Sample records for hydrothermal alteration zones

  1. Hydrothermal alteration and evolution of the Ohakuri hydrothermal system, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Henneberger, R. C.; Browne, P. R. L.


    Erosion and excavations at Ohakuri in the Taupo Volcanic zone have exposed the upper portion (100-150 m) of a hydrothermal system that was active sometime between 700,000 and 160,000 years ago. Extensive hydrothermal alteration occurred within a host sequence of young, relatively undeformed, chemically and lithologically similar unwelded rhyolitic ignimbrite and air-fall tuffs. Mapping and petrologic work have identified six distinct alteration types. An early event formed a concentrically zoned suite of alteration through the pervasive movement of alkaline chloride type water. In the innermost zone, primary rock components were almost entirely converted to quartz + adularia ± illite ± hematite ± leucoxene. Mineralized veins and breccias of quartz ± pyrite ± adularia ± chlorite formed here in response to episodic hydraulic fracturing. This zone grades outward and upward into a zone of less intense, lower rank alteration with a mordenite + clinoptilolite + smectite + opal ± hematite assemblage, then a zone of weak clay alteration and into fresh rock. Calcite is conspicuously absent from the entire suite. Acid-sulphate type water, formed from steam-condensate, dominated the shallow activity in a second stage of alteration that followed local erosion. Widespread but discontinuous alteration converted the ignimbrite to kaolinite + opal ± hematite, with alunite occurring in the more intense zones. This alteration locally overprints the early alkali-chloride produced suite, but the focus of the second-stage activity was north of the focus of the older event. Scattered opaline sinters and silicified surficial deposits are products of either still later activity or the waning part of the second stage. Chemical analysis shows that the various alteration types have characteristic patterns of major element addition and removal; these reflect the key hydrothermal mineral reactions that formed the new assemblages. Quartz-adularia alteration involved mainly

  2. Delineation of Hydrothermally Altered Zones that Favour Gold Mineralization in Isanlu Area, Nigeria Using Aeroradiometric Data


    Ohioma, Ohi Jerry; Ezomo, Friday; Akinsunmade, Akinniyi


    Aeroradiometric data set of Isanlu sheet 225 (1:100,000) has been acquired with a view to analyze and interpret for the delineation of hydrothermally altered zones that favour gold mineralization. The acquired aero-radiometric data was subjected to filtering algorithm and enhancement techniques such as shaded relief enhancement, elemental ratio enhancement using Geosoft Oasis Montaj Software. Moreover, Golden Software Surfer was used to identify and present the revealed hydrothermally altered...

  3. A directed matched filtering algorithm (DMF) for discriminating hydrothermal alteration zones using the ASTER remote sensing data (United States)

    Fereydooni, H.; Mojeddifar, S.


    This study introduced a different procedure to implement matched filtering algorithm (MF) on the ASTER images to obtain the distribution map of alteration minerals in the northwestern part of the Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Arc (KCMA). This region contains many areas with porphyry copper mineralization such as Meiduk, Abdar, Kader, Godekolvari, Iju, Serenu, Chahfiroozeh and Parkam. Also argillization, sericitization and propylitization are the most common types of hydrothermal alteration in the area. Matched filtering results were provided for alteration minerals with a matched filtering score, called MF image. To identify the pixels which contain only one material (endmember), an appropriate threshold value should be used to the MF image. The chosen threshold classifies a MF image into background and target pixels. This article argues that the current thresholding process (the choice of a threshold) shows misclassification for MF image. To address the issue, this paper introduced the directed matched filtering (DMF) algorithm in which a spectral signature-based filter (SSF) was used instead of the thresholding process. SSF is a user-defined rule package which contains numeral descriptions about the spectral reflectance of alteration minerals. On the other hand, the spectral bands are defined by an upper and lower limit in SSF filter for each alteration minerals. SSF was developed for chlorite, kaolinite, alunite, and muscovite minerals to map alteration zones. The validation proved that, at first: selecting a contiguous range of MF values could not identify desirable results, second: unexpectedly, considerable frequency of pure pixels was observed in the MF scores less than threshold value. Also, the comparison between DMF results and field studies showed an accuracy of 88.51%.

  4. Use of wireline logs at Cerro Prieto in identification of the distribution of hydrothermally altered zones and dike locations, and their correlation with reservoir temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seamount, D.T. Jr.; Elders, W.A.


    Downhole electrical and gamma-gamma density logs from nine wells weere studed and these wireline log parameters with petrologic, temperature, and petrophysical data were correlated. Here, wells M-43, T-366, and M-107 are discussed in detail as typical cases. Log data for shales show good correlation with four zones of hydrothermal alteration previously recognized on the basis of characteristic mineral assemblages and temperatures. These zones are the unaltered montmorillonite zone (< 150/sup 0/C), the illite zone (150/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/C to 245/sup 0/C), the chlorite zone (235/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C, equivalent to the calc-silicate I zone in sands), and the feldspar zone (> 300/sup 0/C, equivalent to the calc-silicate II zone in sands),

  5. Textural, mineralogical and stable isotope studies of hydrothermal alteration in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion, Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Li, C.; Ripley, E.M.; Oberthur, T.; Miller, J.D.; Joslin, G.D.


    Stratigraphic offsets in the peak concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) and base-metal sulfides in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion have, in part, been attributed to the interaction between magmatic PGE-bearing base-metal sulfide assemblages and hydrothermal fluids. In this paper, we provide mineralogical and textural evidence that indicates alteration of base-metal sulfides and mobilization of metals and S during hydrothermal alteration in both mineralized intrusions. Stable isotopic data suggest that the fluids involved in the alteration were of magmatic origin in the Great Dyke but that a meteoric water component was involved in the alteration of the Sonju Lake Intrusion. The strong spatial association of platinum-group minerals, principally Pt and Pd sulfides, arsenides, and tellurides, with base-metal sulfide assemblages in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke is consistent with residual enrichment of Pt and Pd during hydrothermal alteration. However, such an interpretation is more tenuous for the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion where important Pt and Pd arsenides and antimonides occur as inclusions within individual plagioclase crystals and within alteration assemblages that are free of base-metal sulfides. Our observations suggest that Pt and Pd tellurides, antimonides, and arsenides may form during both magmatic crystallization and subsolidus hydrothermal alteration. Experimental studies of magmatic crystallization and hydrothermal transport/deposition in systems involving arsenides, tellurides, antimonides, and base metal sulfides are needed to better understand the relative importance of magmatic and hydrothermal processes in controlling the distribution of PGE in mineralized layered intrusions of this type. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  6. Integration of remote sensing and aeromagnetic data for mapping structural features and hydrothermal alteration zones in Wadi Allaqi area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt (United States)

    Eldosouky, Ahmed M.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed; Elkhateeb, Sayed O.


    Remote sensing and aeromagnetic data provided significant information for detecting potential areas of mineralization in Wadi Allaqi in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Application of band ratios and Crosta technique of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using Landsat-8 successfully highlighted the hydrothermal alteration zones and the structural elements represented by lithologic contacts and faults/fracture zones. Structural lineaments were also successfully extracted using remote sensing and aeromagnetic data. Center for Exploration Targeting (CET) Grid analysis and CET Porphyry Analysis techniques were applied for constructing the structural complexity heat map and probable near circular features of porphyry intrusions respectively. Combining data of lineaments, alteration zones and porphyry intrusions after obtaining a consequence of each map allowed predicting and mapping areas of probable high mineral resources. Overlaying the present sites of mineralization on the final map validated the prepared mineral predictive map. Overall results clearly revealed that areas of high structural complexity, fractures/faults density are in agreement with the detected areas of hydrothermal alterations which also matched with the known mineralization mines in the study area.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.


    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  8. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan) (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.


    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  9. Distribution of buried hydrothermal alteration deduced from high-resolution magnetic surveys in Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Bouligand, Claire; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Blakely, Richard J.


    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) displays numerous and extensive hydrothermal features. Although hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been extensively studied, the volume, geometry, and type of rock alteration at depth remain poorly constrained. In this study, we use high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic surveys and measurements of remanent and induced magnetization of field and drill core samples to provide constraints on the geometry of hydrothermal alteration within the subsurface of three thermal areas in YNP (Firehole River, Smoke Jumper Hot Springs, and Norris Geyser Basin). We observe that hydrothermal zones from both liquid- and vapor-dominated systems coincide with magnetic lows observed in aeromagnetic surveys and with a decrease of the amplitude of short-wavelength anomalies seen in ground magnetic surveys. This suggests a strong demagnetization of both the shallow and deep substratum within these areas associated with the removal of magnetic minerals by hydrothermal alteration processes. Such demagnetization is confirmed by measurements of rock samples from hydrothermal areas which display significantly decreased total magnetization. A pronounced negative anomaly is observed over the Lone Star Geyser and suggests a significant demagnetization of the substratum associated with areas displaying large-scale fluid flow. The ground and airborne magnetic surveys are used to evaluate the distribution of magnetization in the subsurface. This study shows that significant demagnetization occurs over a thickness of at least a few hundred meters in hydrothermal areas at YNP and that the maximum degree or maximum thickness of demagnetization correlates closely with the location of hydrothermal activity and mapped alteration.

  10. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 4. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral ... To evaluate the conventional methods for mapping hydrothermal altered deposits by using Landsat 7 ETM+ image in and around Kuju volcano is the prime target of our study. The Kuju volcano is a mountainous ...

  11. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  12. Impact of asteroïdal hydrothermal alteration on organics (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.


    Unravelling the evolution of simple organic molecules trapped in ices after they were accreted into asteroids requires better constraining how they would be modified by hydrothermal alteration, which happened in carbonaceous chondrites (CC) [1]. We have experimentally investigated the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecule submitted to hydrothermal conditions mimicking asteroidal alteration. In particular, we investigated the role of phyllosilicates in the preservation/degradation of organic matter. We observed that a simple organic molecule (HMT) undergo complex chemical transformation during hydrothermal alteration, with the formation of an insoluble organic matter. Phyllosilicates have influenced the chemical reactions by concentrating a significant fraction of the newly formed organics.

