated temperatures and pressures to effect desired chemical transformations and separations. Transformations such as organic and nitrate destruction and sludge reformulation have been demonstrated at pilot scale using simulants of Hanford tank wastes. At sufficiently high temperatures and pressures organics and nitrates are destroyed in seconds, producing primarily simple products such as CO 3 2- , H 2 O, N 2 , N 2 O and OH - , and sludges are reduced in volume and reformulated as rapid settling oxides amenable to downstream separation, or in some cases reformulated as soluble products. This report describes the hydrothermal dissolution of chromium and chromium oxide; the hydrothermal oxidation of chromium with nitrate; hydrothermal dissolution of aluminum-bearing sludges; the solubility of aluminum compounds in caustic hydrothermal media; experimental techniques for the study of solubility and phase behavior; optical cell studies of basic aluminate solution solubilities; and high temperature, low density salt solubility in the packed-bed flow apparatus

  12. Process characteristics for microwave assisted hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junting; An, Ying; Borrion, Aiduan; He, Wenzhi; Wang, Nan; Chen, Yirong; Li, Guangming

    2018-07-01

    The process characteristics of microwave assisted hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose was investigated and a first order kinetics model based on carbon concentration was developed. Chemical properties analysis showed that comparing to conventional hydrothermal carbonization, hydrochar with comparable energy properties can be obtained with 5-10 times decrease in reaction time with assistance of microwave heating. Results from kinetics study was in great agreement with experimental analysis, that they both illustrated the predominant mechanism of the reaction depend on variations in the reaction rates of two co-existent pathways. Particularly, the pyrolysis-like intramolecular dehydration reaction was proved to be the predominant mechanism for hydrochar generation under high temperatures. Finally, the enhancement effects of microwave heating were reflected under both soluble and solid pathways in this research, suggesting microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization as a more attracting method for carbon-enriched hydrochar recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of lightweight refractory material by hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulejmani, Ramiz B.

    2002-01-01

    Many different processes of production of lightweight refractories are well known over the World. Traditional production of lightweight refractories is by addition of combustibles or by a special frothing process. This work is concerned with hydrothermal of lightweight refractories from rice husk ash. The rice husk ash, used in present investigations were from Kocani region, R. Macedonia. The chemical analysis of the rice husk ash shows that it contains 91,8 - 93,7% SiO 2 and some alkaline and alkaline earth oxides. Microscopic and X - ray diffraction examinations of the rice husk ash have shown that it is composed of cristobalite, tridimite and amorphous silica. The composition of the mixture for lightweight refractory brick production is 93,4% rice husk ash and 6,6% Ca(OH) 2 . The mixtures were well mixed, moistened and pressed at 5 - 10 MPa. The hydrothermal reactions between calcium hydroxide and rice husk ash over the temperature range 80 - 160 o C were investigated. The period of autoclave treatment was from 2 to 72 h. After the hydrothermal treatment of the samples, the mineralogical composition, bulk density, density, cold crushing strength, porosity, refractoriness and thermal expansion were examined. Analysing the properties of the obtained samples it can be concluded that from rice husk ash and calcium hydroxide under hydrothermal condition it is possible to obtain lightweight acid refractory material with high quality.(Author)

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, DC; Biller, P; Ross, AB; Schmidt, AJ; Jones, SB

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their pr...

  15. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  16. Crystallization process of zircon and fergusonite during hydrothermal alteration in Nechalacho REE deposit, Thor Lake, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kon, Y.; Tsunematsu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The core samples of two drill holes, which penetrate sub-horizontal mineralized horizons at Nechalacho REE deposit in the Proterozoic Thor Lake syenite, Canada, were studied in order to clarify magmatic and hydrothermal processes that enriched HFSE (e.g. Zr, Nb, Y and REE). Zircon is the most common REE minerals in Nechalacho REE deposit. The zircon is divided into five types as follows: Type-1 zircon occurs as single grain in phlogopite and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by a steeply-rising slope from the LREE to the HREE with a positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly. This chemical characteristic is similar to that of igneous zircon. Type-2 zircon consists of HREE-rich magmatic porous core and LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal rim. This type zircon is mostly included in phlogopite and fluorite, and occasionally in microcline. Type-3 zircon is characterized by euhedral to anhedral crystal, occurring in a complex intergrowth with REE fluorocarbonates. Type-3 zircons have high contents of REE, Nb and fluorine. Type-4 zircon consists of porous-core and -rim zones, but their chemical compositions are similar to each other. This type zircon is a subhedral crystal rimmed by fergusonite. Type-5 zircon is characterized by smaller, porous and subhedral to anhedral crystals. The interstices between small zircons are filled by fergusonite. Type-4 and -5 zircons show low REE and Nb contents. Occurrences of these five types of zircon are different according to the depth and degree of the alteration by hydrothermal solutions rich in F- and CO3 of the two drill holes, which permit a model for evolution of the zircon crystallization in Nechalacho REE deposit as follows: (1) type-1 (single magmatic zircon) is formed in miaskitic syenite. (2) LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal zircon formed around HREE-rich magmatic zircon (type-2 zircon); (3) type-3 zircon crystallized thorough F and CO3-rich hydrothermal alteration of type-2 zircon which formed the complex

  17. Chemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal processes on Mars: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are thought to have had significant roles in the development of surficial mineralogies and morphological features on Mars. For example, a significant proportion of the Martian soil could consist of the erosional products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets. In this model, impact-driven, vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems hydrothermally altered the surrounding rocks and transported volatiles such as S and Cl to the surface. Further support for impact-driven hydrothermal alteration on Mars was provided by studies of the Ries crater, Germany, where suevite deposits were extensively altered to montmorillonite clays by inferred low-temperature (100-130 C) hydrothermal fluids. It was also suggested that surface outflow from both impact-driven and volcano-driven hydrothermal systems could generate the valley networks, thereby eliminating the need for an early warm wet climate. We use computer-driven chemical reaction path calculation to model chemical processes which were likely associated with postulated Martian hydrothermal systems.

  18. Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Bench Scale Technology Evaluation Project (WE&RF Report LIFT6T14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350◦C ...

  19. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guri; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-03

    Wet macroalgal slurries have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to a gravity-separable oil product of 58.8% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (subcritical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using feedstock slurries with a 21.7% concentration of dry solids. As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent, and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.2% of the carbon left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. Finally, as a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of residual organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  20. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, C.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhang, Qian-Feng, E-mail: zhangqf@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO{sub 2} as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  1. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Fan, C.G.; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO 2 as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  2. Liquid fuels from biomass via a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, F.; Peferoen, D.G.R. (Koninklijke Shell, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary process studies on the conversion of various biomass types into liquid fuels have indicated that HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) is more attractive than pyrolysis or gasification. In HTU the biomass is treated at temperatures of 300-350{sup 0}C in the presence of liquid water for 5-15 min. A large proportion of the oxygen is removed as carbon dioxide. In a case study a process for the production of 3600 t/d hydrocarbons starting from wood is evaluated. Six HTU units convert wood into ''biocrude'' containing 10 %w oxygen. The biocrude is upgraded by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation in a central facility. The final products are kerosine and gas oil which may be expected to have excellent properties. The manufacturing cost is 400-450 $/t. (author).

  3. Effect of hydrothermal process for inorganic alumina sol on crystal structure of alumina gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamamura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of a hydrothermal process for alumina sol on the crystal structure of alumina gel derived from hydrothermally treated alumina sol to help push forward the development of low temperature synthesis of α-Al2O3. White precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was prepared with a homogeneous precipitation method using aluminum nitrate and urea in aqueous solution. The obtained aluminum hydroxide precipitate was peptized by using acetic acid at room temperature, which resulted in the production of a transparent alumina sol. The alumina sol was treated with a hydrothermal process and transformed into an alumina gel film by drying at room temperature. Crystallization of the alumina gel to α-Al2O3 with 900 °C annealing was dominant for a hydrothermal temperature of 100 °C and a hydrothermal time of 60 min, as production of diaspore-like species was promoted with the hydrothermal temperature and time. Excess treatments with hydrothermal processes at higher hydrothermal temperature for longer hydrothermal time prevented the alumina gel from being crystallized to α-Al2O3 because the excess hydrothermal treatments promoted production of boehmite.

  4. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  5. Processing of Microalgae: Acoustic Cavitation and Hydrothermal Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, Justin Michael

    The production of energy dense fuels from renewable algal biomass feedstocks -- if sustainably developed at a sufficiently large scale -- may reduce the consumption of petroleum from fossil fuels and provide many environmental benefits. Achieving economic feasibility has several technical engineering challenges that arise from dilute concentration of growing algae in aqueous media, small cell sizes, and durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation and conversion of the cellular contents is necessary. Research was carried out to address two processing options for efficient microalgae biofuel production: 1. Ultrasonic cavitation for cell disruption and 2. Hydrothermal conversion of a model algal triglyceride. 1. Ultrasonic cell disruption, which relies on cavitating bubbles in the suspension to produce damaging shock waves, was investigated experimentally over a range of concentrations and species types. A few seconds of high intensity sonication at fixed frequency yielded significant cell disruption, even for the more durable cells. At longer exposure times, effectiveness was seen to decline and was attributed, using acoustic measurements, to ultrasonic power attenuation in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. Processing at higher cell concentrations slowed cell disintegration marginally, but increased the effectiveness of dissipating ultrasonic energy. A theoretical study effectively predicted optimal conditions for a variety of parameters that were inaccessible in this experimental investigation. In that study, single bubble collapse was modeled to identify operating conditions that would increase cavitation, and thus cell disruption. Simulations were conducted by varying frequency and pressure amplitude of the ultrasound wave, and initial bubble size. The simulation results indicated that low frequency, high sound wave amplitudes, and small initial bubble size generate the highest shock

  6. Influence of hydrothermal processing on functional properties and grain morphology of finger millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, Usha; Meera, M S; Reddy, S Yella; Malleshi, Nagappa G

    2015-03-01

    Finger millet was hydrothermally processed followed by decortication. Changes in color, diameter, density, sphericity, thermal and textural characteristics and also some of the functional properties of the millet along with the grain morphology of the kernels after hydrothermal processing and decortication were studied. It was observed that, the millet turned dark after hydrothermal processing and color improved over native millet after decortication. A slight decrease in grain diameter was observed but sphericity of the grains increased on decortication. The soft and fragile endosperm turned into a hard texture and grain hardness increased by about 6 fold. Hydrothermal processing increased solubility and swelling power of the millet at ambient temperature. Pasting profile indicated that, peak viscosity decreased significantly on hydrothermal processing and both hydrothermally processed and decorticated millet exhibited zero breakdown viscosity. Enthalpy was negative for hydrothermally processed millet and positive for decorticated grains. Microscopic studies revealed that the orderly structure of endosperm changed to a coherent mass after hydrothermal processing and the different layers of seed coat get fused with the endosperm.

  7. Hydrothermal Processes in the Archean - New Insights from Imaging Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenbeek, F.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain new insights in fossil hydrothermal systems using airborne imaging spectroscopy. Fossil submarine hydrothermal systems in Archean greenstone belts and other geologic terranes are important because of their relationship with volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) mineral

  8. Discovery of Fracture Networks in the Basal Part of Modern Hydrothermal System in Okinawa Tough, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yamada, Y.; Sanada, Y.; Kido, Y. N.; Hamada, Y.; Shiraishi, K.; Hsiung, K. H.; Tsuji, T.; Eng, C.; Maeda, L.; Kumagai, H.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    A scientific drilling expedition, CK16-01 was conducted by D/V Chikyu in an active hydrothermal field on the Iheya-North Knoll in Okinawa Trough in February-March, 2016 as a part of "Next-generation Technology for Ocean Resources Survey" of the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP). During the expedition logging while drilling (LWD) was deployed to uncover the architecture of modern hydrothermal deposits near the seafloor. A downhole sequence of fracture network (stock-work) was discovered by high resolution resistivity images at Site C9023 in the southern part of the knoll. More than 500 structural features were extracted from the borehole images down to 188 meter below the seafloor. Quantitative image analyses were performed and three types of conductive fractures were identified and classified as Generation 1 (G1), Generation 2 (G2), and Generation 3 (G3) based on the crossing or cutting relationship. The average thickness of fractures decrease with generation from G1 (78 mm), G2 (57 mm), to G3 (45 mm). G1 is developed in the entire interval, whereas G2 and G3 are commonly observed in the intervals of lower gamma ray and high resistivity ( 10 ohm-m) at 77-125 m and 167-186 m where sulfide minerals hosted in silicified rocks were observed in recovered core samples. Low angle fractures (<30°) are typically developed in the interval at 120 -125 m, suggesting possible lateral hydrothermal conduits. The quantitative analysis of fracture network based on borehole images shows the detailed formation process of stock-work in the basal part of modern hydrothermal system.

  9. Destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides by hydrothermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Anderson, G.; Archuleta, F.; Atencio, J.; Breshears, D.; Brewer, R.; Eaton, H.; McFarland, R.; McInroy, R.; Reynolds, T.; Sedillo, M.; Wilmanns, E.; Buelow, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This work targets the remediation of the aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington via hydrothermal processing. The feasibility of destroying the nitrate, organic, and ferrocyanide components of the wastes under supercritical and near critical conditions (623 degree K to 873 degree K, 22.1 MPa to 103.4 MPa) is addressed. A novel method was developed for determining the solubility of nitrate salts in supercritical water solutions at pressures ranging from 24.8 MPa to 30.3 MPa (3600 psi to 4400 psi) and temperatures from 723 degree K to 798 degree K. Sodium nitrate solubilities ranged from 293 mg/kg at 24.8 MPa and 798 degree K to 1963 mg/kg at 30.3 MPa and 723 degree K. Solubility was found to vary directly with pressure, and inversely with temperature. An empirical relationship was developed for the estimation of sodium nitrate solubility at water densities between 0.08 and 0.16 kg/L and temperatures between 723 degree K and 798 degree K. A small volume batch reactor equipped with optical diagnostics was used to monitor the phase behavior of a diluted variant of a tank 101-SY simulant. Preliminary results suggest that a single phase is formed at 83 MPa at 773 degree K

  10. Laser-driven hydrothermal process studied with excimer laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Raymond; Rubenchik, Alexander; Fong, Erika; Norton, Mary; Hollingsworth, William; Clarkson, James; Johnsen, Howard; Osborn, David L.

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we discovered [Mariella et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 014904 (2013)] that modest-fluence/modest-intensity 351-nm laser pulses, with insufficient fluence/intensity to ablate rock, mineral, or concrete samples via surface vaporization, still removed the surface material from water-submerged target samples with confinement of the removed material, and then dispersed at least some of the removed material into the water as a long-lived suspension of nanoparticles. We called this new process, which appears to include the generation of larger colorless particles, "laser-driven hydrothermal processing" (LDHP) [Mariella et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 014904 (2013)]. We, now, report that we have studied this process using 248-nm and 193-nm laser light on submerged concrete, quartzite, and obsidian, and, even though light at these wavelengths is more strongly absorbed than at 351 nm, we found that the overall efficiency of LDHP, in terms of the mass of the target removed per Joule of laser-pulse energy, is lower with 248-nm and 193-nm laser pulses than with 351-nm laser pulses. Given that stronger absorption creates higher peak surface temperatures for comparable laser fluence and intensity, it was surprising to observe reduced efficiencies for material removal. We also measured the nascent particle-size distributions that LDHP creates in the submerging water and found that they do not display the long tail towards larger particle sizes that we had observed when there had been a multi-week delay between experiments and the date of measuring the size distributions. This is consistent with transient dissolution of the solid surface, followed by diffusion-limited kinetics of nucleation and growth of particles from the resulting thin layer of supersaturated solution at the sample surface.

  11. Process energetics for the hydrothermal carbonisation of human faecal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danso-Boateng, E.; Holdich, R.G.; Martin, S.J.; Shama, G.; Wheatley, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of variations to scale of operation and feedstock solids content considered. • A framework for estimating energy budget of a waste treatment system is presented. • Combustion of by-product CH_4 renders the process self-sustaining in energy terms. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has the capability to convert wet biomass such as sewage sludge to a lignite-like renewable solid fuel of high calorific value. However, to date assessment of the energy efficiency of the HTC process has not been fully investigated. In this work, mass and energy balances of semi-continuous HTC of faecal waste conducted at 200 °C and at a reaction time of 30 min are presented. This analysis is based on recovering steam from the process as well as energy from the solid fuel (hydrochar) and methane from digestion of the liquid product. The effect of the feedstock solids content and the quantity of feed on the mass and energy balance were investigated. The heat of reaction was measured at 200 °C for 4 h using wet faecal sludge, and the higher heating value was determined for the hydrochar. The results indicated that preheating the feed to 100 °C using heat recovered from the process would significantly reduce the energy input to the reactor by about 59%, and decreased the heat loss from the reactor by between 50% and 60%. For feedstocks containing 15–25% solids (for all feed rates), after the process is in operation, energy recycled from the flashing off of steam and combustion of the hydrochar and would be sufficient for preheating the feed, operating the reactor and drying the wet hydrochar without the need for any external sources of energy. Alternatively, for a feedstock containing 25% solids for all feed rates, energy recycled from the flashing off of steam and combustion of the methane provides sufficient energy to operate the entire process with an excess energy of about 19–21% which could be used for other purposes.

  12. The fossil hydrothermal system from Volta Grande, Lavras do Sul, RS. Part 2: Geochemical of chlorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexias, A.S.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Mattos, I.C.; Gomes, M.E.B.; Meunier, A.; Beaufort, D.

    1990-01-01

    Chlorites related to propylitic phyllic processes in Fossil Hydrothermal System of Volta Grande/RS, quite similar to porphyry copper type deposit, were studied. Electron probe analysis in chlorites and chemical total rock analysis made the study of macro and micro system possible. The geochemical study of the micro system enable to characterize the inactive and active flow regimes of hydrothermal process in propylitic and phyllic, respectively. Geo-thermometric data, at least qualitatively, indicate that the phyllic alteration is the same or slightly higher than propylitic alteration. The detailed study of the composition of chlorites in micro system permitted to know the diadochic replacement of elements, especially in chloritization of biotite, in which the mobility of Al 3+ (at least in mineral scale) is possible under constant volume and Ti 4+ . The rocks were analysed by absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis and gravimetry. (author)

  13. Hydrothermal processing of biomass from invasive aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. James Catallo; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hydrothermal (HT) treatment of three invasive aquatic plants (i.e., Lemna sp., Hydrilla sp., and Eichhornia sp.) with respect to the generation of semi-volatile hydrocarbon product mixtures and biomass volume reduction. Identical HT treatments yielded similar semi-...

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  15. Mobility of rare earth element in hydrothermal process and weathering product: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintjewas, L.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Rare Earth Element (REE), consists of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, are important elements to be used as raw materials of advanced technology such as semiconductors, magnets, and lasers. The research of REE in Indonesia has not been done. Several researches were conducted on granitic rocks and weathering product such as Bangka, Sibolga, West Kalimantan, West Sulawesi and Papua. REE can be formed by hydrothermal processes such as Bayan Obo, South China. The REE study on active hydrothermal system (geothermal) in this case also has the potential to produce mineral deposits. The purpose of this review paper is to know the mobility of REE on hydrothermal process and weathering products. Mobility of REE in the hydrothermal process can change the distribution patterns and REE content such as Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, and Y. Another process besides the hydrothermal is weathering process. REE mobility is influenced by weathering products, where the REE will experience residual and secondary enrichment processes in heavier minerals.

  16. Integration of hydrothermal carbonization and a CHP plant: Part 2 –operational and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Jussi; Sermyagina, Ekaterina; Kaikko, Juha; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sergeev, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a proven technology for producing domestic, carbon-neutral heat and power in Nordic countries. One drawback of CHP plants is the low capacity factors due to varying heat loads. In the current economic environment, uncertainty over energy prices creates also uncertainty over investment profitability. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermochemical conversion technology for producing an improved, more versatile wood-based fuel. Integrating HTC with a CHP plant allows simplifying the HTC process and extending the CHP plant operating time. An integrated polygeneration plant producing three energy products is also less sensitive to price changes in any one product. This study compares three integration cases chosen from the previous paper, and the case of separate stand-alone plants. The best economic performance is obtained using pressurized hot water from the CHP plant boiler drum as HTC process water. This has the poorest efficiency, but allows the greatest cost reduction in the HTC process and longest CHP plant operating time. The result demonstrates the suitability of CHP plants for integration with a HTC process, and the importance of economic and operational analysis considering annual load variations in sufficient detail. - Highlights: • Integration of wood hydrothermal carbonization with a small CHP plant studied. • Operation and economics of three concepts and stand-alone plants are compared. • Sensitivity analysis is performed. • Results show technical and thermodynamic analysis inadequate and misleading alone. • Minimizing HTC investment, extending CHP operating time important for profitability.

  17. Effect of acid detergent fiber in hydrothermally pretreated sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Rikiya; Yuan, Lee Chang; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Youichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Hydrothermal treatment is one of the pre-treatment method for anaerobic digestion. The application of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant has been succeeded to enhance the biogas production. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on anaerobic digestion process focusing on acid detergent fiber (ADF) in sewage sludge, which is low biodegradability. The hydrothermal treatment experiment was carried out for 15 minutes between 160 °C and 200 °C respectively. The ADF content was decreased after hydrothermal treatment compared with untreated sludge. However, ADF content was increased when raising the treatment temperature from 160 °C to 200 °C. During batch anaerobic digestion experiment, untreated and treated sludge were examined for 10 days under 38 °C, and all samples were fed once based on volatile solids of samples. From batch anaerobic digestion experiment, as ADF content in sewage sludge increased, the total biogas production decreased. It was found that ADF content in sewage sludge influence on anaerobic digestion. Therefore, ADF could be one of the indicator to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion.

  18. Hydrothermal activity and subsoil complexity: implication for degassing processes at Solfatara crater, Campi Flegrei caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Mayer, Klaus; Isaia, Roberto; Gresse, Marceau; Scheu, Bettina; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Ricci, Tullio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-12-01

    The Solfatara area and its fumaroles are the main surface expression of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the active Campi Flegrei caldera system. At depth, a range of volcanic and structural processes dictate the actual state of the hydrothermal system below the crater. The presence of a large variety of volcanic products at shallow depth (including pyroclastic fallout ash beds, pyroclastic density current deposits, breccias, and lavas), and the existence of a maar-related fault system appears to exert major controls on the degassing and alteration behavior. Adding further to the complexity of this environment, variations in permeability and porosity, due to subsoil lithology and alteration effects, may further influence fluid flow towards the surface. Here, we report results from a field campaign conducted in July 2015 that was designed to characterize the in situ physical (temperature, humidity) and mechanical (permeability, strength, stiffness) properties of the Solfatara crater subsoil. The survey also included a mapping of the surficial hydrothermal features and their distributions. Finally, laboratory measurements (porosity, granulometry) of selected samples were performed. Our results enable the discrimination of four main subsoils around the crater: (1) the Fangaia domain located in a topographic low in the southwestern sector, (2) the silica flat domain on the western altered side, (3) the new crust domain in the central area, and (4) the crusted hummocks domain that dominates the north, east, and south parts. These domains are surrounded by encrusted areas, reworked material, and vegetated soil. The distribution of these heterogeneous subsoils suggests that their formation is mostly related to (i) the presence of the Fangaia domain within the crater and (ii) a system of ring faults bordering it. The subsoils show an alternation between very high and very low permeabilities, a fact which seems to affect both the temperature distribution and

  19. High-pressure homogenization associated hydrothermal process of palygorskite for enhanced adsorption of Methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhifang [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Wenbo [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); R& D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuyi 211700 (China); Wang, Aiqin, E-mail: aqwang@licp.cas.cn [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); R& D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuyi 211700 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Palygorskite was modified by a homogenization associated hydrothermal process. • The crystal bundles of PAL were disaggregated efficiently after modification. • The adsorption of palygorskite for Methylene blue was greatly enhanced. • MB-loaded palygorskite exhibits excellent resistance to acid and alkali solution. - Abstract: Palygorskite (PAL) was modified by a high-pressure homogenization assisted hydrothermal process. The effects of modification on the morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of PAL were systematically investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analysis techniques, and the adsorption properties were systematically evaluated using Methylene blue (MB) as the model dye. The results revealed that the crystal bundles were disaggregated and the PAL nanorods became more even after treated via associated high-pressure homogenization and hydrothermal process, and the crystal bundles were dispersed as nanorods. The intrinsic crystal structure of PAL was remained after hydrothermal treatment, and the pore size calculated by the BET method was increased. The adsorption properties of PAL for MB were evidently improved (from 119 mg/g to 171 mg/g) after modification, and the dispersion of PAL before hydrothermal reaction is favorable to the adsorption. The desorption evaluation confirms that the modified PAL has stronger affinity with MB, which is benefit to fabricate a stable organic–inorganic hybrid pigment.

  20. Hydrothermal processes in the Edmond deposits, slow- to intermediate-spreading Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Sun, Zhilei; Zhai, Shikui; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Xuejun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Xilin; He, Yongjun

    2018-04-01

    The Edmond hydrothermal field, located on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), has a distinct mineralization history owing to its unique magmatic, tectonic, and alteration processes. Here, we report the detailed mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal metal sulfides recovered from this area. Based on the mineralogical investigations, the Edmond hydrothermal deposits comprise of high-temperature Fe-rich massive sulfides, medium-temperature Zn-rich sulfide chimney and low-temperature Ca-rich sulfate mineral assemblages. According to these compositions, three distinctive mineralization stages have been identified: (1) low-temperature consisting largely of anhydrite and pyrite/marcasite; (2) medium-high temperature distinguished by the mineral assemblage of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite; and (3) low-temperature stage characterized by the mineral assemblage of colloidal pyrite/marcasite, barite, quartz, anglesite. Several lines of evidence suggest that the sulfides were influenced by pervasive low-temperature diffuse flows in this area. The hydrothermal deposits are relatively enriched in Fe (5.99-18.93 wt%), Zn (2.10-10.00 wt%) and Ca (0.02-19.15 wt%), but display low Cu (0.28-0.81 wt%). The mineralogical varieties and low metal content of sulfides in the Edmond hydrothermal field both indicate that extensive water circulation is prevalent below the Edmond hydrothermal field. With regard to trace elements, the contents of Pb, Ba, Sr, As, Au, Ag, and Cd are significantly higher than those in other sediment-starved mid-ocean ridges, which is indicative of contribution from felsic rock sources. Furthermore, the multiphase hydrothermal activity and the pervasive water circulation underneath are speculated to play important roles in element remobilization and enrichment. Our findings deepen our understanding about the complex mineralization process in slow- to intermediate-spreading ridges globally.

  1. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265

  2. Production and analysis of hydroxyapatite from Australian corals via hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Russell, J.; Ben-Nissan, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s it is well known that if a biocompatible ceramic prosthesis with appropriate interconnected pores is used, growth of hard and soft tissue into the surface pores will be observed. A very strong attachment and hence the resultant mechanical and chemical bond to the existing surrounding tissue will be produced. Current artificial eyes although widely used encounter various problems due to the their motility and fail to deliver natural movement. They also cause sagging of the lids due to unsupported weight of the prosthesis. It is expected that application of a porous bioceramic such as the hydroxyapatite can generate good bonding to the tissue and hence a life-like eye movement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and related calcium phosphates have been studied for many years as implant materials, due to their similarity with the mineral phase of bone. From the point of view of biocompatibility, HAp seems to be the most suitable ceramic material for tissue replacement implants. Hydroxyapatite ceramics do not exhibit any cytoxic effects. It shows excellent biocompatibility with hard and soft tissues. Moreover, HAp can directly bond to the bone. Various preparation methods for HAp including the hydrothermal method have been used. The hydrothermal method was first used for hydroxyapatite formation directly from corals in 1974 by Roy and Linnehan. Complete replacement of aragonite by phosphatic material was achieved under 270degC and 103MPa using the hydrothermal process. This process has the disadvantage that the hydrothermal treatment must be carried out at a relatively high temperature under very high pressure. In 1996, HAp derived from Indian coral using hydrothermal process was developed by Sivakumar et al. However, the resultant material was in the form of a powder. Australia has rich variety of corals. Their application for implants have been studied very little. In this study, Australian corals selected were used for hydroxyapatite conversion. A new hydrothermal

  3. The hydrothermal upgrading process (HTU) for biomass liquefaction; Het hydrothermal upgrading proces (HTU) voor biomassa liquefactie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naber, J.E. (ed.) [Biofuel, Heemskerk (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The HTU process has been investigated in 1981-1988 at the Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam, as a reaction to the two oil crises of 1973 and 1980. Due to the commercial circumstances in the late eighties, the research on the promising HTU technology was discontinued with only a few hundred hours of continuous bench-scale operation. While most of the critical elements of the technology were demonstrated in principle, many important data were lacking for a reliable design of the first (semi-) commercial applications, as well as a good understanding of the fundamental backgrounds, the product properties and possibilities/aspects of scaling up. Therefore the purpose and envisaged result of this project is a validated process on pilot plant scale, for a reliable design of the first commercial demonstration(s). Next to fundamental investigations of conversion mechanisms, process dynamics, thermodynamics of the multi-phase system and the water treating, the installation and continuous operation of an integrated pilot plant plays a central role in the project. The latter as well as the pressurizing of the biomass feed were identified as Go/No Go elements. With parallel research on e.g. reactor engineering and high pressure pumps, the HTU process can be scaled-up with confidence to throughputs of 10,000+ tons biomass/year. The pilot plant will be able to produce sufficient product to enable thorough research on various product applications and possibly the further upgrading by hydrodeoxygenation to 'green' transport fuels and/or premium ethylene cracker feedstock. The principle of this upgrading was also established in the R and D at the Shell Laboratory. [Dutch] Het HTU proces is in de jaren 1981-1988 onderzocht op het Shell Laboratorium in Amsterdam, als reactie op de twee olie crises van 1973 en 1980. Door de commerciele omstandigheden in het latere deel van de tachtiger jaren is de tot dan toe veelbelovende ontwikkeling van de HTU technologie vroegtijdig

  4. Waste treatment process by solidifying cementitious materials using hydrothermal hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Kamakura, T.; Yamasaki, N.; Hashida, T.

    2001-01-01

    Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes containing Na 2 SO 4 with cement by hydrothermal hot-pressing (HHP) technique was examined. Relatively high mechanical strength, reduced leaching ratio of SO 3 , and higher resistance to the carbonation of the HHP product were attained in comparison with conventional concrete. The solidification by the HHP treatment may be proceeded by the rearrangement of particles and the bonding material formation among the particles by dissolution-deposition process. The possibility of developing the accelerated testing method for duration of cemented materials by hydrothermal method was discussed. (author)

  5. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  6. A review on hydrothermal pre-treatment technologies and environmental profiles of algal biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavish; Guo, Miao; Izadpanah, Arash; Shah, Nilay; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The need for efficient and clean biomass conversion technologies has propelled Hydrothermal (HT) processing as a promising treatment option for biofuel production. This manuscript discussed its application for pre-treatment of microalgae biomass to solid (biochar), liquid (biocrude and biodiesel) and gaseous (hydrogen and methane) products via Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC), Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) as well as the utility of HT water as an extraction medium and HT Hydrotreatment (HDT) of algal biocrude. In addition, the Solar Energy Retained in Fuel (SERF) using HT technologies is calculated and compared with benchmark biofuel. Lastly, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) discusses the limitation of the current state of art as well as introduction to new potential input categories to obtain a detailed environmental profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the circular economy via hydrothermal processing of high-density waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer Pedersen, Thomas; Conti, Federica

    2017-10-01

    Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies. This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical compounds. The outlook presents conversion yields, carbon balances, and chemical details on the products obtained. It is found that all the investigated resins are prone to hydrothermal treatment, and that high yields of monomers and high value compounds (up to nearly 100%), suitable for chemicals and fuels applications, can be obtained. For instance, for polycarbonate, styrene-butadiene, poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene terephthalate), and poly(butylene terephthalate), original monomeric compounds can be reclaimed for manufacturing new resins. The promising results presented demonstrate that hydrothermal processing of high-density plastics is a prospective technology for increasing the circularity of the plastic economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamental mechanisms and reactions in non-catalytic subcritical hydrothermal processes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefifar, Azadeh; Baroutian, Saeid; Farid, Mohammed M; Gapes, Daniel J; Young, Brent R

    2017-10-15

    The management and disposal of solid waste is of increasing concern across the globe. Hydrothermal processing of sludge has been suggested as a promising solution to deal with the considerable amounts of sludge produced worldwide. Such a process not only degrades organic compounds and reduces waste volume, but also provides an opportunity to recover valuable substances. Hydrothermal processing comprises two main sub-processes: wet oxidation (WO) and thermal hydrolysis (TH), in which the formation of various free radicals results in the production of different intermediates. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), especially acetic acid, are usually the main intermediates which remain as a by-product of the process. This paper aims to review the fundamental mechanism for hydrothermal processing of sludge, and the formation of different free radicals and intermediates therein. In addition, the proposed kinetic models for the two processes (WO and TH) from the literature are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are outlined. The effect of mass transfer as a critical component of the design and development of the processes, which has been neglected in most of these proposed models, is also reviewed, and the effect of influencing parameters on the processes' controlling step (reaction or mass transfer) is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-pressure homogenization associated hydrothermal process of palygorskite for enhanced adsorption of Methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifang; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-02-01

    Palygorskite (PAL) was modified by a high-pressure homogenization assisted hydrothermal process. The effects of modification on the morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of PAL were systematically investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analysis techniques, and the adsorption properties were systematically evaluated using Methylene blue (MB) as the model dye. The results revealed that the crystal bundles were disaggregated and the PAL nanorods became more even after treated via associated high-pressure homogenization and hydrothermal process, and the crystal bundles were dispersed as nanorods. The intrinsic crystal structure of PAL was remained after hydrothermal treatment, and the pore size calculated by the BET method was increased. The adsorption properties of PAL for MB were evidently improved (from 119 mg/g to 171 mg/g) after modification, and the dispersion of PAL before hydrothermal reaction is favorable to the adsorption. The desorption evaluation confirms that the modified PAL has stronger affinity with MB, which is benefit to fabricate a stable organic-inorganic hybrid pigment.

  10. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stability and activity of doped transition metal zeolites in the hydrothermal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas François Robin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the stability and activity of HZSM-5 doped with metals such as molybdenum, nickel, copper and iron in under hydrothermal conditions used for the direct liquefaction of microalgae. Catalysts have been prepared by ion exchange techniques, and MoZSM-5 was also prepared by wet incipient impregnation for comparison. Hydrothermal liquefaction is considered as a potential route to convert microalgae into a sustainable fuel. One of the drawbacks of this process is that the bio-crude produced contains significant levels of nitrogen and oxygen compounds which have an impact on the physical and chemical propriety of the fuel. Heterogeneous catalysts have been shown to improve the quality of the bio-crude by reducing nitrogen and oxygen contents. Zeolites, such as HZSM-5, are strong candidates due to their low cost compared to noble metal catalysts but their stability and activity under hydrothermal conditions is not well understood. The stability of the catalysts has been determined under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C. Catalysts have been characterised before and after treatment using XRD, BET physisorption and STEM microscopy. Metal leaching was determined by analysis of the water phase following hydrothermal treatment. The inserted cation following ion-exchange can influence the physical properties of HZSM-5 for example molybdenum improves the crystallinity of the zeolite. In general, metal doped zeolites were relatively stable under subcritical water. Activity of the catalysts for processing lipids, protein and microalgae has been assessed. Four feedstocks were selected: sunflower oil, soya proteins, Chlorella and P. ellipsoidea. The catalysts exhibited greater activity towards converting lipids for example MoZSM-5 enhanced the formation of aromatic compounds. NiZSM-5 and CuZSM-5 were observed to be more efficient for deoxygenation.

  12. Stability and Activity of Doped Transition Metal Zeolites in the Hydrothermal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, Thomas François, E-mail: thomas.cognac@gmail.com; Ross, Andrew B.; Lea-Langton, Amanda R.; Jones, Jenny M. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-14

    This study investigates the stability and activity of HZSM-5 doped with metals such as molybdenum, nickel, copper, and iron under hydrothermal conditions used for the direct liquefaction of microalgae. Catalysts have been prepared by ion-exchange techniques, and MoZSM-5 was also prepared by wet incipient impregnation for comparison. Hydrothermal liquefaction is considered a potential route to convert microalgae into a sustainable fuel. One of the drawbacks of this process is that the bio-crude produced contains significant levels of nitrogen and oxygen compounds that have an impact on the physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Heterogeneous catalysts have been shown to improve the quality of the bio-crude by reducing nitrogen and oxygen contents. Zeolites, such as HZSM-5, are strong candidates due to their low cost compared to noble metal catalysts, but their stability and activity under hydrothermal conditions are not well understood. The stability of the catalysts has been determined under hydrothermal conditions at 350°C. Catalysts have been characterized before and after treatment using X-ray diffraction, BET physisorption, and scanning transmission electronic microscopy. Metal leaching was determined by the analysis of the water phase following the hydrothermal treatment. The inserted cation following ion-exchange can influence the physical properties of HZSM-5, for example, molybdenum improves the crystallinity of the zeolite. In general, metal-doped zeolites were relatively stable in subcritical water. The activity of the catalysts for processing lipids, protein, and microalgae has been assessed. Four feedstocks were selected: sunflower oil, soya proteins, Chlorella, and Pseudochoricystis ellipsoidea. The catalysts exhibited greater activity toward converting lipids, for example, MoZSM-5 enhanced the formation of aromatic compounds. NiZSM-5 and CuZSM-5 were observed to be more efficient for deoxygenation.

  13. Stability and Activity of Doped Transition Metal Zeolites in the Hydrothermal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Thomas François; Ross, Andrew B.; Lea-Langton, Amanda R.; Jones, Jenny M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the stability and activity of HZSM-5 doped with metals such as molybdenum, nickel, copper, and iron under hydrothermal conditions used for the direct liquefaction of microalgae. Catalysts have been prepared by ion-exchange techniques, and MoZSM-5 was also prepared by wet incipient impregnation for comparison. Hydrothermal liquefaction is considered a potential route to convert microalgae into a sustainable fuel. One of the drawbacks of this process is that the bio-crude produced contains significant levels of nitrogen and oxygen compounds that have an impact on the physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Heterogeneous catalysts have been shown to improve the quality of the bio-crude by reducing nitrogen and oxygen contents. Zeolites, such as HZSM-5, are strong candidates due to their low cost compared to noble metal catalysts, but their stability and activity under hydrothermal conditions are not well understood. The stability of the catalysts has been determined under hydrothermal conditions at 350°C. Catalysts have been characterized before and after treatment using X-ray diffraction, BET physisorption, and scanning transmission electronic microscopy. Metal leaching was determined by the analysis of the water phase following the hydrothermal treatment. The inserted cation following ion-exchange can influence the physical properties of HZSM-5, for example, molybdenum improves the crystallinity of the zeolite. In general, metal-doped zeolites were relatively stable in subcritical water. The activity of the catalysts for processing lipids, protein, and microalgae has been assessed. Four feedstocks were selected: sunflower oil, soya proteins, Chlorella, and Pseudochoricystis ellipsoidea. The catalysts exhibited greater activity toward converting lipids, for example, MoZSM-5 enhanced the formation of aromatic compounds. NiZSM-5 and CuZSM-5 were observed to be more efficient for deoxygenation.

  14. Modeling of geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. М. Судариков

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the main methods and analyzes modeling results for geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions of mid-ocean ridges. Initial data for modeling have been obtained during several marine expeditions, including Russian-French expedition SERPENTINE on the research vessel «Pourquoi Рas?» (2007. Results of field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical developments are supported by the analysis of regression model of mixing between hydrothermal solutions and sea water. Verification of the model has been carried out and the quality of chemical analysis has been assessed; degree and character of participation of solution components in the hydrothermal process have been defined; the content of end members has been calculated basing on reverse forecasting of element concentration, depending on regression character; data for thermodynamic modeling have been prepared. Regression model of acid-base properties and chloridity of mineralizing thermal springs confirms adequacy of the model of double-diffusive convection for forming the composition of hydrothermal solutions.  Differentiation of solutions according to concentrations of chloride-ion, depending on temperature and pH indicator within this model, is associated with phase conversions and mixing of fluids from two convection cells, one of which is a zone of brine circulation. In order to carry out computer thermodynamic modeling, hydro-geochemical and physicochemical models of hydrothermal discharge zone have been created. Verification of the model has been carried out basing on changes of Mn concentration in the hydrothermal plume. Prevailing forms of Mn migration in the plume are Mn2+, MnCl+, MnCl2. Two zones have been identified in the geochemical structure of the plume: 1 high-temperature zone (350-100 °С with prevalence of chloride complexes – ascending plume; 2 low-temperature zone (100-2 °С, where predominant form of

  15. NMR studies of stock process water and reaction pathways in hydrothermal carbonization of furfural residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Yue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC is a valuable approach to convert furfural residue (FR into carbon material. The prepared biochars are usually characterized comprehensively, while the stock process water still remains to be studied in detail. Herein, a NMR study of the main components in stock process water generated at different HTC reaction conditions was reported. Various qualitative and quantitative NMR techniques (1H and 13C NMR, 1H–1H COSY and 1H13C HSQC etc. especially 1D selective gradient total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY NMR were strategically applied in the analysis of HTC stock process water. Without separation and purification, it was demonstrated that the main detectable compounds are 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, formic acid, methanol, acetic acid, levulinic acid, glycerol, hydroxyacetone and acetaldehyde in this complicate mixture. Furthermore, the relationship between the concentration of major products and the reaction conditions (180–240 °C at 8 h, and 1–24 h at 240 °C was established. Finally, reasonable reaction pathways for hydrothermal conversion of FR were proposed based on this result and our previously obtained characteristics of biochars. The routine and challenging NMR methods utilized here would be an alternative other than HPLC or GC for biomass conversion research and can be extended to more studies. Keywords: NMR, Hydrothermal carbonization, Furfural residue, Stock process water

  16. Hydrothermally Processed Oxide Nanostructures and Their Lithium–ion Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Y- and Si-based oxide nanopowders were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction of Y or Si powders with NaOH or LiOH aqueous solution. Nanoparticles with different morphology such as elongated nanospheres, flower-like nanoparticles and nanowires were produced by a control of processing parameters, in particular, the starting composition of solution. The preliminary result of electrochemical examination showed that the hydrothermally processed nanowires exhibit high initial capacities of Li-ion storage: 653 mAh/g for Y2O3 nanowires as anode materials and 186 mAh/g for Li2Si2O5 nanowires as cathode materials in a Li secondary cell. Compared to the powder with elongated sphere or flower-like shapes, the nanowires showed a higher Li-ion capacity and a better cycle property.

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2015-01-01

    for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Several by-products are also formed, which disturb and act as inhibitors downstream. The objective of this study is to formulate and validate a large scale hydrothermal pretreatment dynamic model based on mass and energy balances, together with a complex conversion mechanism......Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose...... and kinetics. The study includes a comprehensive sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, with parameter estimation from real-data in the 178-185° range. To highlight the application utility of the model, a state estimator for biomass composition is developed. The predictions capture well the dynamic trends...

  18. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste

  19. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-07-05

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions.