  13. Hydrothermal Alteration at Lonar Crater, India and Elemental Variations in Impact Crater Clays (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Misra, S.; Narasimham, V.


    The role of hydrothermal alteration and chemical transport involving impact craters could have occurred on Mars, the poles of Mercury and the Moon, and other small bodies. We are studying terrestrial craters of various sizes in different environments to better understand aqueous alteration and chemical transport processes. The Lonar crater in India (1.8 km diameter) is particularly interesting being the only impact crater in basalt. In January of 2004, during fieldwork in the ejecta blanket around the rim of the Lonar crater we discovered alteration zones not previously described at this crater. The alteration of the ejecta blanket could represent evidence of localized hydrothermal activity. Such activity is consistent with the presence of large amounts of impact melt in the ejecta blanket. Map of one area on the north rim of the crater containing highly altered zones at least 3 m deep is shown.

  14. Hydrothermal alteration in the Baca Geothermal System, Redondo Dome, Valles Caldera, New Mexico (United States)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.


    Thermal fluids circulating in the active hydrothermal system of the resurgent Redondo dome of the Valles caldera have interacted with their diverse host rocks to produce well-zoned alteration assemblages, which not only help locate permeable fluid channels but also provide insight into the system's thermal history. The alteration shows that fluid flow has been confined principally to steeply dipping normal faults and subsidiary fractures as well as thin stratigraphic aquifers. Permeability along many of these channels has been reduced or locally eliminated by hydrothermal self-sealing. Alteration from the surface through the base of the Miocene Paliza Canyon Formation is of three distinctive types: argillic, propylitic, and phyllic. Argillic alteration forms a blanket above the deep water table in formerly permeable nonwelded tuffs. Beneath the argillic zone, pervasive propylitic alteration is weakly developed in felsic host rocks but locally intense in deep intermediate composition volcanics. Strong phyllic alteration is commonly but not invariably associated with major active thermal fluid channels. Phyllic zones yielding no fluid were clearly once permeable but now are hydrothermally sealed. High-temperature alteration phases at Baca are presently found at much lower temperatures. We suggest either that isotherms have collapsed due to gradual cooling of the system, that they have retreated without overall heat loss due to uplift of the Redondo dome, that the system has shifted laterally, or that it has contracted due to a drop in the water table. The deepest Well (B-12, 3423 m) in the dome may have penetrated through the base of the active hydrothermal system. Below a depth of 2440 m in this well, hydrothermal veining largely disappears, and the rocks resemble those developed by isochemical thermal metamorphism. The transition is reflected by temperature logs, which show a conductive thermal gradient below 2440 m. This depth may mark the dome's neutral plane

  15. Phreatic activity and hydrothermal alteration in the Valley of Desolation, Dominica, Lesser Antilles (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Montanaro, Cristian; Albert Gilg, H.; Rott, Stefanie; Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Phreatic eruptions are possibly the most dramatic surface expressions of hydrothermal activity, and they remain poorly understood. The near absence of precursory signals makes phreatic eruptions unpredictable with respect to both time and magnitude. The Valley of Desolation (VoD), Dominica, located close to the Boiling Lake, the second largest high-temperature volcanic crater lake in the world, hosts vigorous hydrothermal activity with hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steaming ground. A phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruption from this site is considered to be the most likely scenario for future volcanic activity on Dominica. Yet there is little information regarding the trigger mechanisms and eruption processes of explosive events at this active hydrothermal center, and only a very small number of studies have investigated hydrothermal activity in the VoD. We therefore conducted two field campaigns in the VoD to map hydrothermal activity and its surficial phenomena. We also investigated alteration processes and their effects on degassing and phreatic eruption processes. We collected in situ petrophysical properties of clay-rich unconsolidated samples, and together with consolidated rock samples, we investigated the range of supergene and hydrothermal alteration in the laboratory. In addition, we performed rapid decompression experiments on unconsolidated soil samples. Our results show that alteration leads to an increasing abundance of clay minerals and a decrease in both strength and permeability of the rocks. In the immediate vicinity of degassing acid-sulfate fluids, advanced argillic alteration yields a mineral zoning which is influenced by meteoric water. The water-saturated basal zone is dominated by kaolinite run 0whereas alunite formation is favored at and above the groundwater table where atmospheric oxidation of H2S to H2SO4 occurs (e.g., steam-heated alteration). Alteration effects may in turn inhibit degassing at the surface, increasing the

  16. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and low cost (Yetkin 2003). There are many studies around the world related to hydrothermal alteration mapping .... for many years in remote sensing to display spectral variations effectively (e.g., Goetz et al. 1983). It is based on ... affect the viewer's interpretations and may lead to misguided results. Therefore, the band ratio.

  17. Hydrothermal fault zones in the lower oceanic crust: An example from the Samail ophiolite, Oman (United States)

    Zihlmann, Barbara; Müller, Samuel; Koepke, Juergen; Teagle, Damon


    Hydrothermal circulation is a key process for the exchange of chemical elements between the oceans and the solid Earth and particularly for the extraction of heat from newly accreted crust at mid-ocean ridges. However, due to a dearth of samples from intact oceanic crust, or continuous samples from ophiolites, there remain major short comings in our understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, especially in the deeper part. In particular, it is unknown whether fluid recharge and discharge occurs pervasively or if it is mainly channeled onto discrete zones such as faults. Here, we present a description of a hydrothermal fault zone that crops out in the layered gabbro section, of Wadi Gideah in the Samail ophiolite in Oman, which might be a channel of enhanced fluid flow. Field observations reveal an approximately one meter-thick chlorite - epidote normal fault with heavily altered gabbro clasts in the center. In places there is copper mineralization within the chlorite - epidote zone. In both, the hanging and the footwall the gabbro is heavily altered and veined, mainly with amphibole, epidote, prehnite and zeolite veins. Even though the fault zone is within the layered gabbro section, and perhaps only 1 km above the crust-mantle boundary, the gabbro around the fault zone shows highly variable textures. Preliminary strontium isotope whole rock data yield 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ˜ 0.7046, which are considerably more radiogenic than "fresh" gabbro from the Oman ophiolite (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7026 - 0.7030), and similar to black smoker hydrothermal signatures based on epidote, measured elsewhere in the ophiolite.

  18. LANDSAT detection of hydrothermal alteration in the Nogal Canyon Cauldron, New Mexico (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.; Rouse, G.


    In 1974 a circular-shaped iron oxide anomaly was observed in an image of a LANDSAT frame centered near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico. Field examination of the anomaly has shown that it coincides with a zone of hydrothermal alteration on the northern edge of the Nogal Canyon Cauldron. The altered area contains clay minerals ranging in colors from white to vivid red, the latter presumably resulting from hematite staining. In situ gas measurements showed no evidence of active hydrogen sulfide seepage. Preliminary geochemical analyses of grab samples have detected no significant amounts of mineralization. Whereas this area does not at present appear to be economically important, it provides an example of how LANDSAT can be utilized in reconnaissance mapping for cauldrons, calderas, and other volcanic features which display hydrothermal alteration.

  19. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA - DDH 1976-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.


    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Major alteration zones include: 1) an advanced argillic zone in the upper 30 feet of altered detritus containing alunite, opal, vermiculite, and relic quartz; 2) an argillic zone from 30 feet to 105 feet containing kaolinite, muscovite, and minor alunite; and 3) a propylitic zone from 105 to 200 feet containing muscovite, pyrite, marcasite, montmorillonite, and chlorite in weakly altered quartz monzonite. Comparison of the alternation mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth.

  20. Hydrothermal alteration zones and present reservoir conditions: an approach to define production zones at the eastern portion of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Zonas de alteracion hidrotermal y condiciones actuales del yacimiento: un enfoque para determinar zonas productoras al oriente del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Hernandez, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Geological factors are as essential for locating new wells as they are for defining the production zones of these wells. At the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), one of the most important geological factors is identification of the hydrothermal alteration zones (ZAH). These are divided into silica and epidote mineralogical zones (ZMSE), without CaCO{sub 3}, and silica and epidote mineralogical transition zones (ZTMSE), with CaCO{sub 3}. It has been observed that the continuous variation of reservoir thermodynamic conditions (temperature, pressure and enthalpy) is due mainly to the exploitation of geothermal resources. The presence of new thermodynamic conditions recorded at the reservoir has led to the re-location of production wells originally located during the drilling campaign of 2004 to 2006. At the geological sections on the eastern part of the CGCP, adjustments made to the well completions lie on the limits between the ZMSE and ZTMSE zones. In turn, this is related to the current, superior, thermodynamic reservoir conditions. Based on this, a new geologic approach is proposed to define possible production zones for new wells, relating the ZAH zones to current thermodynamic reservoir conditions. [Spanish] Los factores geologicos son determinantes, tanto para establecer nuevos sitios de perforacion como para determinar el intervalo productor de un pozo nuevo. En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP) una de los factores mas importantes es la determinacion de las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal (ZAH) que se dividen en dos: zona mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZMSE), sin presencia de CaCO{sub 3}, y zona de transicion mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZTMSE), con presencia de CaCO{sub 3}. Por otra parte, tambien se ha constatado que la continua variacion de las condiciones termodinamicas del yacimiento (temperatura, presion y entalpia) es originada en buena medida por la explotacion del recurso geotermico. La ocurrencia de nuevas condiciones

  1. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until its......-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated...