  20. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions

  1. Characterization of Particles Created By Laser-Driven Hydrothermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    study for two reasons: (i) Both materials are compositionally high in SiO2 and (ii) form similarly to glass formed by a nuclear explosion, which...creates massive pressures and temperatures. As an example, trinitite is a glass formed by a post-nuclear event with SiO2 making up 50%-75% of its...processing, characterization, obsidian, tektite, natural glass 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  2. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park, rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of volcanism, tectonism, and later glaciation. Its spectacular hydrothermal systems cap this landscape. From 1997 through 2003, the United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program conducted a multidisciplinary project of Yellowstone National Park entitled Integrated Geoscience Studies of the Greater Yellowstone Area, building on a 130-year foundation of extensive field studies (including the Hayden survey of 1871, the Hague surveys of the 1880s through 1896, the studies of Iddings, Allen, and Day during the 1920s, and NASA-supported studies starting in the 1970s - now summarized in USGS Professional Paper 729 A through G) in this geologically dynamic terrain. The project applied a broad range of scientific disciplines and state-of-the-art technologies targeted to improve stewardship of the unique natural resources of Yellowstone and enable the National Park Service to effectively manage resources, protect park visitors from geologic hazards, and better educate the public on geologic processes and resources. This project combined a variety of data sets in characterizing the surficial and subsurface chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, and hydrothermal systems in various parts of the park. The sixteen chapters presented herein in USGS Professional Paper 1717, Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem, can be divided into four major topical areas: (1) geologic studies, (2) Yellowstone Lake studies, (3) geochemical studies, and (4) geophysical studies. The geologic studies include a paper by Ken Pierce and others on the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot on landscape formation, the ecological effects of the hotspot, and the human experience and human geography of the greater

  3. Research On Degradation Of Silk Fibroin By Combination Of Electron Beam Irradiation And Hydrothermal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Silk fibers and silk proteins have been demonstrated to be useful to apply in the textile industry, biomedical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation combined with hydrothermal processing to the solubility of silk fibroin and generation of soluble silk protein were investigated. The solubility of unirradiated and irradiated fibroin were greater than 80 % when hydrothermal degradation was performed in the sodium hydroxide solution at appropriate concentration of 0.05 M. However, the solubility of irradiated fibroin was greater than that of unirradiated sample. The protein content increased from 0.4617 to 0.6530 mg/mg when irradiation doses increased from 0 to 200 kGy, respectively. The molecular weight of protein was determined by SDS-PAGE method. The characteristics of silk protein were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  4. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles via sucrose ester micelle-mediated hydrothermal processing route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, N.S.; Kassim, A.; Lim, H.N.; Zakarya, S.A.; Huang, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized via low-temperature sucrose ester micelle-mediated hydrothermal processing route using titanium isopropoxide as the precursor. X-ray diffractometer revealed that the samples possessed a mixed crystalline phases consisting of anatase and brookite in which anatase was the main phase. Upon increasing the hydrothermal reaction temperature, the degree of crystallinity of the nanoparticles improved and their morphology transformed from bundles of needles to rods and to spheres. Photo catalytic behaviour of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue solution in an ultraviolet A irradiating photo reactor. The as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibited higher photo catalytic performance as compared to the commercial counterpart. (author)

  5. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  6. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  7. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Chlorine-Free Solid Fuel Produced from Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than 3000 ppm total chlorine content. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature. A series of thermogravimetric analyses were also conducted to compare the combustion characteristics of the products before and after the washing process. Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter after washing process, there were increases in the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product. Considering the possible chlorine emission, the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment should be necessary only if the furnace temperature is more than 800 °C.

  9. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  10. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volanti, D.P.; Keyson, D.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Joya, M.R.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Souza, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained

  12. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volanti, D.P. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br; Simoes, A.Z. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Joya, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, A.G. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-14

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained.

  13. Desorption of cesium ions from vermiculite with sea water by hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiangbiao; Takahashi, Hideharu; Inaba, Yusuke; Takeshita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Cesium ions (Cs + ) strongly intercalated in vermiculite clay (Verm) had been effectively removed using sea water for its free utility, totally environmental friendly feature, and within containing numerous salt by the hydrothermal treatment process (HTT), which can help significantly promote desorption by the cation-exchange mechanism in subcritical condition. >74-100% removal was achieved to the interacted Cs + for a loading capacity of 4.8-50 mg g −1 . XRD results indicated that cation exchange proceeded between the intercalated Cs + and various cations in sea water during HTT. (author)

  14. A process to enhance the specific surface area and capacitance of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-08-26

    The impact of post-synthesis processing in reduced graphene oxide materials for supercapacitor electrodes has been analyzed. A comparative study of vacuum, freeze and critical point drying was carried out for hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide demonstrating that the optimization of the specific surface area and preservation of the porous network are critical to maximize its supercapacitance performance. As described below, using a supercritical fluid as the drying medium, unprecedented values of the specific surface area (364 m2 g−1) and supercapacitance (441 F g−1) for this class of materials have been achieved.

  15. A process to enhance the specific surface area and capacitance of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira; El Tall, Omar; Rasul, Shahid; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Patole, Shashikant P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of post-synthesis processing in reduced graphene oxide materials for supercapacitor electrodes has been analyzed. A comparative study of vacuum, freeze and critical point drying was carried out for hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide demonstrating that the optimization of the specific surface area and preservation of the porous network are critical to maximize its supercapacitance performance. As described below, using a supercritical fluid as the drying medium, unprecedented values of the specific surface area (364 m2 g−1) and supercapacitance (441 F g−1) for this class of materials have been achieved.

  16. Process intensification effect of ball milling on the hydrothermal pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhengqiu; Long, Jinxing; Wang, Tiejun; Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel pretreatment of ball milling combined with hydrothermal method was presented. • Intensification effect of ball milling was significant for corn straw enzymolysis. • Ball milling destroyed the physical structure of corn straw. • Chemical (liquid mixture) method removed lignin and hemicellulose. • Glucose yield increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 under the optimized condition. - Abstract: Enhancement of the cellulose accessibility is significant for biomass enzymatic hydrolysis. Here, we reported an efficient combined pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis using ball milling and dilute acid hydrothermal method (a mixture solvent of H 2 O/ethanol/sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide liquid). The process intensification effect of ball milling on the pretreatment of the corn straw was studied through the comparative characterization of the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw using FT-IR, BET, XRD, SEM, and HPLC analysis. The effect of the pretreatment temperature was also investigated. Furthermore, various pretreatment methods were compared as well. Moreover, the pretreatment performance was measured by enzymolysis. The results showed that ball milling had a significant process intensification effect on the corn straw enzymolysis. The glucose concentration was dramatically increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 after the combined treatment of ball milling and hydrothermal. The efficient removal of lignin and hemicellulose and the enlargement of the surface area were considered to be responsible for this significant increase based on the intensive analysis on the main components and the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw

  17. Carbon Isotope Systematics in Mineral-Catalyzed Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperature and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques. Reduction of CO2 and/or CO during serpentization by mineral surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars. With the evidence a recent study has discovered for serpentinization in deeply buried carbon rich sediments, and more showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history, it seems likely that abiotic methane generation via serpentinization reactions may have been common on Mars. Experiments involving mineral-catalyzed hydrothermal organic synthesis processes were conducted at 750 C and 5.5 Kbars. Alkanes, alcohols and carboxylic acids were identified as organic compounds. No "isotopic reversal" of delta C-13 values was observed for alkanes or carboxylic acids, suggesting a different reaction pathway than polymerization. Alcohols were proposed as intermediaries formed on mineral surfaces at experimental conditions. Carbon isotope data were used in this study to unravel the reaction pathways of abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems at high temperatures and pressures. They are instrumental in constraining the origin and evolution history of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  18. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 1: Overview of different feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Fullana, Andrés; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ash behavior of 29 different feedstock interpreted using multivariate data analysis. • Two different groups identified based on char ash content and ash yield. • Solubility of individual elements evaluated based on a smaller data set. • Ash from industrial sludge contained anthropogenic metals with low solubility. - Abstract: Differences in ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment were identified based on multivariate data analysis of literature information on 29 different feedstock. In addition, the solubility of individual elements was evaluated based on a smaller data set. As a result two different groups were distinguished based on char ash content and ash yield. Virgin terrestrial and aquatic biomass, such as different types of wood and algae, in addition to herbaceous and agricultural biomass, bark, brewer’s spent grain, compost and faecal waste showed lower char ash content than municipal solid wastes, anaerobic digestion residues and municipal and industrial sludge. Lower char ash content also correlated with lower ash yield indicating differences in chemical composition and ash solubility. Further evaluation of available data showed that ash in industrial sludge mainly contained anthropogenic Al, Fe and P or Ca and Si with low solubility during hydrothermal treatment. Char from corn stover, miscanthus, switch grass, rice hulls, olive, artichoke and orange wastes and empty fruit bunch had generally higher contents of K, Mg, S and Si than industrial sludge although differences existed within the group. In the future information on ash behavior should be used for enhancing the fuel properties of char based on feedstock type and hydrothermal treatment conditions.

  19. Influence of microstructure on hydrothermal corrosion of chemically vapor processed SiC composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejong; Lee, Ho Jung; Jang, Changheui; Lee, Hyeon-Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2017-08-01

    Multi-layered SiC composites consisting of monolithic SiC and a SiCf/SiC composite are one of the accident tolerant fuel cladding concepts in pressurized light water reactors. To evaluate the integrity of the SiC fuel cladding under normal operating conditions of a pressurized light water reactor, the hydrothermal corrosion behavior of multi-layered SiC composite tubes was investigated in the simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor without neutron fluence. The results showed that SiC phases with good crystallinity such as Tyranno SA3 SiC fiber and monolithic SiC deposited at 1200 °C had good corrosion resistance. However, the SiC phase deposited at 1000 °C had less crystallinity and severely dissolved in water, particularly the amorphous SiC phase formed along grain boundaries. Dissolved hydrogen did not play a significant role in improving the hydrothermal corrosion resistance of the CVI-processed SiC phases containing amorphous SiC, resulting in a significant weight loss and reduction of hoop strength of the multi-layered SiC composite tubes after corrosion.

  20. Research on degradation of silk fibroin by combination of electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Silk fibers and silk proteins have been demonstrated to be useful to apply in the textile industry, biomedical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation combined with hydrothermal processing to the solubility of silk fibroin and generation of soluble silk protein were investigated. The solubility of unirradiated and irradiated fibroin samples were greater than 80 % when hydrothermal degradation was performed in the sodium hydroxide solution at an appropriate concentration of 0.05 M. However, the solubility of irradiated fibroin was greater than that of unirradiated sample. The soluble silk protein content increased from 0.462 to 0.653 mg protein/mg silk fibroin when irradiation doses increased from 0 to 200 kGy, respectively. The molecular weight of protein was determined by SDS-PAGE method. The characteristics of silk protein were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  1. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  2. Hydrothermal Valorization of Steel Slags—Part I: Coupled H2 Production and CO2 Mineral Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Crouzet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new process route for the valorization of BOF steel slags combining H2 production and CO2 mineral sequestration is investigated at 300°C (HT under hydrothermal conditions. A BOF steel slag stored several weeks outdoor on the production site was used as starting material. To serve as a reference, room temperature (RT carbonation of the same BOF steel slag has been monitored with in situ Raman spectroscopy and by measuring pH and PCO2 on a time-resolved basis. CO2 uptake under RT and HT are, respectively, 243 and 327 kg CO2/t of fresh steel slag, which add up with the 63 kg of atmospheric CO2 per ton already uptaken by the starting steel slag on the storage site. The CO2 gained by the sample at HT is bounded to the carbonation of brownmillerite. H2 yield decreased by about 30% in comparison to the same experiment performed without added CO2, due to sequestration of ferrous iron in a Mg-rich siderite phase. Ferric iron, initially present in brownmillerite, is partitioned between an Fe-rich clay mineral of saponite type and metastable hematite. Saponite is likely stabilized by the presence of Al, whereas hematite may represent a metastable product of brownmillerite carbonation. Mg-rich wüstite is involved in at least two competing reactions, i.e., oxidation into magnetite and carbonation into siderite. Results of both water-slag and water-CO2-slag experiments after 72 h are consistent with a kinetics enhancement of the former reaction when a CO2 partial pressure imposes a pH between 5 and 6. Three possible valorization routes, (1 RT carbonation prior to hydrothermal oxidation, (2 RT carbonation after hydrothermal treatment, and (3 combined HT carbonation and oxidation are discussed in light of the present results and literature data.

  3. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  4. [Effect of sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process on heavy metals stabilization in medical waste incinerator fly ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Li, Xiao-dong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2010-04-01

    A sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process was induced to stabilize the fly ash from medical waste incinerator. The results showed that sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process reduced the heavy metals leachability of fly ash, and the heavy metal waste water from the process would not be a secondary pollution. The leachability of heavy metals studied in this paper were Cd 1.97 mg/L, Cr 1.56 mg/L, Cu 2.56 mg/L, Mn 17.30 mg/L, Ni 1.65 mg/L, Pb 1.56 mg/L and Zn 189.00 mg/L, and after hydrothermal process with the optimal experimental condition (Na2CO3/fly ash dosage = 5/20, reaction time = 8 h, L/S ratio = 10/1) the leachability reduced to < 0.02 mg/L for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and 0.05 mg/L for Zn, according to GB 5085.3-2007. Meanwhile, the concentrations of heavy metals in effluent after hydrothermal process were less than 0.8 mg/L. The heavy metals leachability and concentration in effluent reduced with prolonged reaction time. Prolonged aging can affect the leachability of metals as solids become more crystalline, and heavy metals transferred inside of crystalline. The mechanism of heavy metal stabilization can be concluded to the co precipitation and adsorption effect of aluminosilicates formation, crystallization and aging process.

  5. Characterization of Donut-Like SrMoO4 Produced by Microwave-Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangkana Wannapop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SrMoO4 hierarchical nanostructures were successfully produced by a one step of 270 W microwave-hydrothermal process of one of the solutions containing three strontium salts [Sr(NO32, Sr(CH3CO22, and SrCl2·6H2O] and (NH46Mo7O24·4H2O for different lengths of time. The as-produced products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. In this research, they were primitive tetragonal structured donut-like SrMoO4, with the main 881 cm−1  ν1(Ag symmetric stretching vibration mode of [MoO4]2− units and 3.92 eV energy gap.

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO 2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Qianfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 {mu}m. Raman peak at 437.8 cm{sup -1} displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  8. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Zhang Qianfeng

    2009-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 μm. Raman peak at 437.8 cm -1 displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  9. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities.

  10. Enhanced sludge processing of HLW: Hydrothermal oxidation of chromium, technetium, and complexants by nitrate. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.J.; Robinson, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for hydrothermal separation of chromium from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges. The worked is aimed at attaining a fundamental understanding of chromium speciation, oxidation/reduction and dissolution kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and transport properties under hydrothermal conditions in both simple and complex salt solutions that will ultimately lead to an efficient chromium leaching process. This report summarizes the research over the first 1.5 years of a 3 year project. The authors have examined the dissolution of chromium hydroxide using different oxidants as a function of temperature and alkalinity. The results and possible applications to HLW sludges are discussed'

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  12. Hydrothermal Treatment (HTT) of Microalgae: Evaluation of the Process As Conversion Method in an Algae Biorefinery Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, C.; Samori, C.; van der Spek, J.J.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology is evaluated for its potential as a process to convert algae and algal debris into a liquid fuel, within a sustainable algae biorefinery concept in which, next to fuels (gaseous and liquid), high value products are coproduced, nutrients and water are

  13. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  14. A series of spinel phase cathode materials prepared by a simple hydrothermal process for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yanyu; Bao Shujuan; Li Hulin

    2006-01-01

    A series of spinel-structured materials have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure in an aqueous medium. The new synthetic method is time and energy saving i.e., no further thermal treatment and extended grinding. The main experimental process involved the insertion of lithium into electrolytic manganese dioxide with glucose as a mild reductant in an autoclave. Both the hydrothermal temperature and the presence of glucose play the critical roles in determining the final spinel integrity. Particular electrochemical performance has also been systematically explored, and the results show that Al 3+ , F - co-substituted spinels have the best combination of initial capacity and capacity retention among all these samples, exhibited the initial capacity of 115 mAh/g and maintained more than 90% of the initial value at the 50th cycle. - Graphical abstract: It is a SEM image of the spinel LiMn 2 O 4 , which was prepared by this novel hydrothermal procedure. It illustrates that reasonable-crystallized spinel oxide has occurred through the special hydrothermal process and the average particle size declined to about 1 μm. This homogeneous grain size distribution provides an important morphological basis for the reversibility and accessibility of lithium ion insertion/extraction reactions

  15. Hydrothermally processed 1D hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and biocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanović, Zoran S.; Ignjatović, Nenad [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Wu, Victoria [Advanced Materials and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7052 (United States); Žunič, Vojka [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Veselinović, Ljiljana [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Škapin, Srečo [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miljković, Miroslav [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Faculty of Medicine University of Niš, Dr. Zoran Đinđić Boulevard 81, 18 000 Niš (Serbia); Uskoković, Vuk [Advanced Materials and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7052 (United States); Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, 9401 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92618-1908 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in bone tissue engineering have led to an increased interest in one-dimensional (1D) hydroxyapatite (HA) nano- and micro-structures such as wires, ribbons and tubes. They have been proposed for use as cell substrates, reinforcing phases in composites and carriers for biologically active substances. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 1D HA structures using an optimized, urea-assisted, high-yield hydrothermal batch process. The one-pot process, yielding HA structures composed of bundles of ribbons and wires, was typified by the simultaneous occurrence of a multitude of intermediate reactions, failing to meet the uniformity criteria over particle morphology and size. To overcome these issues, the preparation procedure was divided to two stages: dicalcium phosphate platelets synthesized in the first step were used as a precursor for the synthesis of 1D HA in the second stage. Despite the elongated particle morphologies, both the precursor and the final product exhibited excellent biocompatibility and caused no reduction of viability when tested against osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in 2D culture up to the concentration of 2.6 mg/cm{sup 2}. X-ray powder diffraction combined with a range of electron microscopies and laser diffraction analyses was used to elucidate the formation mechanism and the microstructure of the final particles. The two-step synthesis involved a more direct transformation of DCP to 1D HA with the average diameter of 37 nm and the aspect ratio exceeding 100:1. The comparison of crystalline domain sizes along different crystallographic directions showed no signs of significant anisotropy, while indicating that individual nanowires are ordered in bundles in the b crystallographic direction of the P6{sub 3/m} space group of HA. Intermediate processes, e.g., dehydration of dicalcium phosphate, are critical for the formation of 1D HA alongside other key aspects of this phase transformation, it must be investigated in more detail in the

  16. Preliminary conceptual design for the destruction of organic/ferrocyanide constituents in the Hanford tank waste with low-temperature hydrothermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Orth, R.J.; Cox, J.L.; Elmore, M.E.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Meng, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    Hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical processing method that can be employed to destroy organic and ferrocyanide constituents in Hanford tank waste by using the abundant existing oxidants in the tank waste such as nitrite and nitrate. Use-temperature HTP effectively destroys organics at temperatures from 250 degree C to 400 degree C to eliminate safety hazards and improve further processing. This proposal describes a conceptual design of a low-temperature HTP system (including a preliminary flow diagram and plot plan, equipment descriptions and sizes, utility requirements, and costs); the experimental work supporting this effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); the reaction chemistry and kinetics; the technical maturity of the process; and a preliminary assessment of maintenance, operation, and safety of a system. Nitrate destruction using organic reductants is also described. The low-temperature hydrothermal program at PNL was initiated in January 1993. It is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies, which was originally funded by Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System program and then was transferred to the Initial Pretreatment (IPM) project. As described in the document, low-temperature HTP (1) meets or exceeds system requirements in organic, ferrocyanide, and nitrate destruction, and processing rate; (2) is technically mature with little additional technology development required; (3) is a simple process with good operational reliability; (4) is flexible and can be easily integrated in the system; (5) has reasonable costs and utility requirements; and (6) is safe and environmentally-benign

  17. Low temperature hydrothermal processing of organic contaminants in Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Pederson, L.R.; Freeman, H.D.; Schmidt, A.J.; Babad, H.

    1993-02-01

    Batch and continuous flow reactor tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have shown that organics similar to those present in the single-shell and double-shell underground storage tanks at Hanford can be decomposed in the liquid phase at relatively mild temperatures of 150 degree C to 350 degree C in an aqueous process known as hydrothermal processing (HTP). The organics will react with the abundant oxidants such s nitrite already present in the Hanford tank waste to form hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. No air or oxygen needs to be added to the system. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures to produce formate and ammonia and may also react with nitrates or other oxides. During testing, the organic carbon was transformed first to oxalate at∼310 degree C and completely oxidized to carbonate at ∼350 degree C accompanied by hydroxide consumption. Solids were formed at higher temperatures, causing a small-diameter outlet tube to plug. The propensity for plugging was reduced by diluting the feed with concentrated hydroxide

  18. Hydrothermal decomposition of industrial jarosite in alkaline media: The rate determining step of the process kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Ibarra A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of NaOH and Ca(OH2 on the hydrothermal decomposition of industrial jarosite deposited by a Mexican company in a tailings dam. The industrial jarosite is mainly composed by natrojarosite and contains 150 g Ag/t, showing a narrow particle size distribution, as revealed by XRD, fire assay, SEM-EDS and laser-diffraction analysis. The effect of the pH, when using NaOH or Ca(OH2 as alkalinizing agent was studied by carrying out decomposition experiments at different pH values and 60°C in a homogeneous size particle system (pH = 8, 9, 10 and 11 and in a heterogeneous size particle system (pH = 11. Also, the kinetic study of the process and the controlling step of the decomposition reaction when NaOH and Ca(OH2 are used was determined by fitting the data obtained to the shrinking core model for spherical particles of constant size. These results, supported by chemical (EDS, morphological (SEM and mapping of elements (EDS analysis of a partially reacted jarosite particle allowed to conclude that when NaOH is used, the process kinetics is controlled by the chemical reaction and when Ca(OH2 is used, the rate determining step is changed to a diffusion control through a layer of solid products.

  19. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  20. Hydrothermal Processing of Base Camp Solid Wastes To Allow Onsite Recycling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerdes, Gary L; Curtin, Deborah; Gutkowski, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    ..., both within and outside the Continental United States. The purpose of this study was to determine if the hydrothermal system could be made more energy efficient, thus making it suitable to deploy at Army contingency operations bases...

  1. Behaviour of elements in soils developed from nephelinites at Mount Etinde (Cameroon): Impact of hydrothermal versus weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etame, J.; Gerard, M.; Bilong, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2009-05-01

    The progressive weathering of 0.65 Ma nephelinites from Mount Etinde (South Western Cameroon) in a humid tropical setting has resulted in the formation of a 150 cm thick weathering crust. The soil profiles consist of three horizons: Ah/Bw/C. A major differentiation of the chemical and mineralogical parameters is related to the complexity of the saprolites, some of which were hydrothermally altered. Bulk geochemical and microgeochemical analyses were performed on selected minerals from the different horizons of two reference profiles, of which one (E 4) was developed from unaltered nephelinite (nephelinite U) while the other (BO 1) formed from hydrothermally altered nephelinite (nephelinite H). The results show that the primary minerals (clinopyroxene, nepheline, leucite, haüyne, titanomagnetite, perovskite, apatite and sphene) experienced differential weathering rates with primary minerals rich in rare earth elements (titanomagnetite, perovskite, apatite and sphene) surviving in the saprolite and the Bw horizons. The weathering of the primary minerals is reflected in the leaching of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, except for Ba and Rb in the hydrothermalised nephelinite soil. The order of mobility is influenced by hydrothermal processes: Na > K > Rb > Ca > Cs > Sr in nephelinite U soil , Na > K > Sr > Ca > Mg in nephelinite H soil; Rb/Sr and Sr/Mg can be used as indicators of the kinetic of the weathering on nephelinite U and on nephelinite H. Barium enrichment is related to variable concentrations in the nephelinites, to the formation of crandallites and the leaching of surface horizons. The content of metallic elements is higher in nephelinite H soil than in the nephelinite U soil. Results show that hydrothermal alteration leads to an enrichment of light (La, Ce, Nd) and intermediate (Sm, Eu, Dy) rare earth elements. The enrichment in Cr and Pb in the surface horizons is discussed in relation to organic matter activity, the dissolution of magnetites, and

  2. Holistic processing from learned attention to parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Attention helps us focus on what is most relevant to our goals, and prior work has shown that aspects of attention can be learned. Learned inattention to parts can abolish holistic processing of faces, but it is unknown whether learned attention to parts is sufficient to cause a change from part-based to holistic processing with objects. We trained subjects to individuate nonface objects (Greebles) from 2 categories: Ploks and Glips. Diagnostic information was in complementary halves for the 2 categories. Holistic processing was then tested with Plok-Glip composites that combined the kind of part that was diagnostic or nondiagnostic during training. Exposure to Greeble parts resulted in general failures of selective attention for nondiagnostic composites, but face-like holistic processing was only observed for diagnostic composites. These results demonstrated a novel link between learned attentional control and the acquisition of holistic processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH - = B(OH) -4 was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH 3 -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl - becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  4. Effects of additives on microstructures of titanate based nanotubes prepared by the hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keijiro; Onoki, Takamasa; Nakahira, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Yuki

    2009-01-01

    Silica-containing TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes were prepared by the addition of a small amount of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes prepared by the hydrothermal process and a subsequent heat-treatment at 473 K in air. The microstructure and thermal behavior of synthesized silica containing TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes were investigated by various methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAF), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As a result, the addition of a small amount of TEOS leaded to the improvement of the thermal stability for TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes. XPS results revealed that Si was combined onto the surface of TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes, forming partial Si-O-Ti chemical bonds. Therefore, it was inferred that the thermal stability could be modified by forming partial Si-O-Ti chemical bonds at interface of silica and TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes. (author)

  5. Antibacterial and cytocompatible nanotextured Ti surface incorporating silver via single step hydrothermal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandas, Anu; Krishnan, Amit G.; Biswas, Raja; Menon, Deepthy, E-mail: deepthymenon@aims.amrita.edu; Nair, Manitha B., E-mail: manithanair@aims.amrita.edu

    2017-06-01

    Nanosurface modification of Titanium (Ti) implants and prosthesis is proved to enhance osseointegration at the tissue–implant interface. However, many of these products lack adequate antibacterial capability, which leads to implant loosening. As a curative strategy, in this study, nanotextured Ti substrates embedded with silver nanoparticles were developed through a single step hydrothermal processing in an alkaline medium containing silver nitrate at different concentrations (15, 30 and 75 μM). Scanning electron micrographs revealed a non-periodically oriented nanoleafy structure on Ti (TNL) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (nanoAg), which was verified by XPS, XRD and EDS analysis. This TNLAg substrate proved to be mechanically stable upon nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests. Silver ions at detectable levels were released for a period of ~ 28 days only from substrates incorporating higher nanoAg content. The samples demonstrated antibacterial activity towards both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with a more favorable response to the former. Simultaneously, Ti substrates incorporating nanoAg at all concentrations supported the viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Overall, nanoAg incorporation into surface modified Ti via a simple one-step thermochemical method is a favorable strategy for producing implants with dual characteristics of antibacterial activity and cell compatibility. - Highlights: • Nanosilver was incorporated within Ti nanoleafy topography by simple one-step thermochemical method • The nanosurface demonstrated antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria • The nanosurface promoted the viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

  6. Coupled sulfur isotopic and chemical mass transfer modeling: Approach and application to dynamic hydrothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A computational modeling code (EQPSreverse arrowS) has been developed to examine sulfur isotopic distribution pathways coupled with calculations of chemical mass transfer pathways. A post processor approach to EQ6 calculations was chosen so that a variety of isotopic pathways could be examined for each reaction pathway. Two types of major bounding conditions were implemented: (1) equilibrium isotopic exchange between sulfate and sulfide species or exchange only accompanying chemical reduction and oxidation events, and (2) existence or lack of isotopic exchange between solution species and precipitated minerals, parallel to the open and closed chemical system formulations of chemical mass transfer modeling codes. All of the chemical data necessary to explicitly calculate isotopic distribution pathways is generated by most mass transfer modeling codes and can be input to the EQPS code. Routines are built in to directly handle EQ6 tabular files. Chemical reaction models of seafloor hydrothermal vent processes and accompanying sulfur isotopic distribution pathways illustrate the capabilities of coupling EQPSreverse arrowS with EQ6 calculations, including the extent of differences that can exist due to the isotopic bounding condition assumptions described above. 11 refs., 2 figs

  7. Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wenhong; Hu Xiaobin; Zhang Di

    2011-01-01

    We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe 3 O 4 into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe 3 O 4 /wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe 3 O 4 and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: → We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. → The optical response of Fe 3 O 4 /wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. → The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and processing of hydrogen titanate nanotubes for nicotine electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersal, Gaber A. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Omar, Abd-Elkader H.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen titanate nanotubes (HTNT) were prepared via acid washing of hydrothermally synthesized sodium titantate nanotube. HTNTs with diameters in the range 7-9 nm and length of several hundred nanometers were annealed at different temperatures and used to modify carbon paste electrode (CPE). Cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques were used to investigate the behavior of nicotine at HTNT modified carbon paste electrode (HTNTCPE). The nicotine-oxidation reaction over HTNTCPE was irreversible and adsorption process is the rate determining step. HTNTs annealed at 500 °C showed the best response to nicotine. The nicotine concentration was determined at the ideal conditions by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The calibration was linear from 0.1 to 500.0 µmol l-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The detection limits were found to be 0.005 µmol l-1. The present HTNTCPE was used to the determination of nicotine in two cigarette brands and it showed outstanding performance with respect to detection limit and sensitivity.

  9. Effect of pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw with laccase-displaying yeast on ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jun Gu; Fukai, Kotaro; Tokumoto, Naoki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences; Nakatani, Masato [Daiwa Kasei, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    A gene encoding laccase I was identified and cloned from the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. Ha1. Laccase I contained 10 introns and an original secretion signal sequence. After laccase I without introns was prepared by overlapping polymerase chain reaction, it was inserted into expression vector pULD1 for yeast cell surface display. The oxidation activity of a laccase-I-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst was examined with 2,2{sup '}-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and the constructed yeast showed a high oxidation activity. After the pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw (HPRS) with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS, fermentation was conducted with yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase with HPRS. Fermentation of HPRS treated with laccase-I-displaying yeast was performed with 1.21-fold higher activities than those of HPRS treated with control yeast. The results indicated that pretreatment with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS was effective for direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase. (orig.)

  10. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.

    2017-05-13

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  11. Synthesis of fibrous TiO2 from layered protonic tetratitanate by a hydrothermal soft chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xuezhen; Li Yongxiang; Yang Qunbao; Yin Qingrui

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous TiO 2 (anatase) was prepared by a hydrothermal soft chemical process using H 2 Ti 4 O 9 ·0.25H 2 O as a template precursor. The influence of reaction time, temperature and precursor concentration on the phase formation, morphology and crystal-axis orientation were studied. The results have shown that fibrous anatase can be obtained at 220 deg. C for 24 h with the precursor concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.100 M, and that particles had diameters of 0.2-1 μm and lengths of 2-20 μm. The fibrous TiO 2 anatase prepared by this method showed a high orientation along a-axis direction. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and SEM analyses have indicated that in situ transformation mechanism dominated the entire hydrothermal process but dissolution-recrystallization also occurred on the surface of the particles

  12. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarani, Gunasekaran; Abirami, Arumugam; Nikitha, Prasad; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3 439-309 549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17 808-53 818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed. PMID:25183131

  13. One-step process of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment of wheat straw for improving the enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaolong; Zhang, Lidan; Liu, Fang; Fan, Xiaolin; Sun, Run-Cang

    2018-01-01

    To increase the production of bioethanol, a two-step process based on hydrothermal and dilute alkaline treatment was applied to reduce the natural resistance of biomass. However, the process required a large amount of water and a long operation time due to the solid/liquid separation before the alkaline treatment, which led to decrease the pure economic profit for production of bioethanol. Therefore, four one-step processes based on order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment have been developed to enhance concentration of glucose of wheat straw by enzymatic saccharification. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluated effect for different one-step processes by analyzing the physicochemical properties (composition, structural change, crystallinity, surface morphology, and BET surface area) and enzymatic saccharification of the treated substrates. In this study, hemicelluloses and lignins were removed from wheat straw and the morphologic structures were destroyed to various extents during the four one-step processes, which were favorable for cellulase absorption on cellulose. A positive correlation was also observed between the crystallinity and enzymatic saccharification rate of the substrate under the conditions given. The surface area of the substrate was positively related to the concentration of glucose in this study. As compared to the control (3.0 g/L) and treated substrates (11.2-14.6 g/L) obtained by the other three one-step processes, the substrate treated by one-step process based on successively hydrothermal and alkaline treatment had a maximum glucose concentration of 18.6 g/L, which was due to the high cellulose concentration and surface area for the substrate, accompanying with removal of large amounts of lignins and hemicelluloses. The present study demonstrated that the order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment had significant effects on the physicochemical properties and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. The one

  14. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    of the K Basin sludge characterization data is derived spent nuclear fuel corroded within the K Basins at 10-15?C. The STP process will place water-laden sludges from the K Basin in process vessels at {approx}150-180 C. Therefore, published studies with other irradiated (uranium oxide) fuel were examined. From these studies, the affinity of plutonium and americium for uranium in irradiated UO2 also was demonstrated at hydrothermal conditions (150 C anoxic liquid water) approaching those proposed for the STP process and even for hydrothermal conditions outside of the STP operating envelope (e.g., 150 C oxic and 100 C oxic and anoxic liquid water). In summary, by demonstrating that the chemical and physical behavior of 241Am in the sludge matrix is similar to that of the predominant species (uranium and for the plutonium from which it originates), a technical basis is provided for using the slow uptake transportability factor for 241Am that is currently used for plutonium and uranium oxides. The change from moderate to slow uptake for 241Am could reduce the overall analyzed dose consequences for the STP by more than 30%.

  15. Enhanced sludge processing of HLW: Hydrothermal oxidation of chromium, technetium, and complexants by nitrate. 1997 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.

    1997-01-01

    'Treatment of High Level Waste (HLW) is the second most costly problem identified by OEM. In order to minimize costs of disposal, the volume of HLW requiring vitrification and long term storage must be reduced. Methods for efficient separation of chromium from waste sludges, such as the Hanford Tank Wastes (HTW), are key to achieving this goal since the allowed level of chromium in high level glass controls waste loading. At concentrations above 0.5 to 1.0 wt.% chromium prevents proper vitrification of the waste. Chromium in sludges most likely exists as extremely insoluble oxides and minerals, with chromium in the plus III oxidation state [1]. In order to solubilize and separate it from other sludge components, Cr(III) must be oxidized to the more soluble Cr(VI) state. Efficient separation of chromium from HLW could produce an estimated savings of $3.4B[2]. Additionally, the efficient separation of technetium [3], TRU, and other metals may require the reformulation of solids to free trapped species as well as the destruction of organic complexants. New chemical processes are needed to separate chromium and other metals from tank wastes. Ideally they should not utilize additional reagents which would increase waste volume or require subsequent removal. The goal of this project is to apply hydrothermal processing for enhanced chromium separation from HLW sludges. Initially, the authors seek to develop a fundamental understanding of chromium speciation, oxidation/reduction and dissolution kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and transport properties under hydrothermal conditions in both simple and complex salt solutions. The authors also wish to evaluate the potential of hydrothermal processing for enhanced separations of technetium and TRU by examining technetium and TRU speciation at hydrothermal conditions optimal for chromium dissolution.'

  16. A comparison of product yields and inorganic content in process streams following thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of microalgae, manure and digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Williams, P T

    2016-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing show promise for converting biomass into higher energy density fuels. Both approaches facilitate the extraction of inorganics into the aqueous product. This study compares the behaviour of microalgae, digestate, swine and chicken manure by thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing at increasing process severity. Thermal hydrolysis was performed at 170°C, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) was performed at 250°C, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed at 350°C and supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was performed at 500°C. The level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the product streams was measured for each feedstock. Nitrogen is present in the aqueous phase as organic-N and NH3-N. The proportion of organic-N is higher at lower temperatures. Extraction of phosphorus is linked to the presence of inorganics such as Ca, Mg and Fe in the feedstock. Microalgae and chicken manure release phosphorus more easily than other feedstocks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Shape-controlled synthesis and properties of manganese sulfide microcrystals via a biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jinghui; Yu Runnan; Zhu Jianyu; Yi Ran; Qiu Guanzhou [School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); He Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu Xiaohe, E-mail: liuxh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2009-06-15

    An effective biomolecule-assisted synthetic route has been successfully developed to prepare {gamma}-manganese sulfide (MnS) microtubes under hydrothermal conditions. In the synthetic system, soluble hydrated manganese chloride was employed to supply Mn source and L-cysteine was used as precipitator and complexing reagent. Sea urchin-like {gamma}-MnS and octahedron-like {alpha}-MnS microcrystals could also be selectively obtained by adjusting the process parameters such as hydrothermal temperature and reaction time. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the as-prepared products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The photoluminescence studies exhibited the correlations between the morphology, size, and shape structure of MnS microcrystals and its optical properties. The formation mechanisms of manganese sulfide microcrystals were discussed based on the experimental results.

  18. A series of spinel phase cathode materials prepared by a simple hydrothermal process for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Yu; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Hu-Lin

    2006-07-01

    A series of spinel-structured materials have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure in an aqueous medium. The new synthetic method is time and energy saving i.e., no further thermal treatment and extended grinding. The main experimental process involved the insertion of lithium into electrolytic manganese dioxide with glucose as a mild reductant in an autoclave. Both the hydrothermal temperature and the presence of glucose play the critical roles in determining the final spinel integrity. Particular electrochemical performance has also been systematically explored, and the results show that Al 3+, F - co-substituted spinels have the best combination of initial capacity and capacity retention among all these samples, exhibited the initial capacity of 115 mAh/g and maintained more than 90% of the initial value at the 50th cycle.

  19. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M., E-mail: limdiaz@uprrp.edu; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Jena, Umakanta [Bioenergy Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Das, K. C. [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  20. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  1. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  2. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  3. Investigations on Bi25FeO40 powders synthesized by hydrothermal and combustion-like processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köferstein, Roberto; Buttlar, Toni; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    The syntheses of phase-pure and stoichiometric iron sillenite (Bi 25 FeO 40 ) powders by a hydrothermal (at ambient pressure) and a combustion-like process are described. Phase-pure samples were obtained in the hydrothermal reaction at 100 °C (1), whereas the combustion-like process leads to pure Bi 25 FeO 40 after calcination at 750 °C for 2 h (2a). The activation energy of the crystallite growth process of hydrothermally synthesized Bi 25 FeO 40 was calculated as 48(9) kJ mol −1 . The peritectic point was determined as 797(1) °C. The optical band gaps of the samples are between 2.70(7) eV and 2.81(6) eV. Temperature and field-depending magnetization measurements (5−300 K) show a paramagnetic behaviour with a Curie constant of 55.66×10 −6 m 3 K mol −1 for sample 1 and C=57.82×10 −6 m 3 K mol −1 for sample 2a resulting in magnetic moments of µ mag =5.95(8) µ B mol −1 and µ mag =6.07(4) µ B mol −1 . The influence of amorphous iron-oxide as a result of non-stoichiometric Bi/Fe ratios in hydrothermal syntheses on the magnetic behaviour was additionally investigated. - Graphical abstract: Bi 25 FeO 40 powders were prepared by a hydrothermal method and a combustion process. The optical band gaps and the peritectic point were determined. The magnetic behaviour was investigated depending on the synthesis and the initial Bi/Fe ratios. The influence of amorphous iron-oxide on the magnetic properties was examined. - Highlights: • Two simple syntheses routes for stoichiometric Bi 25 FeO 40 powders using starch as polymerization agent. • Monitoring the phase evolution and crystallite growth kinetics during the syntheses. • Determination of the optical band gap and melting point. • Investigations of the magnetic behaviour of Bi 25 FeO 40 powders. • Influence of amorphous iron oxide and a non-stoichiometric Bi/Fe ratio on the magnetic behaviour

  4. Investigations on Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40} powders synthesized by hydrothermal and combustion-like processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köferstein, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.koeferstein@chemie.uni-halle.de; Buttlar, Toni; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2014-09-15

    The syntheses of phase-pure and stoichiometric iron sillenite (Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40}) powders by a hydrothermal (at ambient pressure) and a combustion-like process are described. Phase-pure samples were obtained in the hydrothermal reaction at 100 °C (1), whereas the combustion-like process leads to pure Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40} after calcination at 750 °C for 2 h (2a). The activation energy of the crystallite growth process of hydrothermally synthesized Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40} was calculated as 48(9) kJ mol{sup −1}. The peritectic point was determined as 797(1) °C. The optical band gaps of the samples are between 2.70(7) eV and 2.81(6) eV. Temperature and field-depending magnetization measurements (5−300 K) show a paramagnetic behaviour with a Curie constant of 55.66×10{sup −6} m{sup 3} K mol{sup −1} for sample 1 and C=57.82×10{sup −6} m{sup 3} K mol{sup −1} for sample 2a resulting in magnetic moments of µ{sub mag}=5.95(8) µ{sub B} mol{sup −1} and µ{sub mag}=6.07(4) µ{sub B} mol{sup −1}. The influence of amorphous iron-oxide as a result of non-stoichiometric Bi/Fe ratios in hydrothermal syntheses on the magnetic behaviour was additionally investigated. - Graphical abstract: Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40} powders were prepared by a hydrothermal method and a combustion process. The optical band gaps and the peritectic point were determined. The magnetic behaviour was investigated depending on the synthesis and the initial Bi/Fe ratios. The influence of amorphous iron-oxide on the magnetic properties was examined. - Highlights: • Two simple syntheses routes for stoichiometric Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40} powders using starch as polymerization agent. • Monitoring the phase evolution and crystallite growth kinetics during the syntheses. • Determination of the optical band gap and melting point. • Investigations of the magnetic behaviour of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40} powders. • Influence of amorphous iron oxide and a non-stoichiometric Bi/Fe ratio on the

  5. Fixed-film processes. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These processes no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients suspended solids. Also, processes may work at high rates making is possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film processes include trickling filters (and combined suspended and fixed-films processes), rotating biological contactors, biological aerated submerged, filters moving bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical based governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined, with some simple examples of calculations, underlining the main differences with conventional activate sludge processes. In the second part, the most common types of reactors are reviewed [it

  6. Petrography and Mineral Chemistry of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Biotite in Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: A Tool for Understanding Mineralizing Fluid Compositional Changes During Alteration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.47-64This study aims to understand the petrography and chemistry of both magmatic and hydrothermal biotites in porphyry copper-gold deposits, and to evaluate the fluid compositional changes during alteration processes. A total of 206 biotite grains from selected rock samples taken from the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit was analyzed. Detailed petrography and biotite chemistry analysis were performed on thin sections and polished thin sections, respectively, representing various rocks and alteration types. A JEOL JXA-8900R electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA was used for the chemistry analysis. The biotite is texturally divided into magmatic and hydrothermal types. Ti, Fe, and F contents can be used to distinguish the two biotite types chemically. Some oxide and halogen contents of biotite from various rocks and alteration types demonstrate a systematic variation in chemical composition. Biotite halogen chemistry shows a systematic increase in log (XCl/XOH and decrease in log (XF/XOH values from biotite (potassic through chlorite-sericite (intermediate argillic to actinolite (inner propylitic zones. The y-intercepts on the log (XCl/XOH vs. XMg and log (XF/XOH vs. XFe plotted for biotite from potassic and intermediate argillic zones are similar or slightly different. In contrast, the y-intercepts on the log (XCl/XOH vs. XMg and log (XF/XOH vs. XFe plotted for biotite from inner propylitic zone display different values in comparison to the two alteration zones. Halogen (F,Cl fugacity ratios in biotite show a similar pattern: in the potassic and intermediate argillic zones they show little variation, whereas in the inner propylitic zone they are distinctly different. These features suggest the hydrothermal fluid composition remained fairly constant in the inner part of the deposit during the potassic and intermediate argillic alteration events, but changed significantly towards the outer part affected by inner propylitic

  7. LOGISTICS AS A PART OF INNOVATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Loučanová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of logistics in innovation process. The issue is focused on management of different logistic processes building on the innovation and on innovation process. However, logistics is an essential part of this process. The results describe logistics chain within innovation process for the satisfaction of customers´ demand and fulfilment of customers’ requests on the innovation. This approach involves “7S of logistics” which means: “create proper innovation, in the proper quality, for the right place and in the right time, as well as, with the proper price and package”.

  8. The effects of synthesis parameters on the formation of PbI2 particles under DTAB-assisted hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Gangqiang; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Liu Peng; Peng Jianhong; Zhou Jianping; Bian Xiaobin; Huang Xijin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Submicron- and micron-sized PbI 2 particles were hydrothermally synthesized. ► Structural transformation form belt-like to rod- and microtube-like was observed. ► Phase-pure PbI 2 particles could be hydrothermally obtained at pH 2 particles. ► The optical band gap energy of PbI 2 was slightly affected by morphology. - Abstract: Submicron- and micron-sized lead iodide (PbI 2 ) particles with well-controlled morphologies were successfully fabricated via a low-temperature hydrothermal process assisted by dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) as cationic surfactant. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The effects of synthesis parameters (temperature, time, pH, and surfactant amount) were systematically investigated. The obtained results showed that the submicron structure was belt-like at 100–120 °C, transformed to rod-like by increasing temperature to 140 °C and it became a microtube-like at 160–200 °C. By changing the pH of the synthesizing solution, it was found that a pure PbI 2 phase could be obtained below 7. With the addition of increasing amount of surfactant, microparticles were converted to microrods → submicron belts → microtubes. The time-dependent experimental results revealed that the dissolution–recrystallization and dissolution–recrystallization–self-oriented-attachment were considered to be the possible mechanisms for the formation of the belt- and tube-like PbI 2 submicron- and micron-sized particles, respectively. The optical properties of the PbI 2 particles synthesized at 100–200 °C for 8 h under hydrothermal conditions were also studied.

  9. Mass transfer processes in a post eruption hydrothermal system: Parameterisation of microgravity changes at Te Maari craters, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig A.; Currenti, Gilda; Hamling, Ian; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2018-05-01

    Fluid transfer and ground deformation at hydrothermal systems occur both as a precursor to, or as a result of, an eruption. Typically studies focus on pre-eruption changes to understand the likelihood of unrest leading to eruption; however, monitoring post-eruption changes is important for tracking the return of the system towards background activity. Here we describe processes occurring in a hydrothermal system following the 2012 eruption of Upper Te Maari crater on Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from observations of microgravity change and deformation. Our aim is to assess the post-eruption recovery of the system, to provide a baseline for long-term monitoring. Residual microgravity anomalies of up to 92 ± 11 μGal per year are accompanied by up to 0.037 ± 0.01 m subsidence. We model microgravity changes using analytic solutions to determine the most likely geometry and source location. A multiobjective inversion tests whether the gravity change models are consistent with the observed deformation. We conclude that the source of subsidence is separate from the location of mass addition. From this unusual combination of observations, we develop a conceptual model of fluid transfer within a condensate layer, occurring in response to eruption-driven pressure changes. We find that depressurisation drives the evacuation of pore fluid, either exiting the system completely as vapour through newly created vents and fumaroles, or migrating to shallower levels where it accumulates in empty pore space, resulting in positive gravity changes. Evacuated pores then collapse, causing subsidence. In addition we find that significant mass addition occurs from influx of meteoric fluids through the fractured hydrothermal seal. Long-term combined microgravity and deformation monitoring will allow us to track the resealing and re-pressurisation of the hydrothermal system and assess what hazard it presents to thousands of hikers who annually traverse the volcano, within 2 km of the

  10. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

    2000-01-01

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water

  11. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  12. Fixed-film processes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended and fixed biomass bioreactors have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These process no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients and suspended solid. Also, processes may work at high rates making it possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film process include trickling filter, moving bed reactors fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical base governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined with some simple examples of calculations underlining the main differences with conventional activated sludge processes [it

  13. Conceptual Biorefinery Design and Research Targeted for 2022: Hydrothermal Liquefacation Processing of Wet Waste to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seiple, Timothy E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Albrecht, Karl O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    The Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invests in research and development of new pathways for commercially viable conversion of biomass into drop-in ready transportation fuels, fuel blendstocks and products. The primary emphasis has been on terrestrial and algae feedstocks, but more recently BETO has begun to explore the potential of wet wastes for biofuel production, with focus on wastewater residuals, manure, food waste, and fats, oils and grease. A recent resource analysis estimates that 77 million dry tons per year of these wastes are generated annually, 65% of which are underutilized for any beneficial purpose. Approximately 14 million dry tons of the total resource is wastewater residuals (sludge and biosolids) generated at the nation’s wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Conversion of this resource into transportation fuels could significantly contribute to the creation of a new domestic bioenergy and bioproduct industry, while providing an economically and environmentally sustainable alternative for current waste disposal practices. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a process that uses hot, pressurized water in the condensed phase to convert biomass to a thermally stable oil product, also known as “biocrude”, which can then be thermo-catalytically upgraded to hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. HTL is conceptually simple, has a high carbon efficiency, and can be applied to a wide range of wet feedstocks at similar processing conditions. The purpose of this report is to document the conceptual design, economics and supporting data for a sludge-to-fuel pathway via HTL and biocrude upgrading. The configuration includes a HTL plant that is co-located with a WWTP and a larger scale biocrude upgrading plant for production of hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. Experimental data from bench scale testing of a 1:1 mixture of primary:secondary sludges are used to establish the economic and technical assumptions for the analysis. The design

  14. Use of microalgae to recycle nutrients in aqueous phase derived from hydrothermal liquefaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Wen, Zhiyou; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-05-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae biomass generates an aqueous phase (AP) byproduct with limited energy value. Recycling the AP solution as a source of nutrients for microalgae cultivation provides an opportunity for a cost-effective production of HTL based biofuel and algal biomass feedstock for HTL, allowing a closed-loop biofuel production in microalgae HTL biofuel system. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of characteristics of AP and its nutrients recycling for algae production. Inhibitory effects resulted from the toxic compounds in AP and alleviation strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao SUN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the transport channels of the photogenerated electrons and enhance the photosensitizer loading ability of the electrode, a new TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is prepared through two-step hydrothermal process. First, TiO2 nanorod array is grown on the FTO conductive glass substrate by hydrothermal proess. Then, ZnO sol is coated onto the TiO2 nanorods through dip-coating method and inverted to ZnO seed layer by sintering. Finally, the secondary ZnO nanorods are grown onto the TiO2 nanorods by the sencond hydrothermal method to form the designed TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure. A spin-coating assisted successive ionic layer reaction method (SC-SILR is used to deposit the CdS nanocrystals into the TiO2 nanorod array and the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is used to form the CdS/TiO2 and CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite films. Different methods, such as SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis and transient photocurrent, are employed to characterize and measure the morphologies, structures, light absorption and photoelectric conversion performance of all the samples, respectively. The results indicate that, compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array, the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure can load more CdS photosensitizer. The light absorption properties and transient photocurrent performance of the CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure composite film are evidently superior to that of the CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films. The excellent photoelctrochemical performance of theTiO2-ZnO hierarchical structure reveales its application prospect in photoanode material of the solar cells.

  16. Hydrothermal treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Tamarix ramosissima: evaluation of the process as a conversion method in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-05-01

    The present work investigated the effects of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of Tamarix ramosissima by determination of sugar and inhibitor formation in the liquid fraction, and chemical and morphological changes of the pretreated solid material coupled with an evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis. HTT was carried out in a batch reactor system at a maximal temperature (TMAX 180-240 °C) and evaluated for severities logRo ranging from 2.40 to 4.17. The liquid fractions were analyzed by HPLC, GPC, and GC-MS. The morphology and composition of the solid residues were characterized using an array of techniques, such as SEM, XRD, BET surface area, and CP/MAS (13)C NMR. Using a variety of tools, we have developed a better understanding of how HTT process affects biomass structure and cellulose properties that impact on its digestibility. These results provided new insights into the factors limiting enzymatic digestibility and mechanism of biomass deconstruction during hydrothermal process. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkali-promoted hydrothermal gasification of biomass food processing waste: A parametric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A parametric study of alkali-promoted hydrogen gas production from by-products from food-based biomass, such as glucose, molasses and rice bran, under hydrothermal conditions has been carried out. Partial oxidation of the biomass samples was aided by the addition of hydrogen peroxide and experiments were carried out in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and feed concentration on the conversion of glucose, molasses and rice bran to gaseous products under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. The reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated in the range of 0-120 min and 330-390 C, respectively. The results confirmed the positive influence of NaOH in the production of hydrogen gas via the water-gas shift reaction. In the presence of the alkali, no tar/oil and char were observed. The hydrogen gas yield increased when the reaction temperature and reaction time increased. It was observed that higher reaction temperature led to an increase in the amount of methane gas produced. With increasing feed concentration, the yields of other gases such as CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} increased, while hydrogen gas production decreased for all the biomass samples. The generation of gaseous products from the molasses and rice bran showed a similar trend to that of glucose, under identical test conditions. (author)

  18. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.P.; Rossky, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    'A new technology, hydrothermal oxidation (also called supercritical water oxidation), is being developed to treat high level nuclear wastes. Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen; furthermore, phosphates, alumina sludge, and chromium are solubilized, and the sludge is reconstituted as fine oxide particles. A major obstacle to development of this technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. The objective is to provide this knowledge with in-situ UV-vis spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. A major objective of the experimental studies has been to determine the equilibria for Cr(VI) up to 420 C as this is a key species to be removed from nuclear wastes. A wide range of concentrations of KOH and perchloric acid were utilized to manipulate the acid-base equilibria and to understand the effects of ion solvation and ion pairing. The second system is the equilibria between nitric acid, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, nitrite and nitrate ions and oxygen. For both of these systems, chemical equilibria has not been measured previously in hydrothermal solution at these temperatures. On the theoretical side, the authors have focused on the study of the transport properties of aqueous ions in supercritical water. The motivation for these studies is two fold. First, although transport coefficients are fundamental to solution chemistry reaction rates, the behavior of such transport properties over wide ranges of density and temperature are not well established experimentally, particularly at the densities typically of interest (< 0.5 g/cc). Second, due to practical challenges, ionic association equilibria in SCW is typically accessed via measurements of conductivity followed by analysis through a theoretical model that incorporates ion

  19. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 2: Effects of treatment conditions on industrial waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of treatment conditions on composition and solubility of ash. • Ash dissolution and yield governed by liquid pH and calcium carbonate solubility. • Dissolution of calcium carbonate decreases ash fusion temperature during combustion. • Decreasing the ash content of sludge can weaken ash properties for combustion. - Abstract: This second half of our work on ash behavior concentrates on the effects of hydrothermal treatment conditions on paper sludge. Ash composition and solubility were determined based on treatment temperature, reactor solid load and liquid pH using experimental design and univariate regression methods. In addition, ash properties for combustion were evaluated based on recent developments on ash classification. Based on the results, all experimental variables had a statistically significant effect on ash yields. Only reactor solid load was statistically insignificant for char ash content, which increased based on increasing treatment temperature due to the decomposition of organic components. Ash dissolution and ash yield were governed by liquid pH and the generation of acids mainly due to the solubility of calcium carbonate identified as the main mineral species of paper sludge. Dissolution of calcium carbonate however decreased ash fusion temperatures more likely causing problems during char incineration. This indicated that decreasing the ash content of sludge during hydrothermal treatment can actually weaken ash properties for solid fuel applications.

  20. Nucleation and growth process of sodalite and cancrinite from kaolinite-rich clay under low-temperature hydrothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ríos Reyes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of low-silica zeotypes by hydrothermal transformation of kaolinite-rich clay and the nucleation and growth processes of sodalite and cancrinite in the system Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O at 100 °C were investigated. The synthesis products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 29Si and 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Our data show that the sequence of the transformation of phases is: Poorly crystalline aluminosilicate → zeolite LTA → sodalite → sodalite + cancrinite → cancrinite. Synthesized materials appeared stable thermodynamically under the experimental conditions, with zeolite LTA (a metastable phase occurring as a minor phase, compared with the presence of sodalite and cancrinite.

  1. Algal biofuels from urban wastewaters: maximizing biomass yield using nutrients recycled from hydrothermal processing of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, T; Pegallapati, A K; Reddy, H; Kanapathipillai, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Deng, S; Lammers, P J

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have proposed algal cultivation in urban wastewaters for the dual purpose of waste treatment and bioenergy production from the resulting biomass. This study proposes an enhancement to this approach that integrates cultivation of an acidophilic strain, Galdieria sulphuraria 5587.1, in a closed photobioreactor (PBR); hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet algal biomass; and recirculation of the nutrient-rich aqueous product (AP) of HTL to the PBR to achieve higher biomass productivity than that could be achieved with raw wastewater. The premise is that recycling nutrients in the AP can maintain optimal C, N and P levels in the PBR to maximize biomass growth to increase energy returns. Growth studies on the test species validated growth on AP derived from HTL at temperatures from 180 to 300°C. Doubling N and P concentrations over normal levels in wastewater resulted in biomass productivity gains of 20-25% while N and P removal rates also doubled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioactive proteins and energy value of okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Jankovic, Vanja S; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2013-09-25

    The nutritional properties of raw okara obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. The composition and residual activity (rTIA) of trypsin inhibitors (TIs), contents of lectin, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and energy values (EV) were correlated with the respective physicochemical properties of soybean and okara. Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) TIs both comprised okara rTIA. TIs content was higher in okara (5.19-14.40%) than in soybean (3.10-12.17%), which additionally enriched okara by cysteine. Contents of KTI (r = 1.00;p < 0.05) and BBI (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) as well as BBI monomeric (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) and polymeric forms (r = 0.95;p < 0.05) in okara and in soybean were strongly correlated. Low urease index activity indicated that okara was heated adequately to inactivate antinutritional factors. The proximate composition of raw okara, advantageous rTIA, and a very low EV (2.74-3.78 kJ/g) qualify this byproduct for potential application in food preparation as a functional ingredient in dietary products.

  3. Antibacterial studies of novel Cu2WS4 ternary chalcogenide synthesized by hydrothermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Selvaraj; Vinitha, Perumal; Mohanraj, Kannusamy; Sivakumar, Ganesan

    2018-02-01

    This is the first report for the synthesis of L-cysteine mediated Cu2WS4 nanoparticles for different temperatures by an inexpensive and less pollutive hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized particles were characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and PL spectra technique respectively. The phase purity and structural confirmation were studied by X-ray powder diffraction technique. It is observed that the synthesis temperature affecting the crystalline size. The optical analysis of the Cu2WS4 nanoparticles showed direct band gap in the range of 2.1-2.3 eV. The intensity of the PL emission spectra decreases with increase of reaction temperature. The antibacterial performance of Cu2WS4 nanoparticles were investigated by agar well diffusion method and the results confirm that the antibacterial activity of Cu2WS4 against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, M. luteus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae) bacteria.

  4. Controllable synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals via a dendrimer-assisted hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhuohua; Zhou, Ping-Le; Yang Shiping; Yu Xibin; Yang Liangzhun

    2007-01-01

    The morphology and size of hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (denoted HAP) can be controlled under hydrothermal treatment assisted with different dendrimers, such as carboxylic terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) and polyhydroxy terminated PAMAM. The structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IR spectra were also used to investigate the complexation of Ca 2+ with PAMAM. The results revealed that the inner cores of the PAMAM dendrimers are hydrophilic and potentially open to calcium ions, since interior nitrogen moieties serve as complexation sites, especially in case of the polyhydroxy terminated PAMAM. And the reasonable mechanism of crystallization was proposed that it can be attributed to the localization of nucleation site: external or interior PAMAM. Additionally, the PAMAM dendrimer with carboxylic and polyhydroxy groups has an effective influence on the size and shape of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructures. Different crystal morphology was accomplished by adsorption of different dendrimers onto specific faces of growing crystals, altering the relative growth rates of the different crystallographic faces and leading to different crystal habits

  5. Dielectric properties of BNT-xBT prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natheer B. Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The BNT ceramic sample might be a good replacement for PZT piezoelectric in industrial applications, especially in energy harvesting from crystal vibrations. In order to enhance the performance of BNT ceramic, the solid solution was chosen by substitution with Ba+2 at Morphtropic Phase Boundary (MPB. The BNT-xBT powders with x=1, 0.07, 0.06 and 0 were prepared by the hydrothermal method with average particle size (65–150nm at (90∘C/72h. The ceramic disc was sintered at (1150∘C/4h and showed excellent relative density of about 96%. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the MPB for x=0.06 and 0.07, while the BNT had a rhombohedral structure and BT had a tetragonal structure. The dielectric measurements showed that BNT, BNT-7BT, BNT-6BT behave as the relaxator ferroelectric and showed a strong dependence on frequency, especially in the MPB region while BT behaves as a normal ferroelectric. Both the Curie temperature and depolarization temperature decrease at the MPB region and showed strong dependency on frequency.

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Daniel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Albrecht, Karl O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butcher, Mark G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Drennan, Corinne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  7. Mesocrystals luminescent BaZrHfO{sub 3} synthesized via hydrothermal process assisted by microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, Rafael Uarth, E-mail: uarth.fisica@gmail.com

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The Barium Zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}), is a ceramic oxide belonging to the functional group of perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), this compound can be doped with hafniun (Hf) in solid solution by microwave assisted hydrothermal method (MAH) radioluminescent increases their properties. This method allows to obtain barium zirconate at low temperature as 140 deg C and short times as 160 minutes. The choice of Hafnium (Hf) as a dopant is based on its similarity with Zirconium (Zr), another good reason for this choice is that the Hafnium has intrinsic luminescent characteristics. In general, radioluminescent materials have high density and high atomic mass (atomic number of Hafnium is 72), thereby facilitating the absorption of ionizing radiation to convert it into visible light, this characteristic is strongly dependent on the morphology and especially the electronic structure of (BaZrO{sub 3}). This work consisted in production of barium zirconate powders doped 1-2-4-8-16% (Hf) using (MAH) method. For the characterization of the powders was employed methods : a) X-ray diffraction, b) Raman Spectroscopy, c) Xanes, d) photoluminescence spectroscopy. After the electronic and structural characterization the powders were introduced in a polymeric resin (nylon-BZO), one new characterizations will be performed to validate the results obtained in the production of films to the results already obtained for the powders. We conclude so far, that the powders-doped with 16% Hf has an intense luminescent emission compared to the powders with less concentration of Hf. The small structural change that causes the Hf in (BZO) is considered as a secondary factory. (author)

  8. Treatment of sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization as part of a sustainable recycling management; Hydrothermale Karbonisierung zur weitergehenden Klaerschlammaufbereitung als Baustein einer nachhaltigen Kreislaufwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, Rainer; Loewen, Achim; Hoebel, Wanja [HAWK Hochschule fuer angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, Fachhochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen (DE). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2010-07-15

    An analysis of up-to-date research on hydrothermal carbonization HTC shows that extensive basic investigation has been conducted and the process has proven to be of relevance. First results published indicate a wide range of applications for HTC and open up the path for large scale utilization. The application of HTC in technical scale is most promising for liquid media such as sewage sludge or fermentation residues deriving from waste and waste water treatment or from bioenergy processes. Especially municipal sewage sludge offers great potential. Due to the current amendment of the regulation on sewage sludge, an increasing demand for alternative treatment processes has developed. The mass flow distribution is of special importance with respect to preventive soil protection. Also, a sustainable handling of nutrient rich biomass is require d for reasons of climate and resource protection. In this regard, HTC can offer a relevant contribution. However, there is still significant demand for further research. (orig.)

  9. Process integration and optimization of a solid oxide fuel cell – Gas turbine hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Gassner, Martin; D’Amelio, Matilde; Marechal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its suitability for using wet biomass, hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of otherwise unused waste biomass to synthesis gas and biofuels. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based hybrid cycles are considered as the best candidate for a more efficient and clean conversion of (bio) fuels. A significant potential for the integration of the two technologies is expected since hydrothermal gasification requires heat at 673–773 K, whereas SOFC is characterized by heat excess at high temperature due to the limited electrochemical fuel conversion. This work presents a systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-gas turbine (GT) hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass. Several design options are systematically developed and compared through a thermodynamic optimization approach based on First Law and exergy analysis. The work demonstrates the considerable potential of the system that allows for converting wet waste biomass into electricity at a First Law efficiency of up to 63%, while simultaneously enabling the separation of biogenic carbon dioxide for further use or sequestration. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of waste wet biomass. ► Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Gas Turbine hybrid cycle emerges as the best candidates for conversion of biofuels. ► A systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-GT hybrid cycle fuelled with hydrothermally gasified biomass is presented. ► The system may convert wet waste biomass to electricity at a First Law efficiency of 63% while separating the biogenic carbon dioxide. ► The process integration enables to improve the First Law efficiency of around 4% with respect to a non-integrated system.

  10. Highly efficient fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by nepheline prepared from kaolinite through alkali-hydrothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Li, Zishun; Tang, Xuekun; Li, Guangze

    2017-07-01

    A direct alkali-hydrothermal induced transformation process was adopted to prepare nepheline from raw kaolinite (shortened form RK in this paper) and NaOH solution in this paper. Structure and morphology characterizations of the synthetic product showed that the nepheline possessed high degree of crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. Specific surface area of nepheline is 18 m 2 /g, with a point of zero charge at around pH 5.0-5.5. The fluoride (F - ions) adsorption by the synthetic nepheline (shortened form SN in this paper) from aqueous solution was also investigated under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process well matched the Langmuir isotherm model with an amazing maximum adsorption capacity of 183 mg/g at 323 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 ) for adsorption on SN were also determined from the temperature dependence. The adsorption capacities of fluoride on SN increased with increasing of temperature and initial concentration. Initial pH value also had influence on adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride was rapidly increased in 5-60 min and thereafter increased slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 90-180 min under all conditions. The adsorption followed a pseudo-second order rate law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Viruses Associated with Planktonic and Attached Microbial Communities in Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunoura, Takuro; Kazama, Hiromi; Noguchi, Takuroh; Inoue, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Hironori; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Furushima, Yasuo; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Viruses play important roles in marine surface ecosystems, but little is known about viral ecology and virus-mediated processes in deep-sea hydrothermal microbial communities. In this study, we examined virus-like particle (VLP) abundances in planktonic and attached microbial communities, which occur in physical and chemical gradients in both deep and shallow submarine hydrothermal environments (mixing waters between hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater and dense microbial communities attached to chimney surface areas or macrofaunal bodies and colonies). We found that viruses were widely distributed in a variety of hydrothermal microbial habitats, with the exception of the interior parts of hydrothermal chimney structures. The VLP abundance and VLP-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) in the planktonic habitats increased as the ratio of hydrothermal fluid to mixing water increased. On the other hand, the VLP abundance in attached microbial communities was significantly and positively correlated with the whole prokaryotic abundance; however, the VPRs were always much lower than those for the surrounding hydrothermal waters. This is the first report to show VLP abundance in the attached microbial communities of submarine hydrothermal environments, which presented VPR values significantly lower than those in planktonic microbial communities reported before. These results suggested that viral lifestyles (e.g., lysogenic prevalence) and virus interactions with prokaryotes are significantly different among the planktonic and attached microbial communities that are developing in the submarine hydrothermal environments. PMID:22210205

  12. Co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum based on a hydrothermal hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Tan, Xuesong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wen; Qi, Wei; Zhou, Guixiong; Luo, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-12-01

    A process for co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum (ES) was developed based on hydrothermal hydrolysis (HH). Two series of ES were investigated: one (N) with a high biomass yield displayed a higher recalcitrance to sugar release, whereas the second (T) series was characterized by high sugar extraction. The highest total xylose recoveries of 87.2% and 98.7% were obtained for N-11 and T-106 under hydrolysis conditions of 180°C for 50min and 180°C for 30min, respectively. Moreover, the T series displayed higher enzymatic digestibility (ED) than the N series. The high degree of branching (arabinose/xylose ratio) and acetyl groups in the hemicellulose chains of T-106 would be expected to accelerate sugar release during the HH process. In addition, negative correlations between ED and the lignin content, crystallinity index (CrI) and syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin ratio were observed. Furthermore, finding ways to overcome the thickness of the cell wall and heterogeneity of its chemical composition distribution would make cellulose more accessible to the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Flower-Like Bundles of ZnO Nanosheets by a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets have been prepared by using preheating hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The flower-like bundles consist of many thin and uniform hexagonal-structured ZnO nanosheets, with a thickness of 50 nm. The selected area electronic diffraction (SAED and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images indicate that the ZnO nanosheets are single crystal in nature. The growth mechanism of the flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is discussed based on the morphology evolution with growth times and reaction conditions. It is believed that the formation of flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is related to the shielding effect of OH− ions and the self-assembly process, which is dominated by a preheating time. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra results show that the annealing atmosphere strongly affects the visible emission band, which is sensitive to intrinsic and surface defects, especially oxygen interstitials, in flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets.

  14. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford waste via hydrothermal processing -- FY 1994/95 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.; Lehmann, R.W.; Momont, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating and developing organic destruction technologies that may be incorporated into the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) to treat Hanford tank waste. Organic (and ferrocyanide) destruction removes the compounds responsible for waste safety issues, and conditions the supernatant for low-level waste disposal by removing compounds that may be responsible for promoting strontium and transuranic (TRU) components solubility. Destruction or defunctionalization of complexing organics in tank wastes eliminates organic species that can reduce the efficiency of radionuclide (E.g., 90 Sr) separation processes, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. The technologies being evaluated and tested for organic destruction are low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) and wet air oxidation (WAO). Four activities are described: Batch HTP/WAO testing with Actual Tank Waste (Section 3.0), Batch HTP Testing with Simulant (Section 4.0), Batch WAO testing with Simulant (Section 5.0), and Continuous Bench-scale WAO Testing with Simulant (Section 6.0). For each of these activities, the objectives, test approach, results, status, and direction of future investigations are discussed. The background and history of the HTP/WAO technology is summarized below. Conclusions and Recommendations are provided in Section 2.0. A continuous HTP off-gas safety evaluation conducted in FY 1994 is included as Appendix A

  15. Impact of hydrothermalism on the ocean iron cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Resing, Joseph

    2016-11-28

    As the iron supplied from hydrothermalism is ultimately ventilated in the iron-limited Southern Ocean, it plays an important role in the ocean biological carbon pump. We deploy a set of focused sensitivity experiments with a state of the art global model of the ocean to examine the processes that regulate the lifetime of hydrothermal iron and the role of different ridge systems in governing the hydrothermal impact on the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump. Using GEOTRACES section data, we find that stabilization of hydrothermal iron is important in some, but not all regions. The impact on the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump is dominated by poorly explored southern ridge systems, highlighting the need for future exploration in this region. We find inter-basin differences in the isopycnal layer onto which hydrothermal Fe is supplied between the Atlantic and Pacific basins, which when combined with the inter-basin contrasts in oxidation kinetics suggests a muted influence of Atlantic ridges on the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump. Ultimately, we present a range of processes, operating at distinct scales, that must be better constrained to improve our understanding of how hydrothermalism affects the ocean cycling of iron and carbon.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Geochemical Tracers of Processes Affecting the Formation of Seafloor Hydrothermal Fluids and Deposits in the Manus Back-Arc Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    pp. 184-197. Grassle J. F. (1986) The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Advances in Marine Biology 23, 301-362. Halbach P...Gesellschaft 82, 183-210. Tunnicliffe V. (1991) The biology of hydrothermal vents: Ecology and evolution. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 29...Evidence for Magmatic Contributions to Submarine and Subaerial Gold Mineralization: Conical Seamount and the Ladolam Gold Deposit, Papua New Guinea

  17. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  18. Hydrothermal processing of fermentation residues in a continuous multistage rig – Operational challenges for liquefaction, salt separation, and catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zöhrer, H.; De Boni, E.; Vogel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation residues are a waste stream of biomethane production containing substantial amounts of organic matter, and thus representing a primary energy source which is mostly unused. For the first time this feedstock was tested for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production. The processing steps include hydrothermal liquefaction, salt separation, as well as catalytic gasification over a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water. In continuous experiments at a feed rate of 1 kg h −1 a partial liquefaction and carbonization of some of the solids was observed. Significant amounts of heavy tars were formed. Around 50% of the feed carbon remained in the rig. Furthermore, a homogeneous coke was formed, presumably originating from condensed tars. The mineralization of sulfur and its separation in the salt separator was insufficient, because most of the sulfur was still organically bound after liquefaction. Desalination was observed at a salt separator set point temperature of 450 °C and 28 MPa; however, some of the salts could not be withdrawn as a concentrated brine. At 430 °C no salt separation took place. Higher temperatures in the salt separator were found to promote tar and coke formation, resulting in conflicting process requirements for efficient biomass liquefaction and desalination. In the salt separator effluent, solid crystals identified as struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were found. This is the first report of struvite formation from a supercritical water biomass conversion process and represents an important finding for producing a fertilizer from the separated salt brine. - Highlights: • Continuous processing of fermentation residues in sub- and supercritical water. • Continuous separation of salt brines at supercritical water conditions. • Struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were recovered from the effluent. • Separation of sulfur from the biomass could

  19. Hydrothermal Valorization of Steel Slags—Part I: Coupled H{sub 2} Production and CO{sub 2} Mineral Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouzet, Camille [University Grenoble Alpes, University Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble (France); LRCS and RS2E, CNRS-UMR7314, University Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France); Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, M2P2, Marseille (France); Brunet, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.brunet@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr; Montes-Hernandez, German [University Grenoble Alpes, University Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble (France); Recham, Nadir [LRCS and RS2E, CNRS-UMR7314, University Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France); Findling, Nathaniel [University Grenoble Alpes, University Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble (France); Ferrasse, Jean-Henry [Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, M2P2, Marseille (France); Goffé, Bruno [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, Coll. de France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2017-10-30

    A new process route for the valorization of BOF steel slags combining H{sub 2} production and CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration is investigated at 300°C (HT) under hydrothermal conditions. A BOF steel slag stored several weeks outdoor on the production site was used as starting material. To serve as a reference, room temperature (RT) carbonation of the same BOF steel slag has been monitored with in situ Raman spectroscopy and by measuring pH and P{sub CO2} on a time-resolved basis. CO{sub 2} uptake under RT and HT are, respectively, 243 and 327 kg CO{sub 2}/t of fresh steel slag, which add up with the 63 kg of atmospheric CO{sub 2} per ton already uptaken by the starting steel slag on the storage site. The CO{sub 2} gained by the sample at HT is bounded to the carbonation of brownmillerite. H{sub 2} yield decreased by about 30% in comparison to the same experiment performed without added CO{sub 2}, due to sequestration of ferrous iron in a Mg-rich siderite phase. Ferric iron, initially present in brownmillerite, is partitioned between an Fe-rich clay mineral of saponite type and metastable hematite. Saponite is likely stabilized by the presence of Al, whereas hematite may represent a metastable product of brownmillerite carbonation. Mg-rich wüstite is involved in at least two competing reactions, i.e., oxidation into magnetite and carbonation into siderite. Results of both water-slag and water-CO{sub 2}-slag experiments after 72 h are consistent with a kinetics enhancement of the former reaction when a CO{sub 2} partial pressure imposes a pH between 5 and 6. Three possible valorization routes, (1) RT carbonation prior to hydrothermal oxidation, (2) RT carbonation after hydrothermal treatment, and (3) combined HT carbonation and oxidation are discussed in light of the present results and literature data.

  20. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  1. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent. The theoret......Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  2. Effects of the annealing duration of the ZnO buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, C.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Kim, C.R. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the effects of the annealing duration of a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process are discussed. A ZnO buffer layer was deposited on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. After that, ZnO rods were grown on the ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) substrate by a hydrothermal process. In order to determine the optimum annealing duration of the buffer layer for the growth of ZnO rods, durations ranging from 0.5 to 30 min were tried. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO/ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  3. Multibarrier waste forms. Part III: Process considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1979-10-01

    The multibarrier concept for the solidification and storage of radioactive waste utilizes up to three barriers to isolate radionuclides from the environment: a solidified waste inner core, an impervious coating, and a metal matrix. The coating and metal matrix give the composite waste form enhanced inertness with improvements in thermal stability, mechanical strength, and leach resistance. Preliminary process flow rates and material costs were evaluated for four multibarrier waste forms with the process complexity increasing thusly: glass marbles, uncoated supercalcine, glass-coated supercalcine, and PyC/Al 2 O 3 -coated supercalcine. This report discusses the process variables and their effect on optimization of product quality, processing simplicity, and material cost. 11 figures, 2 tables

  4. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  5. Spent coffee enhanced biomethane potential via an integrated hydrothermal carbonization-anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codignole Luz, Fábio; Volpe, Maurizio; Fiori, Luca; Manni, Alessandro; Cordiner, Stefano; Mulone, Vincenzo; Rocco, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    This study reports the implications of using spent coffee hydrochar as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Three different spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180, 220 and 250 °C, 1 h residence time, were investigated for their biomethane potential in AD process inoculated with cow manure. Spent coffee hydrochars were characterized in terms of ultimate, proximate and higher heating value (HHV), and their theoretical bio-methane yield evaluated using Boyle-Buswell equation and compared to the experimental values. The results were then analyzed using the modified Gompertz equation to determine the main AD evolution parameters. Different hydrochar properties were related to AD process performances. AD of spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180 °C showed the highest biomethane production rate (46 mL CH 4 /gVS . d), a biomethane potential of 491 mL/gVS (AD lasting 25 days), and a biomethane gas daily composition of about 70%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  7. Petrography and Mineral Chemistry of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Biotite in Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: A Tool for Understanding Mineralizing Fluid Compositional Changes During Alteration Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.47-64This study aims to understand the petrography and chemistry of both magmatic and hydrothermal biotites in porphyry copper-gold deposits, and to evaluate the fluid compositional changes during alteration processes. A total of 206 biotite grains from selected rock samples taken from the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit was analyzed. Detailed petrography and biotite chemistry analysis were performed on thin sections and polished thin sections, respectively, represent...

  8. METAL CHIP HEATING PROCESS INVESTIGATION (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Dyakonov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main calculation methods for heat- and mass transfer in porous heterogeneous medium have been considered. The paper gives an evaluation of the possibility to apply them for calculation of metal chip heating process. It has been shown that a description of transfer processes in a chip has its own specific character that is attributed to difference between thermal and physical properties of chip material and lubricant-coolant components on chip surfaces. It has been determined that the known expressions for effective heat transfer coefficients can be used as basic ones while approaching mutually penetrating continuums. A mathematical description of heat- and mass transfer in chip medium can be considered as a basis of mathematical modeling, numerical solution and parameter optimization of the mentioned processes.

  9. Adsorption of crystal violet with diatomite earth&carbon by a modification of hydrothermal carbonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Li, Jun; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Lu, Yun; Li, Wenjing; Zheng, Zhaoming; Cheng, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    The high colority and difficulty of decolorization are the most important tasks on printing and dyeing wastewater. This study investigates the ability of diatomite earth&carbon (DE&C) as an adsorbent to removal crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of CV. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord with well IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 73.15 m(2) g(-1) for DE&C and an average pore diameter of 10.56 nm. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.99). The results of kinetics study showed that the pseudo-second-order model fitted to the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. ΔH° 0 and ΔG° < 0 demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic for dye. Furthermore the positive value of ΔS° reflected good affinity of the CV dye.

  10. Novel process windows, part 1: Boosted micro process technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, V.; Wang, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Novel Process Windows (NPW) is the use of highly intensified, unusual and typically harsh process conditions to boost micro process technology and flow chemistry for the production of high-added value fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc.. It is far from conventional processing and also from

  11. Numerical Simulation Of Hydrothermal Processes In Lake Drukshiai: 5. The Two-Phase Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitiekunas, P.; Saimardanova, J.; Markevicius, A. and other

    2004-01-01

    The state of two-phase 'liquid-gas' flow has been modeled numerically by the three-dimensional method of a complex research of heat and mass transfer. This allows examining the interaction of some transfer processes in a natural cooling basin (Lake Drukshiai): the power and direction of the wind, the variable density of the water, the heat conduction and heat transfer coefficients of the water-air interface. The combined effect of these natural actions determines the heat amount that the basin is able to dissipate to the surrounding atmospheric medium in thermal equilibrium (no change in the mean water temperature). This article presents a number of most widely used expressions for vertical and horizontal heat transfer coefficients. Basing on the stream velocity and mean temperature profiles measured in the cooling pond, as well as on then-time variations, suggestions are made that the mixing rate at the water surface is caused by the natural space-time variation of the wind and can be described by the value of the eddy viscosity coefficient - 1 m 2 /s (in numerical modeling 0.9-1.3 m 2 /s were used). The wind influence on the surface of the lake, according to the experimental data, is 1-3% of the mean wind velocity. The model is applied for a moderate wind, approximately 1-5 m/s of the mean wind velocity. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed a qualitative agreement. For a better quantitative approximation it is necessary to have more boundary conditions variable with time and to solve the unsteady set equations for transfer processes. (author)

  12. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. Annual progress report, September 1996--August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslick, K.S.

    1997-11-21

    'During the past year, the authors have continued to make substantial scientific progress on the understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. The efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  13. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslick, K.S.

    1998-06-01

    'The primary goal is to develop a quantitative understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and the development of applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. This report summarizes work after one year of a three year project. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  14. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslick, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    'The primary goal is to develop a quantitative understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and the development of applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. This report summarizes work after one year of a three year project. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C 2 in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  15. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. Annual progress report, September 1996 - August 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslick, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    'During the past year, the authors have continued to make substantial scientific progress on the understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. The efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C 2 in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  16. Transformation of graphite by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Matina; Toy, Virginia; Timms, Nicholas; Halfpenny, Angela; Menzies, Catriona; Craw, Dave; Rooney, Jeremy; Giorgetti, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Graphite is a material with one of the lowest frictional strengths, with coefficient of friction of 0.1 and thus in natural fault zones it may act as a natural solid lubricant. Graphitization, or the transformation of organic matter (carbonaceous material, or CM) into crystalline graphite, is induced by compositional and structural changes during diagenesis and metamorphism. The supposed irreversible nature of this process has allowed the degree of graphite crystallinity to be calibrated as an indicator of the peak temperatures reached during progressive metamorphism. We examine processes of graphite emplacement and deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand's active continental tectonic plate boundary. Raman spectrometry indicates that graphite in the distal, amphibolite-facies Alpine Schist, which experienced peak metamorphic temperatures up to 640 ◦C, is highly crystalline and occurs mainly along grain boundaries within quartzo-feldspathic domains. The subsequent mylonitisation in the Alpine Fault Zone resulted in progressive reworking of CM under lower temperature conditions (500◦C-600◦C) in a structurally controlled environment, resulting in spatial clustering in lower-strain protomylonites, and further foliation-alignment in higher-strain mylonites. Subsequent brittle deformation of the mylonitised schists resulted in cataclasites that contain over three-fold increase in the abundance of graphite than mylonites. Furthermore, cataclasites contain graphite with two different habits: highly-crystalline, foliated forms that are inherited mylonitic graphite; and lower-crystallinity, less mature patches of finer-grained graphite. The observed graphite enrichment and the occurrence of poorly-organised graphite in the Alpine Fault cataclasites could result from: i) hydrothermal precipitation from carbon-supersaturated fluids; and/or ii) mechanical degradation by structural disordering of mylonitic graphite combined with strain-induced graphite

  17. The role of hydrothermal processes in concentrating high-field strength elements in the Strange Lake peralkaline complex, northeastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Stefano; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    1996-06-01

    The middle-Proterozoic peralkaline pluton at Strange Lake, Quebec/Labrador, comprises hypersolvus to subsolvus phases which are unusually enriched in Zr, Y, REEs, Nb, Be, and F, as exotic alkali and alkaline-earth silicate minerals. The highest concentrations of these elements are in subsolvus granite, which underwent intense low temperature (≤200°C) hydrothermal alteration involving hematization and the replacement of alkali high-field strength element (HFSE) minerals by calcic equivalents. This alteration is interpreted to have been caused by meteoric or formational waters. High temperature (≥ 350°C) alteration, attributed to orthomagmatic fluids, is evident in other parts of the subsolvus granite by the replacement of arfvedsonite by aegirine. Comparisons of the chemical compositions of fresh and altered rocks indicate that rocks subjected to high temperature alteration were chemically unaffected, except for depletion in Zr, Y, and HREEs. These elements were appreciably enriched in rocks that underwent low temperature alteration. Other elements affected by low temperature alteration include Ca and Mg, which were added and Na, which was removed. Available data on HFSE speciation in aqueous fluids and the chemistry of the pluton, suggest that the HFSEs were transported as fluoride complexes. If this was the case, the low temperature fluid could not have been responsible for HFSE transport, because the high concentration of Ca and low solubility of fluorite would have buffered F - activity to levels too low to permit significant complexation. We propose that HFSE mineralization and accompanying alteration were the result of mixing, in the apical parts of the pluton, of a F-rich, essentially Ca-free orthomagmatic fluid containing significant concentrations of HFSEs, with an externally derived meteoric-dominated fluid, enriched in Ca as a result of interaction with calc-silicate gneisses and gabbros. According to this interpretation, the latter fluid was

  18. Decontamination Process of Internal Part Pipes - 13442

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladet, X.; Sozet, O.; Cabanillas, P.; Macia, G. [STMI, Site de MARCOULE - Batiment 423 - 30204 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Moggia, F.; Damerval, F. [STMI, 1 route de la Noue 91196 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    The Marcoule Site, created in 1955 is one of the first nuclear sites in France. It combines the activities of the Research Centre of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and AREVA industrial operations. Today, a large part of the operations on this site consists of the cleaning and the dismantling of nuclear Installations, once the end of their life cycle has been reached. An example can be the reprocessing plant UP1. This unit, started in 1958 has been stopped in 1997 and its dismantling started quickly thereafter. Technical challenges of the UP1 dismantling are mainly linked to a very high risk of exposure due to a large variety of contaminated equipments and residuals of fission products, potential sources of irradiation. The dismantling of Hall 71 is a typical example of such challenge. This paper will present a solution developed by AREVA Clean-Up business unit, in collaboration with COFIM Industry, to remove contamination incrusted inside the pipes before starting the cutting operations, thus reducing irradiation risk. (authors)

  19. Investigating Crustal Scale Fault Systems Controlling Volcanic and Hydrothermal Fluid Processes in the South-Central Andes, First Results from a Magnetotelluric Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Moorkamp, M.; Araya, J.; Cembrano, J. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2017-12-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, volcanic orogeny is largely controlled by major thrust fault systems that act as magmatic and hydrothermal fluid conduits through the crust. In the south-central Andes, the volcanically and seismically active Tinguiririca and Planchon-Peteroa volcanoes are considered to be tectonically related to the major El Fierro thrust fault system. These large scale reverse faults are characterized by 500 - 1000m wide hydrothermally altered fault cores, which possess a distinct conductive signature relative to surrounding lithology. In order to establish the subsurface architecture of these fault systems, such conductivity contrasts can be detected using the magnetotelluric method. In this study, LEMI fluxgate-magnetometer long-period and Metronix broadband MT data were collected at 21 sites in a 40km2 survey grid that surrounds this fault system and associated volcanic complexes. Multi-remote referencing techniques is used together with robust processing to obtain reliable impedance estimates between 100 Hz and 1,000s. Our preliminary inversion results provide evidence of structures within the 10 - 20 km depth range that are attributed to this fault system. Further inversions will be conducted to determine the approximate depth extent of these features, and ultimately provide constraints for future geophysical studies aimed to deduce the role of these faults in volcanic orogeny and hydrothermal fluid migration processes in this region of the Andes.

  20. Influence of hydrothermal processes on changes of volcanic rocks (data of physical modelling)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanina, V. V.; Bychkov, A. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Due to active development of geothermal energy, in middle of the last century have begun papers devoted to experiments, directed on study of transformations of minerals [4] and rocks [1, 2, 5] under action of geothermal processes. But any researcher did not estimate thus change of their physical and physico-mechanical properties. The purpose of job - to study character and dynamics changes of volcanic rocks (to simulate conditions of geothermal transformations). Tasks: creation of the whole series of experiments in autoclavs at various temperatures, pressure and composition of solutions, preparation of samples, study of chemical and mineral composition, structure and properties of rocks and solutions before and after experiments. In 2006 the first similar experiments were begun [3]. Researched rocks basalts, hyaloclasites and obsidian, selected from Iceland and tuffs Payzhetka Geothermal Field, Southern Kamchatka, Russia. Were used autoclavs, consisting from titanic of an alloy ВТ-8, volume 116-119 мл, in each of which was located from 2 up to 4 samples of rocks of the investigated structure and properties. The heating was made in OVEN ТРМ-10 with accuracy + 1 °С, the constancy of temperature was supervised by thermocouples. 15 experiences (temperature 200, 300 and 450 °С; pressure 16, 86 and 1000 bars accordingly now are carried out; 4 solutions (1 alkaline and 3 acid); duration 14, 15, 30 and 60 days). All four groups of the investigated rocks appreciablly react under geothermal influence. The changes are observed in colour of samples (brighten in acid solutions), their microstructure, that for basalts is visible only in raster electronic microscope, and in education of new mineral phases, is especially active in a acid solution, the X-Ray analysis (has executed by Dr. Krupskaya V.V., apparatuses - DRON- UM1) has shown, that 94,2 % is smectite, 3,5 % - kaolinite, 1,2 % - crisrobalite, 1,1 % - diopside (?), in others pores fills chlorite, and in an

  1. Modeling of the fault-controlled hydrothermal ore-forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pek, A.A.; Malkovsky, V.I.