  2. Pukala intrusion, its age and connection to hydrothermal alteration in Orivesi, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Talikka


    Full Text Available The Pukala intrusion is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield in the contact region between the Central Finland Granitoid Complex and the Tampere Belt. The acid subvolcanic intrusion, which is in contact or close to severalaltered domains, mainly consists of porphyritic granodiorite and trondhjemite. The Pukala intrusion was emplaced into volcanic sequence in an island-arc or fore-arc setting before or during the early stages of the main regional deformation phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. On the basis of the geochemical data, the Pukala intrusion is a peraluminous volcanic-arc granitoid. After crystallisation at 1896±3 Ma, multiphase deformation and metamorphismcaused alteration, recrystallisation, and orientation of the minerals, and tilted the intrusion steeply towards south. The 1851±5 Ma U-Pb age for titanite is connected to the late stages of the Svecofennian tectonometamorphic evolution of the region. Several hydrothermally altered domains are located in the felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the Tampere Belt within less than one kilometre south of the Pukala intrusion. Alteration is divided into three basic types: partial silica alteration, chlorite-sericite±silica alteration, and sericite alteration in shear zones. The first two types probably formed during the emplacement and crystallisation of the Pukala intrusion, and the third is linked to late shearing. Intense sericitisation and comb quartz bands in the contact of theintrusion and the altered domain at Kutemajärvi suggest that the hydrothermal system was driven by the Pukala intrusion.

  3. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou


    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  4. Characterization and modeling of illite crystal particles and growth mechanisms in a zoned hydrothermal deposit, Lake City, Colorado (United States)

    Bove, D.J.; Eberl, D.D.; McCarty, D.K.; Meeker, G.P.


    Mean thickness measurements and crystal-thickness distributions (CTDs) of illite particles vary systematically with changes in hydrothermal alteration type, fracture density, and attendant mineralization in a large acid-sulfate/Mo-porphyry hydrothermal system at Red Mountain, near Lake City, Colorado. The hydrothermal illites characterize an extensive zone of quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration beneath two deeply rooted bodies of magmatic-related, quartz-alunite altered rock. Nineteen illites from a 3000 ft vertical drill hole were analyzed by XRD using the PVP-10 intercalation method and the computer program MudMaster (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique). Mean crystallite thicknesses, as determined from 001 reflections, range from 5-7 nanometers (nm) at depths from 0-1700 ft, then sharply increase to 10-16 nm at depths between 1800-2100 ft, and decrease again to 4-5 nm below this level. The interval of largest particle thickness correlates strongly with the zone of most intense quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (QSP) and attendant high-density stockwork fracturing, and with the highest concentrations of Mo within the drill core. CTD shapes for the illite particles fall into two main categories: asymptotic and lognormal. The shapes of the CTDs are dependent on conditions of illite formation. The asymptotic CTDs correspond to a nucleation and growth mechanism, whereas surface-controlled growth was the dominant mechanism for the lognormal CTDs. Lognormal CTDs coincide with major through-going fractures or stockwork zones, whereas asymptotic CTDs are present in wallrock distal to these intense fracture zones. The increase in illite particle size and the associated zone of intense QSP alteration and stockwork veining was related by proximity to the dacitic magma(s), which supplied both reactants and heat to the hydrothermal system. However, no changes in illite polytype, which in other studies reflect temperature transitions, were observed within this interval.

  5. Targeting Hydrothermal Alterations Utilizing LANDSAT-8 Andaster Data in Shahr-E Iran (United States)

    Safari, M.; Pour, A. B.; Maghsoudi, A.; Hashim, M.


    Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman) magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  6. Geology of the Riacho do Pontal iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG prospect, Bahia, Brazil: hydrothermal alteration approached via hierarchical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Bacelar Huhn

    Full Text Available The Riacho do Pontal prospect is situated on the border between the Borborema Province and the São Francisco Craton, in Bahia state. It comprises rocks polydeformed during the Neoproterozoic. The prospect area includes migmatites and gneissic rocks intruded by several sin- to post-tectonic granites. Structural analysis indicates a strong relationship between the development of ductile to brittle-ductile shear zones and associated hydrothermalism. The main tracts of high-strain rate are represented by the Riacho do Pontal (north and Macururé (south shear zones. Several copper occurrences have been mapped within the Riacho do Pontal prospect along secondary shear zones. In these areas, the gneissic rocks were affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted the identification of the main hydrothermal mineral associations present in these rocks, which resulted from potassic (biotite and sodic-calcic (amphibole-albite alteration, in addition to silicification and iron alteration (hematite. These hydrothermal alteration types are similar to those typically found in iron oxide copper-gold deposits developed at intermediate crustal levels. Hematite-quartz-albite-chalcopyrite-pyrite hydrothermal breccias host the highest-grade copper ore (chalcopyrite-pyrite-chalcocite zones. The spatial relationship between copper deposits and shear zones improves the metallogenic potential for copper of the Borborema Province and has important implications for mineral exploration in the region.

  7. Impact-Facilitated Hydrothermal Alteration in the Rim of Endeavour Crater, Mars (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Farrand, W. H.; Crumpler, L. S.; Yen, A. S.


    Endeavour crater, a Noachian-aged, 22 km diameter impact structure on Meridiani Planum, Mars, has been investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunuity for over 2000 sols (Mars days). The rocks of the western rim region (oldest to youngest) are: (i) the pre-impact Matijevic fm.; (ii) rim-forming Shoemaker fm. polymict impact breccias; (iii) Grasberg fm., fine-grained sediments draping the lower slopes; and (iv) Burns fm., sulfate-rich sandstones that onlap the Grasberg fm. The rim is segmented and transected by radial fracture zones. Evidence for fluid-mediated alteration includes m-scale detections of phyllosilicates from orbit, and cm-scale variations in rock/soil composition/mineralogy documented by the Opportunity instrument suite. The m-scale phyllosilicate detections include Fe(3+)-Mg and aluminous smectites that occur in patches in the Matijevic and Shoemaker fms. Rock compositions do not reveal substantial differences for smectite-bearing compared to smectite-free rocks. Interpretation: large-scale hydrothermal alteration powered by impact-deposited heat acting on limited water supplies engendered mineralogic transfomations under low water/rock, near-isochemical conditions. The cm-scale alterations, localized in fracture zones, occurred at higher water/rock as evidenced by enhanced Si and Al contents through leaching of more soluble elements, and deposition of Mg, Ni and Mn sulphates and halogen salts in soils. Visible/near infrared reflectance of narrow curvilinear red zones indicate higher nanophase ferric oxide contents and possibly hydration compared to surrounding outcrops. Broad fracture zones on the rim have reflectance features consistent with development of ferric oxide minerals. Interpretation: water fluxing through the fractures in a hydrothermal system resulting from the impact engendered alteration and leaching under high water/rock conditions. Late, localized alteration is documented by Ca-sulfate-rich veins that are not confined to

  8. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan) (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald


    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  9. Hydrothermal alteration and the formation of aluminous haloes around sulfide deposits (United States)

    Lemiere, B.; Delfour, J.; Moine, B.; Piboule, M.; Ploquin, A.; Isnard, P.; Tegyey, M.


    The sulfide deposits of Chizeuil (Saone et Loire) occur in a Late Devonian volcano-sedimentary sequence within an acid volcanic unit and close to a Carboniferous granite batholith. Sulfide bodies, mainly pyrite, are enclosed in andalusite-bearing siliceous rocks lacking primary textures and recrystallized by the granitic thermal metamorphism. Several genetic interpretations were proposed for these siliceous rocks and the associated mineralization, i.e., as either being related to the granite intrusion or of volcanogenic derivation. Detailed studies led to their identification as hydrothermal alterites. A petrographic study of these siliceous alterites reveals that the main mineral phases are only constituted of silica and alumina: quartz, andalusite, kaolinite and minor contents of muscovite, diaspore and corundum. Neither K-feldspar or biotite are present with andalusite. This implies that thermal metamorphism occurred on an already alkali-, calcium- and magnesium-depleted rock. These siliceous alterites show less mobile-element (Al, Ti, V, Zr, Nb) concentration ranges similar to those of acid volcanic host rocks. A metasomatic model is computed from chemical data on surrounding soda dacites, assuming that acid hydrolysis was the only phenomenon involved, and that Al was stable in this process. Although altered rock types grading to soda dacites do not crop out, their existence may be deduced from surficial bedrock multielement geochemical data. The zoned distribution of elements agrees with that deduced from reactions and experimental phase diagrams. The pyrite bodies are surrounded by two distinct concentric alteration zones; the inner one is advanced argillic and the outer one is sericitic. Such a pattern is unusual for volcanogenic sulfide deposits but commonly associated with porphyry deposits. It may be related to the strong acidity (pH≦3) of hydrothermal solutions. These siliceous rocks were produced by an in-situ alteration of brecciated dacitic lavas

  10. Spectral reflectance analysis of hydrothermal alteration in drill chips from two geothermal fields, Nevada (United States)

    Lamb, A. K.; Calvin, W. M.


    We surveyed drill chips with a lab spectrometer in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) regions, 0.35-2.5 μm, to evaluate hydrothermal alteration mineralogy of samples from two known geothermal fields in western Nevada. Rock is fractured into small pieces or “chips” during drilling and stored in trays by depth interval. The drill chips are used to determine subsurface properties such as lithology, structure, and alteration. Accurately determining alteration mineralogy in the geothermal reservoir is important for indicating thermal fluids (usually associated with fluid pathways such as faults) and the highest temperature of alteration. Hydrothermal minerals, including carbonates, iron oxides, hydroxides, sheet silicates, and sulfates, are especially diagnostic in the VNIR-SWIR region.. The strength of reflectance spectroscopy is that it is rapid and accurate for differentiating temperature-sensitive minerals that are not visually unique. We examined drill chips from two western Nevada geothermal fields: Hawthorne (two wells) and Steamboat Springs (three wells) using an ASD lab spectrometer with very high resolution. The Steamboat Hills geothermal field has produced electricity since 1988 and is well studied, and is believed to be a combination of extensional tectonics and magmatic origin. Bedrocks are Cretaceous granodiorite intruding into older metasediments. Hot springs and other surface expressions occur over an area of about 2.6 km2. In contrast, the Hawthorne geothermal reservoir is a ‘blind’ system with no surface expressions such as hot springs or geysers. The geothermal field is situated in a range front fault zone in an extensional area, and is contained in Mesozoic mixed granite and meta-volcanics. We collected spectra at each interval in the chip trays. Interval length varied between 10’ and 30’. - Endmember analysis and mineral identification were performed -using standard analysis approaches used to map mineralogy

  11. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.