    1993-07-01

    A necessary precondition for the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits is a strong focusing of hydrothermal flow as fluids move from the fluid source to the site of ore deposition. The spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposits favors the concept that such fluid flow focusing is controlled, for the most part, by regional faults which provide a low resistance path for hydrothermal solutions. Results of electric analog simulations, analytical solutions, and computer simulations of the fluid flow, in a fault-controlled single-pass advective system, confirm this concept. The influence of the fluid flow focusing on the heat and mass transfer in a single-pass advective system was investigated for a simplified version of the metamorphic model for the genesis of greenstone-hosted gold deposits. The spatial distribution of ore mineralization, predicted by computer simulation, is in reasonable agreement with geological observations. Computer simulations of the fault-controlled thermoconvective system revealed a complex pattern of mixing hydrothermal solutions in the model, which also simulates the development of the modern hydrothermal systems on the ocean floor. The specific feature of the model considered, is the development under certain conditions of an intra-fault convective cell that operates essentially independently of the large scale circulation. These and other results obtained during the study indicate that modeling of natural fault-controlled hydrothermal systems is instructive for the analysis of transport processes in man-made hydrothermal systems that could develop in geologic high-level nuclear waste repositories

  2. Optical Spectroscopy and Visible Upconversion Studies of YVO4:Er3+ Nanocrystals Synthesized by a Hydrothermal Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Wang, X.; Kong, X.; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Strong visible emissions of Er3+ resulting from two-photon absorption and energy transfer from the host YVO4 were observed in nanocrystalline Er3+-doped YVO4, which was prepared by a hydrothermal method using a citrate-yttrium-vanadate complex as the precursor. The nanocrystals were

  3. Age of hydrothermal processes in the central iberian zone (Spain according TO U-Pb dating of cassiterite and apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Ризванова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of isotope-geochemical studies by PbLS step-leaching method of cassiterite from greisens located in Logrosán granite massif (Central Iberian Zone, Spain and apatite from hydrothermal quartz-apatite vein on its exocontact indicate that in both cases a hydrothermal event is recorded in the interval of 114-126 Ma, which has been accompanied by lead supply. Within the limits of estimation error, the same age around 120 Ma corresponds to crystallization of hydrothermal apatite, formation of sticks and micro-inclusions in cassiterite from greisens and is suggested for Au-As-Sb-Pb ore mineralization, which calls for further confirmation. Xenogenous zircon from quartz-apatite vein does not react to this relatively low-temperature hydrothermal event either with building up new generations (sticks, areas of recrystallization or with rebalancing of U-Pb isotope system. The age of greisen formation has been confirmed to be around 305 Ma by PbLS method on final phases of cassiterite leaching. Earlier it was estimated with 40Ar/39Ar method on muscovite.

  4. Process chemistry of neptunium. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, N.; Ramaniah, M. V.; Patil, S. K.; Ramakrishna, V. V.; Swarup, R.; Chadha, A.; Avadhany, G. V.N.

    1974-07-01

    The oxidation state analysis of neptunium in the aqueous feed solution from the Plutonium Plant at Trombay was carried out and it was found that neptunium existed mainly as Np(V) in the feed solution. Batch extraction data for Np(IV) and Np(VI) into 30% TBP/Shell Sol T at different aqueous nitric acid concentration and uranium saturation of the organic phase were obtained at 45 deg C and 60 deg C and the results are summarized. The distribution coefficients of Np(IV) and Np(VI) were obtained as a function of TBP concentration and the data are reported. The effect of nitrous acid on the extraction of neptunium, present in the aqueous phase as Np(IV) and Np(V), by 30% TBP was studied and the data obtained are given. The data on the rate of reduction of NP(VI) and Np(V) to Np(IV) by U(IV) were obtained for different U(IV) and nitric acid concentrations. Some redox reactions involving Np(IV), Pu(IV) and V(V) were investigated and their possible application in the purex process for neptunium recovery were explored. (auth)

  5. Template-free synthesis of ZnWO{sub 4} powders via hydrothermal process in a wide pH range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos, E-mail: mirabbos_uz@yahoo.com [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Nano-materials and Technology, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Zhu, Gangqiang [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Xu, Yunhua [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Nano-materials and Technology, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China)

    2010-12-15

    ZnWO{sub 4} powders with different morphologies were fabricated through a template-free hydrothermal method at 180 {sup o}C for 8 h in a wide pH range. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometers were applied to study the effects of pH values on crystallinity, morphology, optical and luminescence properties. The XRD results showed that the WO{sub 3} + ZnWO{sub 4}, ZnWO{sub 4}, and ZnO phases could form after hydrothermal processing at 180 {sup o}C for 8 h with the pH values of 1, 3-11, and 13, respectively. The SEM and TEM observation revealed that the morphological transformation of ZnWO{sub 4} powders occurred with an increase in pH values as follows: star anise-, peony-, and desert rose-like microstructures and soya bean- and rod-like nanostructures. The highest luminescence intensity was found to be in sample consisting of star anise-like crystallites among all the samples due to the presence of larger particles with high crystallinity resulted from the favorable pH under the current hydrothermal conditions.

  6. Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

  7. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part I. Liquid route processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2008-01-01

    With its interesting and particular characteristics, cellular metals are taking part of the great family of new materials. They can have open or closed porosity. At the present time, the major challenge for the materials researchers is based in the manufacturing techniques improvement in order to obtain reproducible and reliable cellular metals with quality. In the present paper, the different production methods to manufacture cellular metals by liquid route are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 106 refs

  8. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... scale. Each design iteration reduces the test part size, increases the number of test features, improves functionality, and decreases coupling in the part. The final design is a set of three test parts that are easy to orient and measure, and that provide useful information about micro additive...... manufacturing processes....

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 536 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 536 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 536, App. A Appendix A to Part 536—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  11. The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsbo, P.; Groves, D.I.; Hofstra, A.H.; Bierlein, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Northern Nevada hosts the only province that contains multiple world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. The first-order control on the uniqueness of this province is its anomalous far back-arc tectonic setting over the rifted North American paleocontinental margin that separates Precambrian from Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Globally, most other significant gold provinces form in volcanic arcs and accreted terranes proximal to convergent margins. In northern Nevada, periodic reactivation of basement faults along this margin focused and amplified subsequent geological events. Early basement faults localized Devonian synsedimentary extension and normal faulting. These controlled the geometry of the Devonian sedimentary basin architecture and focused the discharge of basinal brines that deposited syngenetic gold along the basin margins. Inversion of these basins and faults during subsequent contraction produced the complex elongate structural culminations that characterize the anomalous mineral deposit "trends." Subsequently, these features localized repeated episodes of shallow magmatic and hydrothermal activity that also deposited some gold. During a pulse of Eocene extension, these faults focused advection of Carlin-type fluids, which had the opportunity to leach gold from gold-enriched sequences and deposit it in reactive miogeoclinal host rocks below the hydrologic seal at the Roberts Mountain thrust contact. Hence, the vast endowment of the Carlin province resulted from the conjunction of spatially superposed events localized by long-lived basement structures in a highly anomalous tectonic setting, rather than by the sole operation of special magmatic or fluid-related processes. An important indicator of the longevity of this basement control is the superposition of different gold deposit types (e.g., Sedex, porphyry, Carlin-type, epithermal, and hot spring deposits) that formed repeatedly between the Devonian and Miocene time along the trends

  12. Amidation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by a hydrothermal process for the electrooxidation of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Kan; Xia Tingliang; Li Li; Bi Hongmei; Fu Honggang; Shi Keying

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been amidated by hydrothermal treatment with different aliphatic amines. The amido groups modified on the surface of the SWCNTs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrooxidation of nitric oxide (NO) at the modified electrodes of amidated SWCNTs was investigated. The modified electrodes of amidated SWCNTs exhibited different electrocatalytic activity for NO when different aliphatic amines were being used. The electrode amidated by ammonia has the highest activity, which is 1.8 times value of the SWCNT modified electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the amidated SWCNT modified electrodes depends on the length of the alkyl groups. The results demonstrate that hydrothermal treatment is an efficient way to modify SWCNTs with amines, and the reaction rate of NO electrooxidation can be changed by the amidation of SWCNTs.

  13. Argentine hydrothermal panorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    An attempt is made to give a realistic review of Argentine thermal waters. The topics discussed are the characteristics of the hydrothermal resources, classification according to their mineral content, hydrothermal flora and fauna, uses of hydrothermal resources, hydrothermal regions of Argentina, and meteorology and climate. A tabulation is presented of the principal thermal waters. (JSR)

  14. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maugeri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.

  16. 2D and 3D high resolution seismic imaging of shallow Solfatara crater in Campi Flegrei (Italy): new insights on deep hydrothermal fluid circulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Landro, Grazia; Gammaldi, Sergio; Serlenga, Vincenzo; Amoroso, Ortensia; Russo, Guido; Festa, Gaetano; D'Auria, Luca; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Seismic tomography can be used to image the spatial variation of rock properties within complex geological media such as volcanoes. Solfatara is a volcano located within the Campi Flegrei still active caldera, characterized by periodic episodes of extended, low-rate ground subsidence and uplift called bradyseism accompanied by intense seismic and geochemical activities. In particular, Solfatara is characterized by an impressive magnitude diffuse degassing, which underlines the relevance of fluid and heat transport at the crater and prompted further research to improve the understanding of the hydrothermal system feeding the surface phenomenon. In this line, an active seismic experiment, Repeated Induced Earthquake and Noise (RICEN) (EU Project MEDSUV), was carried out between September 2013 and November 2014 to provide time-varying high-resolution images of the structure of Solfatara. In this study we used the datasets provided by two different acquisition geometries: a) A 2D array cover an area of 90 x 115 m ^ 2 sampled by a regular grid of 240 vertical sensors deployed at the crater surface; b) two 1D orthogonal seismic arrays deployed along NE-SW and NW-SE directions crossing the 400 m crater surface. The arrays are sampled with a regular line of 240 receiver and 116 shots. We present 2D and 3D tomographic high-resolution P-wave velocity images obtained using two different tomographic methods adopting a multiscale strategy. The 3D image of the shallow (30-35 m) central part of Solfatara crater is performed through the iterative, linearized, tomographic inversion of the P-wave first arrival times. 2D P-wave velocity sections (60-70 m) are obtained using a non-linear travel-time tomography method based on the evaluation of a posteriori probability density with a Bayesian approach. The 3D retrieved images integrated with resistivity section and temperature and CO2 flux measurements , define the following characteristics: 1. A depth dependent P-wave velocity layer

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer... Consumer Protection (DSC), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, at the following address: 550 17th Street... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part...

  18. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  19. Three-Dimensional Seismic Structure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: An Investigation of Tectonic, Magmatic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Rainbow Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A.; Arai, Ryuta; Eason, Deborah E.; Canales, J. Pablo; Sohn, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    To test models of tectonic, magmatic, and hydrothermal processes along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges, we analyzed seismic refraction data from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge INtegrated Experiments at Rainbow (MARINER) seismic and geophysical mapping experiment. Centered at the Rainbow area of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36°14'N), this study examines a section of ridge with volcanically active segments and a relatively amagmatic ridge offset that hosts the ultramafic Rainbow massif and its high-temperature hydrothermal vent field. Tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle show segment-scale variations in crustal structure, thickness, and the crust-mantle transition, which forms a vertical gradient rather than a sharp boundary. There is little definitive evidence for large regions of sustained high temperatures and melt in the lower crust or upper mantle along the ridge axes, suggesting that melts rising from the mantle intrude as small intermittent magma bodies at crustal and subcrustal levels. The images reveal large rotated crustal blocks, which extend to mantle depths in some places, corresponding to off-axis normal fault locations. Low velocities cap the Rainbow massif, suggesting an extensive near-surface alteration zone due to low-temperature fluid-rock reactions. Within the interior of the massif, seismic images suggest a mixture of peridotite and gabbroic intrusions, with little serpentinization. Here diffuse microearthquake activity indicates a brittle deformation regime supporting a broad network of cracks. Beneath the Rainbow hydrothermal vent field, fluid circulation is largely driven by the heat of small cooling melt bodies intruded into the base of the massif and channeled by the crack network and shallow faults.

  20. Effect of process parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm biomass for bio-oil production and its life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yi Herng; Yusup, Suzana; Quitain, Armando T.; Tan, Raymond R.; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Lam, Hon Loong; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Water is used as a clean solvent to liquefy palm biomass to bio-oil. • The optimum liquefaction condition of oil palm biomass is 390 °C and 25 MPa. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber is 120 min. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of palm kernel shell is 240 min. • From the life cycle assessment, a net 2.29 kg CO 2 equivalent is generated per kg of bio-oil produced. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies on the effect of three process parameters; temperature, pressure and reaction time on the subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell. The effect of temperature (330–390 °C), pressure (25–35 MPa) and reaction time (30–240 min) on bio-oil yields were investigated using a Inconel batch reactor. The optimum liquefaction condition for empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell was at supercritical condition of water; 390 °C and 25 MPa. For the effect of reaction time, bio-oil from empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber attained maximum yields at 120 min, whereas bio-oil yield from palm kernel shell continued to increase at reaction time of 240 min. Lastly, a life cycle assessment based on a conceptual biomass hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production was constructed and presented

  1. Hydrothermal plume anomalies over the southwest Indian ridge: magmatic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Li, H.; Tao, C.; Ren, J.; Zhou, J.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Here we firstly reported the extensive survey results of the hydrothermal activity along the ultra-slow spreading southwest Indian ridge (SWIR). The study area is located at segment 27, between the Indomed and Gallieni transform faults, SWIR. The seismic crustal thickness reaches 9.5km in this segment (Li et al., 2015), which is much thicker than normal crustal. The anomaly thickened crust could be affected by the Crozet hotspot or highly focused melt delivery from the mantle. The Duanqiao hydrothermal field was reported at the ridge valley of the segment by Tao et al (2009). The Deep-towed Hydrothermal Detection System (DHDS) was used to collect information related with hydrothermal activity, like temperature, turbidity, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and seabed types. There are 15 survey lines at the interval of 2 to 3 km which are occupied about 1300 km2 in segment 27. After processing the raw data, including wiping out random noise points, 5-points moving average processing and subtracting the ambient, we got anomalous Nephelometric Turbidity Units values (ΔNTU). And dE/dt was used to identify the ORP anomalous as the raw data is easily influenced by electrode potentials drifting (Baker et al., 2016). According to the results of water column turbidity and ORP distributions, we confirmed three hydrothermal anomaly fields named A1, A2 and A3. The three fields are all located in the western part of the segment. The A1 field lies on the ridge valley, west side of Duanqiao field. The A2 and A3 field lie on the northern and southern of the ridge valley, respectively. We propose that recent magmatic activity probably focus on the western part of segment 27.And the extensive distribution of hydrothermal plume in the segment is the result of the discrete magma intrusion. References Baker E T, et al. How many vent fields? New estimates of vent field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of hydrothermal discharge locations. EPSL, 2016, 449:186-196. Li J

  2. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell with Conventionally Annealed and Post-Hydrothermally Treated Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Oxide TiO2 Derived from Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Yuwono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is one of the very promising alternative renewable energy sources to anticipate the declination in the fossil fuel reserves in the next few decades and to make use of the abundance of intensive sunlight energy in tropical countries like Indonesia. In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles of different nanocrystallinity was synthesized via sol−gel process with various water to inorganic precursor ratio (Rw of 0.85, 2.00 and 3.50 upon sol preparation, followed with subsequent drying, conventional annealing and post-hydrothermal treatments. The resulting nanoparticles were integrated into the DSSC prototype and sensitized with an organic dye made of the extract of red onion. The basic performance of the fabricated DSSC has been examined and correlated to the crystallite size and band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that post-hydrothermally treated TiO2 nanoparticles derived from sol of 2.00 Rw, with the most enhanced nanocrystalline size of 12.46 nm and the lowest band gap energy of 3.48 eV, showed the highest open circuit voltage (Voc of 69.33 mV.

  3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  4. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  5. Characterization of PLA parts made with AM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Roberto; Cavalcante, Bruno; Lavecchia, Fulvio

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of the presented work is to evaluate the thermal behavior of Poly-lactic acid (PLA) parts made with a Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process. By using a robust framework for the testing sequence of PLA parts, with the aim of establishing a standard testing cycle for the optimization of the part performance and quality. The research involves study the materials before and after 3D printing. Two biodegradable PLA polymers are investigated, characterized by different colors (one black and the other transparent). The study starts with the examination of each polymeric material and measurements of its main thermal properties.

  6. National Alliance for Advance Biofuels and Bio-Products Final Technical Report Addendum Hydrothermal Processing Pilot System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyler, James [Genifuel Corporation

    2015-12-22

    The main objective of the NAABB was to combine science, technology, and engineering expertise from across the nation to break down critical technical barriers to commercialization of algae-based biofuels. As a part of the consortium, Genifuel’s NAABB goals was to fabricate and demonstrate a pilot-scale system to convert algae into fuels. The purpose of this pilot system was to show that processes developed in the laboratory at bench-scale during the program could be successfully scaled up to a pre-commercial level, and thereby provide visibility into the ultimate viability and cost of algae biofuels. The pilot system has now been completed and tested, and this report documents what has been achieved.

  7. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C R; Casciotti, K A; Dutay, J-C; Heimbürger, L E; Jenkins, W J; Measures, C I; Mills, R A; Obata, H; Schlitzer, R; Tagliabue, A; Turner, D R; Whitby, H

    2016-11-28

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Convenient hydrothermal decomposition process for preparation of nanocrystalline mineral Cu3BiS3 and Pb1-xBi2x/3S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Junqing; Deng Bin; Wang Chunrui; Tang Kaibin; Qian Yitai

    2003-01-01

    Mineral nanocrystalline Cu 3 BiS 3 and Pb 1-x Bi 2x/3 S (or Bi 0.22 Pb 0.89 S 1.22 ) have been prepared at low synthetic temperature of 100-150 deg. C by convenient hydrothermal decomposition process. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and element analysis were used to characterize and measure the samples. The as-prepared Cu 3 BiS 3 sample consisted of whisker-like particles with an average size of 50x10 nm 2 and the Pb 1-x Bi 2x/3 S sample displayed aggregative particles with size in the range of 30-50 nm. Preliminary results showed that the prepared precursors, reaction temperature and time played a role in the formation of the final products. A possible reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly

  9. Petrologic and stable isotopic studies of a fossil hydrothermal system in ultramafic environment (Chenaillet ophicalcites, Western Alps, France): Processes of carbonate cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Romain; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Stephane, Schwartz; Suzanne, Picazo; German, Montes-Hernandez; Torsten, Vennemann

    2017-12-01

    The Late Jurassic Chenaillet ophiolitic complex (Western Alps) represents parts of an oceanic core-complex of the Liguria-Piemonte domain. A model for the origin and evolution of the Chenaillet ophicalcites based on textural and isotopic characterization is presented. The Chenaillet ophicalcites correspond to brecciated serpentinized peridotites that record seafloor shallow serpentinization at a minimum temperatures of 150 °C followed by authigenic carbonation. Carbonation starts with a network of micrometric to millimetric pre- or syn-clast formation calcite veins accompanied by a pervasive carbonation of residual olivine and serpentine inside the serpentinite mesh core. A matrix of small calcite (values that range between - 5‰ and + 0.4‰. The lower values were obtained for calcite within the serpentinite clasts. The δ18O (VSMOW) values have a range between + 11‰ and + 16‰ in carbonated clasts. The δ18O values in the matrix are fairly homogeneous with an average at + 12‰ and the late calcite veins have values between + 12.5 and + 15.5‰. These values suggest a relatively high temperature of formation for all the carbonates. Carbonates within clast are mainly characterized by a formation temperature in the range of 110 °C to 180 °C assuming a δ18O value of seawater of 0‰, the matrix forms at a temperature of ca. 165 °C. Late veins are characterized by a formation temperature ranging between 120and 155 °C. We propose a model where serpentinization is followed by discrete carbonation then brecciation and cementation as a consequence of continuous hydrothermal fluid circulation in the serpentinite basement. This is comparable to observations made in the stockwork of present-day long-lived oceanic hydrothermal systems.

  10. Radiogeochemical features of hydrothermal metasomatic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchev, E.V.; Ryabova, L.A.; Shatov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the most general peculiarities of uranium and thorium distributions in hydrothermal-metasomatic formations of three levels of substance formation: 1) in hydrothermal minerals; 2) in natural associations of these minerals (in the altered rocks, metasomatites, ores, etc.); 3) ordened series of zonally and in stage conjugated hydrothermal-metasomatic formations. Statistically stable recurrence of natural combinations of hydrothermal-metasomatic formations points out conjugation of their formation in the directed evolution in the general hydrothermal process. Series of metasomatic formations, the initial members of which are potassium metasomatites, mostly result in accumulation up to industrial concentrations of radioactive elements in final members of these formations. Development of midlow-temperature propylitic alterations in highly radiative rocks causes the same accumulation

  11. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  13. Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1988-06-01

    Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite clay are usually taken to have the form of conversion of this clay mineral to other species, such as illite, disregarding microstructural alteration and cementation caused by precipitation of silica and other compounds. The report is focussed on identification of the primary processes that are involved in such alteration, the release of silica and the microstructural changes associated with heating being of major interest. In the first test phase, Na montmorillonite in distilled water was investigated by XRD, rheology tests and electron microscopy after heating to 60-225 0 C for 0.01 to 1 year. The preliminary conclusions are that heating produces contraction of the particle network to form dense 'branches', the effect being most obvious at the highest temperature but of significance even at 60-100 0 C. Release of substantial amounts of silica gas been documented for temperatures exceeding 150 0 and precipitation of silica was observed on cooling after the hydrothermal testing under the closed conditions that prevailed throughout the tests. The precipitates, which appeared to be amorphous and probably consisted of hydrous silica gels, were concluded to have increased the mechanical strength and caused some brittleness, particularly of the dense clays. The nature of the silica release, which is assumed to be associated with beidellitization, may be closely related to an unstable state of a certain fraction of tetrahedral silica at heat-inducted transfer between two different crystal modes of montmorillonite. (orig.)

  14. Fabrication of Mineralized Collagen from Bovine Waste Materials by Hydrothermal Method as Promised Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Macossay, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to produce mineralized-collagen by hydrothermal process. A simple method not depending on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to isolate the mineralized-collagen fibers from bovine waste. The process of extraction involves the use of hydrothermal method...... mineral content in the individual fibers. The X-ray diffraction showed the crystalline feature of the obtained nano-compounds. The thermo gravimetric analysis was used to differentiate between the collagen and mineral parts of obtained product. Overall, the results generously indicated production of well...

  15. The impact of steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains on phytate hydrolysis and the distribution, speciation and bio-accessibility of iron and zinc elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Elien; De Brier, Niels; Spiers, Kathryn M; Ryan, Chris; Garrevoet, Jan; Falkenberg, Gerald; Goos, Peter; Smolders, Erik; Delcour, Jan A

    2018-10-30

    Chelation of iron and zinc in wheat as phytates lowers their bio-accessibility. Steeping and germination (15 °C, 120 h) lowered phytate content from 0.96% to only 0.81% of initial dry matter. A multifactorial experiment in which (steeped/germinated) wheat was subjected to different time (2-24 h), temperature (20-80 °C) and pH (2.0-8.0) conditions showed that hydrothermal processing of germinated (15 °C, 120 h) wheat at 50 °C and pH 3.8 for 24 h reduced phytate content by 95%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging showed that it indeed abolished chelation of iron to phytate. It also proved that iron was oxidized during steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing. It was further shown that zinc and iron bio-accessibility were respectively 3 and 5% in wheat and 27 and 37% in hydrothermally processed wheat. Thus, hydrothermal processing of (germinated) wheat paves the way for increasing elemental bio-accessibility in whole grain-based products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Controls on Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes at Yellowstone Supervolcano: The Wideband Magnetotelluric Component of an Integrated MT/Seismic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bennington, N. L.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Imamura, N.; Cronin, R. A.; Miller, D. J.; Hart, L.; Gurrola, R. M.; Neal, B. A.; Scholz, K.; Fry, B.; Carbonari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Previous seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) studies beneath Yellowstone (YS) have provided insight into the origin and migration of magmatic fluids within the volcanic system. However, important questions remain concerning the generation of magmatism at YS, the migration and storage of these magmatic fluids, as well as their relationships to hydrothermal expressions. Analysis of regional-scale EarthScope MT data collected previously suggests a relative absence of continuity in crustal partial melt accumulations directly beneath YS. This is in contrast to some seismic interpretations, although such long-period MT data have limited resolving power in the upper-to-mid crustal section. A wideband MT experiment was designed as a component of an integrated MT/seismic project to examine: the origin and location of magmatic fluids at upper mantle/lower crustal depths, the preferred path of migration for these magmatic fluids into the mid- to upper-crust, the resulting distribution of the magma reservoir, the composition of the magma reservoir, and implications for future volcanism at YS. A high-resolution wideband MT survey was carried out in the YS region in the summer of 2017, with more than forty-five wideband stations installed within and immediately surrounding the YS National Park boundary. These data provided nearly six decades of bandwidth ( 10-3 Hz -to- 103 Hz). Extraordinary permitting restrictions prevented us from using conventional installation methods at many of our sites, and an innovative "no-dig" subaerial method of wideband MT was developed and used successfully. Using these new data along with existing MT datasets, we are inverting for the 3D resistivity structure at upper crustal through upper mantle scales at YS. Complementary to this MT work, a joint inversion for the 3D crustal velocity structure is being carried out using both ambient noise and earthquake travel time data. Taken together, these data should better constrain the crustal velocity

  17. Ecologically safe process for sulfo-aluminizing of steel parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyatsuk L. D.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present technical solution refers to the field of electrophysical and electrochemical processing of parts, in particular, to the electroerosion alloying (EEA of the surfaces of steel parts with aluminum (aluminizing and sulfur (sulfidizing, and it can be used to treat the surfaces of heat-treated steel parts in order to increase their hardness, wear resistance, to prevent frictional seizure and improve the resistance to atmospheric corrosion. When aluminizing steel parts with the use of the method of electroerosion alloying (EEA by aluminum electrode at discharge energy Wp = 0.52–6.8 J and productivity of 1.0–3.0 cm2 / min, before the EEA process by an aluminum electrode, to the surface of the part to be aluminized, there is applied a consistency substance containing sulfur and aluminum powder, and thereafter, not having waited for drying of the consistency substance, the process of aluminizing by the EEL method with an aluminum electrode is carried out, and the consistency substance should have the aluminum powder content of not more than 56 %. There have been carried out metallographic and durametric analyses of the features of the surface layers made of carbon steels after simultaneous aluminizing and sulfidizing them by the EEA method. It is shown that the structure of the layer consists of three portions, namely, a “white” layer, a diffusion zone and a base metal. Such qualitative surface layer parameters as thickness, “white” layer and transition zone microhardness values, and also roughness increase with increasing discharge energy. The “white” layer continuity for all the investigated discharge energies of Wp = 0.52, 2.60 and 6.80 J is 100 %.

  18. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  19. Which Parts of a Clinical Process EPR Needs Special Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders; Simonsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Subject: Which parts of an electronic patient record (EPR) can initially form a stable standard solution to be used by all clinicians? And which parts of an EPR can we predict needs initial as well as on-going re-configuration to meet the needs from diverse medical specialties. Purpose: To analyze...... which screen types in a clinical process that can be standard configured and which are subject to initial as well as on-going re-configuration. Methods and results: A pilot-project implementing a fully functional clinical process EPR was configured and used at a neurological ward, replacing all paper...... records 24/7. The analysis characterizes the different types of screens, a total of 243 included in the EPR solution. All screens have been extracted from the application and analyzed for changes – in total 222 changes. Discussion and conclusion: Most screens (87%) are very stable. Few (13%) are subjected...

  20. Integrated Modeling of Process, Structures and Performance in Cast Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr

    This thesis deals with numerical simulations of gravity sand casting processes for the production of large steel parts. The entire manufacturing process is numerically modeled and evaluated, taking into consideration mould filling, solidification, solid state cooling and the subsequent stress build...... and to defects occurrence. In other words, it is desired to eliminate all of the potential casting defects and at the same time to maximize the casting yield. The numerical optimization algorithm then takes these objectives and searches for a set of the investigated process, design or material parameters e.......g. chill design, riser design, gating system design, etc., which would satisfy these objectives the most. The first step in the numerical casting process simulation is to analyze mould filling where the emphasis is put on the gating system design. There are still a lot of foundry specialists who ignore...

  1. Study on process of laser cladded nuclear valve parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunliang

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and performances of the Co-base alloy coatings that are formed by laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc surfacing on the nuclear valve-sealing surface have been studied and compared. The combination costs of laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc, surfacing have been analyzed and compared. The results showed that the laser cladding processing has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy cost, a little machining allowance, high rate of finished products and low combination cost, compared with plasma spurt welding processing and arc surfacing processing. The laser cladding technology can improve the qualities of nuclear valve parts and increase their service life. Therefore, the laser cladding processing is a new technology with developing potential

  2. Heavy lon Reactions The Elementary Processes, Parts I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, Ricardo A

    2004-01-01

    Combining elastic and inelastic processes with transfer reactions, this two-part volume explores how these events affect heavy ion collisions. Special attention is given to processes involving the transfer of two nucleons, which are specific for probing pairing correlations in nuclei. This novel treatment provides, together with the description of surface vibration and rotations, a unified picture of heavy ion reactions in terms of the elementary modes of nuclear excitation. Heavy Ion Reactions is essential reading for beginning graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

  3. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  4. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  5. Recursive estimation of the parts production process quality indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovich Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration is given to a mathematical representation for manufacturing of batch parts on a metal-cutting machine tool. Linear dimensions of machined parts are assumed to be the major quality indicator, deviation from these dimensions is determined by size setting of machine tool and ensemble of random factors. It is allowed to have absolutely precise pre-setting of machine tool, effects from setup level offsetting due to deformation in process equipment on the specified indicator are disregarded. Consideration is given to factors which affect the tool wear, with two definitions of tool wear being provided. Reasons for development of random error in processing, dependence of measurement results on error as well as distribution laws and some parameters of random values are provided. To evaluate deviation of size setting value in each cycle, it is proposed to apply a recursive algorithm in description of investigated dynamic discrete process in the space state. Kalman filter equations are used in description of process model by means of first-order difference equations. The algorithm of recursive estimation is implemented in the mathematical software Maple. Simulation results which prove effectiveness of algorithm application to investigate the given dynamic system are provided. Variants of algorithm application and opportunities of further research are proposed.

  6. Nanogeochemistry of hydrothermal magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Simon, Adam C.; Suvorova, Alexandra; Knipping, Jaayke; Roberts, Malcolm P.; Rubanov, Sergey; Dodd, Aaron; Saunders, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Magnetite from hydrothermal ore deposits can contain up to tens of thousands of parts per million (ppm) of elements such as Ti, Si, V, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, which tend to either structurally incorporate into growth and sector zones or form mineral micro- to nano-sized particles. Here, we report micro- to nano-structural and chemical data of hydrothermal magnetite from the Los Colorados iron oxide-apatite deposit in Chile, where magnetite displays both types of trace element incorporation. Three generations of magnetites (X-Z) were identified with concentrations of minor and trace elements that vary significantly: SiO2, from below detection limit (bdl) to 3.1 wt%; Al2O3, 0.3-2.3 wt%; CaO, bdl-0.9 wt%; MgO, 0.02-2.5 wt%; TiO2, 0.1-0.4 wt%; MnO, 0.04-0.2 wt%; Na2O, bdl-0.4 wt%; and K2O, bdl-0.4 wt%. An exception is V2O3, which is remarkably constant, ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 wt%. Six types of crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) were identified by means of transmission electron microscopy in the trace element-rich zones, which are each a few micrometres wide: (1) diopside, (2) clinoenstatite; (3) amphibole, (4) mica, (5) ulvöspinel, and (6) Ti-rich magnetite. In addition, Al-rich nanodomains, which contain 2-3 wt% of Al, occur within a single crystal of magnetite. The accumulation of NPs in the trace element-rich zones suggest that they form owing to supersaturation from a hydrothermal fluid, followed by entrapment during continuous growth of the magnetite surface. It is also concluded that mineral NPs promote exsolution of new phases from the mineral host, otherwise preserved as structurally bound trace elements. The presence of abundant mineral NPs in magnetite points to a complex incorporation of trace elements during growth, and provides a cautionary note on the interpretation of micron-scale chemical data of magnetite.

  7. Dual stable isotopes of CH 4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute both significant annual CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit methane in addition to other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) but the ultimate source of this methane flux has not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4(g) sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park to show that the predominant flux of CH4(g) is abiotic. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4(g) emitted from hot springs (-26.7 (±2.4) and -236.9 (±12.0) ‰, respectively) are not consistent with biotic (microbial or thermogenic) methane sources, but are within previously reported ranges for abiotic methane production. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C-dissolved inorganic C (DIC) also suggests that CO2 is a parent C source for the observed CH4(g). Moreover, CH4-CO2 isotopic geothermometry was used to estimate CH4(g) formation temperatures ranging from ~ 250 - 350°C, which is just below the temperature estimated for the hydrothermal reservoir and consistent with the hypothesis that subsurface, rock-water interactions are responsible for large methane fluxes from this volcanic system. An understanding of conditions leading to the abiotic production of methane and associated isotopic signatures are central to understanding the evolutionary history of deep carbon sources on Earth.

  8. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  9. Coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for energy valorization from model biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Kim, Andrew H; Usack, Joseph G; Tester, Jefferson W; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction converts food waste into oil and a carbon-rich hydrothermal aqueous phase. The hydrothermal aqueous phase may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Here, the feasibility of coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for the conversion of food waste into energy products was examined. A mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, representing food waste, underwent hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350°C. The anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was examined through conducting biochemical methane potential assays. The results demonstrate that the anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was lower when the temperature of hydrothermal processing increased. The chemical composition of the hydrothermal aqueous phase affected the anaerobic biodegradability. However, no inhibition of biodegradation was observed for most samples. Combining hydrothermal and anaerobic digestion may, therefore, yield a higher energetic return by converting the feedstock into oil and biomethane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  11. Characterization of additive manufacturing processes for polymer micro parts productions using direct light processing (DLP) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    The process capability of additive manufacturing (AM) for direct production of miniaturized polymer components with micro features is analyzed in this work. The consideration of the minimum printable feature size and obtainable tolerances of AM process is a critical step to establish a process...... chains for the production of parts with micro scale features. A specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) AM machine suitable for precision printing has been used. A test part is designed having features with different sizes and aspect ratios in order to evaluate the DLP AM machine capability...

  12. A process combining hydrothermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis for sewage sludge dewatering and co-production of biogas and biochar: Pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Guangwei; Wang, Yin

    2018-04-01

    To fully dispose of/utilize sewage sludge, a process combing hydrothermal pretreatment (HTPT), anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis was developed and tested at the pilot scale. First, the improvement in sludge dewaterability by HTPT at 180 °C for 30 min was verified, and the water content decreased from 85 to 33 wt% after filter pressing. Then, the resulting filtrate underwent continuous mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) AD in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for producing biogas to compensate for the energy required for HTPT. Meanwhile, the filter cake was pyrolyzed in a rotary furnace (600 ± 50 °C) to generate biochar, and heavy metals were well immobilized in the biochar. Finally, the material/energy balance made according to the pilot data showed that the proposed process was effective for full resource reuse of sewage sludge. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of Sn doping on structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoarrays prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manish Baboo; Sharma, Akash; Malaidurai, M.; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and Sn doped Zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by two step process: initially growth of seed layers by sol-gel spin coating technique and then zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal process using the precursors zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamine and tin chloride. The effects on the electrical, optical, mechanical and structural properties for various Sn concentrations were studied. The crystalline phase determination from X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that Sn doped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The variations of stress and strain with different doping concentration of Sn in ZnO nanorods were studied. The doping effect on electrical properties and optical bandgap is estimated by current voltage characteristics and absorbance spectra respectively. The surface morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which shows that the formation of hexagonal nanorods arrays with increasing Sn concentration. The calculated value of Young's modulus of elasticity (Y) for all the samples remains same. These results can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  15. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  16. Some genetic aspects of hydrothermal uranium deposits in the Bakulja granitoide (Serbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelenkovic, Rade

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of temperature and the way of hydrothermal fluids flow in function of both the degree of tectonized granitoid and the origin of solutions, and partly the processes accompanying mineralization expressed through physico-chemical, mineralogical and mechanical alterations of the mother rock. It has been concluded that heat energy exchange is in function of: 1) petrochemical characteristic of a rock the hydrothermal fluids flow through; 2) degree of tectonization of the surrounding mineralized rocks; 3) volume and morphology of the fissured-porous space; 4) form of uranium bonding in mineral carriers; 5) degree of uranium leaching in hydrothermal solutions; 6) the way of hydrothermal fluids flow, and 7) coefficient of heat exchange expressed by distribution of heat energy within a fluid-rock system. It has also been established that contraction of granite volume results from physico-chemical processes that take place within a granitoid-hydrothermal fluid system and its quantification has been carried out. (Author)

  17. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  18. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Project of research and development of regional consortium (Development of energy saving type manufacturing process of smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function utilizing microwave-hydrothermal process); 1999 nendo micro ha - suinetsuho wo riyoshita denjiyha kyushu kino wo yusuru smart zairyo no sho energy gata seizo process no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present research is aimed at developing an energy saving manufacturing process of a smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function in conventionally undeveloped bands as high as 30 MHz to 60 GHz. The process is composed of design, synthesis and forming of hybrid electromagnetic wave absorbing materials in which such magnetically permeable substance and conductive substance as ferrite is covered on fabrics having large dielectric loss through controlling the particle diameters and membrane thickness by using the microwave-hydrothermal process. The following researches have been performed: (1) development of smart material design and hybrid process technology, (2) evaluation on the electromagnetic wave absorbing function, (3) development of a manufacturing process for a smart forming material, and (4) development of a process for processing fabric material surface utilizing ocean resources. In Item (1), electromagnetic wave shielding function of 30 dB or higher was found provided in 200 MHz to 2 GHz bands. Calcium silicate and ferrite were manufactured by using the microwave-hydrothermal process, and calcium silicate was formed with energy being saved by using the hydrothermal curing process. In Item (2), TR17301A made by the Advanced Corporation was used to structure a system to evaluate the field in the vicinity of electric field and magnetic field. In Item (3), a ferrite forming material manufacturing process was developed. In Item (4), an attempt was carried out on forming ferrite by using reactions of nickel salt and iron salt. (NEDO)

  19. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  20. Hydrothermal alteration in Dumoga Barat, Bolaang Mongondow area North Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Harjanto' Sutanto; Sutarto; Achmad Subandrio; I Made Suasta; Juanito Salamat; Giri Hartono; Putu Suputra; I Gde Basten; Muhammad Fauzi; Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au) deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophylatic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly associated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by parallel and stock worked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein. (author)

  1. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature. (topical review)

  2. Mechanohydrogen processing as an element of hydrogen process of production of titanium alloy parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorova, Yu.B.; Il'in, A.A.; Levochkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The regularities of the effect of hydrogen on cutting machinability of titanium alloys are generalized. The main principles of mechanohydrogen treatment are founded. The effectiveness of titanium alloys machining with the use of reversible hydrogen alloying depends on hydrogen content, hydrogen pickup temperature and cutting modes. High-performance technological processes of manufacturing parts and constructions made of titanium alloys are proposed [ru

  3. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XIANGYANG, JIANG; MATEJICEK, JIRI; KULKARNI, ANAND; HERMAN, HERBERT; SAMPATH, SANJAY; GILMORE, DELWYN L.; NEISER A, RICHARD Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development

  4. Vitiligo: A part of a systemic autoimmune process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal KVT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Recent clinical and animal experimental studies postulate that the pathogenetic mechanisms of vitiligo could be of systemic origin as vitiligo is associated with ocular and auditory abnormalities as well as other autoimmune disorders.Hence, we studied genetic factors, systemic associations, ocular and auditory abnormalities of vitiligo. Methods: The study group included 150 new cases of various types of vitiligo. One hundred age- and sex-matched nonvitiligo cases were included as controls in the study. A complete family history was taken for all patients. Examination was carried out taking note of the type of vitiligo and approximate percentage of body surface involved. All relevant laboratory investigations, a thorough audiological examination including pure tone audiometry and a complete ophthalmologic examination were carried out in all patients and controls. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi square test. Results: Fifty-four vitiligo patients (36% had a family history of vitiligo. Anemia was present in 30 (20% vitiligo patients but only in five (5% controls, a difference that was statistically significant (c2 = 15.8, P < 0.001. Diabetes mellitus was present in 24 (16% vitiligo patients and only 2 (2% of controls (Chi square, c2 = 12.4, P < 0.001. Hypothyroidism and alopecia areata were present in 18 (12% and 11 (7.4% vitiligo patients respectively and none of the controls. Hypoacusis was seen in 30 (20% vitiligo patients and two (2% controls (c2 = 8.19, P < 0.005. Twenty-four vitiligo patients (16% and five controls (5% had specific ocular abnormalities like uveitis, iris and retinal pigmentary abnormalities (c2 = 7.39, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates statistically significant clinical evidence confirming that vitiligo is a part of systemic autoimmune process.

  5. Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    cycle cost ; and 4. Improve procurement and test of small quantities of parts and materials that meet system requirements. This document supersedes...the reliability of program PMP to reduce PMP failures at all levels of assembly and test 3. Reduce program lifecycle cost 4. Improve procurement and...part shall be procured in single lots directly from the manufacturer or its authorized franchised distributor. The contractor shall be able to

  6. The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

  7. 14 CFR 21.305 - Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and appliances. 21.305 Section 21.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., Parts, Processes, and Appliances § 21.305 Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances. Whenever a material, part, process, or appliance is required to be approved under this chapter, it may be...

  8. Magmatic Hydrothermal Fluids: Experimental Constraints on the Role of Magmatic Sulfide Crystallization and Other Early Magmatic Processes in Moderating the Metal Content of Ore-Forming Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, P. M.; Candela, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    It has been recognized for some time that sulfide phases, although common in intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks, are not as common in their plutonic equivalents. That sulfide crystallization, or the lack thereof, is important in the protracted magmatic history of porphyry Cu and related systems is supported by the work of e.g., Rowins (2000). Candela and Holland (1986) suggested that sulfide crystallization could moderate the ore metal concentrations in porphyry environments. Experiments show clearly that Au and Cu can partition into Cl-bearing vapor and brine. This effect can be enhanced by S (Simon, this session). However, in some instances enhances this effect. That is, the partitioning of Au and Cu into vapor+brine is highly efficient (e.g. Simon et al. 2003; Frank et al 2003). This suggests that if sulfides do not sequester ore metals early during the history of a magma body from the melt, they will partition strongly into the volatile phases. Whether volatile release occurs in the porphyry ore environment, or at deeper levels upon magma rise, is a yet unsolved question. Little is known about deep release of volatiles (during magma transport at lower- to mid-crustal levels). Saturation of melts with a CO2-bearing fluid could happen at levels much deeper than those typical of ore formation. CO2 is released preferentially, so a high CO2 concentration in fluids in the porphyry ore environment argues against deep fluid release. Of course, this depends upon the specific processes of crystallization and fluid release, which may be complex. Our experiments on sulfides have concentrated on pyrrhotite and Iss. Our partitioning data for Po/melt exhibit wide variations from metal to metal: Cu (2600); Co (170); Au (140); Ni (100); Bi, Zn and Mn (2). These results suggest that crystallization of Po can contribute to variable ore metal ratios (e.g. Cu/Au). Other sulfides behave differently. If a melt is Iss (Cpy) saturated, then Cu will be buffered at a high value, and Au

  9. A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11...

  10. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  11. Gram-scale synthesis of highly crystalline, 0-D and 1-D SnO2 nanostructures through surfactant-free hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Umapada; Pal, Mou; Sánchez Zeferino, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of highly crystalline SnO 2 nanoparticle and nanorod structures with average diameters well within quantum confinement limit (3.5−6.4 nm), through surfactant-free hydrothermal synthesis. The size and shape of the nanostructures could be controlled by controlling the pH (4.5–13.0) of the reaction mixture and the temperature of hydrothermal treatment. Probable mechanisms for the variation of particle size and growth of one-dimensional structures are presented considering the size-dependent crystal solubility at lower pH values of the reaction solution and Ostwald ripening of the quasi-spherical nanoparticles at higher pH values, respectively. Variation of optical band gap energy and hence the effects of quantum confinement in the nanostructures have been studied.