    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  12. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.


    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  13. Geochemistry and hydrothermal alteration at selected Utah hot springs. Final report: Volume 3 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W.T.; Benson, N.L.; Miller, C.D.


    Application of Na-K-Ca geothermometry to warm springs in Utah indicates several areas with sufficiently high apparent temperatures to be of interest as geothermal exploration targets. A zone of warm springs in the Bonneville Basin show Na-K-Ca temperatures from 150/sup 0/C to 233/sup 0/C. Examination of Great Salt Lake, Bonneville sediment pore water, and Jordan Valley well-water chemistry indicates that mixing a small percent of these fluids with warm spring water can cause substantial errors in Na-K-Ca temperature estimates. Other saline deposits which may influence Na-K-Ca temperature estimates are the Paradox formation in southeastern Utah, the Muddy Creek formation in southwestern Utah, the Arapien shale in central Utah, the Preuss formation in northeastern Utah, and Playa salts in much of western Utah. The Roosevelt KGRA is the most attractive target identified by Na-K-Ca geothermometry. Hydrothermal alteration, heavy metal distribution, and water chemistry provide additional characterization of the Roosevelt system. Chemistry of a cool water seep (25/sup 0/C) shows Na-K-Ca temperature of 241/sup 0/C and SiO/sub 2/ temperature of 125/sup 0/C. A Phillips well flowing from below 1500' (457m) shows Na-K-Ca temperature of 262/sup 0/C, SiO/sub 2/ temperature of 262/sup 0/C, and K of 1.5 times the surface spring value. The near surface alteration assemblage is best explained in terms of a decrease in pH of near surface fluids as sulfide oxidizes. Increasing potassium and pH with depth indicates that a K-feldspar stable zone may be intersected with deeper drilling. Geology and alteration were mapped in the Monroe KGRA. (JGB)

  14. Identification of Hydrothermal Aquifer Zone using Geo-Electrical Method in Kaloling Sinjai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantu L


    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the natural resources which  emerged on the subsurface ofthe earth can be in a gaseous form (the vapor heat or in the form of hydrothermal. The geothermal Panggo that located at watersheds of Kalamisu river, was one of the three sources of hydrothermal system  existing in district Sinjai East. The existence of the geothermal system in this area will much give many advantagest if managed optimally. This research aims to map the spread of the hydrothermal aquifer zone at the subsurface and it potentials in Panggo village base on electrical properties. Methods used in this research were geo-electrical using Wenner and Schlumberger configurations.At all these research area, it is found the presence of zones which has low resistivity (< 20 Ωm, and it is interpreted as the spread of hydrothermal zones. The hydrothermal system appears at subsurface allegedly caused by the geological fault of Kalamisu across this region.

  15. Constraints on mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration in the Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie Fairbairn

    Summary: Nalunaq is located in South Greenland and is a small high gold-grade deposit, which for the majority of its operational life was Greenland's only metalliferous mine. Gold is hosted in narrow quartz veins which are cross-cut by late-stage faults. Gold-quartz veins are hosted by fine......-and - medium grained amphibolite of the Nanortalik Nappe. Detailed petrographic and geochronological studies have revealed a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system, with alteration pre-and post-dating gold mineralisation. The hydrothermal alteration records a transition from upper-amphibolite facies...

  16. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL


    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  17. Modeling of geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. М. Судариков


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the main methods and analyzes modeling results for geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions of mid-ocean ridges. Initial data for modeling have been obtained during several marine expeditions, including Russian-French expedition SERPENTINE on the research vessel «Pourquoi Рas?» (2007. Results of field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical developments are supported by the analysis of regression model of mixing between hydrothermal solutions and sea water. Verification of the model has been carried out and the quality of chemical analysis has been assessed; degree and character of participation of solution components in the hydrothermal process have been defined; the content of end members has been calculated basing on reverse forecasting of element concentration, depending on regression character; data for thermodynamic modeling have been prepared. Regression model of acid-base properties and chloridity of mineralizing thermal springs confirms adequacy of the model of double-diffusive convection for forming the composition of hydrothermal solutions.  Differentiation of solutions according to concentrations of chloride-ion, depending on temperature and pH indicator within this model, is associated with phase conversions and mixing of fluids from two convection cells, one of which is a zone of brine circulation. In order to carry out computer thermodynamic modeling, hydro-geochemical and physicochemical models of hydrothermal discharge zone have been created. Verification of the model has been carried out basing on changes of Mn concentration in the hydrothermal plume. Prevailing forms of Mn migration in the plume are Mn2+, MnCl+, MnCl2. Two zones have been identified in the geochemical structure of the plume: 1 high-temperature zone (350-100 °С with prevalence of chloride complexes – ascending plume; 2 low-temperature zone (100-2 °С, where predominant form of

  18. Numerical modelling of hydrothermal convection within a permeable mineralized zone: application to orogenic gold mineralization in Ghana (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Harcouët, V.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Adler, P.


    Fluid convection in faulted zones is recognized as an important mechanism for mineralization as it leads to fluid flow and mass transport. In order to investigate if 3D free convection in faults could be at the origin of a giant ore deposits such as the Palaeoproterozoic ore deposits of the Ashanti belt in Ghana, we have conducted several numerical simulations of heat and fluid flow applied to a realistic geological model. Such deposits are generally late orogenic and most of them are located at the vicinity of or within major structural accidents associated with particular fluid circulations and temperature distributions. In Ghana, deposits are concentrated along the western flank of the Ashanti greenstone belt where fault concentration is the highest and connection between them is maximal. In this region, several factors, identified in the field, are expected to affect hydrothermal fluid flows : (1) a 10 km-wide faulted zone is associated with a lateral permeability gradient ; (2) sedimentary and conglomeratic basins surround the faulted zone;(3) magmatic intrusions are located within the fault and at its vicinity. Our approach is defined by two steps: first, the numerical code solves equations related to heat transfer and fluid-flow in porous media with the above-cited appropriate boundary conditions; second, from the results of the modelling, we calculated the rock alteration index, RAI, which is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity by the temperature gradient. This index illustrates the geochemical alteration potential and depends on parameters such as gold solubility; it is used to identify regions where precipitation or dissolution can occur. Hydrothermal circulations are first investigated by the study of different synthetic cases corresponding to simplified models applicable to situations similar to the ones encountered in Ghana. In the case of a simple geometry, implying a fault zone surrounded by a sedimentary basin, transitions from 2D

  19. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from Northern Central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mylonitic gabbro and altered gabbro were recovered from off-axis high and corner high locations at ridge-transform intersection, adjacent to Vityaz transform fault of the slow spreading (32–35mm/yr, full spreading) Northern Central Indian Ridge. Both the varieties show signatures of extensive alteration caused due to ...

  20. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA: DDH 1976-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.


    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Alteration and mineral deposition recognized in a 200' drill core from DDH 1-76 is most intense in the upper 100 feet which consists of altered alluvium and opal deposits; the lower 100 feet is weakly altered quartz monzonite. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Comparison of the alteration mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth. The estimated heat flow varied from .02 HFU (for 200' depth, 400,000 yr duration, and no sulfur oxidation) to 67 HFU (for 5,000' depth, 1,000 yr duration, and all sulfur oxidized from sulfide). Heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration are comparable with those from a cooling granitic magma.

  1. Paris vs. Murchison: Impact of hydrothermal alteration on organic matter in CM chondrites (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.; Binet, L.; Cartigny, P.; Brearley, A. J.; Remusat, L.


    Unravelling the origin of organic compounds that were accreted into asteroids requires better constraining the impact of asteroidal hydrothermal alteration on their isotopic signatures, molecular structures, and spatial distribution. Here, we conducted a multi-scale/multi-technique comparative study of the organic matter (OM) from two CM chondrites (that originate from the same parent body or from identical parent bodies that accreted the same mixture of precursors) and underwent a different degree of hydrothermal alteration: Paris (a weakly altered CM chondrite - CM 2.8) and Murchison (a more altered one - CM 2.5). The Paris insoluble organic matter (IOM) shows a higher aliphatic/aromatic carbon ratio, a higher radical abundance and a lower oxygen content than the Murchison IOM. Analysis of the OM in situ shows that two texturally distinct populations of organic compounds are present within the Paris matrix: sub-micrometric individual OM particles and diffuse OM finely distributed within phyllosilicates and amorphous silicates. These results indicate that hydrothermal alteration on the CM parent body induced aromatization and oxidation of the IOM, as well as a decrease in radical and nitrogen contents. Some of these observations were also reported by studies of variably altered fragment of Tagish Lake (C2), although the hydrothermal alteration of the OM in Tagish Lake was apparently much more severe. Finally, comparison with data available in the literature suggests that the parent bodies of other chondrite petrologic groups could have accreted a mixture of organic precursors different from that accreted by the parent body of CMs.

  2. Hydrothermal Quartz Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Altered Post-Collapse Rhyolite at Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, WY (United States)

    Phillips, A. R.; Larson, P. B.; John, D. A.; Pauley, B. M.


    The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, displays regions of pervasively hydrothermally altered rock formed in the shallow, epithermal portions of a hydrothermal system. Hydrothermal fluid circulation causing the alteration is driven by magmatism related to the Yellowstone Caldera thermal anomaly. The protolith, the Tuff of Sulfur Creek, is a 480 ka high silica, low δ18O rhyolitic tuff that erupted after the Yellowstone caldera collapse at 640 ka. Incision of the canyon has exposed 350 vertical meters in the Sevenmile Hole vicinity. Hydrothermal mineralogy determined by standard XRD powder techniques and PIMA on over 90 samples shows both vertical and lateral variation. A vertical transition occurs from kaolinite at depths less than about 100 meters below the present day canyon rim, to illite in deeper exposures. This transition may correspond to a temperature of 150°C, based on a similar transition in the active Yellowstone hydrothermal system. A lateral variation of mineral assemblages in the altered tuff suggests temperatures that may range up to 330°C. Alteration was most likely caused by a liquid due to the presence of pyrite throughout. Local zones of suspected hydrothermal fluid upwelling correspond to the most intense silicification and highest temperature mineral assemblages. This alteration includes quartz + illite ± hyalophane, slawsonite, and buddingtonite. At similar depths outside inferred fluid upwelling zones, lower temperature assemblages are quartz + illite/smectite ± alunite and buddingtonite. At shallow depths, the lowest temperatures are suggested by the presence of quartz + kaolinite ± alunite and opal. Dickite, a kaolinite polymorph, may indicate locally higher temperatures in the shallow kaolinite zones. Oxygen isotope ratios of silica phases were measured for approximately 50 samples using laser fluorination techniques with an error of ±0.2‰. Hydrothermal quartz displays δ18O signatures more

  3. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.


    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  4. Fractal Dimension Change Point Model for Hydrothermal Alteration Anomalies in Silk Road Economic Belt, the Beishan Area, Gansu, China (United States)

    Han, H. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, G. L.; LI, J. Q.; Gao, T.; Yang, M.; Yang, J. L.


    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration of “One Belt One Road” plan. One of its applications is extracting and locating hydrothermal alteration zones that are related to mines. At present, the extracting method for alteration anomalies from principal component image mainly relies on the data's normal distribution, without considering the nonlinear characteristics of geological anomaly. In this study, a Fractal Dimension Change Point Model (FDCPM), calculated by the self-similarity and mutability of alteration anomalies, is employed to quantitatively acquire the critical threshold of alteration anomalies. The realization theory and access mechanism of the model are elaborated by an experiment with ASTER data in Beishan mineralization belt, also the results are compared with traditional method (De-Interfered Anomalous Principal Component Thresholding Technique, DIAPCTT). The results show that the findings produced by FDCPM are agree with well with a mounting body of evidence from different perspectives, with the extracting accuracy over 80%, indicating that FDCPM is an effective extracting method for remote sensing alteration anomalies, and could be used as an useful tool for mineral exploration in similar areas in Silk Road Economic Belt.

  5. Temporal evolution of the giant Salobo IOCG deposit, Carajás Province (Brazil): constraints from paragenesis of hydrothermal alteration and U-Pb geochronology (United States)

    deMelo, Gustavo H. C.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Santiago, Erika S. B.; Dufrane, S. Andrew; Aires, Benevides; Santos, Antonio F. F.


    The giant Salobo copper-gold deposit is located in the Carajás Province, Amazon Craton. Detailed drill core description, petrographical studies, and U-Pb SHRIMP IIe and LA-ICP-MS geochronology unravel its evolution regarding the host rocks, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Within the Cinzento Shear Zone, the deposit is hosted by orthogneisses of the Mesoarchean Xingu Complex (2950 ± 25 and 2857 ± 6.7 Ma) and of the Neoarchean Igarapé Gelado suite (2763 ± 4.4 Ma), which are crosscut by the Old Salobo granite. Remnants of the Igarapé Salobo metavolcanic-sedimentary sequence are represented by a quartz mylonite with detrital zircon populations (ca. 3.1-3.0, 2.95, 2.86, and 2.74 Ga). High-temperature calcic-sodic hydrothermal alteration (hastingsite-actinolite) was followed by silicification, iron-enrichment (almandine-grunerite-magnetite), tourmaline formation, potassic alteration with biotite, copper-gold ore formation, and later Fe-rich hydrated silicate alteration. Myrmekitic bornite-chalcocite and magnetite comprise the bulk of copper-gold ore. All these alteration assemblages have been overprinted by post-ore hematite-bearing potassic and propylitic alteration, which is also recognized in the Old Salobo granite. In the central zone of the deposit the mylonitized Igarapé Gelado suite rocks yield an age of 2701 ± 30 Ma. Zircon ages of 2547 ± 5.3 and 2535 ± 8.4 Ma were obtained for the Old Salobo granite and for the high-grade copper ore, respectively. A U-Pb LA-ICP-MS monazite age (2452 ± 14 Ma) from the copper-gold ore indicates hydrothermal activity and overprinting in the Siderian. Therefore, a protracted tectono-thermal event due to the reactivation of the Cinzento Shear Zone is proposed for the evolution of the Salobo deposit.

  6. Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-3, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (United States)

    Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.


    Y-3, a U.S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, reached a depth of 156.7 m. The recovered drill core consists of 42.2 m of surficial (mostly glacial) sediments and two rhyolite flows (Nez Perce Creek flow and an older, unnamed rhyolite flow) of the Central Plateau Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite. Hydrothermal alteration is fairly extensive in most of the drill core. The surficial deposits are largely cemented by silica and zeolite minerals; and the two rhyolite flows are, in part, bleached by thermal water that deposited numerous hydrothermal minerals in cavities and fractures. Hydrothermal minerals containing sodium as a dominant cation (analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, Na-smectite, and aegirine) are more abundant than calcium-bearing minerals (calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, and pectolite) in the sedimentary section of the drill core. In the volcanic section of drill core Y-3, calcium-rich minerals (dachiardite, laumontite, yugawaralite, calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, pectolite, and truscottite) are predominant over sodium-bearing minerals (aegirine, mordenite, and Na-smectite). Hydrothermal minerals that contain significant amounts of potassium (alunite and lepidolite in the sediments and illitesmectite in the rhyolite flows) are found in the two drill-core intervals. Drill core y:.3 also contains hydrothermal silica minerals (opal, [3-cristobalite, chalcedony, and quartz), other clay minerals (allophane, halloysite, kaolinite, and chlorite), gypsum, pyrite, and hematite. The dominance of calcium-bearing hydrothermal minerals in the lower rhyolitic section of the y:.3 drill core appears to be due to loss of calcium, along with potassium, during adiabatic cooling of an ascending boiling water.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (South China) (United States)

    Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Bristow, Thomas F.; Wampler, J. M.; Środoń, Jan; Marynowski, Leszek; Elliott, W. Crawford; Chamberlain, C. Page


    The geochemical and fossil record preserved in the Ediacaran age (635-551 Ma) Doushantuo Formation of South China has been extensively examined to explore the impact of changing climate and the oxidation state of the oceans on the development and distribution of early multicellular life. In the Yangtze Gorges area, this formation shows many of the geochemical trends and features thought to typify global ocean chemistry in the Ediacaran Period, but there are indications that post-sedimentary processes modified these signals. This study of clay minerals and organic matter builds a more detailed picture of the type and degree of post-sedimentary alteration at different stratigraphic levels of the formation and focuses on how this alteration influenced stable carbon and oxygen isotope records. In the cratonward Jiulongwan and Huajipo sections of the Doushantuo Formation, its lower part (Members 1 and 2) consists largely of dolomitic shale, rich in authigenic saponite that crystallized in an alkaline sedimentary basin. Saponite has been altered to chlorite via corrensite across tens of meters of strata in lower Member 2, with increased alteration downward toward the cap dolostone. The greater chloritization is accompanied by lower δ18O and higher δD values of trioctahedral clays. This pattern of alteration of trioctahedral clays is likely due to hydrothermal fluid activity in the underlying, relatively permeable Nantuo Formation and cap dolostone. A concomitant increase of solid bitumen reflectance toward the base of the formation supports this idea. In the uppermost part of the formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (Member 4), a typical open water marine dolomitic shale rich in illite and organic matter, increases in the methylphenanthrenes ratio index and solid bitumen reflectance correlate with decrease of the bulk rock K/Al ratio upward, providing evidence for hot fluid migration above the nearly impermeable shale. Clay from the upper part of the formation is

  8. The age of Au-Cu-Pb-bearing veins in the poly-orogenic Ubendian Belt (Tanzania): U-Th-total Pb dating of hydrothermally altered monazite (United States)

    Kazimoto, Emmanuel Owden; Schenk, Volker; Appel, Peter


    The age of gold-copper-lead mineralization in the Katuma Block of the Ubendian Belt remains controversial because of the lack of radiometric ages that correlate with the age of tectonothermal events of this poly-orogenic belt. Previous studies reported whole rock and mineral Pb-Pb ages ranging between 1,660 and 720 Ma. In this study, we report U-Th-total Pb ages of monazite from hydrothermally altered metapelites that host the Au-Cu-Pb-bearing veins. Three types of chemically and texturally distinct types of monazite grains or zones of grains were identified: monazite cores, which yielded a metamorphic age of 1,938 ± 11 Ma ( n = 40), corresponding to known ages of a regional metamorphic event, deformation and granitic plutonism in the belt; metamorphic overgrowths that date a subsequent metamorphic event at 1,827 ± 10 Ma ( n = 44) that postdates known eclogite metamorphism (at ca. 1,880 Ma) in the belt; hydrothermally altered poikilitic monazite, formed by dissolution-precipitation processes, representing the third type of monazite, constrain the age of a hydrothermal alteration event at 1,171 ± 17 Ma ( n = 19). This Mesoproterozoic age of the hydrothermal alteration coincides with the first amphibolite grade metamorphism of metasediments in the Wakole Block, which adjoins with a tectonic contact the vein-bearing Katuma Block to the southwest. The obtained distinct monazite ages not only constrain the ages of metamorphic events in the Ubendian Belt, but also provide a link between the metamorphism of the Wakole metasediments and the generation of the hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of the gold-copper-lead veins in the Katuma Block.