  12. Structured settlement annuities, part 1: overview and the underwriting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C J; Singer, R B

    2000-01-01

    Structured settlement underwriting is the underwriting of medically impaired lives for the purchase of an annuity to fund the settlement. Other than risk assessment, structured settlement (SS) underwriting has little in common with traditional life insurance underwriting. Most noteworthy of these differences is the relative lack of actuarial data on which to base decisions about mortality and the necessity for prospective thinking about risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to provide a foundation for understanding the structured settlement business and to contrast the underwriting of structured settlements with that of traditional life insurance. This is the first part of a two-part article on SS annuities. Part 2 deals with the mortality experience in SS annuitants and the life-table methodology used to calculate life expectancy for annuitants at increased mortality risk.

  13. Robust Mesoporous CoMo/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts from Cyclodextrin-Based Supramolecular Assemblies for Hydrothermal Processing of Microalgae: Effect of the Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleta, Rudina; Schiavo, Benedetto; Corsaro, Natale; Costa, Paula; Giaconia, Alberto; Interrante, Leonardo; Monflier, Eric; Pipitone, Giuseppe; Ponchel, Anne; Sau, Salvatore; Scialdone, Onofrio; Tilloy, Sébastien; Galia, Alessandro

    2018-04-18

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for the production of biocrude oil from microalgae. Although this catalyst-free technology is efficient under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions, the biocrude yield and quality can be further improved by using heterogeneous catalysts. The design of robust catalysts that preserve their performance under hydrothermal conditions will be therefore very important in the development of biorefinery technologies. In this work, we describe two different synthetic routes (i.e., impregnation and cyclodextrin-assisted one-pot colloidal approach), for the preparation in aqueous phase of six high surface area CoMo/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts. Catalytic tests performed on the HTL of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalga indicate that solids prepared by the one-pot colloidal approach show higher hydrothermal stability and enhanced biocrude yield with respect to the catalyst-free test. The positive effect of the substitution of the block copolymer Tetronic T90R4 for Pluronic F127 in the preparation procedure was evidenced by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N 2 -adsorption-desorption, and H 2 -temperature-programmed reduction measurements and confirmed by the higher quality of the obtained biocrude, which exhibited lower oxygen content and higher-energy recovery equal to 62.5% of the initial biomass.

  14. Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Jaayke L.; Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur P.; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Holtz, François; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are an important source of iron and other elements (e.g., REE, P, U, Ag and Co) vital to modern society. However, their formation, including the namesake Kiruna-type IOA deposit (Sweden), remains controversial. Working hypotheses include a purely magmatic origin involving separation of an Fe-, P-rich, volatile-rich oxide melt from a Si-rich silicate melt, and precipitation of magnetite from an aqueous ore fluid, which is either of magmatic-hydrothermal or non-magmatic surface or metamorphic origin. In this study, we focus on the geochemistry of magnetite from the Cretaceous Kiruna-type Los Colorados IOA deposit (∼350 Mt Fe) located in the northern Chilean Iron Belt. Los Colorados has experienced minimal hydrothermal alteration that commonly obscures primary features in IOA deposits. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) transects and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectrometry mapping demonstrate distinct chemical zoning in magnetite grains, wherein cores are enriched in Ti, Al, Mn and Mg. The concentrations of these trace elements in magnetite cores are consistent with igneous magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt, whereas magnetite rims show a pronounced depletion in these elements, consistent with magnetite grown from an Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. Further, magnetite grains contain polycrystalline inclusions that re-homogenize at magmatic temperatures (>850 °C). Smaller inclusions (500 ppm) concentrations.

  15. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [fr

  16. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the processes that take place at the beginning of each duty of dispatcher at uncontrolled aerodromes.Thanks to modeling and analysis of these processes, there is a possible to find critical ones and implement precise targeted safety measures.

  19. Processing arrangements for constructing representations of parts of bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method is described for processing the data signals obtained during computerised tomography. The technique is an extension of the back projection method, but in the present embodiment is applied to fan shaped X-ray beams. Block diagrammatic circuits are given and algorithms are presented to describe the signal processing in terms of matrix manipulation. (U.K.)

  20. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Dosimetry as an integral part of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Different connections between high-dose dosimetry and radiation processing are discussed. Radiation processing cannot be performed without proper dosimetry. Accurate high dose and high dose rate dosimetry exhibits several aspects: first of all it is the preservation of the quality of the product, then fulfillment of legal aspects and last but not the least the safety of processing. Further, seldom discussed topics are as follow: dosimetric problems occurring with double-side EB irradiations, discussed in connection with the deposition of electric charge during electron beam irradiation. Although dosimetry for basic research and for medical purposes are treated here only shortly, some conclusions reached from these fields are considered in dosimetry for radiation processing. High-dose dosimetry of radiation has become a separate field, with many papers published every year, but applied dosimetric projects are usually initiated by a necessity of particular application. (author)

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage

  3. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS SIMULATOR ASP-SIM, PART-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The design of activated process is usually done manually; this is often difficult and susceptible to errors ... Table 1: Typical domestic wastewater characterization parameters for CMAS design. ..... g = 9.81: molarmass = 28.97: zb = 500: za = 0: r.

  4. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 3: Models for calculation of processes and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-01-15

    nature. They are coupled to other processes and affected by various restrictions such as limited access to water and transient interaction with dissolved species. This makes the issue of coupled models very important but almost all the models and codes that are being used in predicting the behaviour of buffers and backfills in a repository are simplified and incomplete with respect to the hydrothermal processes. This is because of the lack of understanding of the involved physico-chemical mechanisms, for which consideration of the behaviour of the clay on the microstructural level is required. Chapter 3 deals with microstructural issues focusing on particle interaction and void distribution in buffers and backfills with special respect to swelling pressure and permeation of fluids and gas. Chapter 4 deals with heat transport in fully and partly water saturated buffer clays. It includes mathematical formulation of empirically deduced material models of heat conductivity and gives examples of how this quantity can be evaluated from laboratory experiments. Chapter 5 deals with flow of water in liquid and vapour form in fully and partly water saturated buffers and backfills. The presented material models are intended for practical use and imply that potential theory in the form of Navier/Stoke's laws for analytical solution or numerical methods are valid. Chapter 6 gives the basis of currently used material models for anion and cation diffusion through smectitic soil. Complexation may cause considerable deviation from theoretically derived migration rates and only diffusive transport of species that do not undergo chemical reactions is treated here. Focus is on outlining the formulation of theoretical models for evaluation of diffusion coefficients from controlled experiments. As for water transport, the solution of practical 2 and 3D problems is made by use of potential theory, applying analytical or numerical techniques, which are not treated here. Chapter 7 deals

  5. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  6. Development of industry processes simulators. Part III (Continuous casting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Morales, R.; Morales, A. J.; Ramos, A.; Solorio, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system of thermal behaviour described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of strictures of casting step by step. (Author). 12 refs

  7. Sonar waveforms for reverberation rejection, Part IV: Adaptive processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Deruaz, L.; Been, R.; Doisy, Y.; Beerens, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    For littoral ASW, reverberation is a big problem and rejection of reverberation is of utmost importance. The influence of the transmitted signal on the signal to reverberation ratio has been presented in three preceding papers. In this paper, the influence of improved signal processing on the

  8. Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

  9. Sandia solidification process: consolidation and characterization. Part I. Consolidation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1978-05-01

    The consolidation behavior of a complex polycrystalline ceramic nuclear waste form composed of titanates, zeolite, and metallic silicon was studied. Initial solidification takes place by an ion exchange process. The resulting powder exhibits a large surface area, approximately 350 m 2 /g, and several decomposition, crystallization and phase change reactions from room temperature to 1100 0 C. In spite of the large surface area, consolidation by cold pressing and atmospheric sintering to 1100 0 C was not satisfactory. Vacuum hot pressing was found to produce fully dense pellets (less than 1% residual porosity) under very mild conditions, 6.9 MPa (1100 psi) and 1100 0 C. The dominant densification mechanism was viscous flow. Under less than optimum hot pressing conditions, three stages of densification were observed. Initial densification took place by particle rearrangement which was described with a viscous flow model. Second stage densification occurred by a solution-precipitation process controlled by a phase boundary dissolution reaction. In several cases, a third, final densification stage was observed. Detailed studies describe the effects of heating rate, processing temperature, pressure, residence time, atmosphere, composition, heat treatment, and the addition of consolidation aids on the densification behavior. In addition, fully radioactive high level mixed fission product titanate/waste pellets (1.27 cm diameter) were hot pressed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of such a process in a remotely operated hot cell. High density uniform pellets were obtained

  10. Writing for publication Part II--The writing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L K

    1999-01-01

    You have selected a topic, gathered resources, and identified your target audience. The next step is to begin to write and organize your ideas. Initiating the actual writing process can be intimidating, especially for a novice author. This portion of the writing for publication series focuses on helping the writer to organize ideas and get started.

  11. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    Solid state sintering transforms particle compact to a physically robust and dense polycrystalline monolith driven by reduction of surface energy and curvature. Since bulk diffusion is required for neck formation and pore elimination, sintering temperature about 2/3 of melting point is needed. It thus places limitations for materials synthesis and integration, and contributes to significant energy consumption in ceramic processing. Furthermore, since surface transport requires lower temperature than bulk processes, grain growth is often rapid and can be undesired for physical properties. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed including Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS), Hot Pressing (HP) and Field Assisted Sintering Technique (FAST), which introduce either viscous melt, external pressure or electric field to speed up densification rates at lower temperature. However, because of their inherent reliability on bulk diffusion, temperatures required are often too high for integrating polymers and non-noble metals. Reduction of sintering temperature below 400 °C would require a different densification mechanism that is based on surface transport with external forces to drive volume shrinkage. Densification method combining uniaxial pressure and solution under hydrothermal condition was first demonstrated by Kanahara's group at Kochi University in 1986 and was brought to our attention by the work of Kahari, etc, from University of Oulu on densification of Li2MoO 4 in 2015. This relatively new process showed promising ultra-low densification temperature below 300 °C, however little was known about its fundamental mechanism and scope of applications, which became the main focus of this dissertation. In this work, a uniaxial hydraulic press, a standard stainless steel 1/2 inch diameter die with heating band were utilized in densifying metal oxides. Applied pressure and sintering temperature were between 100 MPa and 700 MPa and from room temperature to 300

  12. Supercritical Production of Nanoparticles - Part I: The SSEC Process - Part II: Characterization of Nanopartic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    with the crystallite size. Therefore special interest is being devoted to investigating these changes by developing new synthesis and characterizing methods. Wet chemical and gas phase syntheses are among the number of synthesis techniques that have been developed for nanoparticle formation. The sol-gel technique...... is the most broadly applied wet chemical process and it can be used for the production of nanosized materials in the formof particles or coatings for a wide range of materials. However, conventional sol-gel techniques have a number of drawbacks. The process maintains long reaction times and requires post....... The work presented in this thesis addresses the problems related to the conventional sol-gel techniques by using supercritical CO2 as the reaction media. Supercritical fluids exhibit gas like mass transfer properties and liquid like densities which are both particularly attractive to the sol-gel process...

  13. Patterning of PMMA microfluidic parts using screen printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari Kaleibar, Aminreza; Rahbar, Mona; Haiducu, Marius; Parameswaran, Ash M.

    2010-02-01

    An inexpensive and rapid micro-fabrication process for producing PMMA microfluidic components has been presented. Our proposed technique takes advantages of commercially available economical technologies such as the silk screen printing and UV patterning of PMMA substrates to produce the microfluidic components. As a demonstration of our proposed technique, we had utilized a homemade deep-UV source, λ=254nm, a silk screen mask made using a local screen-printing shop and Isopropyl alcohol - water mixture (IPA-water) as developer to quickly define the microfluidic patterns. The prototyped devices were successfully bonded, sealed, and the device functionality tested and demonstrated. The screen printing based technique can produce microfluidic channels as small as 50 micrometers quite easily, making this technique the most cost-effective, fairly high precision and at the same time an ultra economical plastic microfluidic components fabrication process reported to date.

  14. Defense Waste Processing Facility radioactive operations -- Part 2, Glass making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.T.; Rueter, K.J.; Ray, J.W.; Hodoh, O.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling

  15. Hydrothermal activity, functional diversity and chemoautotrophy are major drivers of seafloor carbon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James B; Woulds, Clare; Oevelen, Dick van

    2017-09-20

    Hydrothermal vents are highly dynamic ecosystems and are unusually energy rich in the deep-sea. In situ hydrothermal-based productivity combined with sinking photosynthetic organic matter in a soft-sediment setting creates geochemically diverse environments, which remain poorly studied. Here, we use comprehensive set of new and existing field observations to develop a quantitative ecosystem model of a deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem from the most southerly hydrothermal vent system known. We find evidence of chemosynthetic production supplementing the metazoan food web both at vent sites and elsewhere in the Bransfield Strait. Endosymbiont-bearing fauna were very important in supporting the transfer of chemosynthetic carbon into the food web, particularly to higher trophic levels. Chemosynthetic production occurred at all sites to varying degrees but was generally only a small component of the total organic matter inputs to the food web, even in the most hydrothermally active areas, owing in part to a low and patchy density of vent-endemic fauna. Differences between relative abundance of faunal functional groups, resulting from environmental variability, were clear drivers of differences in biogeochemical cycling and resulted in substantially different carbon processing patterns between habitats.

  16. All part of the process[3D plant modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, D.

    2002-12-01

    The second coming of EPIC contracts, a renewed emphasis on life-of-field costs for offshore developments, and the deepwater FPSO market's fast approaching construction boom are together demanding fresh thinking - and software systems - from 3D plant modelling and information specialists. Based on its own calculations, Intergraph's Process, Power and Offshore (PPO) division states that it holds down some 35-40% of the market for 3D plant modelling and information management in the offshore oil and gas industry. This article reviews their success, how they have to preserve their hard won share of the market, due to the changeable nature of that market, marked recently by the fundamental shifts in EPIC contract structure, life-of-field costs focuses, and, not least, the rise of FPSO-driven production concepts. Intergraph PPO's integrated product portfolio, which brings together plant design modelling systems and plant information management systems, was founded on its SmartPlant Foundation data warehouse hub. It has maintained its project data integrity o some of the largest and most complex offshore developments, including Phillips Petroleum's Bayu-Undan and Statoil Asgard fields. Some 70% of Intergraph PPO's clients have been contractors, and while the company aims to continue to build on the strength of these relationships, it also recognises that growing its client base of owner-operators will create some 'real synergies' in the process.

  17. The Sierra Pena Blanca (Mexico) and the Meseta Los Frailes (Bolivia): the uranium concentration mechanisms in volcanic environment during hydrothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, J.L.; Aniel, B.; Poty, B.

    1987-01-01

    Tertiary felsic volcanics of the Sierra Pena Blanca in Mexico host potentially economic uranium deposits, and of Meseta Los Frailes in Bolivia contain interesting U anomalies but no significant deposits. A comparative study of the two uranium districts reveals differences that may explain the different degrees of U concentration. The host ignimbrite in Mexico, namely the Nopal Formation dated at 44 Myr. ago, is potassic alkaline rhyolite which is poorly compacted and contains phenocrysts of quartz, orthoclase, ilmenite and magnetite, totalling 30% of the rock. Vapour phase crystallization is well developed in the Mexican tuff, and has led to a primary concentration of labile U not tied up in refractory accessory minerals, as shown by fission-track studies. The Bolivian tuffs lack such vapour phase primary concentration of U. Subsequent hydrothermal alteration, in particular kaolinization is intense in the Mexican district, but is relatively less intense in the Bolivian one. It is postulated that an intense hydrothermal activity, probably of prolonged duration, in rocks displaying primary enrichment of labile U, is essential to form volcanogenic U deposits of the type found in Mexico. 26 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 plates; 3 tabs

  18. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Seaweed For Advanced Biochar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoso Tirto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii is a potential source of biomaterialIts high moisture content makes it suitable for hydrothermal conversion process since it doesn’t need to utilize dry feedstock. The aim of this study is to convert the biomass of red seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii into alternative fuels and high value biomaterials using hydrothermal process. The hydrothermal process seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii produce two types of products, liquid product and char (solid. This research focus on the char product. The char from hydrothermal process was then activated using the tubular furnace. The yield for activated char is 7.5 % and results of SEM analysis of activated char showed the formation of allotropes carbon include carbon micro spheres, carbon micro fibres and graphene. These structures have encountered application in a wide range of technological fields, such as adsorption, catalysis, hydrogen storage or electronics.

  19. Origin of Abiotic Methane in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, J. S.; German, C. R.; Grozeva, N. G.; Klein, F.; McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Reeves, E. P.; Wang, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    Results of recent investigations into the chemical and isotopic composition of actively venting submarine hydrothermal fluids and volatile species trapped in fluid inclusions will be discussed in the context of processes responsible for abiotic CH4 formation.

  20. Study on the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Zhanning Pei; Jinsheng Gao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal was carried out under 0.1 MPa (initial pressure) nitrogen and different temperature. Effects of hydrothermal treatment on the structure and the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal were investigated by the ultimate and proximate analyses, the FTIR measurements and TG analyses of hydrothermally treated coals, and the characterizations of extraction and swelling properties, and the batch hydro-liquefaction of treated coal were also carried out. The results indicate that hydrothermal treatment above 200{sup o}C can increase the hydrogen content of treated coal and decrease the yield of volatiles and the content of ash, especially a large amount of CO and CH{sub 4} are found in gas products obtained by the hydrothermal treatment above 250{sup o}C. Hydrothermal treatment disrupts the weak covalent bond such as ether, ester and side-chain substituent by hydrolysis and pyrolysis, and changes the distribution of H-bond in coal. The swelling ratio and the Soxhlet extraction yield of treated coal decrease with the increase of hydrothermal treatment temperature. The conversion of liquefaction and the yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction at ambient temperature are enhanced by hydrothermal treatment at 300{sup o}C. Therefore hydrogen donation reactions and the rupture of non-covalent bond and weak covalent bonds present in the process of hydrothermal treatment resulting in the changes of structure and reactivity of Shenhua coal. The results show that the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment between 250{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Excursions at the places of mining and processing ore resources in Slovakia. The second part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenak, K.

    2011-01-01

    The second part of this text-book brings a complex and comprehensive view on the places of mining and processing of ore resources in the Slovak Republic. Environmental impact of mining and processing of the ores is also presented.

  2. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  3. Voltammetric Investigation Of Hydrothermal Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eKleint

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in iron (Fe compared to ambient seawater, and organic ligands may play a role in facilitating the transport of some hydrothermal Fe into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is a limiting micronutrient for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. We have investigated the concentration and speciation of Fe in several vent fluid and plume samples from the Nifonea vent field, Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc, South Pacific Ocean using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV with salicylaldoxime (SA as the artificial ligand. Our results for total dissolved Fe (dFe in the buoyant hydrothermal plume samples showed concentrations up to 3.86 µM dFe with only a small fraction between 1.1% and 11.8% being chemically labile. Iron binding ligand concentrations ([L] were found in µM level with strong conditional stability constants up to log K[L],Fe3+ of 22.9. Within the non-buoyant hydrothermal plume above the Nifonea vent field, up to 84.7% of the available Fe is chemically labile and [L] concentrations up to 97 nM were measured. [L] was consistently in excess of Felab, indicating that all available Fe is being complexed, which in combination with high Felab values in the non-buoyant plume, signifies that a high fraction of hydrothermal dFe is potentially being transported away from the plume into the surrounding waters, contributing to the global oceanic Fe budget.

  4. Synthesis of single-crystal PbS nanorods via a simple hydrothermal process using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer as a structure-directing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Junfu; Nie Chageng; Liang Jinxia; Sun Lan; Xie Zhaoxiong; Wu Qi; Lin Changjian

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystal PbS nanorods were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal route using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (P123) as a structure-directing agent. The XRD pattern indicates that the crystal structure of the nanorods is face-centre-cubic rocksalt. A SEM image shows that the nanorods have a diameter of 40-70 nm and a length of 200-600 nm, and both tips exhibit taper-like structures. HRTEM and SAED images reveal the single-crystalline nature of the nanorods with the growth along the (111) direction. The experimental results indicated that the P123 concentration and reaction temperature played important roles in controlling the morphology of the PbS nanostructures. The optical property of PbS nanorods was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and the band structure was calculated by the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory.

  5. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts — (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition — element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) Ag–Pb–Zn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu–(Au)–(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United

  6. Lithological and Hydrothermal Alteration Mapping of Epithermal, Porphyry and Tourmaline Breccia Districts in the Argentine Andes Using ASTER Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Testa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of interest is located on the eastern flank of the Andean Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina. The 3600 km2 area is characterized by Siluro-Devonian to Neogene sedimentary and igneous rocks and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Epithermal, porphyry-related, and magmatic-hydrothermal breccia-hosted ore deposits, common in this part of the Frontal Cordillera, are associated with various types of hydrothermal alteration assemblages. Kaolinite – alunite-rich argillic, quartz – illite-rich phyllic, epidote – chlorite – calcite-rich propylitic and silicic are the most common hydrothermal alteration assemblages in the study area. VNIR, SWIR and TIR ASTER data were used to characterize geological features on a portion of the Frontal Cordillera. Red-green-blue band combinations, band ratios, logical operations, mineral indices and principal component analysis were applied to successfully identify rock types and hydrothermal alteration zones in the study area. These techniques were used to enhance geological features to contrast different lithologies and zones with high concentrations of argillic, phyllic, propylitic alteration mineral assemblages and silicic altered rocks. Alteration minerals detected with portable short-wave infrared spectrometry in hand specimens confirmed the capability of ASTER to identify hydrothermal alteration assemblages. The results from field control areas confirmed the presence of those minerals in the areas classified by ASTER processing techniques and allowed mapping the same mineralogy where pixels had similar information. The current study proved ASTER processing techniques to be valuable mapping tools for geological reconnaissance of a large area of the Argentinean Frontal Cordillera, providing preliminary lithologic and hydrothermal alteration maps that are accurate as well as cost and time effective.

  7. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  8. Iron isotope fractionation during hydrothermal ore deposition and alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Gregor; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Wagner, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Iron isotopes fractionate during hydrothermal processes. Therefore, the Fe isotope composition of ore-forming minerals characterizes either iron sources or fluid histories. The former potentially serves to distinguish between sedimentary, magmatic or metamorphic iron sources, and the latter allows the reconstruction of precipitation and redox processes. These processes take place during ore formation or alteration. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the suitability of this new isotope method as a probe of ore-related processes. For this purpose 51 samples of iron ores and iron mineral separates from the Schwarzwald region, southwest Germany, were analyzed for their iron isotope composition using multicollector ICP-MS. Further, the ore-forming and ore-altering processes were quantitatively modeled using reaction path calculations. The Schwarzwald mining district hosts mineralizations that formed discontinuously over almost 300 Ma of hydrothermal activity. Primary hematite, siderite and sulfides formed from mixing of meteoric fluids with deeper crustal brines. Later, these minerals were partly dissolved and oxidized, and secondary hematite, goethite and iron arsenates were precipitated. Two types of alteration products formed: (1) primary and high-temperature secondary Fe minerals formed between 120 and 300 °C, and (2) low-temperature secondary Fe minerals formed under supergene conditions (illustrates the potential of the new technique in deciphering ore formation and alteration processes. Isotope ratios are strongly dependent on and highly characteristic of fluid and precipitation histories. Therefore, they are less suitable to provide information on Fe sources. However, it will be possible to unravel the physico-chemical processes leading to the formation, dissolution and redeposition of ores in great detail.

  9. The creation of process redesigns by selecting, transforming and replacing process parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2008-01-01

    For companies to sustain competitive advantages, it is required to redesign and improve business processes continuously by monitoring and analyzing process enactment results. Furthermore, organizational structures must be redesigned according to the changes in business processes. However, there are

  10. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2006-12-01

    and concentration data are consistent with the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of Mg during the weathering and already similar to the mechanisms found in soil (Tipper et al., 2006a, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.033). The fractionation factor (α) is around 1.001 for the high-T° fluids, while the low temperature fluids, samples off axis during the ODP Leg 168 (Est of Juan de Fuca Ridge), requires a more variable and higher α of 1.001 to 1.003. At low temperature, the α is somehow greater that the estimate made from the soil formation but the T-α relationship is consistent with the expected behaviour for an equilibrium isotopic fractionation. However, such a large α implies that the significant flux of the low-T component of the hydrothermal circulation required to fulfil the heat budget of the oceanic lithosphere would buffer any isotopic mass balance calculation of the oceanic Mg to an unsustainable value (e.g. Tipper et al., 2006b, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.037). Therefore, either the low-T hydrothermal circulation leaves the Mg unaffected, or the off axis fluids from the ODP Leg 168 are not representative of the global low-T hydrothermal circulation. Given that Mg gets significantly re-incorporated in soil processes, we favour the later hypothesis and propose that a significant part of the low-T hydrothermal circulation is occurring around relief of the oceanic floor, including seamounts, with a different residence-time and chemistry than what have been described in the ODP Leg 168 setting.

  11. Hydrothermal alterations as natural analogues of radionuclide migration in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piantone, P.

    1989-01-01

    The document is the final report of the project Hydrothermal alteration systems as analogues of nuclear waste repositories in granitic rocks which was the subject of contract n 0 F1 1 W/0072-F (CD) performed at shared cost between the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Commission of the European Communities as part of the MIRAGE programme. This study is the continuation of a preliminary study made by BRGM in 1986 and which concerned the same programme. The data given in this report were obtained from the study of the infilling and hydrothermalized walls of a mineralized vein located at Fombillou, Lot Department, in the French Massif Central. A satisfactory model of the processes generated by hydrothermal alteration then by climatic weathering such as formation of new minerals, flow of elements and variations in volume, was thus built. The mobility of elements displaying physical and chemical properties similar to those of radionuclides present in high-level radioactive waste was studied. A preliminary thermodynamic simulation of mineral transformations and transfers of matter during hydrothermal alteration was performed using the calculation code CEQCSY (Chemical EQuilibrium in Complex SYstem). This simulation is based on the values of the main physical and chemical parameters deduced from the analysis of the natural system. On the basis of the results obtained from Fombillou, an appraisal was made of the response of the granitic environment which has been disturbed by a hydrothermal system produced by heat emitted by the storage of high-level radio-active waste as well as its potential capacities of retention in case of possible leakage

  12. Hydrothermal chimneys and Sulphide mineralised breccias from the Kolbeinsey and the Mohns Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, T. E.; Bjerkgård, T.; Kelly, D.; Thorseth, I.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal ventsite was discovered at the Kolbeinsey Ridge, (68^o56'N,17^o12'W) during the SUBMAR-99 cruise. The field is located in the neovolcanic sone at the flat top of a circular volcano at 900 m water depth. Two major fields contain about 30 chimneys. The top of one chimney was collected for further research. The mineralogy of the chimney is dominated by sphalerite, silica and barite, with minor amounts of galena and pyrrhotite, an assemblage which suggest a formation temperature white smokers [1]. The outer part of the chimney is enriched in LREE and shows a large positive Eu-anomaly compared to the inner parts of the chimney. Variation in Ce-anomaly reflects varying degrees of seawater infiltration during mineral precipitation. The first formed minerals in the lower part, and the outer part of the chimney appears to contain the most seawater-affected minerals. The Ag content of sphalerite may be as high as 1 wt%, but is restricted to small domains especially around fluid channels. A zonation in the Fe/Zn ratio of sphalerite is observed across fluid channels, suggesting variations in the fluid composition with time. The Pb-content of the chimney is extremely high, with up to 10 wt% in some sphalerite grains, and the bulk values are as high as 10 000 ppm. These high values suggest that sediments may have been present in the reaction zone of this hydrothermal system. Sulphide mineralised breccias were recovered by dredging the northern fault wall of the Mohns Ridge at 72^o39,33'N, 02^o40,87'E, during the SUBMAR-2000 cruise. The breccias exhibit several progressive stages of hydrothermal alteration: 1) the least altered parts are composed of partly altered basalt clasts and some chlorite, 2) more strongly altered samples mainly consist of quarts in a chlorite matrix, 3) and the most heavily mineralised parts contain secondary quarts and chalcopyrite. The final hydrothermal stage recorded by the breccias involved oxidation of chalcopyrite and

  13. Thallium isotope variations in seawater and hydrogenetic, diagenetic, and hydrothermal ferromanganese deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkamper, M.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Porcelli, D.; Halliday, A.; Ingri, J.; Liebetrau, V.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented for the first in-depth investigation of TI isotope variations in marine materials. The TI isotopic measurements were conducted by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for a comprehensive suite of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts, diagenetic Fe-Mn nodules, hydrothermal manganese deposits and seawater samples. The natural variability of TI isotope compositions in these samples exceeds the analytical reproducibility (?? 0.05???) by more than a factor of 40. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts have ??205TI of + 10 to + 14, whereas seawater is characterized by values as low as -8 (??205TI represents the deviation of the 205TI/203TI ratio of a sample from the NIST SRM 997 TI isotope standard in parts per 104). This ~ 2??? difference in isotope composition is thought to result from the isotope fractionation that accompanies the adsorption of TI onto ferromanganese particles. An equilibrium fractionation factor of ?? ~ 1.0021 is calculated for this process. Ferromanganese nodules and hydrothermal manganese deposits have variable TI isotope compositions that range between the values obtained for seawater and hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. The variability in ??205TI in diagenetic nodules appears to be caused by the adsorption of TI from pore fluids, which act as a closed-system reservoir with a TI isotope composition that is inferred to be similar to seawater. Nodules with ??205TI values similar to seawater are found if the scavenging of TI is nearly quantitative. Hydrothermal manganese deposits display a positive correlation between ??205TI and Mn/Fe. This trend is thought to be due to the derivation of TI from distinct hydrothermal sources. Deposits with low Mn/Fe ratios and low ??205TI are produced by the adsorption of TI from fluids that are sampled close to hydrothermal sources. Such fluids have low Mn/Fe ratios and relatively high temperatures, such that only minor isotope fractionation occurs during adsorption. Hydrothermal

  14. Thermodynamic and physico-chemical fluctuations in hydrothermal systems suitable for the geological cradle of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanichenko, Vladimir

    Thermodynamic and physico-chemical fluctuations in the medium seem are the necessary factor for the origin of life. Fluctuations are usual phenomena in hydrothermal systems including their outcrops in ocean or terrestrial groundwater aquifers. Investigation of the fluctuations regimes in natural hydrothermal systems can be used in advanced laboratory experiments on prebiotic organic synthesis under changeable conditions. To characterize a scale of the thermodynamic and physic-chemical fluctuations four hydrothermal systems were explored: several terrestrial hydrothermal systems, primarily on the Russian Far East. Temperature of water and water-steam mixture (from boreholes) in Mutnovsky and Pauzhetsky hydrothermal fields (Kamchatka peninsula) ranges from less than 100 o C up to 240 o C. Water from Kuldur thermal basin (in-tracontinental part of the Russian Far East) is characterized with the lower temperature: 60-70 o C. Data of monitoring of pressure, temperature and some chemical parameters in the boreholes of these fields were mathematically processed. Periods of long-range macrofluctuations of pres-sure and temperature in Mutnovsky and Kuldur fields are 2-4.5 months, maximum amplitudes of temperature in the wells' orifices are 53o C and 9 o C correspondingly, maximum amplitude of pressure in Mutnovsky field 34 bars. Periods of minioscillations are from 10 to 70 minutes in Mutnovsky and Pauzhetsky fields, average amplitudes of pressure are 0.2-0.7 bars. These data are comparable with similar data from Mura basin in Slovenia: amplitudes of temperature and pH minioscillations are about 1-2o C and 0.2 correspondingly; there exists strict positive correlation of temperature with pH, K+, Na+, Ca2+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, F-, but concentra-tions of Mg2+, NH4+, CO2 change independently (Kralj, 2000).. The general conclusion is that minifluctuations of thermodynamic and physic-chemical parameters in hydrothermal sys-tems are usual phenomenon. From time to time the

  15. Becoming a Lunari or Taiyo expert: learned attention to parts drives holistic processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Faces are processed holistically, but the locus of holistic processing remains unclear. We created two novel races of faces (Lunaris and Taiyos) to study how experience with face parts influences holistic processing. In Experiment 1, subjects individuated Lunaris wherein the top, bottom, or both face halves contained diagnostic information. Subjects who learned to attend to face parts exhibited no holistic processing. This suggests that individuation only leads to holistic processing when the whole face is attended. In Experiment 2, subjects individuated both Lunaris and Taiyos, with diagnostic information in complementary face halves of the two races. Holistic processing was measured with composites made of either diagnostic or nondiagnostic face parts. Holistic processing was only observed for composites made from diagnostic face parts, demonstrating that holistic processing can occur for diagnostic face parts that were never seen together. These results suggest that holistic processing is an expression of learned attention to diagnostic face parts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Non-traditional Stable Isotope Systematics of Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, O. J.

    2009-05-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges is one of the fundamental processes controlling the chemistry of the oceans and the altered oceanic crust. Past studies have demonstrated the complexity and diversity of seafloor hydrothermal systems and have highlighted the importance of subsurface environments in controlling the composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralization types. Traditionally, the behavior of metals in seafloor hydrothermal systems have been investigated by integrating results from laboratory studies, theoretical models, mineralogy and fluid and mineral chemistry. Isotope ratios of various metals and metalloids, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Sb have recently provided new approaches for the study of seafloor hydrothermal systems. Despite these initial investigations, the cause of the isotopic variability of these elements remains poorly constrained. We have little understanding of the isotope variations between vent types (black or white smokers) as well as the influence of source rock composition (basalt, felsic or ultrabasic rocks) and alteration types. Here, I will review and present new results of metal isotope systematics of seafloor hydrothermal systems, in particular: (1) determination of empirical isotope fractionation factors for Zn, Fe and Cu-isotopes through isotopic analysis of mono-mineralic sulfide grains lining the internal chimney wall in contact with hydrothermal fluid; (2) comparison of Fe- and Cu-isotope signatures of vent fluids from mid- oceanic and back-arc hydrothermal fields, spanning wide ranges of pH, temperature, metal concentrations and contributions of magmatic fluids enriched in SO2. Ultimately, the use of complementary non-traditional stable isotope systems may help identify and constrain the complex interactions between fluids,minerals, and organisms in seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  17. Indication Of Hydrothermal Alteration Activities Based On Petrography Of Volcanic Rocks In Abang Komba Submarine Volcano, East Flores Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmili, Lili; Hutabarat, Johanes

    2014-01-01

    The presence of mineral alteration or secondary processes to rocks on submarine volcano of Abang Komba was caused by an introduction of hydrothermal solutions. Those are indicated by the presence of a resembly of minerals alteration seen in their petrographic analyses. They are characterized by replacement partially surrounding of plagioclase phenocrysts, partially replacing plagioclase by sericite, carbonate and clay minerals. The replacement of pyroxene partly by chlorite, and the presence ...

  18. Process development for green part printing using binder jetting additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Orth, Morgan; Akbar, Junaid Muhammad; Yang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Originally developed decades ago, the binder jetting additive manufacturing (BJ-AM) process possesses various advantages compared to other additive manufacturing (AM) technologies such as broad material compatibility and technological expandability. However, the adoption of BJ-AM has been limited by the lack of knowledge with the fundamental understanding of the process principles and characteristics, as well as the relatively few systematic design guideline that are available. In this work, the process design considerations for BJ-AM in green part fabrication were discussed in detail in order to provide a comprehensive perspective of the design for additive manufacturing for the process. Various process factors, including binder saturation, in-process drying, powder spreading, powder feedstock characteristics, binder characteristics and post-process curing, could significantly affect the printing quality of the green parts such as geometrical accuracy and part integrity. For powder feedstock with low flowability, even though process parameters could be optimized to partially offset the printing feasibility issue, the qualities of the green parts will be intrinsically limited due to the existence of large internal voids that are inaccessible to the binder. In addition, during the process development, the balanced combination between the saturation level and in-process drying is of critical importance in the quality control of the green parts.

  19. Fast preparation of Bi2GeO5 nanoflakes via a microwave-hydrothermal process and enhanced photocatalytic activity after loading with Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Lin, Xin-Shan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted solution-phase approach. ► Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. ► Catalytic activity of the Ag/Bi 2 GeO 5 nanocomposite in the photo-degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was much higher than that of pure Bi 2 GeO 5 . -- Abstract: In this work, a facile and rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal route has been developed to prepare Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes. Ag nanoparticles were subsequently deposited on the Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. The phases and morphologies of the products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that such Ag/Bi 2 GeO 5 nanocomposite possesses higher photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under UV light irradiation in comparison to pure Bi 2 GeO 5 . The amount of Ag in the nanocomposite affects the catalytic activity, and 3 wt% Ag showed the highest photodegradation efficiency. Moreover, the catalyst remains active after four consecutive tests. The present study provides a new strategy to design composite materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  20. Monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres derived by microwave-assisted hydrothermal process combined with carbothermal reduction for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongrong; Wu, Yixiong; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2014-07-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach combined with carbothermal reduction has been developed to synthesize monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres, which possess the diameter range of 1.0-1.5 μm, high tap density of ∼1.3 g cm-3, and mesoporous characteristic with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 30.6 m2 g-1. The obtained microspheres show meatball-like morphology aggregated by the carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results indicate that carbon coating can effectively enhance both of the electronic and ionic conductivities for LiFePO4/C microspheres. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of the LiFePO4/C microspheres calculated from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves is ∼6.25 × 10-9 cm2 s-1. The electrochemical performance can achieve about 100 and 90 mAh g-1 at 5C and 10C charge/discharge rates, respectively. As cathode material, the as-prepared LiFePO4/C microspheres show excellent rate capability and cycle stability, promising for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Hydrothermal Conversion of Giant Reed to Furfural and Levulinic Acid: Optimization of the Process under Microwave Irradiation and Investigation of Distinctive Agronomic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonetti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of giant reed (Arundo donax L. to furfural (FA and levulinic acid (LA was investigated in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid. FA and LA yields were improved by univariate optimization of the main reaction parameters: concentration of the acid catalyst, solid/liquid ratio of the reaction mixture, hydrolysis temperature, and reaction time. The catalytic performances were investigated adopting the efficient microwave (MW irradiation, allowing significant energy and time savings. The best FA and LA yields were further confirmed using a traditionally heated autoclave reactor, giving very high results, when compared with the literature. Hydrolysis temperature and time were the main reaction variables to be carefully optimized: FA formation needed milder reaction conditions, while LA more severe ones. The effect of the crop management (e.g., harvest time on FA/LA production was discussed, revealing that harvest time was not a discriminating parameter for the further optimization of both FA and LA production, due to the very high productivity of the giant reed throughout the year. The promising results demonstrate that giant reed represents a very interesting candidate for a very high contemporary production of FA and LA of up to about 70% and 90% of the theoretical yields, respectively.

  2. A new approach of the design process for replacing wooden parts of furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupan Cornel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on different design processes for innovative products, the paper presents a new approach of the process. The new method studies the problem of replacing the wooden components of the resistance structure of furniture with other materials. This is a reverse engineering process, that starts with the entire component, following a series of steps to the part drawings, ready for manufacturing. The method was validated by redesigning some parts of the upholstered products manufactured by TAPARO Company, by replacing the wooden parts of the resistance structure of sofas with composite material.

  3. Physical evaluations of Co-Cr-Mo parts processed using different additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Mohamed, Siti Rohaida; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, additive manufacturing with highly design customization has gained an important technique for fabrication in aerospace and medical fields. Despite the ability of the process to produce complex components with highly controlled architecture geometrical features, maintaining the part's accuracy, ability to fabricate fully functional high density components and inferior surfaces quality are the major obstacles in producing final parts using additive manufacturing for any selected application. This study aims to evaluate the physical properties of cobalt chrome molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys parts fabricated by different additive manufacturing techniques. The full dense Co-Cr-Mo parts were produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) with default process parameters. The density and relative density of samples were calculated using Archimedes' principle while the surface roughness on the top and side surface was measured using surface profiler. The roughness average (Ra) for top surface for SLM produced parts is 3.4 µm while 2.83 µm for DMLS produced parts. The Ra for side surfaces for SLM produced parts is 4.57 µm while 9.0 µm for DMLS produced parts. The higher Ra values on side surfaces compared to the top faces for both manufacturing techniques was due to the balling effect phenomenon. The yield relative density for both Co-Cr-Mo parts produced by SLM and DMLS are 99.3%. Higher energy density has influence the higher density of produced samples by SLM and DMLS processes. The findings of this work demonstrated that SLM and DMLS process with default process parameters have effectively produced full dense parts of Co-Cr-Mo with high density, good agreement of geometrical accuracy and better surface finish. Despite of both manufacturing process yield that produced components with higher density, the current finding shows that SLM technique could produce components with smoother surface quality compared to DMLS

  4. Reduction of Surface Roughness by Means of Laser Processing over Additive Manufacturing Metal Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Vittorio; Argenio, Paolo; Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2016-12-31

    Optimization of processing parameters and exposure strategies is usually performed in additive manufacturing to set up the process; nevertheless, standards for roughness may not be evenly matched on a single complex part, since surface features depend on the building direction of the part. This paper aims to evaluate post processing treating via laser surface modification by means of scanning optics and beam wobbling to process metal parts resulting from selective laser melting of stainless steel in order to improve surface topography. The results are discussed in terms of roughness, geometry of the fusion zone in the cross-section, microstructural modification, and microhardness so as to assess the effects of laser post processing. The benefits of beam wobbling over linear scanning processing are shown, as heat effects in the base metal are proven to be lower.

  5. Interactions between iron oxides and copper oxides under hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G B; Owen, D G

    1995-08-01

    Under hydrothermal conditions, magnetite and hematite have been shown to undergo interconversion reactions, the extent of which is controlled in part by the presence of copper oxides. In oxygenated water, the degree to which magnetite was oxidized to hematite was found to be dependent on the presence of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O. When these materials were absent, the oxidation of magnetite was limited by the dissolved oxygen in the aqueous system. Participation of the copper oxides in the oxidation process was confirmed by more complete conversion of magnetite was also influenced by the presence of the copper oxides. In addition to driving the reduction to completion, the presence of the copper oxides also exerted a strong influence over the morphology of the magnetite that formed. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Numerical simulation of complex part manufactured by selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process belonging to the family of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, enable to build parts layer by layer, from metallic powder and a CAD model. Physical phenomena that occur in the process have the same issues as conventional welding. Thermal gradients generate significant residual stresses and distortions in the parts. Moreover, the large and complex parts to manufacturing, accentuate the undesirable effects. Therefore, it is essential for manufacturers to offer a better understanding of the process and to ensure production reliability of parts with high added value. This paper focuses on the simulation of manufacturing turbine by SLM process in order to calculate residual stresses and distortions. Numerical results will be presented.

  7. 5 CFR Appendix A to Part 581 - List of Agents Designated To Accept Legal Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Pt. 581, App. A Appendix A to Part... Supervisor, 1969 So. Sheridan Ave., Sheridan, WY 82801, (307) 672-0751 Medicine Bow—Forest Supervisor, 2468...

  8. An expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin Salunkhe

    set of production rules and frames for process planning of axisymmetric deep ... parameters for design of stamping die for manufacturing of circular cup with ..... proper sequence of operations to manufacture sheet metal part correctly and ...

  9. Excursions at the places of mining and processing of ore resources in Slovakia. The first part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenak, K.

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this text-book brings a complex and comprehensive view on the places of mining and processing of ore resources in the Slovak Republic. Environmental impact of mining is also presented.

  10. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 2 - The Later Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poole, S.; Simon, M; Sweatman, A.

    1999-01-01

    , Central Europe, and the USA are carrying out ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures that compnies have experienced and the lessons learned along the way. Part 1 of this two-part paper focuses on the early stages of the product development process. It shows how products can...

  11. Features of measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of electrical machines

    OpenAIRE

    Gyzhko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of the electrical machines using the diagnostic information-measuring system that uses Bluetooth wireless standard for the transmission of the measured data from moving parts of electrical machine is discussed.

  12. The Lost City hydrothermal system: Constraints imposed by vent fluid chemistry and reaction path models on subseafloor heat and mass transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, W. E.; Pester, Nicholas J.; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Ding, Kang

    2015-08-01

    Since the first reported discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal system in 2001, it was recognized that seawater alteration of ultramafic rocks plays a key role in the composition of the coexisting vent fluids. The unusually high pH and high concentrations of H2 and CH4 provide compelling evidence for this. Here we report the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids sampled from two vent structures (Beehive: ∼90-116 °C, and M6: ∼75 °C) at Lost City in 2008 during cruise KNOX18RR using ROV Jason 2 and R/V Revelle assets. The vent fluid chemistry at both sites reveals considerable overlap in concentrations of dissolved gases (H2, CH4), trace elements (Cs, Rb, Li, B and Sr), and major elements (SO4, Ca, K, Na, Cl), including a surprising decrease in dissolved Cl, suggesting a common source fluid is feeding both sites. The absence of Mg and relatively high concentrations of Ca and sulfate suggest solubility control by serpentine-diopside-anhydrite, while trace alkali concentrations, especially Rb and Cs, are high, assuming a depleted mantle protolith. In both cases, but especially for Beehive vent fluid, the silica concentrations are well in excess of those expected for peridotite alteration and the coexistence of serpentine-brucite at all reasonable temperatures. However, both the measured pH and silica values are in better agreement with serpentine-diopside-tremolite-equilibria. Geochemical modeling demonstrates that reaction of plagioclase with serpentinized peridotite can shift the chemical system away from brucite and into the tremolite stability field. This is consistent with the complex intermingling of peridotite and gabbroic bodies commonly observed within the Atlantis Massif. We speculate the existence of such plagioclase bearing peridotite may also account for the highly enriched trace alkali (Cs, Rb) concentrations in the Lost City vent fluids. Additionally, reactive transport modeling taking explicit account of temperature dependent rates of mineral

  13. The hydrothermal evolution of the Kawerau geothermal system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicich, S. D.; Chambefort, I.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Charlier, B. L. A.; Tepley, F. J.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrothermal alteration zoning and processes provide insights into the evolution of heat source(s) and fluid compositions associated with geothermal systems. Traditional petrological techniques, combined with hydrothermal alteration studies, stable isotope analyses and geochronology can resolve the nature of the fluids involved in hydrothermal processes and their changes through time. We report here new findings along with previous unpublished works on alteration patterns, fluid inclusion measurements and stable isotope data to provide insights into the thermal and chemical evolution of the Kawerau geothermal system, New Zealand. These data indicate the presence of two hydrothermal events that can be coupled with chronological data. The earlier period of hydrothermal activity was initiated at 400 ka, with the heat driving the hydrothermal system inferred to be from the magmatic system that gave rise to rhyolite lavas and sills of the Caxton Formation. Isotopic data fingerprint fluids attributed to this event as meteoric, indicating that the magma primarily served as a heat source driving fluid circulation, and was not releasing magmatic fluids in sufficient quantity to affect the rock mineralogy and thus inferred fluid compositions. The modern Kawerau system was initiated at 16 ka with hydrothermal eruptions linked to shallow intrusion of magma at the onset of activity that gave rise to the Putauaki andesite cone. Likely associated with this later event was a pulse of magmatic CO2, resulting in large-scale deposition of hydrothermal calcite enriched in 18O. Meteoric water-dominated fluids subsequently overwhelmed the magmatic fluids associated with this 18O-rich signature, and both the fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotope data reflect a change to the present-day fluid chemistry of low salinity, meteoric-dominated waters.

  14. Manipulating the self-assembling process to obtain control over the morphologies of copper oxide in hydrothermal synthesis and creating pores in the oxide architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ziyi; Ng, Vivien; Luo, Jizhong; Teh, Siew-Pheng; Teo, Jaclyn; Gedanken, Aharon

    2007-05-22

    Copper oxide with various morphologies was synthesized by the hydrolysis of Cu(ac)2 with urea under mild hydrothermal conditions. In the synthesis, a series of organic amines with one or two amine groups (monoamine and diamine), including isobutylamine, octylamine (OLA), dodecylamine, octadecylamine (monoamines), ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, and hexamethylenediamine (diamines), was used as the "structure-directing agent". The monoamines led to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) aggregates of the copper oxide precursor particles (Pre-CuO), while the diamines led to the formation of two-dimensional (2D) aggregates. In both cases, the shorter carbon-chain amine molecules showed a stronger structure-directing function than that of the longer carbon-chain amine molecules. Next, in a series of syntheses, OLA was selected for further study, and the experimental parameters were systematically manipulated. When the hydrolysis was adjusted to a very slow rate by coupling the hydrolysis reaction with an esterification reaction, 1D aggregates of Pre-CuO were formed; when the hydrolysis rate was in the middle range, spherical Pre-CuO architectures composed of smaller linear aggregates were formed. However, under the high hydrolysis rates achieved by increasing the precipitation agent (urea) or by conducting the reaction at high temperatures (>/=120 degrees C), only Pre-CuO nanoparticles with a featureless morphology were formed. The formed spherical Pre-CuO architectures can be converted to a porous structure (CuOx) after removing the OLA molecules via calcination. Compared to the 1D and 2D aggregates, this porous architecture is highly thermally stable and did not collapse even after calcination at 500 degrees C. Preliminary results showed that the porous structure can be used both as a catalyst support and as a catalyst for the oxidation of CO at low temperatures.

  15. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  16. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  17. Hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization as means to valorise agro- and forest-based biomass residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Hanne; Grönqvist, Stina; Niemi, Piritta; Mikkelson, Atte; Siika-Aho, Matti; Kanerva, Heimo; Käsper, Andres; Tamminen, Tarja

    2017-07-01

    The suitability of several abundant but underutilized agro and forest based biomass residues for hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for hydrothermal carbonization was studied. The selected approaches represent simple biotechnical and thermochemical treatment routes suitable for wet biomass. Based on the results, the hydrothermal pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis seemed to be most suitable for processing of carbohydrate rich corn leaves, corn stover, wheat straw and willow. High content of thermally stable components (i.e. lignin) and low content of ash in the biomass were advantageous for hydrothermal carbonization of grape pomace, coffee cake, Scots pine bark and willow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  19. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  20. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of (Zn,Cd)S:Ag nanocrystals by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xixian; Cao Wanghe; Zhou Lixin

    2007-01-01

    ZnS:Ag and (Zn,Cd)S:Ag nanoparticles with particle sizes of about 50 and 150 nm have been prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of hydrothermal process on the physical and luminescence characteristics are investigated. The photoluminescence intensities of hydrothermal treatment ZnS:Ag samples are 10 times higher than that of non-treated samples after annealing at 800 deg. C

  2. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Non-volcanic Hydrothermal System Caused by Formation of a High Permeability Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Daisuke; Ehara, Sachio; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Because in the Japanese islands the earth crust activity is very active, a disposal stratum for high-level radioactive waste produced by reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants will be selected in the tectonically stable areas in which the waste can be disposed underground safely for a long term and there is no influence of earthquakes, seismic activities, volcanic activities, upheaval, sedimentation, erosion, climate and global sea level change and so on, which causes the risk of the inflow of the groundwater to destroy the disposal site or the outflow to the ground surface. However, even if the disposal stratum in such condition will be chosen, in case that a new high permeability fracture zone is formed by the earthquake, and a new hydrothermal system may be formed for a long term (thousands or millions years) and the system may affect the disposal site. Therefore, we have to understand the feature of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. We estimated such influence by using HYDROTHERM Ver2.2 (Hayba & Ingebritsen, 1994), which is a three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulator. The model field is the northwestern part of Kego Fault, which was formed by a series of earthquakes called "the 2005 Fukuoka Prefecture Western Offshore Earthquakes" (the main shock of Mjma 7.0 on 20 March 2005) in Kyushu, Japan. The results of the numerical simulations show the development of a low temperature hydrothermal system as a new fracture zone is formed, in case that there is no volcanic heat source. The results of the simulations up to 100,000 years after formation of the fracture zone show that the higher heat flow and the wider and more permeable fracture zone accelerate the development of the hydrothermal system in the fracture zone. As a result of calculation of up to10 million years, we clarified the evolutional process of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. At

  4. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  5. An expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Process planning of sheet metal part is an important activity in the design of compound die. Traditional methods of carrying out this task are manual, tedious, time-consuming, error-prone and experiencebased. This paper describes the research work involved in the development of an expert system for process planning of ...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 580 - Secure Printing Processes and Other Secure Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... varying screen density in the pantograph. The wording will appear when attempts are made to photocopy on... visible to the naked eye. (a) Erasure Sensitive Background Inks—a process whereby the text is printed in a dark color ink over a fine line erasure-sensitive prismatic ink tint. (b) Security Lamination—retro...

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitric- Glycolic Flowsheet Chemical Process Cell Chemistry: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-06

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from 2011 to 2016. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlation models to predict these values from measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge or simulant composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Previous work on these correlations was documented in a technical report covering data from 2011-2015. This current report supersedes this previous report. Further refinement of the models as additional data are collected is recommended.

  8. Resource recovery of WC-Co cermet using hydrothermal oxidation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ningfeng; Inagaki, F.; Sasai, R.; Itoh, H.; Watari, K.

    2005-01-01

    WC-Co cermet is widely used in industrial applications such as cutting tools, dies, wear parts and so on. It is of great importance to establish the recycling process for the precious metal resources contained in WC-Co cermet, because all these metals used in Japan are imported. In this paper we reported a hydrothermal oxidation technique using nitric acid for the reclamation of WC and Co. The WC-Co cermet specimens with various WC particle sizes and Co contents were hydrothermally treated in HNO 3 aqueous solutions at temperatures of 110-200 C for durations of 6-240 h. The Co was preferentially leached out into the acidic solution, while the WC was oxidized to insoluble WO 3 hydrate which was subsequently separated by filtration. The hydrothermal treatment parameters such as solvent concentrations, treatment temperatures, holding time were optimized in respect to different kinds of WC-Co cermets. A hydrothermal oxidation treatment in 3M HNO 3 aqueous solution at 150 C for 24 h was capable of fully disintegrating the cermet chip composed of coarse WC grains of 1-5 μm in size with 20 wt% of Co as binder. While the more oxidation resistant specimen composed of fine WC grains of 0.5-1.0 μm in size with 13 wt% of Co, was completely disintegrated by a treatment in 7 M HNO 3 aqueous solution at 170 C for 24 h. The filtered solid residues were composed of fine WO 3 .0.33H 2 O powder and a small amount of WO 3 . The recovered WO 3 .0.33H 2 O powder can be easily returned to the industrial process for the synthesis of WC powder so that the overall recycling cost can be possibly lowered. (orig.)

  9. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  11. Volcano-hydrothermal system and activity of Sirung volcano (Pantar Island, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Corentin; Bernard, Alain; Murphy, Sam; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Gunawan, Hendra

    2018-05-01

    Sirung is a frequently active volcano located in the remote parts of Western Timor (Indonesia). Sirung has a crater with several hydrothermal features including a crater lake. We present a timeseries of satellite images of the lake and chemical and isotope data from the hyperacid hydrothermal system. The fluids sampled in the crater present the typical features of hyperacidic systems with high TDS, low pH and δ34SHSO4-δ34SS0 among the highest for such lakes. The cations concentrations are predominantly controlled by the precipitation of alunite, jarosite, silica phases, native sulfur and pyrite which dominate the shallow portions of the hydrothermal system. These minerals may control shallow sealing processes thought to trigger phreatic eruptions elsewhere. Sparse Mg/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios and lake parameters derived from satellite images suggest gradual increase in heat and gas flux, most likely SO2-rich, prior to the 2012 phreatic eruption. An acidic river was sampled 8 km far from the crater and is genetically linked with the fluids rising toward the active crater. This river would therefore be a relevant target for future remote monitoring purposes. Finally, several wells and springs largely exceeded the World Health Organization toxicity limits in total arsenic and fluoride.

  12. Hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in the Sinian Dengying Fm, central Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiang Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Sinian Dengying Fm is the focus of natural gas exploration in the central part of the Sichuan Basin (central Sichuan Basin in recent years. Especially, epigenic karstification and its resulted reservoir-seepage spaces have always been the focal points in researches. Based on the petrographic characteristics of drilling cuttings and core samples, and through experimental analysis by using trace elements, isotopes, and cathodoluminescence, the Dengying Fm dolomite was demonstrated to have matrix recrystallized dolomite (MRD, filled saddle dolomite (FSD (the mean homogenization temperature of inclusion: 178.5 °C, high concentrations of Fe & Mn, slightly positive 87Sr/86Sr value and hydrothermal minerals combination (including sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and quartz, etc.. Thus, it was proposed that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies (HDRF exist in the Dengying Fm dolomite, in other words, the dolomite reservoir is composed of hydrothermal dissolved pores, intercrystalline pores of hydrothermal origin, hydrothermal caverns and expanded fractures, and was formed due to the reworking of hydrothermal fluid on tight matrix dolomite. Identification marks are presented in terms of petrography and geochemistry so that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies can be effectively recognized and identified. It is concluded that the development of hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in this area are preliminary controlled by deep and large basement faults and the strength of hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Shijun; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    A number of cathodes are being considered for the next generation of lithium ion batteries to replace the expensive LiCoO 2 presently used. Besides the layered oxides, such as LiNi yMn yCo 1-2 yO 2, a leading candidate is lithium iron phosphate with the olivine structure. Although this material is inherently low cost, a manufacturing process that produces electrochemically active LiFePO 4 at a low cost is also required. Hydrothermal reactions are one such possibility. A number of pure phosphates have been prepared using this technique, including LiFePO 4, LiMnPO 4 and LiCoPO 4; this method has also successfully produced mixed metal phosphates, such as LiFe 0.33Mn 0.33Co 0.33PO 4. Ascorbic acid was found to be better than hydrazine or sugar at preventing the formation of ferric ions in aqueous media. When conductive carbons are added to the reaction medium excellent electrochemical behavior is observed.

  14. A deep hydrothermal fault zone in the lower oceanic crust, Samail ophiolite Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlmann, B.; Mueller, S.; Koepke, J.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is a key process for the exchange of chemical elements between the oceans and the solid Earth and for the extraction of heat from newly accreted crust at mid-ocean ridges. However, due to a dearth of samples from intact oceanic crust, or continuous samples from ophiolites, there remain major short comings in our understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, especially in the deeper parts. In particular, it is unknown whether fluid recharge and discharge occurs pervasively or if it is mainly channeled within discrete zones such as faults. Here, we present a description of a hydrothermal fault zone that crops out in Wadi Gideah in the layered gabbro section of the Samail ophiolite of Oman. Field observations reveal a one meter thick chlorite-epidote normal fault with disseminated pyrite and chalcopyrite and heavily altered gabbro clasts at its core. In both, the hanging and the footwall the gabbro is altered and abundantly veined with amphibole, epidote, prehnite and zeolite. Whole rock mass balance calculations show enrichments in Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Co, Cu, Rb, Zr, Nb, Th and U and depletions of Si, Ca, Na, Cr, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb concentrations in the fault rock compared to fresh layered gabbros. Gabbro clasts within the fault zone as well as altered rock from the hanging wall show enrichments in Na, Sc, V, Co, Rb, Zr, Nb and depletion of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb. Strontium isotope whole rock data of the fault rock yield 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7046, which is considerably more radiogenic than fresh layered gabbro from this locality (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7030 - 0.7034), and similar to black smoker hydrothermal signatures based on epidote, measured elsewhere in the ophiolite. Altered gabbro clasts within the fault zone show similar values with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7045 - 0.7050, whereas hanging wall and foot wall display values only slightly more radiogenic than fresh layered gabbro.The secondary mineral assemblages and strontium isotope

  15. Process acceptance and adjustment techniques for Swiss automatic screw machine parts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Product tolerance requirements for small, cylindrical, piece parts produced on swiss automatic screw machines have progressed to the reliability limits of inspection equipment. The miniature size, configuration, and tolerance requirements (plus or minus 0.0001 in.) (0.00254 mm) of these parts preclude the use of screening techniques to accept product or adjust processes during setup and production runs; therefore, existing means of product acceptance and process adjustment must be refined or new techniques must be developed. The purpose of this endeavor has been to determine benefits gained through the implementation of a process acceptance technique (PAT) to swiss automatic screw machine processes. PAT is a statistical approach developed for the purpose of accepting product and centering processes for parts produced by selected, controlled processes. Through this endeavor a determination has been made of the conditions under which PAT can benefit a controlled process and some specific types of screw machine processes upon which PAT could be applied. However, it was also determined that PAT, if used indiscriminately, may become a record keeping burden when applied to more than one dimension at a given machining operation

  16. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  17. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  18. Effects of holding pressure and process temperatures on the mechanical properties of moulded metallic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Esteves, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal injection moulding is gaining more and more importance over the time and needs more research to be done to understand the sensitivity of process to different process parameters. The current paper makes an attempt to better understand the effects of holding pressure and process temperatures...... on the moulded metallic parts. Stainless steel 316L is used in the investigation to produce the specimen by metal injection moulding (MIM) and multiple analyses were carried out on samples produced with different combinations of holding pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature. Finally, the parts were...... characterized to investigate mechanical properties like density, ultimate tensile strength, shrinkage etc. The results are discussed in the paper. The main conclusion from this study is unlike plastic moulding, the tensile properties of MIM parts doesn’t vary based on the flow direction of the melt, and tensile...

  19. Finite element simulation of HIP-process to produce 3d near net shape parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeh, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems when producing powder metallurgy parts through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is the non homogeneous shrinkage of HIP-capsule during the process. This leads to time and cost consuming machining of the HIP parts. In order to reduce the machining to a minimum, one can try to simulate the HIP-process by means of numerical methods. Hereby, the part distortion can be predicted, and hence a new HIP-capsule can be designed in such a way to prevent the distortion partly or even completely. In the following, a finite element method is used, on one hand, to simulate part shrinkage during HIP process; on the other hand a method is integrated in this simulation to optimize the HIP-capsule geometry. For the determination of material dependent parameters, a mixture of theoretical and experimental methods is used. Results of simulation are verified for a complex 3d HIP part out of TiAl6V4

  20. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdElHaleem, H S [Cairo Univ.-CivlI Eng. Dept., Giza (Egypt); EI-Ahwany, A H [CairoUlmrsity- Faculty ofEngincering - Chemical Engineering Department, Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, H I [Helwan University- Faculty of Engineering - Biomedical Engineering Department, Helwan (Egypt); Ibrahim, G [Menofia University- Faculty of Engineering Sbebin EI Kom- Basic Eng. Sc. Dept., Menofia (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type.

  1. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElHaleem, H.S.; EI-Ahwany, A. H.; Ibrahim, H.I.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  3. Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at the Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, D. A.; Zurcher, L.; Abramov, O.

    2007-05-01

    Borehole samples recovered from PEMEX exploration boreholes and an ICDP scientific borehole indicate the Chicxulub impact event generated hydrothermal alteration throughout a large volume of the Maya Block beneath the crater floor and extending across the bulk of the ~180 km diameter crater. The first indications of hydrothermal alteration were observed in the crater discovery samples from the Yucatan-6 borehole and manifest itself in the form of anhydrite and quartz veins. Continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole reveal a more complex and temporally extensive alteration sequence: following a brief period at high temperatures, impact- melt-bearing polymict breccias and a thin, underlying unit of impact melt were subjected to metasomatism, producing alkali feldspar, sphene, apatite, and magnetite. As the system continued to cool, smectite-series phyllosilicates appeared. A saline solution was involved. Stable isotopes suggest the fluid was dominated by a basinal brine created mostly from existing groundwater of the Yucatan Peninsula, although contributions from down-welling water also occurred in some parts of the system. Numerical modeling of the hydrothermal system suggests circulation occurred for 1.5 to 2.3 Myr, depending on the permeability of the system. Our understanding of the hydrothermal system, however, is still crude. Additional core recovery projects, particularly into the central melt sheet, are needed to better evaluate the extent and duration of hydrothermal alteration.

  4. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  5. Hydrothermal stability of silica, hybrid silica and Zr-doped hybrid silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, Marcel; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Huiskes, Cindy; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid silica membranes have demonstrated to possess a remarkable hydrothermal stability in pervaporation and gas separation processes allowing them to be used in industrial applications. In several publications the hydrothermal stability of pure silica or that of hybrid silica membranes are

  6. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ''demonstration technologies.'' Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria

  7. Inverse Processing of Undefined Complex Shape Parts from Structural High Alloyed Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Monkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of 3D digitization as a tool for increasing production efficiency of complex shaped parts. Utilizes the concept of reverse engineering and new the model of NC program generation STEP-NC, for the of templates production for winding the stator coil of electromotors that is for electric household appliances. The manual production of prototype was substituted by manufacturing with NC machines. A 3D scanner was used for data digitizing, CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineering was used for NC program generation, and 3D measuring equipment was used for verification of new produced parts. The company estimated that only due to the implementation of STEP NC standard into production process it was allowed to read the 3D geometry of the product without problems. It helps the workshop to shorten the time needed for part production by about 30%.

  8. Review of Manganese Processing for Production of TRIP/TWIP Steels, Part 1: Current Practice and Processing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R.; Coley, K.; Mostaghel, S.; Barati, M.

    2018-02-01

    The increasing demand for high-performance steel alloys has led to development of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) alloys over the past three decades. These alloys offer exceptional combinations of high tensile strength and ductility. Thus, the mechanical behavior of these alloys has been a subject of significant work in recent years. However, the challenge of economically providing Mn in the quantity and purity required by these alloys has received considerably less attention. To enable commercial implementation of ultrahigh-Mn alloys, it is desirable to lower the high material costs associated with their production. Therefore, the present work reviews Mn processing routes in the context of the chemical requirements of these alloys. The aim of this review is to assess the current state of the art regarding reduction of manganese ores and provide a comprehensive reference for researchers working to mitigate material processing costs associated with Mn production. The review is presented in two parts: Part 1 introduces TRIP and TWIP alloys, current industrial practice, and pertinent thermodynamic fundamentals; Part 2 addresses available literature regarding reduction of Mn ores and oxides, and seeks to identify opportunities for future process development.

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass waste under low temperature condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putra Herlian Eriska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of banana peel for energy purposes was investigated. Banana peel is a lignocellulosic waste since it is the most widely produced and consumed fruit in Indonesia. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC was chosen as alternative themochemical process, suitable for high moisture biomass. Through a 1 L stirred reactor, hydrothermal treatments were performed under low temperature condition (190, 210 and 230 °C, residence times (30 and 60 min, and biomass to water ratio (1:3, 1:5, and 1:10. Three of product were collected from the process with primary material balance. Solid phase (hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, proximate and ultimate analysis. The results suggested that the hydrothermal carbonization of banana peel gave high heating value (HHV of 20.09 MJ/kg for its char after dried naturally.

  10. Hydrothermal Disintegration and Extraction of Different Microalgae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kröger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the disintegration and extraction of microalgae to produce lipids and biofuels, a novel processing technology was investigated. The utilization of a hydrothermal treatment was tested on four different microalgae species (Scenedesmus rubescens, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Arthorspira platensis (Spirulina to determine whether it has an advantage in comparison to other disintegration methods for lipid extraction. It was shown, that hydrothermal treatment is a reasonable opportunity to utilize microalgae without drying and increase the lipid yield of an algae extraction process. For three of the four microalgae species, the extraction yield with a prior hydrothermal treatment elevated the lipid yield up to six times in comparison to direct extraction. Only Scenedesmus rubescens showed a different behaviour. Reason can be found in the different cell wall of the species. The investigation of the differences in cell wall composition of the used species indicate that the existence of algaenan as a cell wall compound plays a major role in stability.

  11. The Four-Part Literature Review Process: Breaking It Down for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca H.

    2017-01-01

    Both undergraduate and graduate students face similar challenges when tasked with writing literature reviews. Breaking down the literature review into a four-part process helps students decrease frustration and increase quality. This article provides usable advice for anyone teaching or writing literature reviews. Tips and illustrations illuminate…

  12. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  13. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  14. Criteria for prediction of plastic instabilities for hot working processes. (Part I: Theoretical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Omar, A.; Prado, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Hot working processes often induce high levels of deformation at high strain rates, and impose very complex multiaxial modes of solicitation. These processes are essentially limited by apparition and development of plastic instabilities. These may be the direct cause of rapid crack propagation, which lead to a possible final rupture. The complexity of deformation modes and the simultaneous intervention of several parameters have led many researchers to develop various criteria, with different approaches, to predict the occurrence of defects and to optimize process control parameters. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the general characteristics of some instability criteria, widely used in the literature, for the prediction of plastic instabilities during hot working. It was considered appropriate to divide the work into two parts: part I presents the phenomenological criteria for the prediction of plastic instabilities, based on descriptive observation of microscopic phenomena of the deformation (strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity), and discusses the continuum criteria based on the principle of maximum rate of entropy production of irreversible thermodynamics applied to continuum mechanics of large plastic flow. Also, this part provides a bibliographical discussion among several authors with regard to the physical foundations of dynamic materials model. In part II, of the work, a comparative study has been carried out to characterize the flow instability during a hot working process of a medium carbon microalloyed using phenomenological and continuum criteria. (Author) 83 refs.

  15. 41 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - 250-Review of Personnel Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 250-Review of Personnel Processes C Appendix C to Part 60 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT...

  16. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  17. Efficient green and red up-conversion emissions in Er/Yb co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopowders prepared by hydrothermal-assisted sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, Rached, E-mail: salhi_rached@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de chimie industrielle, Ecole Nationale d’ingénieurs de Sfax, Université de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Deschanvres, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, erbium and ytterbium co-doped titanium dioxide (Er–Yb:TiO{sub 2}) nanopowders have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal-assisted sol–gel method using supercritical drying of ethyl alcohol and annealing at 500 °C for 1 h. Nanopowders were prepared with fixed 5 mol% Erbium concentration and various Ytterbium concentrations of 5 and 10 mol%. The powders were characterized by studying their structural, morphology and photo-luminescent properties. The annealing treatment at 500 °C was found to enhance the crystallinity of the TiO{sub 2} anatase structure and the upconversion (UC) emission of the nanopowders. UC emissions were investigated under 980 nm excitation, and the Er–Yb:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders exhibited the intense green (520–570 nm) and red (640–690 nm) upconverted emissions of Er ions originating from an efficient Yb–Er energy transfer process. The absolute upconversion quantum yield (UC-QY) of each nanopowders was measured for the UC emissions centered at 525, 550 and 655 nm at varying excitation power densities. UC-QY analysis has revealed that 5 mol% Er–5 mol% Yb:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders possess the highest total quantum yield of 2.8±0.1% with a power density of 16.7 W/cm{sup 2}. These results make these nanopowders promising materials for efficient upconversion in photonic applications.

  18. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on some properties of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhi-cai; Shui Heng-fu; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Effects of hydrothermal treatment on swelling, extraction and liquefaction behavior of Shenhua coal were studied through analyses of element content, ash content, volatile content and IR spectrum of treated coal. The results indicate that hydrogenation of coal is distinctly carried out in the process of hydrothermal pre-treatment and the hydrogen content of treated coal is more than that of raw coal. The contents of ash and volatile matters of treated coal are lower than those of raw coal. With the increase of treatment temperature the volatile content of the hydrothermal treated coal decreases and the ash content of treated coal increases. CO{sub 2} is main gas product and unvaries with the temperature changing, whereas CO and CH{sub 4} are formed when the temperature is above 250{sup o}C and increase with the temperature during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment is not in favor of coal swelling and the swelling ratio of treated coal decreases with the increase of treatment temperature. The swelling ratio of extraction residue by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent in NMP solvent is lower than that of the corresponding raw coal. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction yields of coal treated at appropriate temperature are higher than that of raw coal, but the extraction yields of treated coal obtained by n-hexane, toluene and THF successive Soxhelt extraction are lower. Hydrothermal treatment at 250-300{sup o}C can increase the conversion of treated coal in direct hydro-liquefaction. The gas + oil yield of treated coal is lower than that of raw coal and the preasphaltene yield of treated coal is much higher. IR spectra of treated coals show that the forms of non-covalent bonds are changed by hydrothermal treatment, and the hydrolysis of ester and ether bonds and the pyrolysis of aromatic side chains also maybe occur at high treatment temperature. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  20. Optimisation of process parameters on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, J. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study is carried out to focus on optimisation of process parameters by simulation using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software. The process parameters are taken as the input in order to analyse the warpage value which is the output in this study. There are some significant parameters that have been used which are melt temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure, and cooling time. A plastic part made of Polypropylene (PP) has been selected as the study part. Optimisation of process parameters is applied in Design Expert software with the aim to minimise the obtained warpage value. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied in this study together with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to investigate the interactions between parameters that are significant to the warpage value. Thus, the optimised warpage value can be obtained using the model designed using RSM due to its minimum error value. This study comes out with the warpage value improved by using RSM.

  1. Holistic processing for bodies and body parts: New evidence from stereoscopic depth manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Vyas, Daivik B; Reed, Catherine L

    2016-10-01

    Although holistic processing has been documented extensively for upright faces, it is unclear whether it occurs for other visual categories with more extensive substructure, such as body postures. Like faces, body postures have high social relevance, but they differ in having fine-grain organization not only of basic parts (e.g., arm) but also subparts (e.g., elbow, wrist, hand). To compare holistic processing for whole bodies and body parts, we employed a novel stereoscopic depth manipulation that creates either the percept of a whole body occluded by a set of bars, or of segments of a body floating in front of a background. Despite sharing low-level visual properties, only the stimulus perceived as being behind bars should be holistically "filled in" via amodal completion. In two experiments, we tested for better identification of individual body parts within the context of a body versus in isolation. Consistent with previous findings, recognition of body parts was better in the context of a whole body when the body was amodally completed behind occluders. However, when the same bodies were perceived as floating in strips, performance was significantly worse, and not significantly different, from that for amodally completed parts, supporting holistic processing of body postures. Intriguingly, performance was worst for parts in the frontal depth condition, suggesting that these effects may extend from gross body organization to a more local level. These results provide suggestive evidence that holistic representations may not be "all-or-none," but rather also operate on body regions of more limited spatial extent.

  2. Modelling of hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Omelchenko, M.P.; Borshchev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented for the first time is a method of recalculating the hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles obtained in laboratory conditions for full-scale nozzles. From the experimental hydrothermal characteristics of nozzles observed in the laboratory it is allowed to calculate the hydrothermal characteristics of any other centrifugal nozzle whose diameter and dimensionless geometric characteristic are known

  3. Proposal of Heuristic Algorithm for Scheduling of Print Process in Auto Parts Supplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shimpei; Okuhara, Koji; Ueno, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Hiroaki

    We are interested in the print process on the manufacturing processes of auto parts supplier as an actual problem. The purpose of this research is to apply our scheduling technique developed in university to the actual print process in mass customization environment. Rationalization of the print process is depending on the lot sizing. The manufacturing lead time of the print process is long, and in the present method, production is done depending on worker’s experience and intuition. The construction of an efficient production system is urgent problem. Therefore, in this paper, in order to shorten the entire manufacturing lead time and to reduce the stock, we reexamine the usual method of the lot sizing rule based on heuristic technique, and we propose the improvement method which can plan a more efficient schedule.

  4. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  5. Different TDM/CH4 hydrothermal plume signatures: TAG site at 26N and serpentinized ultrabasic diapir at 15 degrees 05'N on the Mid-Atlantic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlou, J.L.; Bougault, H. (IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)); Nelsen, T.; Rona, P. (NOAA-AOML-OCD, Miami, FL (United States))

    1991-11-01

    As a part of the 1988 NOAA VENTS Program, CH{sub 4} and Mn tracers were used to identify and compare hydrothermal plumes found above the TAG Field (26{degrees}N) and in the rift valley at 15{degrees}N close to the eastern intersection of the ridge axis with the 15{degrees}20'N Fracture Zone at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Active hydrothermal venting was confirmed at TAG, based on elevated concentrations of total dissolved Mn (TDM up to 30 nmol/kg), high CH{sub 4} concentrations (up to 200 nL/L), and elevated nephelometry signals. Plumes of a different composition were identified at 15{degree}N with high CH{sub 4} concentrations (up to 400 nL/L), low total dissolved Mn concentrations (TDM < 1 nmol/kg) and no significant nephelometry signal. The different properties of these tracers and the different tracer ratios can be used to deduce vent fluid characteristics and compare one hydrothermal area to another. TDM/CH{sub 4} and Nephel/CH{sub 4} ratios at TEG are of the same order of magnitude as those observed at other spreading axis hydrothermal fields. At 15{degrees}N, the low TDM/CH{sub 4} ratio provides evidence of fluid circulation into ultrabasic rocks and offers a potentially useful and single method of exploring for hydrothermal activity associated with serpentinization. Mantle degassing through hydrothermal activity associated with serpentinization is an important process with respect to chemical and thermal exchanges between the upper mantle and the ocean. Different ratios of hydrothermal tracers (i.e., TDM/CH{sub 4}) provide a useful framework for identifying subseafloor processes along mid-oceanic ridges.

  6. A methodology for fault diagnosis in large chemical processes and an application to a multistage flash desalination process: Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifa, Enrique E.; Scenna, Nicolas J.

    1998-01-01

    In Part I, an efficient method for identifying faults in large processes was presented. The whole plant is divided into sectors by using structural, functional, or causal decomposition. A signed directed graph (SDG) is the model used for each sector. The SDG represents interactions among process variables. This qualitative model is used to carry out qualitative simulation for all possible faults. The output of this step is information about the process behaviour. This information is used to build rules. When a symptom is detected in one sector, its rules are evaluated using on-line data and fuzzy logic to yield the diagnosis. In this paper the proposed methodology is applied to a multiple stage flash (MSF) desalination process. This process is composed of sequential flash chambers. It was designed for a pilot plant that produces drinkable water for a community in Argentina; that is, it is a real case. Due to the large number of variables, recycles, phase changes, etc., this process is a good challenge for the proposed diagnosis method

  7. Geochemical constraints on chemolithoautotrophic reactions in hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.; McCollom, Thomas; Schulte, Mitchell D.

    1995-06-01

    Thermodynamic calculations provide the means to quantify the chemical disequilibrium inherent in the mixing of redeuced hydrothermal fluids with seawater. The chemical energy available for metabolic processes in these environments can be evaluated by taking into account the pressure and temperature dependence of the apparent standard Gibbs free energies of reactions in the S-H2-H2O system together with geochemical constraints on pH, activities of aqueous sulfur species and fugacities of H2 and/or O2. Using present-day mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater as a starting point, it is shown that each mole of H2S entering seawater from hydrothermal fluids represents about 200,000 calories of chemical energy for metabolic systems able to catalyze H2S oxidation. Extrapolating to the early Earth, which was likely to have had an atmosphere more reduced than at present, shows that this chemical energy may have been a factor of two or so less. Nevertheless, mixing of hydrothermal fluids with seawater would have been an abundant source of chemical energy, and an inevitable consequence of the presence of an ocean on an initially hot Earth. The amount of energy available was more than enough for organic synthesis from CO2 or CO, and/or polymer formation, indicating that the vicinity of hydrothermal systems at the sea floor was an ideal location for the emergence of the first chemolithoautotrophic metabolic systems.

  8. On the manufacturing of a gas turbine engine part through metal spinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, A. El; Astarita, A.; Scherillo, F.; Velotti, C.; Squillace, A.; Liguori, A.

    2018-05-01

    Metal spinning processes represents an interesting alternative to traditional sheet metal forming processes in several industrial contexts, such as automotive and aerospace. In this work, the production of a combustion chamber liner top prototype using AISI 304L stainless steel is proposed, in order to evaluate the process feasibility for the required part geometry. The prototypes production was carried out using a two-stage semiautomatic spinning process. The effects in terms of wall thickness reduction were investigated. Using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques, the microstructural behavior of the metal subjected to the forming process was investigated, while for an evaluation of the influence on the mechanical properties Vickers micro-indentation tests were performed. The main result of the process, as observed from all the investigation techniques adopted, is the formation of strain induced martensite due to the severe plastic deformation and cold reduction of the material, ranging in this case from 30% to 50%. In some areas of the part section, some rips indicating an excessive tensile stress were also detected.

  9. Evaluating the performance of free-formed surface parts using an analytic network process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueming; Ma, Yanqiao; Liang, Dezhi

    2018-03-01

    To successfully design parts with a free-formed surface, the critical issue of how to evaluate and select a favourable evaluation strategy before design is raised. The evaluation of free-formed surface parts is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem that requires the consideration of a large number of interdependent factors. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method that can systematically deal with all kinds of dependences. In this paper, the factors, which come from the life-cycle and influence the design of free-formed surface parts, are proposed. After analysing the interdependence among these factors, a Hybrid ANP (HANP) structure for evaluating the part’s curved surface is constructed. Then, a HANP evaluation of an impeller is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide-doped NaLaF 4 nanoparticles. JIGMET LADOL HEENA KHAJURIA SONIKA KHAJURIA ... Keywords. Citric acid; X-ray diffraction; down-conversion emission; energy transfer.

  11. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  12. Hydrothermal metallurgy for recycling of slag and glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Katsuyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The authors have applied hydrothermal reactions to develop recycling processing of slag or glass. As an example, under hydrothermal conditions such as 200 300 deg. C and 30 40MPa with H 2 O, powders made of glass can be sintered to become solidified glass materials containing about 10mass% H 2 O. When the glass containing H 2 O is heated again under normal pressure, the glass expands releasing H 2 O to make porous microstructure. H 2 O starts to emit just above the glass transition temperature. Therefore, when we have a glass with low glass transition temperature, we can make low temperature foaming glass. The SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glass is a candidate to be such a foaming glass. In this paper, we describe our recent trial on the fabrication of the low temperature foaming glass by using hydrothermal reaction.

  13. Dimensional metrology for process and part quality control in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available measurement technologies appear not sufficient. New solutions for measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration are necessary if micro......Micro manufacturing has gained interest over the last decade as the demand for micro mechanical components has increased. The need for dimensional metrology at micro scale is evident both in terms of quality assurance of components and products and in terms of process control. As critical...... manufacturing is to develop into industrial manufacturing solutions. In this paper the application of dimensional precision metrology to both component and process quality control will be demonstrated. The parts investigated are micro injection moulded polymer parts, typical for the field of micro manufacturing....

  14. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.M.V.; Vidal, F.V.; Isaacs, J.D.; Young, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In situ observations of submarine hydrothermal activity have been conducted in Punta Banda. Baja Califronia, Mexico, approximately 400 m from the coast and at a seawater depth of 30 m. The hydrothermal activity occurs within the Agua Blanca Fault, a major transverse structure of Northern Baja California. Hot springwater samples have been collected and analyzed. Marked differences exist between the submarine hot springwater, local land hot springwaters, groundwater, and local seawater. SiO 2 , HCO 3 , Ca, K, Li, B, Ba, Rb, Fe, Mn, As, and Zn are enriched in the submarine hot springwater, while Cl, Na, So 4 2 , Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, and perhaps Pb are depleted in relation to average and local seawater values. Very high temperatures, at the hydrothermal vents, have been recorded (102 0 C at 4-atm pressure). Visible gaseous emanations rich in CH 4 and N 2 coexist with the hydrothermal solutions. Metalliferous deposits, pyrite, have been encountered with high concentrations of Fe, S, Si, Al, Mn, Ca, and the volatile elements As, Hg, Sb, and Tl, X ray dispersive spectrometry (1500-ppm detection limit). X ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy of the isolated metalliferous precipitates indicate that the principal products of precipitation are pyrite and gypsum accompanied by minor amounts of amorphous material containing Si and Al. Chemical analyses and XRD of the reference control rocks of the locality (volcanics) versus the hydrothermally altered rocks indicate that high-temperature and high-pressure water-rock interactions can in part explain the water chemistry characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters. Their long residence time, the occurrence of an extensive marine sedimentary formation, their association with CH 4 and their similarities with connate waters of oil and gas fields suggest that another component of their genesis could be in cation exchange reactions within deeply buried sediments of marine origin

  15. An economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process in an auto parts manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Laing, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We assess the costs and consequences of a participatory ergonomics process at a Canadian car parts manufacturer from the perspective of the firm. Regression modeling was used with interrupted time series data to assess the impact of the process on several health measures. Consequences were kept in natural units for cost-effectiveness analysis, and translated into monetary units for cost-benefit analysis. The duration of disability insurance claims and the number of denied workers' compensation claims was significantly reduced. The cost-effectiveness ratio is $12.06 per disability day averted. The net present value is $244,416 for a 23-month period with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 10.6, suggesting that the process was worth undertaking (monetary units in 2001 Canadian dollars). Our findings emphasize the importance of considering a range of outcomes when evaluating an occupational health and safety intervention. Participatory ergonomics process can be cost-effective for a firm.

  16. Process and device for remote inspection of parts of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalfuss, H.

    1987-01-01

    The process is suitable for remote position inspection of the parts of the plant in a large hot cell, for example of a reprocessing plant. A device with a TV camera was selected as the inspection system, where pictures obtained by photography are compared (photogrammetry). The possible resolution is considerably increased by using two spatially movable separate picture systems with the associated drawing media. (DG) [de

  17. Treatment of uranium-containing effluent in the process of metallic uranium parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoqi

    1993-01-01

    The anion exchange method used in treatment of uranium-containing effluent in the process of metallic parts is the subject of the paper. The results of the experiments shows that the uranium concentration in created water remains is less than 10 μg/l when the waste water flowed through 10000 column volume. A small facility with column volume 150 litre was installed and 1500 m 3 of waste water can be cleaned per year. (1 tab.)

  18. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    OpenAIRE

    Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Lies, Carsten; Albert, André; Haase, Rico; Müller, Roland; Scholz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific s...

  19. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    . In the reported work, process simulations using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2015® are applied to a micro mechanical part to be fabricated by micro injection molding and with over-all dimensions of 12.0 × 3.0 × 0.8 mm³ and micro features (micro hole, diameter of 580 μm, and sharp radii down to 100 μm). Three...

  20. Application of processing maps in the optimization of the parameters of a hot working process. Part 2. Processing maps of a microalloyed medium carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Omar, A.; Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Part 1 of this work presents a revision of the general characteristics of the so called dynamic materials model on which processing maps are developed. In this part following the methodology described in part 1, processing maps of a microalloyed medium carbon steel are developed over a temperature range varying from 900 to 1.150 degree centigree at different true strain rates ranging from 10''-4 to 10s''-1. The analysis of these maps revealed a domain of dynamic recrystallization centred at about 1.1.50 degree centigree and strain rate 10 s''-1 and a domain of dynamic recovery centred at 900 degree centigree and 0,1 s''-1. (Author) 20 refs

  1. Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals that sulfur metabolism dominates the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Breier, J. A., Jr.; Jain, S.; Reed, D. C.; Dick, G.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal plumes occur when hot fluids from hydrothermal vents replete with chemically reduced elements and compounds like sulfide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, iron and manganese mix with cold, oxic seawater. Chemosynthetic microbes use these reduced chemicals to power primary production and are pervasive throughout the deep sea, even at sites far removed from hydrothermal vents. Although neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plumes have been well-studied, rising hydrothermal plumes have received little attention even though they represent an important interface in the deep-sea where microbial metabolism and particle formation processes control the transformation of important elements and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we used genome-resolved metagenomic analyses and thermodynamic-bioenergetic modeling to study the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes at five different hydrothermal vents spanning a range of geochemical gradients at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) in the Western Pacific Ocean. Our analyses show that differences in the geochemistry of hydrothermal vents do not manifest in microbial diversity and community composition, both of which display only minor variance across ELSC hydrothermal plumes. Microbial metabolism is dominated by oxidation of reduced sulfur species and supports a diversity of bacteria, archaea and viruses that provide intriguing insights into metabolic plasticity and virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer in the microbial community. The manifestation of sulfur oxidation genes in hydrogen and methane oxidizing organisms hints at metabolic opportunism in deep-sea microbes that would enable them to respond to varying redox conditions in hydrothermal plumes. Finally, we infer that the abundance, diversity and metabolic versatility of microbes associated with sulfur oxidation impart functional redundancy that could allow it to persist in the dynamic settings of hydrothermal plumes.