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration on Basaltic Mauna Kea Volcano as a Template for Identification of Hydrothermal Alteration on Basaltic Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Bell, J. F., III


    Certain samples of palagonitic tephra from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii) are spectral analogues for bright martian surface materials at visible and near-IR wavelengths because both are characterized by a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm. Palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. For Mars-analogue palagonite, the pigment is nanometersized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout an allophane-like hydrated basaltic glass matrix. Crystalline phyllosilicates are not generally detected, and the hydration state of the is not known. The poorly crystalline nature of glass alteration products implies relatively low temperature formation pathways. We report here x-ray diffraction, major element, Mossbauer, and VNIR data for 9 basaltic tephras. Thermal emission spectra are reported in a separate abstract. Our multidisciplinary approach both tightly constrains mineralogical interpretations and maximizes overlap with datasets available for the martian surface available now and in the future.

  10. Hydrothermal alteration in basalts from Vargeão impact structure, south Brazil, and implications for recognition of impact-induced hydrothermalism on Mars (United States)

    Yokoyama, Elder; Nédélec, Anne; Baratoux, David; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Fabre, Sébastien; Berger, Gilles


    The 12-km-wide Vargeão impact structure was formed 123 Myr ago in the Paraná basaltic province (southern Brazil). At this time the province region had a dry climate, although a large brackish aquifer had been formed in the underlying sandstones. It is therefore one of the best terrestrial analogs for studying impact-related products on a dry martian surface environment with preserved ice-rich ground. The basalts within the impact structure display cm-sized breccia veins filled with lithic clasts, glassy remnants, newly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides and secondary phases, such as calcite, phyllosilicates and, subordinately quartz and zeolite. The textural and mineralogical study of these phases demonstrate their hydrothermal origin. Although the very center of the structure has experienced the highest pressures and temperatures, the most developed hydrothermal changes are recognized in an inner collar surrounding the central depression. This inner collar is also the location of major modifications of the rock magnetic properties. These magnetic signatures are related to the distribution of impact-related faults and to the formation of new iron oxides. Geochemical modeling indicate that hydrothermal phases formation required low water/rock ratios. Our observations therefore suggest that hydrothermal alteration took place following the perturbation of the aquifer by the impact, but evidence for hydrothermal circulation is limited in comparison with other impact-related hydrothermal systems. This situation may be explained by the presence of the aquifer below the heat source, such a setting being exceptional for the Earth, but common on Mars. However, the spectroscopic signatures in visible/near infrared images suggest that this kind of impact-related hydrothermal alteration may be still indentified in large impact craters on Mars by orbital instruments. These results does not exclude the possibility that more developed alteration took place in breccias that are today

  11. A multidisciplinary approach to quantify the permeability of the Whakaari/White Island volcanic hydrothermal system (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand) (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Farquharson, Jamie I.; Ashworth, James; Mayer, Klaus; Letham-Brake, Mark; Reuschlé, Thierry; Gilg, H. Albert; Scheu, Bettina; Lavallée, Yan; Siratovich, Paul; Cole, Jim; Jolly, Arthur D.; Baud, Patrick; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Our multidisciplinary study aims to better understand the permeability of active volcanic hydrothermal systems, a vital prerequisite for modelling and understanding their behaviour and evolution. Whakaari/White Island volcano (an active stratovolcano at the north-eastern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand) hosts a highly reactive hydrothermal system and represents an ideal natural laboratory to undertake such a study. We first gained an appreciation of the different lithologies at Whakaari and (where possible) their lateral and vertical extent through reconnaissance by land, sea, and air. The main crater, filled with tephra deposits, is shielded by a volcanic amphitheatre comprising interbedded lavas, lava breccias, and tuffs. We deployed field techniques to measure the permeability and density/porosity of (1) > 100 hand-sized sample blocks and (2) layered unlithified deposits in eight purpose-dug trenches. Our field measurements were then groundtruthed using traditional laboratory techniques on almost 150 samples. Our measurements highlight that the porosity of the materials at Whakaari varies from ∼ 0.01 to ∼ 0.7 and permeability varies by eight orders of magnitude (from ∼ 10-19 to ∼ 10-11 m2). The wide range in physical and hydraulic properties is the result of the numerous lithologies and their varied microstructures and alteration intensities, as exposed by a combination of macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) observations, quantitative mineralogical studies (X-ray powder diffraction), and mercury porosimetry. An understanding of the spatial distribution of lithology and alteration style/intensity is therefore important to decipher fluid flow within the Whakaari volcanic hydrothermal system. We align our field observations and porosity/permeability measurements to construct a schematic cross section of Whakaari that highlights the salient findings of our study. Taken together, the alteration typical of a volcanic

  12. Geology, mineralization, and hydrothermal alteration and relationships to acidic and metal-bearing surface waters in the Palmetto Gulch area, southwestern Colorado (United States)

    Bove, Dana J.; Kurtz, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Winfield G.


    The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate these anthropogenic and potential natural sources of acidity and metals, we mapped the geology, veins, and hydrothermally altered areas; conducted mine dump leachate studies; and collected reconnaissance water quality data. Several small abandoned mines are present in the Palmetto Gulch area that produced small amounts of relatively high-grade silver ore from fault-controlled polymetallic vein deposits. These veins are hosted in lavas, breccias, and related volcaniclastic sediments that ponded within the 28 Ma San Juan-Uncompahgre caldera complex. These rock units generally have conformable contacts and have shallow dips to the northwest. Lava flows of pyroxene andesite, which host the Roy-Pray mine, are massive near their base and typically grade upward into tightly jointed rock with 2-15 cm joint spacing. In general, most hydrothermally altered rock within the Palmetto Gulch area is restricted to envelopes surrounding the mineralized veins and faults. Composite zones of vein-related alteration vary from about 50 to 80 m wide along the high ridgelines and narrow to less than 10 to 15 m beneath an elevation of about 5,462 m. Where unaffected by surficial oxidation, these altered zones contain as much as 7 to 10 volume percent finely-disseminated pyrite. The majority of rocks in the area were affected by regional and vein-related propylitic alteration. These greenish-colored rocks have alteration products consisting of chlorite, illite, and calcite; and feldspars are typically weakly altered. Most of these rocks have detectable amounts of calcite, while as much as 11 percent by weight was detected in samples collected during this study. The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate

  13. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.


    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  14. Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape, Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Reid, M.E.; Sisson, T.W.; Brien, D.L.


    Catastrophic collapses of steep volcano flanks threaten many populated regions, and understanding factors that promote collapse could save lives and property. Large collapses of hydrothermally altered parts of Mount Rainier have generated far-traveled debris flows; future flows would threaten densely populated parts of the Puget Sound region. We evaluate edifice collapse hazards at Mount Rainier using a new three-dimensional slope stability method incorporating detailed geologic mapping and subsurface geophysical imaging to determine distributions of strong (fresh) and weak (altered) rock. Quantitative three-dimensional slope stability calculations reveal that sizeable flank collapse (>0.1 km3) is promoted by voluminous, weak, hydrothermally altered rock situated high on steep slopes. These conditions exist only on Mount Rainier's upper west slope, consistent with the Holocene debris-flow history. Widespread alteration on lower flanks or concealed in regions of gentle slope high on the edifice does not greatly facilitate collapse. Our quantitative stability assessment method can also provide useful hazard predictions using reconnaissance geologic information and is a potentially rapid and inexpensive new tool for aiding volcano hazard assessments.

  15. Genesis of recent hydrothermal waters of the Baikal Rift Zone according to isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, G.S.; Sandimirova, G.P.; Pakhol' chenko, Yu.A.; Lomonosov, I.S.; Rzhechitskii, Yu.P.


    The results of strontium isotope measurements for 15 hydrothermal phenomena placed in the northern part of Baikal rift zone (0,70663--0,71247) and for Kotel'nikovsky spring (0,72339 +- 0,00101) are given. The latter result is outstanding compared to all other data obtained and probably characterizes the surface waters of the Baikal highland. This conclusion is also confirmed by the minimum abundance of deuterium (-190%) in this spring water. According to measurement results the isotopic ratio /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is diminishing from north-east flank of the rift zone to the south-west direction upto the middle, most deep, and seismic-active part of the Baikal lake, where maximum heat flow was observed. The dependence of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr value from chlorine content in waters and from strontium content was revealed. The data obtained evidence that strontium isotope studies of hydrothermal phenomena is determined by the mixture of strontium having surface, crust-derived and juvenile origins.

  16. Elemental mercury at submarine hydrothermal vents in the Bay of Plenty, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Stoffers, P.; Hannington, M.; Wright, I.; Herzig, P.; de Ronde, C.; Scientific Party, Shipboard


    Hot springs in active geothermal areas such as Yellowstone National Park, the Geysers geothermal field in California, and the Taupo volcanic zone in New Zealand are notably enriched in the trace metals Au, Ag, As, Sb, and Hg. Such near-surface hot springs have formed many of the world's important deposits of gold and silver and some of the largest deposits of mercury. The majority of these are associated with continental geothermal systems in subaerial environments. Here we report the discovery of active mercury-depositing hot springs in a submarine setting, at nearly 200 m water depth, within the offshore extension of the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand. These vents contain the first documented occurrence of elemental mercury on the sea floor and provide an important link between offshore hydrothermal activity and mercury-depositing geothermal systems on land. The discovery has implications for mercury transport in sea-floor hydrothermal systems and underscores the importance of submarine volcanic and geothermal activity as a source of mercury in the oceans.