  2. Aspiration toward geothermal energy utilization in regional development plan. Part 6. ; Hydrothermal fluid utilization business in Matsuo-mura of Iwate prefecture. Chiiki keikaku ni okeru 'chinetsu riyo' eno hofu. 6. ; Iwateken Matsuomura no chinetsu nessui riyo jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otobe, Y; Furutate, E

    1992-10-31

    Twenty six years have passed since the first geothermal power station was constructed in Matsuo-mura of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This paper describes the history, the present situation and the future conception of the geothermal energy utilization in this village. This village includes Hachimantai of a vantage ground in the center and has the gross area of 233.8km[sup 2], the annual average temperature of 8.3 centigrade and the continuous snow cover period of about 100 days. The hot water leading facility was cooperatively constructed by Japan Metals and Chemicals, Hachimantai Hot Spring Development and Matsuo-mura. The total working expense is 539.3 million yen. Hot water sources are the condensate from the condenser of geothermal power plant and hot spring. This mixed hot water of 4.3 t/min is led to respective facilities. The hot water supplying channel has the length of 12.8km from the power station through the Hachimantai hot spring resort, Kamiyogi to Takaishino. Respective total areas of greenhouses using hydrothermal fluid in both districts are 1,075ha and the inlet temperature of hot water is 60 centigrade and kinds of crop are 5 like green pepper and others. Takaishino agricultural park has selected flower and ornamental plant culture such as poppy anemone, stock and statice which are suitable for this district of low temperature and insufficient sunshine. The planted area is 10,700m[sup 2]. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Rapid hydrothermal route to synthesize cubic-phase gadolinium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The elongated nanoscale systems, as produced via a hydrothermal process .... by adding several drops of 5 M NaOH solution under vigorous ... at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV. ..... remarkable distribution of nanoscale rods, with aspect ...

  4. Mathematical Optimal Sequence Model Development to Process Planes and Other Interconnected Surfaces of Complex Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kravchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience in application of multi-operational machines CNC (MOM CNC shows that they are efficient only in case of significantly increasing productivity and dramatically reducing time-to-market cycle of new products. Most full technological MOM capabilities are revealed when processing the complex body parts. The more complex is a part design and the more is its number of machined surfaces, the more tools are necessary for its processing and positioning, the more is an efficiency of their application. At the same time, the case history of using these machines in industry shows that MOM CNC are, virtually, used mostly for technological processes of universal equipment, which is absolutely unacceptable. One way to improve the processing performance on MOM CNC is to reduce nonproductive machine time through reducing the mutual idle movements of the working machine. This problem is solved using dynamic programming methods, one of which is the solution of the traveling salesman problem (Bellman's method. With a known plan for treatment of all elementary surfaces of the body part, i.e. the known number of performed transitions, each transition is represented as a vertex of some graph, while technological links between the vertices are its edges. A mathematical model is developed on the Bellman principle, which is adapted to technological tasks to minimize the idle time of mutual idle movements of the working machine to perform all transitions in the optimal sequence. The initial data to fill matrix of time expenditures are time consumed by the hardware after executing the i-th transition, and necessary to complete the j-transition. The programmer fills in matrix cells according to known routing body part taking into account the time for part and table positioning, tool exchange, spindle and table approach to the working zone, and the time of table rotation, etc. The mathematical model was tested when machining the body part with 36 transitions on the

  5. Geochronology of Hydrothermal Processes Leading to the Formation of the Au–U Mineralization at the Rompas Prospect, Peräpohja Belt, Northern Finland: Application of Paired U–Pb Dating of Uraninite and Re–Os Dating of Molybdenite to the Identification of Multiple Hydrothermal Events in a Metamorphic Terrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Peräpohja belt comprises a greenschist to amphibolite facies; multiply-folded supracrustal sequence of quartzites; mafic volcanics; carbonate rocks; black shales; mica schists and greywackes deposited from ca. 2.44 Ga to 1.92 Ga; during protracted rifting of the Archaean basement. Metamorphism and multiple folding of the basin fill occurred during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.92–1.80 Ga. The Rompas Au–U mineralization is hosted within deformed and metamorphosed calcsilicate veins in mafic volcanics. Textural evidence suggests that deposition and periods of uraninite re-mobilization were followed by localized hydrocarbon-bearing fluid flow which produced pyrobitumen crusts around grains of uraninite. Gold precipitated during the latest hydrothermal event at around 1.75 Ga. In situ U–Pb dating of uraninite by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS, and Re–Os dating of molybdenite, indicate that primary hydrothermal uranium mineralization forms two age clusters; about 2.03–2.01 and 1.95–1.94 Ga. Resetting of the U–Pb system and precipitation of new generations of uraninite are associated with major deformation and metamorphic stages of the Svecofennian orogeny at 1.91–1.89 Ga, 1.85 Ga, and 1.80 Ga. Gold deposition was synchronous with the emplacement of the 1.75–1.78 Ga late/post-orogenic granitoids. The gold-producing hydrothermal event is also recorded by Re–Os dating of molybdenite from the gold-bearing Mg-metasomatized metasedimentary and metavolcanic units at the Palokas prospect; a few kilometres from Rompas. Results of this study confirm that some domains in the structure of uraninite may preserve the original crystallization age, despite an overprinting amphibolite facies metamorphic and other hydrothermal events. The study supports the utility of in situ U–Pb dating of uraninite and the ability of Re–Os dating to assist in sorting out different hydrothermal events in areas with complex

  6. Platinum-group elements, S, Se and Cu in highly depleted abyssal peridotites from the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge (ODP Hole 1274A): Influence of hydrothermal and magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Harvey, Jason; González-Jiménez, José María; Hidas, Károly; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Gervilla, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Highly depleted harzburgites and dunites were recovered from ODP Hole 1274A, near the intersection between the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge and the 15°20'N Fracture Zone. In addition to high degrees of partial melting, these peridotites underwent multiple episodes of melt-rock reaction and intense serpentinization and seawater alteration close to the seafloor. Low concentrations of Se, Cu and platinum-group elements (PGE) in harzburgites drilled at around 35-85 m below seafloor are consistent with the consumption of mantle sulfides after high degrees (>15-20 %) of partial melting and redistribution of chalcophile and siderophile elements into PGE-rich residual microphases. Higher concentrations of Cu, Se, Ru, Rh and Pd in harzburgites from the uppermost and lowest cores testify to late reaction with a sulfide melt. Dunites were formed by percolation of silica- and sulfur-undersaturated melts into low-Se harzburgites. Platinum-group and chalcophile elements were not mobilized during dunite formation and mostly preserve the signature of precursor harzburgites, except for higher Ru and lower Pt contents caused by precipitation and removal of platinum-group minerals. During serpentinization at low temperature (desulfurization to S-poor sulfides (mainly heazlewoodite) and awaruite. Contrary to Se and Cu, sulfur does not record the magmatic evolution of peridotites but was mostly added in hydrothermal sulfides and sulfate from seawater. Platinum-group elements were unaffected by post-magmatic low-temperature processes, except Pt and Pd that may have been slightly remobilized during oxidative seawater alteration.

  7. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  8. Physician trainees' decision making and information processing: choice size and Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Martynenko, Melissa; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas; Federman, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Many patients expect their doctor to help them choose a Medicare prescription drug plan. Whether the size of the choice set affects clinicians' decision processes and strategy selection, and the quality of their choice, as it does their older patients, is an important question with serious financial consequences. Seventy medical students and internal medicine residents completed a within-subject design using Mouselab, a computer program that allows the information-acquisition process to be examined. We examined highly numerate physician trainees' decision processes, strategy, and their ability to pick the cheapest drug plan-as price was deemed the most important factor in Medicare beneficiaries' plan choice-from either 3 or 9 drug plans. Before adjustment, participants were significantly more likely to identify the lowest cost plan when facing three versus nine choices (67.3% vs. 32.8%, pinformation on each attribute (pdecision strategies focusing on comparing alternate plans across a single attribute (search pattern, pdecision process and strategy, numeracy, and amount of medical training, the odds were 10.75 times higher that trainees would choose the lowest cost Medicare Part D drug plan when facing 3 versus 9 drug plans (pdecision environment are needed and suggest physicians' role in their patients' Part D choices may be most productive when assisting seniors with forecasting their expected medication needs and then referring them to the Medicare website or helpline.

  9. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Interplay Between Saline Fluid Flow and Dynamic Permeability in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits document the interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability. Numerical simulations of multi-phase flow of variably miscible, compressible H20-NaCl fluids in concert with a dynamic permeability model can reproduce characteristics of porphyry copper and epithermal gold systems. This dynamic permeability model incorporates depth-dependent permeability profiles characteristic for tectonically active crust as well as pressure- and temperature-dependent relationships describing hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior. In response to focused expulsion of magmatic fluids from a crystallizing upper crustal magma chamber, the hydrothermal system self-organizes into a hydrological divide, separating an inner part dominated by ascending magmatic fluids under near-lithostatic pressures from a surrounding outer part dominated by convection of colder meteoric fluids under near-hydrostatic pressures. This hydrological divide also provides a mechanism to transport magmatic salt through the crust, and prevents the hydrothermal system to become "clogged" by precipitation of solid halite due to depressurization of saline, high-temperature magmatic fluids. The same physical processes at similar permeability ranges, crustal depths and flow rates are relevant for a number of active systems, including geothermal resources and excess degassing at volcanos. The simulations further suggest that the described mechanism can separate the base of free convection in high-enthalpy geothermal systems from the magma chamber as a driving heat source by several kilometers in the vertical direction in tectonic settings with hydrous magmatism. This hydrology would be in contrast to settings with anhydrous magmatism, where the base of the geothermal systems may be closer to the magma chamber.

  11. Hydrothermal systems on Mars: an assessment of present evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes have been suggested to explain a number of observations for Mars, including D/H ratios of water extracted from Martian meteorites, as a means for removing CO2 from the Martian atmosphere and sequestering it in the crust as carbonates, and as a possible origin for iron oxide-rich spectral units on the floors of some rifted basins (chasmata). There are numerous examples of Martian channels formed by discharges of subsurface water near potential magmatic heat sources, and hydrothermal processes have also been proposed as a mechanism for aquifer recharge needed to sustain long term erosion of sapping channels. The following geological settings have been identified as targets for ancient hydrothermal systems on Mars: channels located along the margins of impact crater melt sheets and on the slopes of ancient volcanoes; chaotic and fretted terranes where shallow subsurface heat sources are thought to have interacted with ground ice; and the floors of calderas and rifted basins (e.g. chasmata). On Earth, such geological environments are often a locus for hydrothermal mineralization. But we presently lack the mineralogical information needed for a definitive evaluation of hypotheses. A preferred tool for identifying minerals by remote sensing methods on Earth is high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, near-infrared spectroscopy, a technique that has been extensively developed by mineral explorationists. Future efforts to explore Mars for ancient hydrothermal systems would benefit from the application of methods developed by the mining industry to look for similar deposits on Earth. But Earth-based exploration models must be adapted to account for the large differences in the climatic and geological history of Mars. For example, it is likely that the early surface environment of Mars was cool, perhaps consistently below freezing, with the shallow portions of hydrothermal systems being dominated by magma-cryosphere interactions. Given the smaller

  12. Vein networks in hydrothermal systems provide constraints for the monitoring of active volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Luigi; Di Luccio, Francesca; Esposito, Alessandra; Ventura, Guido

    2017-03-10

    Vein networks affect the hydrothermal systems of many volcanoes, and variations in their arrangement may precede hydrothermal and volcanic eruptions. However, the long-term evolution of vein networks is often unknown because data are lacking. We analyze two gypsum-filled vein networks affecting the hydrothermal field of the active Lipari volcanic Island (Italy) to reconstruct the dynamics of the hydrothermal processes. The older network (E1) consists of sub-vertical, N-S striking veins; the younger network (E2) consists of veins without a preferred strike and dip. E2 veins have larger aperture/length, fracture density, dilatancy, and finite extension than E1. The fluid overpressure of E2 is larger than that of E1 veins, whereas the hydraulic conductance is lower. The larger number of fracture intersections in E2 slows down the fluid movement, and favors fluid interference effects and pressurization. Depths of the E1 and E2 hydrothermal sources are 0.8 km and 4.6 km, respectively. The decrease in the fluid flux, depth of the hydrothermal source, and the pressurization increase in E2 are likely associated to a magma reservoir. The decrease of fluid discharge in hydrothermal fields may reflect pressurization at depth potentially preceding hydrothermal explosions. This has significant implications for the long-term monitoring strategy of volcanoes.

  13. Thermo-mechanical process modelling of industrially pultruded parts having UD and CFM layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Numerical process simulation of an industrially pultruded rectangular hollow profile is presented. The product contains the continuous filament mat (CFM) and the uni-directional (UD) roving layers made of glass/polyester. The distortion and stress evolutions together with the temperature and degree...... of fields are predicted by the simulation tool developed by the authors. The predicted deformation pattern at the end of the process is found to agree quite well with the one for the real pultruded part in a commercial pultrusion company. A parametric study is also performed based on the total volumetric...... shrinkage of the resin system during curing. The process induced residual stresses are calculated in the in-plane directions which have the potential to influence the internal stress levels during the service loading conditions....

  14. Rare earth mobility in hydrothermal ore-forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Schade, J.; Scheepers, R.; Watkeys, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Rocks and ores which form by magmatic processes display a range of chondrite-normalised rare earth profiles. One REE (rare earth elements) profile feature which seems unrelated to magmatic processes is the birdwing profile, in which both heavy and light rare earths are enriched relative to the middle rare earths. Birdwing rare earth profiles are an easily identified geochemical anomaly. It is proposed that rare earth geochemistry could be applied in geochemical prospecting for ore formed by hydrothermal processes. 5 figs

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  16. A methodology for fault diagnosis in large chemical processes and an application to a multistage flash desalination process: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifa, Enrique E.; Scenna, Nicolas J.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new strategy for fault diagnosis in large chemical processes (E.E. Tarifa, Fault diagnosis in complex chemistries plants: plants of large dimensions and batch processes. Ph.D. thesis, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, 1995). A special decomposition of the plant is made in sectors. Afterwards each sector is studied independently. These steps are carried out in the off-line mode. They produced vital information for the diagnosis system. This system works in the on-line mode and is based on a two-tier strategy. When a fault is produced, the upper level identifies the faulty sector. Then, the lower level carries out an in-depth study that focuses only on the critical sectors to identify the fault. The loss of information produced by the process partition may cause spurious diagnosis. This problem is overcome at the second level using qualitative simulation and fuzzy logic. In the second part of this work, the new methodology is tested to evaluate its performance in practical cases. A multiple stage flash desalination system (MSF) is chosen because it is a complex system, with many recycles and variables to be supervised. The steps for the knowledge base generation and all the blocks included in the diagnosis system are analyzed. Evaluation of the diagnosis performance is carried out using a rigorous dynamic simulator

  17. Three phase heat and mass transfer model for unsaturated soil freezing process: Part 2 - model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaning; Xu, Fei; Li, Bingxi; Kim, Yong-Song; Zhao, Wenke; Xie, Gongnan; Fu, Zhongbin

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to validate the three-phase heat and mass transfer model developed in the first part (Three phase heat and mass transfer model for unsaturated soil freezing process: Part 1 - model development). Experimental results from studies and experiments were used for the validation. The results showed that the correlation coefficients for the simulated and experimental water contents at different soil depths were between 0.83 and 0.92. The correlation coefficients for the simulated and experimental liquid water contents at different soil temperatures were between 0.95 and 0.99. With these high accuracies, the developed model can be well used to predict the water contents at different soil depths and temperatures.

  18. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drossel, W-G; Lies, C; Albert, A; Haase, R; Müller, R; Scholz, P

    2016-01-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts. (paper)

  19. Mild hydrothermal treatment to prepare highly dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Taishi, Toshinori; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with improved dispersion property have been prepared by a mild and fast hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal process avoids using harsh oxidants and organic solvents, which is environmental friendly and greatly decreases the damage to intrinsic structure of MWCNTs. The modified MWCNTs were highly soluble in polar solvents such as water, ethanol and dimethylformamide. Morphological observation by TEM indicated that the diameter and inherent structure were well reserved in modified MWCNTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify functional groups created on the MWCNT surface, and to determine rational parameters of hydrothermal process.

  20. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  1. Some relations between asymptotic results for dead-time-distorted processes. Part I. The expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. On the one hand, it should provide us with a deeper insight into the mechanism of these processes. On the other hand, we shall arrive at some new forms of asymptotic results not commonly known, in particular those pertaining to an extended dead time. In addition, the novel approach permits independent checking of earlier results (some of which had been at variance with previous claims). In view of the usually quite cumbersome arithmetic involved, such controls are certainly most welcome. In this first part all the relations concerning the asymptotic expectation values will be discussed; the second part will do the same for the variances. A more elegant treatment of these problems, based on some general asymptotic results for renewal processes of the type first derived by Smith must be postponed for the moment since the corresponding formulae for a modified process are not yet readily available. We hope to be able to fill this gap in a near future

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ferreira, Nildemar A.M.; Rumbao, Ana Carolina S. Coutinho; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150°C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Ferreira, N.A.M.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Rumbao, A.C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150 deg C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  4. Self-Calibrated In-Process Photogrammetry for Large Raw Part Measurement and Alignment before Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendikute, Alberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A; Zatarain, Mikel; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Leizea, Ibai

    2017-09-09

    Photogrammetry methods are being used more and more as a 3D technique for large scale metrology applications in industry. Optical targets are placed on an object and images are taken around it, where measuring traceability is provided by precise off-process pre-calibrated digital cameras and scale bars. According to the 2D target image coordinates, target 3D coordinates and camera views are jointly computed. One of the applications of photogrammetry is the measurement of raw part surfaces prior to its machining. For this application, post-process bundle adjustment has usually been adopted for computing the 3D scene. With that approach, a high computation time is observed, leading in practice to time consuming and user dependent iterative review and re-processing procedures until an adequate set of images is taken, limiting its potential for fast, easy-to-use, and precise measurements. In this paper, a new efficient procedure is presented for solving the bundle adjustment problem in portable photogrammetry. In-process bundle computing capability is demonstrated on a consumer grade desktop PC, enabling quasi real time 2D image and 3D scene computing. Additionally, a method for the self-calibration of camera and lens distortion has been integrated into the in-process approach due to its potential for highest precision when using low cost non-specialized digital cameras. Measurement traceability is set only by scale bars available in the measuring scene, avoiding the uncertainty contribution of off-process camera calibration procedures or the use of special purpose calibration artifacts. The developed self-calibrated in-process photogrammetry has been evaluated both in a pilot case scenario and in industrial scenarios for raw part measurement, showing a total in-process computing time typically below 1 s per image up to a maximum of 2 s during the last stages of the computed industrial scenes, along with a relative precision of 1/10,000 (e.g. 0.1 mm error in 1 m) with

  5. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, S C

    2000-01-01

    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or l...

  6. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented

  7. Surface characterization of activated chalcopyrite particles via the FLSmidth ROL process. Part 1: Electron microscope investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karcz, Adam Paul; Damø, Anne Juul; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    Because of its unique semiconductor properties, the world’s most abundant copper mineral (chalcopyrite) is refractory with respect to atmospheric leaching using traditional ferric sulfate lixiviants. A novel approach to address this issue – conducted at FLSmidth – utilizes a mechanochemical Rapid...... of copper(II) to dope the semiconductor lattice and thereby "activate" the chalcopyrite, thereby reducing leach times below 2 hours (>98% recovery). Because the activation plays a major role in accelerating the leaching step, it is critical to understand the nature of this intermediate and its part...... in the ROL process. The current work presents results from electron microscope investigations of surface-activated particles....

  8. Utilizing product configuration systems for supporting the critical parts of the engineering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies have to respond to increasing demands to provide highly customized and complex products with high quality at competitive prices. In order to respond to those challenges ETO companies have started to implement product configuration systems (PCS) to increase...... to be supported with the PCSs is not described in the current literature. This paper aims to pursue that research opportunity by presenting a framework, which aims to identifying the critical parts of the engineering processes in order to identify where it most beneficial to implement a PCSs and how to prioritize...

  9. Sodium removal from CSRDM lower part by water vapour - CO2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar Raj, S.I.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium is the primary and secondary coolant in fast reactors. Primary and secondary circuits components like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (CSRDM), pumps, heat exchangers etc. handle liquid sodium. Sodium has good affinity to oxygen and reacts vigorously with water. Hence sodium cleaning is the first and important activity in the maintenance of the components. In reactor components this cleaning process also helps in removing a major part of radioactive contaminants after which they are subjected to chemical decontamination. There are several methods available for removing sodium from components. Out of these, the water vapour-CO 2 process is selected for large components such as pumps, heat exchangers etc. while steam cleaning is used for the core sub assemblies. The cleaning processes are to be closely monitored to ensure safety because the release of hydrogen is to be kept below 4 % during the process. This paper discusses the in house facility and the experience in the successful use of the process in the cleaning of CSRDM. (author)

  10. Use of statistic control of the process as part of a quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, S.; Lewis, C.

    2013-01-01

    One of the technical requirements of the standard IRAM ISO 17025 for the accreditation of testing laboratories, is the assurance of the quality of the results through the control and monitoring of the factors influencing the reliability of them. The grade the factors contribute to the total measurement uncertainty, determines which of them should be considered when developing a quality assurance plan. The laboratory of environmental measurements of strontium-90 in the accreditation process, performs most of its determinations in samples with values close to the detection limit. For this reason the correct characterization of the white, is a critical parameter and is verified through a letter for statistical process control. The scope of the present work is concerned the control of whites and so it was collected a statistically significant amount of data, for a period of time that is covered of different conditions. This allowed consider significant variables in the process, such as temperature and humidity, and build a graph of white control, which forms the basis of a statistical process control. The data obtained were lower and upper limits for the preparation of the charter white control. In this way the process of characterization of white was considered to operate under statistical control and concludes that it can be used as part of a plan of insurance of the quality

  11. Flower-like CuO synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and crystalline structure, the control of the shape and size of the semiconductors ... hydrothermal process using copper threads as precursor and pointed out ... 2.3 Instrumentation. Power X-ray .... Measurement of Tianjin University. References.

  12. Hydrothermal decomposition of liquid crystal in subcritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Xuning; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Lu, Shangming; Hou, Lianjiao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal technology can effectively decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl. • The decomposition rate reached 97.6% under the optimized condition. • Octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl was mainly decomposed into simple and innocuous products. • The mechanism analysis reveals the decomposition reaction process. - Abstract: Treatment of liquid crystal has important significance for the environment protection and human health. This study proposed a hydrothermal process to decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl. Experiments were conducted with a 5.7 mL stainless tube reactor and heated by a salt-bath. Factors affecting the decomposition rate of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl were evaluated with HPLC. The decomposed liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. Under optimized conditions i.e., 0.2 mL H 2 O 2 supply, pH value 6, temperature 275 °C and reaction time 5 min, 97.6% of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl was decomposed into simple and environment-friendly products. Based on the mechanism analysis and products characterization, a possible hydrothermal decomposition pathway was proposed. The results indicate that hydrothermal technology is a promising choice for liquid crystal treatment

  13. Metal mobilisation in hydrothermal sediments at the TAG Hydrothermal Field (MAR, 26°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, A. M.; Lichtschlag, A.; Martins, S.; Barriga, F. J.; Petersen, S.; Murton, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Metalliferous sediments in the vicinity of hydrothermal systems are enriched in base metals, but few studies have addressed their potential as mineral resources. These metalliferous sediments have been accumulated by different processes and reflect modifications of the primary mineral deposits by: oxidation of the chimney materials, in situ precipitation of low-temperature minerals and mass wasting. To understand the post-formation processes in metalliferous sediments, we investigated sub-seafloor metal mobilisation in different geological environments. This presentation focuses on the TAG Hydrothermal Field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°N) and explores sediment and pore water compositions using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. We use reactive transport modelling to interpret the degree of metal remobilisation and to identify the most important geochemical reactions in the different sediments. The pore water concentrations measured in sediments above inactive sulphide mounds present constant major elements composition that indicates this environment is dominated by complete exchange with seawater. The sediments, that are mainly composed of hematite and goethite formed during the oxidation of sulphides, have low Cu concentrations (sediments and capped by more recent sediment slumping. In the depositionary channels, pore waters show metal concentrations affected by diagenesis and redox-sensitive metals are released at depth (e.g. Mn2+ and Cu2+). The leaching of the primary sulphides (e.g. deprecated grains of chalcopyrite), and metal mobilisation lead to an enrichment of Cu and Zn at shallower depth. Here, some stratigraphic horizons scavenge metallic cations back into solid phases and form Mn-oxide crusts between 30 and 60 cm, in which Cu concentrations also increase. Our results demonstrate that metal mobilisation differs depending on the geological environment and their related accumulation processes, causing the absence of Cu on the top of inactive hydrothermal mounds but enriched

  14. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  15. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Arcuri, L.; Dotti, M.; Pace, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Ricci, G.; Basta, M.; Cali, V.; Pagliai, V.

    1989-05-01

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  16. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process. PMID:23298126

  17. Optimization and Simulation of SLM Process for High Density H13 Tool Steel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Petri; Riipinen, Tuomas; Laukkanen, Anssi; Andersson, Tom; Jokinen, Antero; Revuelta, Alejandro; Ruusuvuori, Kimmo

    This paper demonstrates the successful printing and optimization of processing parameters of high-strength H13 tool steel by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). D-Optimal Design of Experiments (DOE) approach is used for parameter optimization of laser power, scanning speed and hatch width. With 50 test samples (1×1×1cm) we establish parameter windows for these three parameters in relation to part density. The calculated numerical model is found to be in good agreement with the density data obtained from the samples using image analysis. A thermomechanical finite element simulation model is constructed of the SLM process and validated by comparing the calculated densities retrieved from the model with the experimentally determined densities. With the simulation tool one can explore the effect of different parameters on density before making any printed samples. Establishing a parameter window provides the user with freedom for parameter selection such as choosing parameters that result in fastest print speed.

  18. Hot granules medium pressure forming process of AA7075 conical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guojiang; Zhao, Changcai; Peng, Yaxin; Li, Ying

    2015-05-01

    High strength aluminum alloy plate has a low elongation at room temperature, which leads to the forming of its components need a high temperature. Liquid or gas is used as the pressure-transfer medium in the existing flexible mould forming process, the heat resistance of the medium and pressurizing device makes the application of aluminum alloy plate thermoforming restricted. To solve this problem, the existing medium is replaced by the heat-resisting solid granules and the general pressure equipments are applied. Based on the pressure-transfer performance test of the solid granules medium, the feasibility that the assumption of the extended Drucker-Prager linear model can be used in the finite element analysis is proved. The constitutive equation, the yield function and the theoretical forming limit diagram(FLD) of AA7075 sheet are established. Through the finite element numerical simulation of hot granules medium pressure forming(HGMF) process, not only the influence laws of the process parameters, such as forming temperature, the blank-holder gap and the diameter of the slab, on sheet metal forming performance are discussed, but also the broken area of the forming process is analyzed and predicted, which are coincided with the technological test. The conical part whose half cone angle is 15° and relative height H/d 0 is 0.57, is formed in one process at 250°C. The HGMF process solves the problems of loading and seal in the existing flexible mould forming process and provides a novel technology for thermoforming of light alloy plate, such as magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy and titanium alloy.

  19. Using TRIZ to Improve the Procurement Process of Spare Parts in the Taiwan Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Naval Maintenance and Repair Command Acquisition Management Unit (NMRC-AMU of the Taiwan Navy suffered from poor stock control of spare parts and inadequate modification of requested items and manufacturer/part codes during recent years. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate core categorization, coordination, and procurement (CCP problems, to formulate feasible solutions and then to improve the CCP performances of spare parts in NMRC-AMU. The Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ method was applied to solve this issue. A problem hierarchy analysis (PHA was first used to identify the core problems. Then, the 40 principles were used to determine the ideal improvement solution and formulate a solution strategy that simultaneously simplified CCP processed and enhanced the correctness of procurement tasks, thereby elevating CCP efficiency, supporting the Taiwan Navy repair missions, and satisfying fleet maintenance and servicing demands. The results indicated that total 6925 requests for coordination and procurement were submitted. Of these requests, 4366 requests had been completed (with total 102 cases, and the CCP efficiency is 63.0%. After improvement by this study, a total of 4529 items were submitted and 3592 executed items were completed (with a total of 172 cases, and the CCP efficiency is 79.3%. The improvement percentage of the CCP efficiency and completed cases are 30.6% and 68.6%, respectively. The performances are good and the TRIZ could be applied for other military forces.

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the hydrothermal transformation α-FeOOH → α-Fe2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.; Diamandescu, L.; Mihaila-Tarabsanu, D.; Rusi, A.; Moraria, M.

    1990-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of the hydrothermal transformation α-FeOOH→α-Fe 2 O 3 was studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. From the reaction isotherms, a monomolecular, first order reaction was found to characterise the hydrothermal transformation of alpha oxihydroxide to the alpha iron oxide. The rate constant as well as the activation energy of this process were determined. No intermediate phases were identified in the hydrothermal samples. The thermodynamic properties of the hydrothermal system α-FeOOH→α-Fe 2 O 3 in correlation with Moessbauer spectroscopy data are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Production of fuel range oxygenates by supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulosic model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic model compounds and aspen wood are processed at supercritical hydrothermal conditions to study and understand feedstock impact on biocrude formation and characteristics. Glucose and xylose demonstrate similar yield of biocrude and biochar, similar biocrude characteristics, and it ......Lignocellulosic model compounds and aspen wood are processed at supercritical hydrothermal conditions to study and understand feedstock impact on biocrude formation and characteristics. Glucose and xylose demonstrate similar yield of biocrude and biochar, similar biocrude characteristics...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  3. Development of industry processes simulators. Part II (continuous casting); Desarrollo de simuladores para procesos industriales. Parte II (Colada continua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.; Mosqueda, A.; Sauce, V.; Morales, R.; Ramos, A.; Solario, G.

    2006-07-01

    The understanding of steel thermal behavior is very important in order to take care the quality of the products like billets and slabs due to these; this work shows the joint of a subroutine to simulate the heat transfer conditions during the continuous casting process to the model for simulating the process described by the present authors in a previous work; the result is the temperature profiles and surface temperature graphics of the steel, then they are compared with data carried out or real operating conditions. (Author). 15 refs.

  4. Effect of biomass pretreatment on the product distribution and composition resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of short rotation coppice willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry...... from the HTL of willow and proposes short rotation coppice as an alternative biomass feedstock for biofuels production. Alkaline–thermal pretreatment, besides making high dry matter pumpable feedstock slurries, also led to an increase in the production of the bio-crude product with an oxygen content...

  5. Presence of sulphites in different types of partly processed meat products prepared for grilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.; Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Parunović, N.

    2017-09-01

    In the period January 2016 to May 2017, the presence and levels of sulfite were examined in 270 samples of hamburger, sausage (various types), pljeskavica (Serbian-style meat patties of various types) and ćevapi or ćevapčići (grill kebabs) from the Serbian market. Some (12.59%) of these partly processed meat products contained sulfites, expressed as SO2, at levels above 10 mg/kg, and so did not meet requirements laid down in the National Regulation. In the remainder of the meat products (87.41%), sulfite contents were below 10 mg/kg, which is considered as “not detected”. By groups, 100% of hamburgers, 91.76% of sausages and 90.48% of pljeskavica met requirements of National Regulation. The meat product group with the biggest percentage of non-compliant meat products in which sulfites were detected was the ćevapi or ćevapčići - 18.10% of them contained sulfites. All in all, most of the partly processed meat products from the Serbian market met the National Regulation regarding sulfite content, and they were safe for consumption. Nonetheless, the high percentage of ćevapi or ćevapčići that contained sulfites leads us to conclude that regular and periodic control is necessary and one of the most important steps in ensuring safe and quality meat products for consumers.

  6. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination - Process and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S C; Mohd Amin, S; Lee, T W

    2016-01-01

    The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP)/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP) examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent. This paper discusses the process and issues encountered in implementing standard setting to the Conjoint Part 1 examination. Critical to success in standard setting were judges' understanding of the process of the modified Angoff method, defining the borderline candidate's characteristics and the composition of judges. These were overcome by repeated hands-on training, provision of detailed guidelines and careful selection of judges. In December 2013, 16 judges successfully standard set the Part 1 Conjoint examinations, with high inter-rater reliability: Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.926 (Applied Knowledge Test), 0.921 (Key Feature Problems).

  7. Parton saturation and $N_{part}$ scaling of semi-hard processes in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, Dima E; McLerran, L; 10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00420-9

    2003-01-01

    We argue that the suppression of high p/sub t/ hadrons discovered recently in heavy ion collisions at RHIC may be a consequence of saturation in the color glass condensate. We qualitatively and semi- quantitatively describe the data, in particular, the dependence upon the number of nucleon participants. We show that if parton saturation sets in at sufficiently small energy, then in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies the cross sections of semi-hard processes should scale approximately with the number of participants, N/sub part/. Our results provide a possible explanation of both the absence of apparent jet quenching at SPS energies and its presence at RHIC. Under the same assumption we predict that in semi-central and central pA (dA) collisions at collider energies the dependence of semi-hard processes on the number of participating nucleons of the nucleus will change to ~(N/sub part//sup A/)/sup 1/2/. The forthcoming data on dA collisions will provide a crucial test of this description. (61 ...

  8. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-017-0135-1). In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues Final Report – CRADA #PNNL/277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Fjare, K. A.; Dunn, B. C.; McDonald, S. L.; Dassor, G.

    2010-07-28

    This project was performed as a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the participants: Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (ADM), ConocoPhillips (COP), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Funding from the federal government was provided by the Office of the Biomass Program within the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy assistant secretariat as part of the Thermochemical Conversion Platform. The three-year project was initiated in August 2007 with formal signing of the CRADA (#PNNL/277) in March 3, 2008 with subsequent amendments approved in November of 2008 and August of 2009. This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL and the CRADA partners ADM and COP. It is considered Protected CRADA Information and is not available for public disclosure. The work conducted during this project involved developing process technology at PNNL for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of agricultural and biorefinery residues and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) of the aqueous byproduct from the liquefaction step. Related work performed by the partners included assessment of aqueous phase byproducts, hydroprocessing of the bio-oil product and process analysis and economic modeling of the technology.

  10. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    partially collapsed phases in the 20% NaCl solution, dry clay exposed to 20% NaCl solution showed changes although they were still limited. Here, formation of Na-illite or fully contracted layers took place and Mg was concluded to have migrated from octahedral lattice positions to interlamellar sites, implying partial dissolution. The thickness of the montmorillonite particles were comparable to that of untreated MX-80 montmorillonite for the hydrothermally treated clay saturated with NaCl solutions, while it was significantly larger for the air-dry clay exposed to such solutions at heating to 110 deg C. The larger thickness may be an example of 'Ostwald ripening' or aggregation with simultaneous cementation by precipitated silicious matter. TEM EDX analyses showed that partial replacement of octahedral Mg by Al yielding a drop in interlayer charge had occurred especially in the air-dry clay powder heated to 110 deg C under simultaneous exposure to NaCl solutions. Silicious matter, partly in the form of quartz or cristobalite, may have precipitated. The silica may have originated from tetrahedral positions in the montmorillonite lattice where aluminum can have replaced it, hence forming beidellite, or by dissolution of the smectite component. Since the temperature was higher than in a KBS-3 repository and the salt content appreciably higher than what is normally found at 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline rock, the degrading processes may be less significant in the buffer clay. On the other hand, the hydrothermal conditions in the lab study prevailed only for a month while they will last for much longer time in the repository.

  11. [Analysis of chondroitin sulfate content of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum with different processing methods and different parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui-Ze; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2018-02-01

    The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP) with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. Next, the chondroitin sulfate was digested by chondroitinase ABC.The contents of total chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate A, B and C in the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with freeze-drying processing is 14.13,11.99,1.74,0.32 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with boiling processing is 10.71,8.97,2.21,1.40 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP without blood is 12.47,9.47,2.64,0.07 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. And the content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with blood is 8.22,4.39,0.87,0.28 g·kg⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP with freeze-drying is higher than that in CCP with boiling processing.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP without blood is higher than that in CCP with blood. The chondroitin sulfate content in differerent paris of the velvet with the same processing methods was arranged from high to low as: wax slices, powder, gauze slices, bone slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Hydrothermal alteration and permeability changes in granitic intrusions related to Sn-W deposits : case study of Panasqueira (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Gaetan; Sizaret, Stanislas; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Pinto, Filipe

    2017-04-01

    The Panasqueira Sn-W deposit occurs as a dense network of flat wolframite and cassiterite-bearing quartz veins concentrated in the vicinity of a hidden greisen cupola, and to a lesser extent as disseminated cassiterites in the greisen. Previous studies (Thadeu 1951; 1979) have suggested that the Panasqueira deposit is genetically related to magmatic activity for which the most part is unexposed, and being only represented by the greisen cupola. Hydrothermal fluid circulation during the final stages of granite crystallisation has probably led to the greisenisation of the cupola followed by the deposition of the mineralization in the veins system. Mineral replacement reactions that occurred during the greisenisation could affect rock properties (porosity, density and permeability) which control fluid circulation in the granite. This study aims to investigate effects of greisenisation reactions on the dynamic (time varying) permeability that ultimately leads to fluid circulation in the greisen cupola. To do so, petrological study and experimental determinations of hydrodynamic features (porosity and permeability) for different granite alteration levels and petrographic types (unaltered granite to greisen) are combined and then integrated in coupled numerical models of fluid circulation around the granitic intrusion. Greisen occurs in the apical part of the granitic body and results in the pervasive alteration of the granite along the granite-schist contact. This greisen consists mainly of quartz and muscovite formed by the replacement of feldspars and bleaching of biotites of the initial granite. Otherwise, greisen is generally vuggy which suggests a porosity increase of the granite during hydrothermal alteration processes. This porosity increase has a positive effect on the permeability of the granitic system. Indeed, experimental measurements of permeability with the Paterson press indicate that the initial granite is impermeable (10-20 m2) whereas the greisen is

  13. Concepts of increasing productivity and reducing the processing cost of machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Кленов

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic conditions to reduce the cost of processing technology and improve productivity through the use of modern cutting tools produced by leading foreign firms producing tools have been appraised from theory in the work. Theoretically, it has been found that an increase in the cost of processing varies according to extremum dependence, passing the minimum point. It is possible to reduce the minimum processing cost due to the increase of productivity using cutting edge tools, characterized by a high capacity for work in high cutting temperatures. The criterion showing the technological price cost minimum is the ratio of the expenditures on workers’ wages to the expenditures on the cutting tools, it being quite specific for various processing conditions. To analyze the possibilities of practical use of the proposed criterion, a complex of experimental researches of the technological prime cost and productivity of the processing with hard alloy cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings produced by the company «Iscar» has been carried out. It has been established that their use makes it possible by more than one half to reduce the labour consumption and overall costs as compared to the hard alloy cutting tools traditionally used in home industry. It has been shown that this effect is achieved by increasing the cutting speed and feed due to increased wear resistance and heat resistance of the «Iscar» company tools. It was established that it is much more possible to achieve low processing cost at milling than at turning. It was stated with regard to all major expenditures including the workers' wages, the cost of the cutting tools, equipment and other costs, allowing more correctly estimate the cost-effectiveness of mechanical processing. Experiments confirmed that the main condition for reducing the processing cost to its minimum value is to increase the processing performance through the use of a heat-resistant and wear-resistant cutting

  14. Geophysical image of the hydrothermal system of Merapi volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdina, S.; Friedel, S.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Budi-Santoso, A.; Suhari; Suryanto, W.; Rizal, M. H.; Winata, E.; Kusdaryanto

    2017-01-01

    We present an image of the hydrothermal system of Merapi volcano based on results from electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential, and CO2 flux mappings. The ERT models identify two distinct low-resistivity bodies interpreted as two parts of a probably interconnected hydrothermal system: at the base of the south flank and in the summit area. In the summit area, a sharp resistivity contrast at ancient crater rim Pasar-Bubar separates a conductive hydrothermal system (20-50 Ω m) from the resistive andesite lava flows and pyroclastic deposits (2000-50,000 Ω m). The existence of preferential fluid circulation along this ancient crater rim is also evidenced by self-potential data. The significative diffuse CO2 degassing (with a median value of 400 g m-2 d-1) is observed in a narrow vicinity of the active crater rim and close to the ancient rim of Pasar-Bubar. The total CO2 degassing across the accessible summital area with a surface of 1.4 ṡ 105 m2 is around 20 t d-1. Before the 2010 eruption, Toutain et al. (2009) estimated a higher value of the total diffuse degassing from the summit area (about 200-230 t d-1). This drop in the diffuse degassing from the summit area can be related to the decrease in the magmatic activity, to the change of the summit morphology, to the approximations used by Toutain et al. (2009), or, more likely, to a combination of these factors. On the south flank of Merapi, the resistivity model shows spectacular stratification. While surficial recent andesite lava flows are characterized by resistivity exceeding 100,000 Ω m, resistivity as low as 10 Ω m has been encountered at a depth of 200 m at the base of the south flank and was interpreted as a presence of the hydrothermal system. No evidence of the hydrothermal system is found on the basis of the north flank at the same depth. This asymmetry might be caused by the asymmetry of the heat supply source of Merapi whose activity is moving south or/and to the asymmetry in

  15. Facile and green synthesis of (La0.95Eu0.052O2S red phosphors with sulfate-ion pillared layered hydroxides as a new type of precursor: controlled hydrothermal processing, phase evolution and photoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a facile and green route for the synthesis of (La0.95Eu0.052O2S red phosphors of controllable morphologies, with the sulfate-type layered hydroxides of Ln2(OH4SO4centerdot2H2O (Ln = La and Eu as a new type of precursor. The technique takes advantage of the fact that the precursor has had the exact Ln:S molar ratio of the targeted phosphor, thus saving the hazardous sulfurization reagents indispensable to traditional synthesis. Controlled hydrothermal processing at 120 °C yielded phase-pure Ln2(OH4SO4centerdot2H2O crystallites in the form of either nanoplates or microprisms, which can both be converted into Ln2O2S phosphor via a Ln2O2SO4 intermediate upon annealing in flowing H2 at a minimum temperature of ~ 700 °C. The nanoplates collapse into relatively rounded Ln2O2S particles while the microprisms retain well their initial morphologies at 1 200 °C, thus yielding two types of red phosphors. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE studies found two distinct charge transfer (CT excitation bands of O2− → Eu3+ at ~ 270 nm and S2− → Eu3+ at ~ 340 nm for the Ln2O2S phosphors, with the latter being stronger and both significantly stronger than the intrinsic intra-f transitions of Eu3+. The two types of phosphors share high similarities in the positions of PLE/PL (photoluminescence bands and both show the strongest red emission at 627 nm (5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ under S2− → Eu3+ CT excitation at 340 nm. The PLE/PL intensities show clear dependence on particle morphology and calcination temperature, which were investigated in detail. Fluorescence decay analysis reveals that the 627 nm red emission has a lifetime of ~ 0.5 ms for both types of the phosphors.

  16. Experimental hydrothermal alteration of crystalline and radiation-damaged pyrochlore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, T.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.-M.; Poeml, P.; Golla-Schindler, U.; Berndt, J.; Wirth, R.; Pollok, K.; Janssen, A.; Putnis, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed hydrothermal experiments with a crystalline microlite and a heavily self-irradiation-damaged (i.e., X-ray amorphous) betafite in a solution containing 1 mol/l HCl and 1 mol/l CaCl 2 at 175 deg. C for 14 days. The well-crystalline microlite grains were partly (∼5-10 μm rim) replaced by a Ca and Na-poorer, defect pyrochlore phase with a larger unit-cell and a sharp chemical gradient at the interface (on a nm scale) to the unreacted core. The amorphous betafite grains (up to ∼2 mm in diameter), on the other hand, were completely transformed into an intergrowth of different crystalline phases (polycrystalline anatase and rutile, a yet unidentified Nb-Ta oxide, and a Y-REE phase), showing complex non-equilibrium structures. Our experimental observations bear a remarkable resemblance to those made on natural samples. They indicate that the processes of the fluid-pyrochlore interaction are influenced by self-irradiation structural damage and that thermodynamic equilibrium models can hardly be applied to adequately describe such systems

  17. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal magma systems: geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.F.

    1980-08-01

    A brief discussion is given of the geochemical objectives and questions that must be addressed in such an evaluation. A summary of the currently published literature that is pertinent in answering these questions is presented for each of the five areas: The Geysers-Clear Lake region, Long Valley, Rio Grand Rift, Roosevelt Hot Springs, and the Salton Trough. The major geochemical processes associated with proposed hydrothermal sites are categorized into three groups for presentation: geochemistry of magma and associated volcanic rocks, geochemistry of hydrothermal solutions, and geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration. (MHR)

  18. The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    1994-01-01

    Magmatic fluids, both vapour and hypersaline liquid, are a primary source of many components in hydrothermal ore deposits formed in volcanic arcs. These components, including metals and their ligands, become concentrated in magmas in various ways from various sources, including subducted oceanic crust. Leaching of rocks also contributes components to the hydrothermal fluid—a process enhanced where acid magmatic vapours are absorbed by deeply circulating meteoric waters. Advances in understanding the hydrothermal systems that formed these ore deposits have come from the study of their active equivalents, represented at the surface by hot springs and volcanic fumaroles.

  19. Improved Nondestructive Disassembly Process using Augmented Reality and RFID Product/Part Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ile Mircheski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The waste from electric and electronic equipment and discarded automobiles in the past grew rapidly and resulted with waste in billions of tones. The aim of this paper is to present an improved non-destructive disassembly process of electromechanical products using augmented reality based devices, such as glasses, tablets or mobile phones, and RFID technology for valuable product/part tracking. The proposed method includes tagging of components of interest in the product assembly by using a RFID tag. The valuable product is marked with specific ID number written in the RFID tag, in order to declare the product. The relevant data such as material and weight of components, guidelines for non-destructive disassembly for the valuable product and removing of component of interest will be obtained with the assistance of RFID tag and a centralized database. This modular system offers guidelines for the non-destructive disassembly process for obtaining valuable component of interest intended for easy repairs, remanufacture, reuse or recycling. The guidelines are in video presentation format using augmented reality for easy visualization of non-destructive disassembly process. The benefits of proposed modular system includes biggest percentage of reuse of the valuable components, easy maintaining, improved material recycling, environmental protection and greater total return form end of life products.

  20. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  1. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  2. In defence of andragogy. Part 2: An educational process consistent with modern nursing's aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, F

    1997-12-01

    In 1987 the English National Board (1987) made it clear that it supported a move towards an andragogical approach to nurse education. Recently such moves have been questioned as has the validity of andragogy (Darbyshire 1993). In response to such challenges this paper extends some of the arguments made in the article 'In defence of andragogy' (Milligan 1995). It is argued that andragogy provides a framework within which care and other crucial aspects of the nurse-patient/client relationship can be mirrored and thereby facilitated in future practitioners. In the socialization processes inherent in nurse education, care is surely difficult to teach or facilitate unless the philosophy and methods are consistent with such ends. Furthermore, it is frequently argued that as educationalists we need to be consistent in our approach to students with that which we hope to see in their future practice (Bevis & Murray 1990). Andragogy offers a medium through which this can be facilitated. It is essentially a humanistic educational process that values the individual. The power relationship between the educator and student is much more horizontal than is found in the historically common hierarchical educational relationship. An educational process based upon andragogy therefore mirrors important parts of the nurse-patient/client relationship. It offers a theory of education consistent with the aims of modern day nursing practice. We should seek to improve our understanding of andragogy and no longer conceptualize it as one end of a false dichotomy with pedagogy.

  3. Y-12 Development Organization technical progress report: Part 3 -- Metal processing, period ending March 1, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcutt, W.G. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the effort to downsize its uranium processing facilities, the Y-12 Plant has supported an investigation to identify extraction solvents that would both work efficiently in centrifugal contactors and be disposed of easily. Various organic ethers, hydroxy ethers, ether ketones, acids, amides, and diketones were studied for their ability to extract uranyl nitrate from aqueous solutions. Although many of these solvents were obtained commercially, others had to be synthesized in-house. The authors found a large range of extraction coefficients for these solvents. Because of steric hindrance or some other factor, certain ethers performed poorly. On the other hand, various mono- and diethers of tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol exhibited excellent extraction and stripping coefficients for uranyl nitrate, justifying purchase of a pilot plant batch of one of this family of solvents. Likewise, the authors determined the extraction coefficient for one of the two amides synthesized in-house to be quite high

  4. High-resolution insights into episodes of crystallization, hydrothermal alteration and remelting in the Skaergaard intrusive complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wotzlaw, Joern-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schaltegger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    of the most incompatible trace element rich horizon, similar to 100 m above SH. As the Skaergaard intrusion is also the most classic example of a shallow meteoric hydrothermal system, this work documents the alternating processes in a life of an intrusion with periods of hydrothermal cooling, heating by new...

  5. Hydrothermal alteration styles in ancient and modern orogenic gold deposits, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craw, D.; Upton, P.; MacKenzie, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Orogenic hydrothermal systems in the South Island of New Zealand were active during Mesozoic and late Cenozoic collisional deformation and metamorphism of greywacke/schist terranes. Observations on the currently active mountain-building environment yield insights on processes occurring in the upper 5-15 km of the crust, and observations on an adjacent lithologically identical exhumed ancient mountain belt provide information on processes at 10-20 km in the crust. Hydrothermal fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic dehydration reactions and/or circulating topographically driven meteoric water in these mountain belts. Three geochemically and mineralogically different types of hydrothermal alteration and vein mineralisation occurred in these orogenic belts, and gold enrichment (locally economic) occurred in some examples of each of these three types. The first type of alteration involved fluids that were in or near chemical equilibrium with their greenschist facies host rocks. Fluid flow was controlled by discontinuous fractures, and by microshears and grain boundaries in host rocks, in zones from metres to hundreds of metres thick. Vein and alteration mineralogy was similar to that of the host rocks, and included calcite and chlorite. The second type of alteration occurred where the fluids were in distinct disequilibrium with the host rocks. Fracture permeability was important for fluid flow, but abundant host rock alteration occurred as well. The alteration zones were characterised by decomposition of chlorite and replacement by ankeritic carbonate in zones up to tens of metres thick. The mineralising fluid was deep-sourced and initially rock-equilibrated, with some meteoric input. The third type of mineralisation was controlled almost exclusively by fracture permeability, and host rock alteration was minor (centimetre scale). This mineralisation type commonly involved calcite and chlorite as vein and alteration minerals, and mineralisation fluids had a major

  6. Study of an induction brazing process for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sung Ho; Joung, Chang Young; Kim, Ka Hye; Heo, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In general, brazing is used to seal out the feed through part of thin wires, and several studies in nuclear fields used brazing as a sealing method. However, previous techniques using a manual torch or an induction brazing by blowing Ar gas as a shield gas cannot avoid soot, which is difficult to remove. In addition, because their brazing quality is not uniform, instrumentation cables cannot deliver signals due to damage of excessive heat. In this study, an automatically controlled induction brazing system has been developed including a vacuum chamber to prevent generation of soot. A loop is a facility to carry out irradiation test for nuclear fuels and materials in a research reactor by measuring the irradiation behavior of them in a timely manner. Because flow condition of coolant in a loop should be the same with that of NPPs', highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the loop. Therefore, sealing of the pressure boundary is one of the most important processes in fabricating the in-pile test section (IPS). In particular, sensors such as thermocouples, LVDTs and SPNDs are attached in a test rig and deliver signals to the measuring device at the outside of the reactor pool through instrumentation cables, which pass through the pressure boundary of the test rig. Therefore, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part to not leak the coolant.

  7. Development Algorithm of the Technological Process of Manufacturing Gas Turbine Parts by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Kyarimov, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    The technology of the selective laser melting (SLM) allows making products from powders of aluminum, titanium, heat-resistant alloys and stainless steels. Today the use of SLM technology develops at manufacture of the functional parts. This in turn requires development of a methodology projection of technological processes (TP) for manufacturing parts including databases of standard TP. Use of a technique will allow to exclude influence of technologist’s qualification on made products quality, and also to reduce labor input and energy consumption by development of TP due to use of the databases of standard TP integrated into a methodology. As approbation of the developed methodology the research of influence of the modes of a laser emission on a roughness of a surface of synthesized material was presented. It is established that the best values of a roughness of exemplars in the longitudinal and transversal directions make 1.98 μm and 3.59 μm respectively. These values of a roughness were received at specific density of energy 6.25 J/mm2 that corresponds to power and the speed of scanning of 200 W and 400 mm/s, respectively, and a hatch distance of 0.08 mm.

  8. PART 2: LARGE PARTICLE MODELLING Simulation of particle filtration processes in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Boiger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In filtration processes it is necessary to consider both, the interaction of thefluid with the solid parts as well as the effect of particles carried in the fluidand accumulated on the solid. While part 1 of this paper deals with themodelling of fluid structure interaction effects, the accumulation of dirtparticles will be addressed in this paper. A closer look is taken on theimplementation of a spherical, LAGRANGIAN particle model suitable forsmall and large particles. As dirt accumulates in the fluid stream, it interactswith the surrounding filter fibre structure and over time causes modificationsof the filter characteristics. The calculation of particle force interactioneffects is necessary for an adequate simulation of this situation. A detailedDiscrete Phase Lagrange Model was developed to take into account thetwo-way coupling of the fluid and accumulated particles. The simulation oflarge particles and the fluid-structure interaction is realised in a single finitevolume flow solver on the basis of the OpenSource software OpenFoam.

  9. Hydrothermal performance of catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Libera, Joseph A.; Dumesic, James A.; Pagan-Torres, Yomaira J.

    2018-04-10

    A high surface area catalyst with a mesoporous support structure and a thin conformal coating over the surface of the support structure. The high surface area catalyst support is adapted for carrying out a reaction in a reaction environment where the thin conformal coating protects the support structure within the reaction environment. In various embodiments, the support structure is a mesoporous silica catalytic support and the thin conformal coating comprises a layer of metal oxide resistant to the reaction environment which may be a hydrothermal environment.

  10. Unveiling the transformation and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in contrasting hydrothermal vents using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyang; Zhuang, Wan-E; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Wang, Bing-Jye; Kuo, Fu-Wen

    2017-03-15

    The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). The DOC and absorption coefficient a 280 were both lower in the two hydrothermal vents off the Orchid Island and on the Green Island than in the surrounding seawater and the two vents off the Kueishantao Island, indicating effective removals of DOM in the former two hydrothermal systems owing to possible adsorption/co-precipitation and thermal degradation respectively. The four hydrothermal DOM showed notable differences in the absorption spectral slope S 275-295 , humification index HIX, biological index BIX, EEM spectra, and the relative distributions of seven PARAFAC components. The results demonstrated a high diversity of chemical composition and transformation history of DOM under contrasting hydrothermal conditions. The little change in the hydrothermal DOC after 28-day microbial incubations indicated a low bioavailability of the bulk DOM, and different PARAFAC components showed contrasting bioavailability. The results have profound implications for understanding the biogeochemical cycling and environmental effects of hydrothermal DOM in the marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electron microscopy study of microbial mat in the North Fiji basin hydrothermal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems consisting of hydrothermal vent, hydrothermal sediment and microbial mat are widely spread around the ocean, particularly spreading axis, continental margin and back-arc basin. Scientists have perceived that the hydrothermal systems, which reflect the primeval earth environment, are one of the best places to reveal the origin of life and extensive biogeochemical process of microbe-mineral interaction. In the present study multiline of analytical methods (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) were utilized to investigate the mineralogy/chemistry of microbe-mineral interaction in hydrothermal microbial mat. Microbial mat samples were recovered by Canadian scientific submersible ROPOS on South Pacific North Fiji basin KIOST hydrothermal vent expedition 1602. XRD analysis showed that red-colored microbial mat contains Fe-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Various morphologies of minerals in the red-colored microbial mat observed by SEM are mainly showed sheath shaped, resembled with Leptothrix microbial structure, stalks shaped, similar with Marioprofundus microbial structure and globule shaped microbial structures. They are also detected with DNA analysis. The cross sectional observation of microbial structures encrusted with Fe-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide at a nano scale by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique was developed to verify the structural/biogeochemical properties in the microbe-mineral interaction. Systematic nano-scale measurements on the biomineralization in the microbial mat leads the understandings of biogeochemical environments around the hydrothermal vent.

  13. Enhancing professionalism using ethics education as part of a dental licensure board's disciplinary action. Part 2. Evidence of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeau, Muriel J

    2009-01-01

    Pretest scores were analyzed for 41 professionals referred for ethics assessment by a dental licensing board. Two were exempt from instruction based on pretest performance on five well-validated measures; 38 completed an individualized course designed to remediate deficiencies in ethical abilities. Statistically significant change (effect sizes ranging from .55 to 5.0) was observed for ethical sensitivity (DEST scores), moral reasoning (DIT scores), and role concept (essays and PROI scores). Analysis of the relationships between ability deficiencies and disciplinary actions supports the explanatory power of Rest's Four Component Model of Morality. Of particular interest is the way the model helped referred professionals deconstruct summary judgments about character and see them as capacities that can be further developed. The performance-based assessments, especially the DEST, were particularly useful in identifying shortcomings in ethical implementation. Referred practitioners highly valued the emphasis on ethical implementation, suggesting the importance of addressing what to do and say in ethically challenging cases. Finally, the required self-assessments of learning confirm the value of the process for professional renewal (i.e., a renewed commitment to professional ideals) and of enhanced abilities not only to reason about moral problems, but to implement actions.

  14. Limited evidence of individual differences in holistic processing in different versions of the part-whole paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Mackenzie A; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    The part-whole paradigm was one of the first measures of holistic processing and it has been used to address several topics in face recognition, including its development, other-race effects, and more recently, whether holistic processing is correlated with face recognition ability. However the task was not designed to measure individual differences and it has produced measurements with low reliability. We created a new holistic processing test designed to measure individual differences based on the part-whole paradigm, the Vanderbilt Part Whole Test (VPWT). Measurements in the part and whole conditions were reliable, but, surprisingly, there was no evidence for reliable individual differences in the part-whole index (how well a person can take advantage of a face part presented within a whole face context compared to the part presented without a whole face) because part and whole conditions were strongly correlated. The same result was obtained in a version of the original part-whole task that was modified to increase its reliability. Controlling for object recognition ability, we found that variance in the whole condition does not predict any additional variance in face recognition over what is already predicted by performance in the part condition.

  15. Learning about hydrothermal volcanic activity by modeling induced geophysical changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda M.; Napoli, Rosalba

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by ongoing efforts to understand the nature and the energy potential of geothermal resources, we devise a coupled numerical model (hydrological, thermal, mechanical), which may help in the characterization and monitoring of hydrothermal systems through computational experiments. Hydrothermal areas in volcanic regions arise from a unique combination of geological and hydrological features which regulate the movement of fluids in the vicinity of magmatic sources capable of generating large quantities of steam and hot water. Numerical simulations help in understanding and characterizing rock-fluid interaction processes and the geophysical observations associated with them. Our aim is the quantification of the response of different geophysical observables (i.e. deformation, gravity and magnetic field) to hydrothermal activity on the basis of a sound geological framework (e.g. distribution and pathways of the flows, the presence of fractured zones, caprock). A detailed comprehension and quantification of the evolution and dynamics of the geothermal systems and the definition of their internal state through a geophysical modeling approach are essential to identify the key parameters for which the geothermal system may fulfill the requirements to be exploited as a source of energy. For the sake of illustration only, the numerical computations are focused on a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island by simulating a generic 1-year unrest and estimating different geophysical changes. We solved (i) the mass and energy balance equations of flow in porous media for temperature, pressure and density changes, (ii) the elastostatic equation for the deformation field and (iii) the Poisson’s equations for gravity and magnetic potential fields. Under the model assumptions, a generic unrest of 1-year engenders on the ground surface low amplitude changes in the investigated geophysical observables, that are, however, above the accuracies of the modern

  16. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  18. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  19. Process maps for plasma spray: Part 1: Plasma-particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Delwyn L.; Neiser, Richard A. Jr.; Wan, Yuepeng; Sampath, Sanjay

    2000-01-01

    This is the first paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The aim of the study is to develop a more fundamental understanding of plasma-particle interactions, droplet-substrate interactions, deposit formation dynamics and microstructural development as well as final deposit properties. The purpose is to create models that can be used to link processing to performance. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spray of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle diameters, temperatures, and velocities were measured in various areas of the spray plume. Samples were produced for analysis of microstructures and properties. An empirical model was developed, relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of the plasma gas flow field and in-flight particles under different operating conditions were also performed. In addition to the parameters which were experimentally investigated, the effect of particle injection velocity was also considered. The simulation results were found to be in good general agreement with the experimental data

  20. Body-part specific interactions of action verb processing with motor behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Anne; Niccolai, Valentina; Sieksmeyer, Jan; Arnzen, Stephanie; Indefrey, Peter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2017-06-15

    The interaction of action-related language processing with actual movement is an indicator of the functional role of motor cortical involvement in language understanding. This paper describes two experiments using single action verb stimuli. Motor responses were performed with the hand or the foot. To test the double dissociation of language-motor facilitation effects within subjects, Experiments 1 and 2 used a priming procedure where both hand and foot reactions had to be performed in response to different geometrical shapes, which were preceded by action verbs. In Experiment 1, the semantics of the verbs could be ignored whereas Experiment 2 included semantic decisions. Only Experiment 2 revealed a clear double dissociation in reaction times: reactions were facilitated when preceded by verbs describing actions with the matching effector. In Experiment 1, by contrast, there was an interaction between verb-response congruence and a semantic variable related to motor features of the verbs. Thus, the double dissociation paradigm of semantic motor priming was effective, corroborating the role of the motor system in action-related language processing. Importantly, this effect was body part specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatry training in the United Kingdom--part 2: the training process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, N; Kasiakogia, K

    2015-01-01

    In the second part of this diptych, we shall deal with psychiatric training in the United Kingdom in detail, and we will compare it--wherever this is meaningful--with the equivalent system in Greece. As explained in the first part of the paper, due to the recently increased emigration of Greek psychiatrists and psychiatric trainees, and the fact that the United Kingdom is a popular destination, it has become necessary to inform those aspiring to train in the United Kingdom of the system and the circumstances they should expect to encounter. This paper principally describes the structure of the United Kingdom's psychiatric training system, including the different stages trainees progress through and their respective requirements and processes. Specifically, specialty and subspecialty options are described and explained, special paths in training are analysed, and the notions of "special interest day" and the optional "Out of programme experience" schemes are explained. Furthermore, detailed information is offered on the pivotal points of each of the stages of the training process, with special care to explain the important differences and similarities between the systems in Greece and the United Kingdom. Special attention is given to The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Membership Exams (MRCPsych) because they are the only exams towards completing specialisation in Psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Also, the educational culture of progressing according to a set curriculum, of utilising diverse means of professional development, of empowering the trainees' autonomy by allowing initiative-based development and of applying peer supervision as a tool for professional development is stressed. We conclude that psychiatric training in the United Kingdom differs substantially to that of Greece in both structure and process. Τhere are various differences such as pure psychiatric training in the United Kingdom versus neurological and medical modules in Greece, in

  2. Isotopic evidence for hydrothermal discharge into anoxic seawater, Sudbury basin, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, R.E.S.; Davies, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Errington and Vermilion sedex Zn-Cu-Pb deposits occur within hydrothermal carbonate and chert that form part of a carbonaceous slate unit, the contact unit, at the base of the Onwatin formation. Within the underlying Onaping formation sulphur and organic carbon increase upward but maintain S/C org ratios near 0.36, indicative of diagenetic sulphide formed by biogenic sulphate reduction, a process that also accounts for 13 C-depleted carbonates in these rocks. δ 34 S-values in pyrite are close to + 7 0/00 throughout the Onaping but decrease abruptly to +3 0/00 in the contact unit; this decrease coincides with the first appearance of S/C org >> 0.36. Both the decrease in δ 34 S and increase in S/C org ratios result from venting of hydrothermal sulphur into the water column. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures average 170 deg C at the proposed vent site and 125 deg C in the distal contact unit sediment. The isotopic compositions of water, calculated using these temperatures and the isotopic compositions of carbonates, are - 1 0/00 for the sedex deposits at the vent site and - 3 0/00 in the distal sediments. (author). 56 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  3. Carbon dioxide in magmas and implications for hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the solubility, origin, abundance, and degassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) in magma-hydrothermal systems, with applications for those workers interested in intrusion-related deposits of gold and other metals. The solubility of CO2 increases with pressure and magma alkalinity. Its solubility is low relative to that of H2O, so that fluids exsolved deep in the crust tend to have high CO2/H2O compared with fluids evolved closer to the surface. Similarly, CO2/H2O will typically decrease during progressive decompression- or crystallization-induced degassing. The temperature dependence of solubility is a function of the speciation of CO2, which dissolves in molecular form in rhyolites (retrograde temperature solubility), but exists as dissolved carbonate groups in basalts (prograde). Magnesite and dolomite are stable under a relatively wide range of mantle conditions, but melt just above the solidus, thereby contributing CO2 to mantle magmas. Graphite, diamond, and a free CO2-bearing fluid may be the primary carbon-bearing phases in other mantle source regions. Growing evidence suggests that most CO2 is contributed to arc magmas via recycling of subducted oceanic crust and its overlying sediment blanket. Additional carbon can be added to magmas during magma-wallrock interactions in the crust. Studies of fluid and melt inclusions from intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks yield ample evidence that many magmas are vapor saturated as deep as the mid crust (10-15 km) and that CO2 is an appreciable part of the exsolved vapor. Such is the case in both basaltic and some silicic magmas. Under most conditions, the presence of a CO2-bearing vapor does not hinder, and in fact may promote, the ascent and eruption of the host magma. Carbonic fluids are poorly miscible with aqueous fluids, particularly at high temperature and low pressure, so that the presence of CO2 can induce immiscibility both within the magmatic volatile phase and in hydrothermal systems

  4. Surface-discharging hydrothermal systems at Yucca Mountain: Examining the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses exposures of altered rock that have been thought to form by recent discharge of water from depth. They were examined to address a concern that hydrothermal processes could compromise the isolation capability of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Suspected hot-spring and hydrothermal-vent deposits are more likely the products of infiltration of meteoric water into newly deposited and still-hot pyroclastic flows >12 Myr ago

  5. MANAGING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS AS PART OF THE MECHANISM OF STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Gusev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have proven that, at present one of the priority research areas as part of the Development Strategy of the Food Processing Industry of the Russian Federation until 2020 is to develop effective mechanisms for sustainable socio-economic development of industrial enterprises. This article investigated the logic of strategic planning within the framework of sustainable economic growth, analyzed the structure of strategic planning, study the subject of strategic planning in the management of sustainable development of enterprises, justified the basic principles of strategic planning for the effective management of sustainable development of industrial enterprises, as well as the complex of organizational tactical activities of operational management strategy for sustainable development of the enterprise. The observation revealed that currently there was a high need for the framework of the branch, departmental and state programs implemented in industrial management of scientific and methodological approaches of strategic planning. Studies have shown that these approaches in its conceptual entity should be based on the growth potential of the sustainable development of meat processing plants in space and time in order to achieve high competitive advantages. Conducted a systematic analysis of industry conditions proved that the problem of sustainable operation and development of meat processing enterprises as a problem of management and control is relatively new, unexplored and highly relevant. On the contrary, it is the basis of modern management strategy and management is a concept and methodology of the so-called adaptive enterprise development under the action of various external and internal factors, risks that may threaten its economic stability and sustainability.

  6. First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.

    2001-12-01

    parasitic to Awu volcano. It has a summit crater or small caldera, about 800 m across and breached to the northwest. A dredge hauled within the caldera returned numerous un-abraded fragments of fresh pumiceous dacite glass with prominent phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, plus small angular fragments of a similar but less vesicular lithology. Coatings of soft ferruginous deposit on some fragments suggest that the caldera is hydrothermally active. A highlight of the expedition was a visit to Banua Wuhu, classed as an active volcano (eruption in 1919) whose summit is just exposed at low tide. Gas bubbling, subsurface sonic activity, and venting of hydrothermal fluids with temperatures around 50ºC are known to occur on the summit at around 10 m depth, and ferruginous oxide deposits several mm thick are common. A multibeam bathymetric chart to 1000 m was prepared and deeper narrow-beam echo sounding show that Banua Wuhu is a parasitic feature on the north-western side of adjacent Mahenetang Island, also a volcanic construction, the combined edifice exceeding 3000 m in height. We recovered thoroughly altered porphyritc andesite containing disseminated pyrite and a carbonate-chlorite-clay mineral assemblage. In summary, while the IASSHA cruise located only a single but potentially significant example of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity, we collected much valuable new geological and oceanographic data on two contrasted areas in northeastern Sulawesi that with on going post-cruise processing will greatly expand our knowledge of these regions. Binns and Permana Co-Chief Scientists

  7. On the theory system of hydrothermal uranium metallization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Letian

    2011-01-01

    Based on summarizing the mass of research outcome of the predecessors, the author attempts to make a brief generalization on the theory system of hydrothermal uranium mineralization in China. The system of uranium metallization is founded in the basic way of uranium source-migration-transportation-richment-reservation. The system mainly consists of the following frames: (1) mineralization type of silification zone; (2) age gap of mineralization to host rock; (3) alkli metasomatism; (4) metallogenic layer of crust; (5)integratation of 4 types mineralization (granite, volcanics, carbonaceous-siliceous-argilaceous rock and sandstone) in tectonic-hydrothermal process; (6) pre-enrichment process of metallization; (7) decouplement of granite magma evolution; (8) types of rich ore by high tempreture sericitization; (9)basalt event;(10) rock and ore formation by HARCON. (authors)

  8. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhai, Shikui; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei

    2018-04-01

    The study of hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough can help us to uncover the hydrothermal mineralization characteristics in the back-arc basin during the early expanding stage. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from both the middle and southern trough are studied in this paper. First of all, using optical microscope to confirm the mineral compositions, characteristics of crystal shape, paragenetic relationship and minerals crystallization order. Then the minerals chemical composition were analyzed in virtue of electron microprobe. On these basis, the paragenetic sequence and the mineralization characteristics of the hydrothermal deposits were discussed. The results show that the hydrothermal deposit from the mid-Okinawa Trough belongs to Zn-Cu-rich type, consisting dominantly of sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, etc. The minerals crystallization order is first generation pyrite(PyI)-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-galena-second generation pyrite(PyII)-amorphous silica. While the deposit from the southern Okinawa Trough is Ba-Zn-Pb-rich type mainly composing of barite, sphalerite, galena, etc. The minerals crystallization order is barite-pyrite-sphalerite-tetrahedrite-galena-chalcopyrite-amorphous silica. Hydrothermal fluid temperature in the mid-Okinawa Trough undergoes a process from high to low, which is high up to 350 °C in the early stage, but decreasing gradually with the evolution of hydrothermal fluid. On the contrary, the hydrothermal activity in the southern Okinawa Trough is low temperature dominated, but the mineralization environment is unstable and the fluid temperature changes drastically during the period of hydrothermal activity.

  9. AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    wft*:¥A:ft:i:ft& OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL AV-8B REMANUFACTURE PROGRAM AS PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE DEFENSE ACQUISITION BOARD...Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994 B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/23/99 C. Report’s Point...NAVY FOR RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION SUBJECT: Audit Report on the AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense

  10. Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Paine, Drew; Lee, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Slides from Charlotte P. Lee's presentation at the 2015 iConference on our paper "Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle: Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups".

  11. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Ahmad; Danial Saeed Pirzada

    2014-01-01

    This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management) by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally famil...

  12. On-line Data Transmission, as Part of the Seismic Evaluation Process in the Buildings Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin Dragomir, Claudiu; Dobre, Daniela; Craifaleanu, Iolanda; Georgescu, Emil-Sever

    2017-12-01

    The thorough analytical modelling of seismic actions, of the structural system and of the foundation soil is essential for a proper dynamic analysis of a building. However, the validation of the used models should be made, whenever possible, with reference to results obtained from experimental investigations, building instrumentation and monitoring of vibrations generated by various seismic or non-seismic sources. In Romania, the permanent seismic instrumentation/monitoring of buildings is part of a special follow-up activity, performed in accordance with the P130/1999 code for the time monitoring of building behaviour and with the seismic design code, P100-2013. By using the state-of-the-art modern equipment (GeoSIG and Kinemetrics digital accelerographs) in the seismic network of the National Institute for Research and Development URBAN-INCERC, the instrumented buildings can be monitored remotely, with recorded data being sent to authorities or to research institutes in the field by a real-time data transmission system. The obtained records are processed, computing the Fourier amplitude spectra and the response spectra, and the modal parameters of buildings are determined. The paper presents some of the most important results of the institute in the field of building monitoring, focusing on the situation of some significant instrumented buildings located in different parts of the country. In addition, maps with data received from seismic stations after the occurrence of two recent Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes, showing the spatial distribution of ground accelerations, are presented, together with a comparative analysis, performed with reference to previous studies in the literature.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli Endotoxin by Soft Hydrothermal Processing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toru; Okano, Shinya; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are a fever-producing by-product of gram-negative bacteria commonly known as pyrogens. It is essential to remove endotoxins from parenteral preparations since they have multiple injurious biological activities. Because of their strong heat resistance (e.g., requiring dry-heat sterilization at 250°C for 30 min) and the formation of various supramolecular aggregates, depyrogenation is more difficult than sterilization. We report here that soft hydrothermal processing, which has many advantages in safety and cost efficiency, is sufficient to assure complete depyrogenation by the inactivation of endotoxins. The endotoxin concentration in a sample was measured by using a chromogenic limulus method with an endotoxin-specific limulus reagent. The endotoxin concentration was calculated from a standard curve obtained using a serial dilution of a standard solution. We show that endotoxins were completely inactivated by soft hydrothermal processing at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system. Moreover, it is easy to remove endotoxins from water by soft hydrothermal processing similarly at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min, without any requirement for ultrafiltration, nonselective adsorption with a hydrophobic adsorbent, or an anion exchanger. These findings indicate that soft hydrothermal processing, applied in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system, can inactivate endotoxins and may be useful for the depyrogenation of parenterals, including end products and medical devices that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of dry heat treatments. PMID:19502435

  14. Influence of bases on hydrothermal synthesis of titanate nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sikhwivhilu, LM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available a hydrothermal process. 14 In this study we report on the effect of base concentration, temperature and base type on the formation of nanotubes which form bundles. New information about the mechanism of the formation of the tubes is provided.... It appeared as though longer tubes were initially formed and then broke into shorter pieces with different sizes. The tube fracture is believed to be due to tube instability in base concentration. This clearly shows that depending on the experimental...

  15. Risk-based Process Development of Biosimilars as Part of the Quality by Design Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, several quality by design (QbD) studies demonstrated the benefit of systematic approaches for biopharmaceutical development. However, only very few studies identified biosimilars as a special case of product development. The targeted quality profile of biosimilars is strictly defined by the originator's product characteristic. Moreover, the major source of prior knowledge is the experience with the originator product itself. Processing this information in biosimilar development has a major effect on risk management and process development strategies. The main objective of this contribution is to demonstrate how risk management can facilitate the implementation of QbD in early-stage product development with special emphasis on fitting the reported approaches to biosimilars. Risk assessments were highlighted as important tools to integrate prior knowledge in biosimilar development. The risk assessment process as suggested by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH Q9) was reviewed and three elements were identified to play a key role in targeted risk assessment approaches: proper understanding of target linkage, risk assessment tool compliance, and criticality threshold value. Adjusting these steps to biosimilar applications helped to address some unique challenges of these products such as a strictly defined quality profile or a lack of process knowledge. This contribution demonstrates the need for tailored risk management approaches for the risk-based development of biosimilars and provides novel tools for the integration of additional knowledge available for these products. The pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges such as profit loss and price competition. Companies are forced to rationalize business models and to cut costs in development as well as manufacturing. These trends recently hinder the implementation of any concepts that do not offer certain financial benefit or promise a long return of investment. Quality by

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetic reduced graphene oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jianfeng; Shi, Min; Ma, Hongwei; Yan, Bo; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An environmental friendly and efficient route for preparation of magnetic reduced graphene oxide composite with a one-step hydrothermal method was demonstrated. The reducing process was accompanied by generation of magnetic nanoparticles. Highlights: → A one-step hydrothermal method for preparation of MN-CCG was demonstrated. → Glucose was used as the 'green' reducing agent. → The reducing process was accompanied by generation of magnetic nanoparticles. → The prepared MN-CCG is highly water suspendable and sensitive to magnetic field. -- Abstract: We demonstrated an environmental friendly and efficient route for preparation of magnetic reduced graphene oxide composite (MN-CCG). Glucose was used as the reducing agent in this one-step hydrothermal method. The reducing process was accompanied by generation of magnetic nanoparticles. The structure and composition of the nanocomposite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the prepared MN-CCG is highly water suspendable and sensitive to magnetic field.

  17. Asymmetrical hydrothermal system below Merapi volcano imaged by geophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Friedel, Sven; Budi-Santoso, Agus; Suryanto, Wiwit; Suhari, Aldjarishy; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rizal, Mohhamed H.; Grandis, Hendra

    2017-04-01

    A high-resolution image of the hydrothermal system of Merapi volcano is obtained using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential, and CO2 flux mappings. The ERT inversions identify two distinct low-resistivity bodies, at the base of the south flank and in the summit area, that represent likely two parts of an interconnected hydrothermal system. In the summit area, the extension of the hydrothermal system is clearly limited by the main geological structures which are actual and ancient craters. A sharp resistivity contrast at ancient crater rim Pasar-Bubar separates a conductive hydrothermal system (20 - 50 Ωm) from the resistive andesite lava flows and pyroclastic deposits (2000 - 50 000 Ωm). High diffuse CO2 degassing (with a median value of 400g m -2 d -1) is observed in a narrow vicinity of the active crater rim and close to the Pasar-Bubar. The existence of preferential fluid circulation along this ancient crater rim is also evidenced by self-potential data. The total CO2 degassing across the accessible summit area with a surface of 1.4 · 10 5 m 2 is around 20 td -1. Before the 2010 eruption, Toutain et al. (2009) estimated a higher value of the total diffuse degassing from the summit area (about 200 - 230 td -1). This drop in the diffuse degassing can be related to the decrease in the magmatic activity, to the change of the summit morphology or to a combination of these factors. On the south flank of Merapi, the resistivity model shows spectacular stratification. While surficial recent andesite lava flows are characterized by resistivity exceeding 100 000 Ωm, resistivity as low as 10 Ωm has been encountered at a depth of 200 m at the base of the south flank and was interpreted as a presence of the hydrothermal system. We suggest that a sandwich-like structure of stratified pyroclastic deposits on the flanks of Merapi screen and separate the flow of hydrothermal fluids with the degassing occurring mostly through the fractured crater rims

  18. Part of the job: the role of physical work conditions in the nurse turnover process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaman, James M; Cornell, Paul T; Allen, David G; Gondo, Maria B; Muslin, Ivan S; Mobley, Robin N; Brock, Meagan E; Sigmon, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Retention of nursing staff remains an important issue for health care managers. Turnover research has focused primarily on motivational and social factors as keys to retention, whereas the role of the physical work conditions has received considerably less attention. However, work design theory suggests that physical work conditions may be an important factor in fostering retention among nursing staff. The aim of this study was to integrate work design theory with turnover process models to explore the influence of perceptions of physical work conditions on the development of turnover intentions among nursing staff. Drawing on two samples of registered nurses working in cancer units in metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States, this study explores the impact of perceptions of physical work conditions on turnover intentions using ordinary least squares regression. Hypotheses are tested in Study 1 and replicated in Study 2. A measure of perceptions of physical work conditions is also developed and validated using exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses. Perceptions of physical work conditions explain variance in turnover intentions above than that explained by motivational and social factors. Specifically, employee perceptions of noisy work conditions are found to significantly increase turnover intentions, whereas perceptions that work conditions facilitate tasks were found to significantly reduce turnover intentions. Perceptions of temperature and health hazard did not show significant effects. Results suggest that health care managers and scholars should re-examine the role of physical work conditions in the turnover process. Investments in upgrades that facilitate tasks may foster retention better than investments that simply improve employee comfort. Negative perceptions of work conditions may have no impact if they are considered a normal "part of the job," although negative perceptions of conditions that are viewed as

  19. Spatial information is preferentially processed by the distal part of CA3: implication for memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Atucha, Erika; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2018-07-16

    For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas. Here, we tested if distal CA3 preferentially processes spatial information, which would suggest a segregation of the spatial information along the proximodistal axis of CA3. We used a high-resolution imaging technique based on the detection of the expression of the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We showed that distal CA3 is strongly recruited in a newly designed delayed nonmatching-to-location task with high memory demands in rats, while proximal CA3 is not. These results indicate a functional segregation of CA3 that mirrors the one reported in CA1, and suggest the existence of a distal CA3- proximal CA1 spatial subnetwork. These findings bring further evidence for the existence of 'specialized' spatial and non-spatial subnetworks segregated along the proximodistal axis of the hippocampus and put forward the 'segregated' view of information processing in the hippocampus as a reasonable alternative to the well-accepted 'integrated' view, according to which spatial and non-spatial information are systematically integrated in the hippocampus to form episodic memory. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Process for joining by diffusion two metal parts, particularly in nickel and in Ag-In-Cd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The description is given of a process for joining by diffusion two parts in different metals and having a first and second surface identical in shape. This process, which is particularly advantageous for parts in nickel and in an alloy of silver, indium and cadmium, is characterised by the fact that a third and fourth surface parallel to the first and second surface are made on the parts and that the first and second surface are pressed one against the other by means of pressure applied on the third and fourth surface, so as to cause a metal substance to diffuse in the other [fr

  1. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized MnZn ferrites via a modified hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingling; Liu, Xiansong; Xu, Taotao; Nie, Yu; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Cong

    2017-10-01

    Nanosized MnZn ferrite particles, with narrow size distribution, regular morphology and high saturation magnetization have been synthesized via a modified hydrothermal method. This modified hydrothermal method involves a chemical co-precipitation of hydroxides under a vacuum condition using potassium hydroxide as precipitating agent, followed by a separate hydrothermal process. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of different synthesis conditions (excess ratio of precipitating agent and hydrothermal reaction time) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were discussed. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained samples were superparamagnetic in nature at room temperature. Moreover, the MnZn ferrite nanoparticles with excellent magnetic performance could be synthesized at 180 °C for a short reaction time (3 h).

  3. Char and coke formation as unwanted side reaction of the hydrothermal biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayildirim, T. [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ege University, Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Sinag, A. [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ankara University, Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Kruse, A. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie CPV, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The hydrothermal biomass gasification is a promising technology to produce hydrogen and/or methane from wet biomass with a water content of {>=}80 % (g/g). In the process, the coke formation usually is very low, but already low amounts may cause problems like, e.g., fouling in the heat exchanger. To learn more about the product formation, the results of the hydrothermal treatment (at 400,500,600 C and 1 h) of different biomass feedstocks (artichoke stalk, pinecone, sawdust, and cellulose as model biomass) in a microreactor are compared. The gas composition and the total organic carbon content of the aqueous phase were determined after reaction. The gas formation rises with increasing temperature. The formation of carbon deposits and their characterization has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The variation of the solid morphology during the hydrothermal conversion is discussed based on chemical pathways occurring during hydrothermal biomass degradation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Viscoelastic behaviour and static fatigue strength of glass/epoxy composites. Influence of hydrothermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauminois, Antoine

    1991-01-01

    As ageing strength of composites appears to be one of the main criteria of their durability, this research thesis addresses the hydrothermal ageing of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites used for load-bearing structures. After having presented the used materials (epoxy matrix, reinforcement, composite elaboration), the author present the experimental techniques: viscoelastic analysis, three-point bend static fatigue test, coupled gravimetry and calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. In the next parts, the author reports the study of water sorption processes (bibliographical study, experimental study of water sorption kinetics, experimental study of interfacial diffusion within the composite), the study of plasticizing phenomena (methodology of study of plasticizing phenomena, study of the modifications of the linear viscoelastic behaviour in the glass transition region and at room temperature, relationship between plasticizing and fatigue mechanical properties by fracture studies), and the study of irreversible degradation and damage mechanisms

  5. Closed-Loop Control of the Thermal Stir Welding Process to Enable Rapid Process/Part Qualification, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) provides advancement over the more conventional Friction Stir Welding (C-FSW) process because it separates the primary processes variables...

  6. Submarine Hydrothermal Activity and Gold-Rich Mineralization at Brothers Volcano, Southern Kermadec Arc, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Christenson, B. W.; Butterfield, D. A.; Ishibashi, J.; Hannington, M. D.; Ditchburn, B. G.; Embley, R. W.; Lupton, J. E.; Kamenetsky, D.; Reyes, A. G.; Lahr, J.; Takai, K.

    2006-12-01

    Brothers volcano is one of several hydrothermally active volcanoes that occur along the Kermadec active arc front, NE of New Zealand. It forms an elongate edifice 13 km long by 8 km across that strikes NW-SE. The volcano has a caldera with a basal diameter of ~3 km and a floor at 1,850 m below sea level, surrounded by 290 to 530 m high walls. A volcanic cone of dacite rises 350 m from the caldera floor and partially coalesces with the southern caldera wall. Three hydrothermal sites have been located; on the NW caldera wall, on the SE caldera wall, and on the dacite cone. The NW caldera vent site is a long-term hydrothermal system that is today dominated by evolved seawater but has had episodic injections of magmatic fluid. The SE caldera site represents the main upflow of a relatively well-established magmatic-hydrothermal system on the seafloor where sulfide-rich chimneys are extant. The cone site is a nascent magmatic-hydrothermal system where crack zones localize upwelling acidic waters. Each of these different vent sites represent diverse parts of an evolving hydrothermal system, any one of which may be typical of submarine volcanic arcs. Hydrothermal venting is today occurring at the NW caldera and cone sites. The former is characterized by high-temperature (up to 302°C) venting with pH down to 2.8, low Mg and SO4 values, Cl between 510 and 760 mM, elevated Si and increasing Fe and Mn values with increasing Cl concentrations, consistent with a mostly Cl-enriched endmember. By contrast, vent fluids from the cone site are gas-rich (up to 220 mM total gas), have temperatures 30 ppm) zones in some chimneys formed over a short period of time, coincident with pulses of magmatic fluid into the hydrothermal system.

  7. Solidification of glass powder by a hydrothermal hot-pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Mamoru; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    1986-01-01

    A borosilicate glass powder was solidified with a NaOH solution or distilled water by the hydrothermal hot-pressing technique. The effect of hydrothermal conditions on the compressive strength was investigated, and the densification mechanism of the glass powder during the hydrothermal hot-pressing was discussed in terms of isothermal shrinkage. The glass powder was successfully solidified by hydrothermal hot-pressing at a reaction temperature lower than that of an ordinary pressure sintering. The solidified body obtained in the presence of distilled water (10 wt%) at 280 deg C had a high compressive strength of about 2300 kg/cm 2 . The analysis of initial densification process of the glass powder in hydrothermal hot-pressing with Murray's rate equation revealed that the densification proceeds both by viscous flow and by rearrangement process. Analysis of the shrinkage rates with a rate equation of hydrothermal reaction suggested that the dissolution of particles into solution controlled the initial densification of the glass powder, and that the alkaline metal acted as a catalyst. (author)

  8. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  10. Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tang, Kai; Su, Jianqiang; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2012-01-01

    To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent systems off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH(4)) concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH(4) was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-sea hydrothermal system. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the sea or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH(4) concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal systems off the coast of NE Taiwan.

  11. Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent systems off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white