  17. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.


    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  18. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus (United States)

    Matsukura, S.; Yamaoka, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawahata, H.


    The boron contents and isotopic compositions were determined for the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust through the Troodos ophiolite. The samples were represented by the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) drill-Holes CY1 (479m), CY2A (689m), CY4 (2263m), and selected outcrops along the Akaki river. Hole CY1 was composed upper and lower pillow lava, CY4 constituted sheeted dike complex and gabbro section, and the samples along Akaki river formed from pillow lava to sheeted dike complex. Hole CY2A was composed pillow lava and sheeted dike, drilled near Agrokipia ‘B’ deposit a stockwork type which completely enclosed within the lower pillow lava. The goal of this study is to understand the Boron geochemistry during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust including hydrothermal ore deposit as Agrokipia ‘B’. The average boron contents of each sequence from Troodos ophiolite were pillow lava (63.2ppm), sheeted dike complex (4.5ppm), gabbro section (1.6ppm). But then, those of Oman ophiolite were 7.9ppm, 5.3ppm, 1.7ppm (Yamaoka et al., 2010 submitted). Thus, both of these ophiolites, the vertical profile of boron content decreased with depth, also the boron contents were much richer than fresh-MORB (0.5ppm) (Spivack and Edmond, 1987; Chaussidon and Jambon, 1994). This indicates boron rich of the altered oceanic crust were derived from seawater. And sheeted dike complex and gabbro section were similar value relatively, but pillow lava differed widely. These results may represent the difference of length being submarine, because these ophiolites were generated in deep water of the Tethys sea about 90Ma (Late Cretaceous) (Tilton et al., 1981; Mukasa and Ludden, 1987), and Oman ophiolite was obducted about 70Ma (Lanphere, 1981) but Troodos ophiolite uplifted about 10Ma (Middle Miocene) (Robertson and Woodcock, 1979).

  19. Hydrothermal alteration products and stable isotope ratios of the Sulfur Creek Tuff; a window into the subsurface environment of the Yellowstone caldera in Yellowstone National Park, WY (United States)

    Lonero, A.; Larson, P. B.


    The Yellowstone Caldera in northwest Wyoming is the site of active hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal activity relating to the Yellowstone hotspot has resulted in the alteration of rhyolites within the caldera. Specifically, the Seven Mile Hole area of the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone River provides an ideal location and opportunity to investigate the nature of the ongoing hydrothermal alteration. Here, erosion by the river has exposed a sequence of rocks which are host to hydrothermal fluids and are themselves significantly altered. Analyses of clay minerals and other alteration products, such as opal, has been undertaken in order to characterize and distinguish different zones of alteration. Hydrogen isotope ratios have been measured for the altered rock units within the Seven-Mile Hole area, and they range from -84.6 ‰ to -185.1 ‰ (VSMOW). Samples from this area commonly contain minerals such as kaolinite, illite, alunite, or buddingtonite, and the deuterium / hydrogen (D/H) ratios of these mineral phases are shown to vary considerably with respect to their location and elevation in the canyon. Additionally, oxygen isotope ratios have been measured on some samples in order to compare the samples' isotope values to the local meteoric water line. Plotting these samples in δD - δ18O space has shown that some values lie in a region trending away from the meteoric water line and along a "kaolinite line." This area is parallel to the array of Yellowstone hot spring fluids and a broad range of values are possible here depending on temperature of alteration. Furthermore, these data support a model where hydrothermal fluids flow upward through faults related to caldera collapse that are present in the sulfur creek tuff. This research may also show that the unique coloration patterns visible on the slopes of the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone can be, in part, explained as the result of both surface oxidation and hydrothermal alteration processes. Major element XRF

  20. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N.; Mustard, John F.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Robertson, Kevin M.; Salvatore, Mark R.; Edwards, Christopher S.


    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop. The phases identified in the sample are albite, large iron oxides, and titanite throughout; calcite in vesicles; calcic clinopyroxene, aegirine, and Fe/Mg-bearing clay in the rind; and fine-grained hematite and pyroxenes in the interior. Using imaging spectroscopy, the chemistry and mineralogy results extend to the hand sample and larger outcrop. From all of the analyses, we suggest that the pillow basalts were altered initially after emplacement, either by heated lake water or magmatic fluids, at temperatures of at least 400-600 °C, and the calcic clinopyroxenes and aegirine identified in the rind are a preserved record of that alteration. As the hydrothermal system cooled to slightly lower temperatures, clays formed in the rind, and, during this alteration, the sample oxidized to form hematite in the matrix of the interior and Fe3+ in the pyroxenes in the rind. During the waning stages of the hydrothermal system, calcite precipitated in vesicles within the rind. Later, diagenetic processes albitized the sample, with albite replacing plagioclase, lining vesicles, and accreting onto the exterior of the sample. This albitization or Na-metasomatism occurred when the lake within the Hartford Basin evaporated during a drier past climatic era, resulting in Na-rich brines. As Ca-rich plagioclase altered to albite, Ca was released into solution, eventually precipitating as calcite in previously-unfilled vesicles, dominantly in the interior of the pillow. Coordinated analyses of this sample permit

  1. Strontium and oxygen isotopic profiles through 3km of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust in the Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland


    Marks, Naomi; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The Iceland Deep Drilling Program well RN-17 was drilled 3km into a section of hydrothermally altered basaltic crust in the Reykjanes geothermal system in Iceland. The system is located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the circulating hydrothermal fluid is modified seawater, making Reykjanes a useful analog for mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal systems. We have determined whole-rock Sr and O isotope compositions, and Sr isotope compositions of epidote...

  2. Hydrothermally-altered dacite terrains in the Methana peninsula Greece: Relevance to Mars (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Jonatanson, Victoria; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Amador, Elena S.; Rivera-Hernández, Frances; Mann, P.; Mertzman, Stanley A.


    Dacitic rocks, often indicative of crustal recycling on Earth, have been identified in some regions on Mars, as have possible hydrothermally/aqueously-altered dacites. To enable more robust identification of unaltered and altered dacites on Mars and other planetary bodies, we undertook a spectroscopic-structural-compositional study of altered and unaltered dacites from a dacitic volcanic region in Methana, Greece. Dacites erupted in this region range from fresh to pervasively hydrothermally altered, resulting in friable, Si-enriched products, as well as fumarolic deposition of Si and S-rich precipitates. Spectrally, fresh dacites are unremarkable in the 0.35-2.5 μm region with low, generally flat, reflectance and few, if any, absorption bands. Dacite infrared spectra exhibit Si-O absorption features in the 8-10 μm region (which are characteristic of Si-bearing rocks, in general). With increasing alteration, reflectance over the 0.35-2.5 μm range increases, absorption bands in the 1.4 and 1.9 μm region, associated with H2O/OH, and in the 2.2-2.3 μm region, associated with SiOH, become deeper, Fe3+-associated absorption bands in the 0.43 and 0.9 μm region appear, and the Christiansen feature near 8 μm moves to shorter wavelengths. Silica-rich coatings appear to be spectrally indistinguishable from Si-rich alteration. Alteration-formed sulfates may be detectable by the presence of diagnostic absorption features in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. Spectral similarities between different poorly crystalline high-Si phases make it difficult to uniquely determine the processes that formed high-Si surfaces that have been identified on Mars. However, the samples described here show a variety of spectral features that correspond to variable amounts of alteration. We find a similar range of spectral features, likely due to similar phases, on Mars, perhaps indicating a similar range of alteration environments. Comparison of laboratory spectra to Mars observational data also

  3. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Ove [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Eriksson, Gunda; Sandell, Yvonne [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The effects of hydrothermal + subsequent low temperature alteration and glacial/post-glacial weathering have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water-conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (Bas 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm-thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th. The altered zone of the YA 1192 core extends to approx. 2.5 cm from the fracture surface. The alteration (mainly plagioclase {yields} albite + sericite + epidote) has resulted in a higher porosity and formation of sorbing secondary minerals (e.g. sericite), favouring matrix diffusion. Increased Br concentrations in the altered zone are indicative of saline water in pores and micro fractures i.e. the presence of a diffusion medium. 234U/238U activity ratios > 1 and increased Cs in the altered zone are then interpreted as diffusion of U and Cs from fracture groundwater and subsequent sorption. The U migration is geologically recent (< 1 Ma). The 2.5 cm altered zone (corresponding to the zone of active matrix diffusion) significantly exceeds the visible red staining zone (0.5 cm) caused by hematite/FeOOH micrograins, emphasizing the need of microscopy to identify zones of alteration. The conspicuous weathering at the BAS 1 site is confined to a narrow rim of the bedrock surface (approx. 0.2-0.5 cm thick). Mass balance calculations for this rim (based on immobility of K) indicate that mechanical erosion has dominated over chemical dissolution processes (is roughly 10 times greater). The chemical weathering has affected mainly plagioclase and chlorite resulting

  4. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.


    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  5. Fluid inclusions and hydrothermal alteration on the Dixie Valley Fault, Nevada (United States)

    Parry, W. T.; Hedderly-Smith, D.; Bruhn, R. L.


    Footwall rocks of the 1954 rupture segment of the Dixie Valley fault show extensive hydrothermal alteration related to fluids that were present on the fault during tectonic events. Hydrothermal alteration of granitic host rocks consists of temporally and spatially overlapping mineral assemblages. An early, biotite-feldspar assemblage is followed by later Fe-chlorite and epidote. Both chlorite and epidote are replaced by hydrothermal sericite and cross-cut by calcite-hematite and quartz-calcite veins. Biotite is partially replaced by prehnite. The latest hydrothermal minerals are stilbite, laumontite, kaolinite, alunite, smectite, illite, and pervasive replacement of rock units with fine grained quartz, chalcedony, and opal. Secondary fluid inclusions trapped in healed microfractures in igneous quartz include type I inclusions that contain a moderate salinity aqueous liquid and vapor, type II inclusions that contain a moderate salinity aqueous liquid and CO2; type III inclusions that show eutectic melting temperatures below the NaCl-H2O eutectic and contain substantial CaCl2, and type IV inclusions containing halite and other daughter minerals. Microthermometric measurements on these inclusions yield variable compositions and homogenization temperatures. Salinities of type I inclusions vary from 0.1 to 12.9 wt % NaCl with the mode in the interval 0 to 1%. Salinities of type II CO2 bearing inclusions range from 0.62 to 6.81 wt % NaCl relative to H2O, and salinities of type III inclusions with low eutectic melting temperatures are 12.9 to 25.3 NaCl equivalent wt %. Salinities of halite-bearing inclusions are 30.1 to 39.2 wt % NaCl. Homogenization temperatures span the range 120° to 400°C. The processes of isochemical cooling with upward displacement of the footwall, mixing of cool low-salinity water with hotter components, and mixing of cool, evaporite brine with hotter components could be responsible for variable fluid inclusion compositions, homogenization

  6. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (United States)

    Mars, John L.


    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  7. A new approach for hydrothermal alteration mapping by selecting and interpreting principal components in Landsat ETM+ images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kashkoei Jahroomi


    Full Text Available Introduction In remote sensing studies, especially those in which multi-spectral image data are used, (i.e., Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper, various statistical methods are often applied for image enhancement and feature extraction (Reddy, 2008. Principal component analysis is a multivariate statistical technique which is frequently used in multidimensional data analysis. This method attempts to extract and place the spectral information into a smaller set of new components that are more interpretable. However, the results obtained from this method are not so straightforward and require somewhat sophisticated techniques to interpret (Drury, 2001. In this paper we present a new approach for mapping of hydrothermal alteration by analyzing and selecting the principal components extracted through processing of Landsat ETM+ images. The study area is located in a mountainous region of southern Kerman. Geologically, it lies in the volcanic belt of central Iran adjacent to the Gogher-Baft ophiolite zone. The region is highly altered with sericitic, propyliticand argillic alterationwell developed, and argillic alteration is limited (Jafari, 2009; Masumi and Ranjbar, 2011. Multispectral data of Landsat ETM+ was acquired (path 181, row 34 in this study. In these images the color composites of Band 7, Band 4 and Band 1 in RGB indicate the lithology outcropping in the study area. The principal component analysis (PCA ofimage data is often implemented computationally using three steps: (1 Calculation of the variance, covariance matrix or correlation matrix of the satellite sensor data. (2 Computation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the variance-covariance matrix or correlation matrix, and (3 Linear transformation of the image data using the coefficients of the eigenvector matrix. Results By applying PCA to the spectral data, according to the eigenvectors obtained, 6 principal components were extracted from the data set. In the PCA matrix, theeigen

  8. Controls on thallium uptake during hydrothermal alteration of the upper ocean crust (United States)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Atteck, Charlotte; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Matthew J.


    Hydrothermal circulation is a fundamental component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, the magnitude of the high temperature axial hydrothermal fluid flux remains disputed, and the lower temperature ridge flank fluid flux is difficult to quantify. Thallium (Tl) isotopes behave differently in axial compared to ridge flank systems, with Tl near-quantitatively stripped from the intrusive crust by high temperature hydrothermal reactions, but added to the lavas during low temperature reaction with seawater. This contrasting behavior provides a unique approach to determine the fluid fluxes associated with axial and ridge flank environments. Unfortunately, our understanding of the Tl isotopic mass balance is hindered by poor knowledge of the mineralogical, physical and chemical controls on Tl-uptake by the ocean crust. Here we use analyses of basaltic volcanic upper crust from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1301B on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, combined with published analyses of dredged seafloor basalts and upper crustal basalts from Holes 504B and 896A, to investigate the controls on Tl-uptake by mid-ocean ridge basalts and evaluate when in the evolution of the ridge flank hydrothermal system Tl-uptake occurs. Seafloor basalts indicate an association between basaltic uptake of Tl from cold seawater and uptake of Cs and Rb, which are known to partition into K-rich phases. Although there is no clear relationship between Tl and K contents of seafloor basalts, the data do not rule out the incorporation of at least some Tl into the same minerals as the alkali elements. In contrast, we find no relationship between the Tl content and either the abundance of secondary phyllosilicate minerals, or the K, Cs or Rb contents in upper crustal basalts. We conclude that the uptake of Tl and alkali elements during hydrothermal alteration of the upper crust involves different processes and/or mineral phases compared to those that govern seafloor weathering. Furthermore

  9. Geochemistry, Paragenesis, and Wall-Rock Alteration of the Qatruyeh Iron Deposits, Southwest of Iran: Implications for a Hydrothermal-Metasomatic Genetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Asadi


    Full Text Available The Qatruyeh iron deposits, located on the eastern border of the NW-SE trending Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, southwest of Iran, are hosted by a late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic sequence dominated by metamorphosed carbonate rocks. The magnetite ores occurred as layered to massive bodies, with lesser amounts of disseminated magnetite and hematite-bearing veins. Textural evidences, along with geochemical analyses of the high field strengths (HFSEs, large ion lithophiles (LILEs, and rare earth elements (REEs, indicate that the main mineralization stage occurred as low-grade layered magnetite ores due to high-temperature hydrothermal fluids accompanied by Na-Ca alteration. Most of the main ore-stage minerals precipitated from an aqueous-carbonic fluid (3.5–15 wt.% NaCl equiv. at temperatures ranging between 300° and 410°C during fluid mixing process, CO2 effervescence, cooling, and increasing of pH. Low-temperature hydrothermal activity subsequently produced hematite ores associated with propylitic alteration. The metacarbonate host rocks are LILE-depleted and HFSE-enriched due to metasomatic alteration.

  10. Laboratory simulated hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Leif, Roald N.


    High temperature alteration of sedimentary organic matter associated with marine hydrothermal systems involves complex physical and chemical processes that are not easily measured in most natural systems. Many of these processes can be evaluated indirectly by examining the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system in the laboratory. In this investigation, an experimental organic geochemical approach to studying pyrolysis of sedimentary organic matter is applied to the hydrothermal system in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. A general survey of hydrothermal oils and extractable organic matter (bitumen) in hydrothermally altered sediments identified several homologous series of alkanones associated with a high temperature hydrothermal origin. The alkanones range in carbon number from C11 to C30 with no carbon number preference. Alkan-2-ones are in highest concentrations, with lower amounts of 3-, 4-, 5- (and higher) homologs. The alkanones appear to be pyrolysis products synthesized under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Hydrous pyrolysis and confinement pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally enhanced diagenetic and catagenetic changes in the immature sedimentary organic matter. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanones. The results were compared to bitumen extracts from sediments which have been naturally altered by a sill intrusion and accompanied hydrothermal fluid flow. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated many of the organic matter transformations observed in the natural system. Full hopane and sterane maturation occurred after 48 hr in experiments at 330 deg C with low water/rock mass ratios (0.29). A variety of radical and ionic reactions are responsible for the organic compound conversions which occur under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Short duration pyrolysis experiments revealed that a portion of the

  11. 210Pb, 230Th, and 10Be in Central Indian Basin seamount sediments: Signatures of degassing and hydrothermal alteration of recent origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B; Borole, D.V.; Aldahan, A.; Patil, S.K.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B; Possnert, G.; Ericsson, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Gupta, S.M.

    ) the presence of altered minerals such as smectite and zeolites, and 4) distinctly different magnetic properties in the altered sediments. A predominant influence of neutral chloride type hydrothermal fluids is interpreted. This is the first report of recently...

  12. Sup(210)Pb, sup(230)Th, and sup(10)Be in Central Indian Basin seamount sediments: Signatures of degassing and hydrothermal alteration of recent origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Borole, D.V.; Aldahan, A.; Patil, S.K.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Possnert, G.; Ericsson, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Gupta, S.M.

    ) the presence of altered minerals such as smectite and zeolites, and 4) distinctly different magnetic properties in the altered sediments. A predominant influence of neutral chloride type hydrothermal fluids is interpreted. This is the first report of recently...

  13. Fate of copper complexes in hydrothermally altered deep-sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Sander, S.G.; Jayachandran, S.; Nath, B.N.; Nagaraju, G.; Chennuri, K.; Vudamala, K.; Lathika, N.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.

    flux from this sediment to the water column in this area. This study suggests that most of the Cu was strongly associated with different binding sites in Fe-oxide phases of the hydrothermally altered sediments with stabilities higher than that of Cu...

  14. Sr, Nd, water and carbon dioxide input of altered Pacific MORB into the Tonga subduction zone (United States)

    Rosner, M.; Bach, W.; Erzinger, J.


    The hydrothermally altered and weathered uppermost section of subducting oceanic plates influences the budget of many fluid-mobile elements in supra-subduction zones. The characterisation of subducted upper basement is therefore an important parameter for the understanding of arc-magmatism. We present preliminary Sr and Nd isotope as well as H_2O^+ and CO_2 concentration data for altered basalts from ˜80 Ma Pacific crust drilled during DSDP Leg 91 (Site 595; 23^o49.3'S and 165^o31.6'W) 1000 km East of the Tonga trench. The sample set consists of 10 partially altered, aphyric microcrystalline basalts and subordinate breccia from the uppermost 55 m of basement. Smectite, celadonite, calcite, and Fe-oxides are the most abundant secondary phases, replacing igneous groundmass and filling fissures and void space. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios vary between 0.70330 and 0.70445 and between 0.513059 and 0.513095, respectively. The H_2O^+ and CO_2 concentrations range from 2.2 to 4.3 wt.% and 0.21 to 3.13 wt.%, respectively. 87Sr/86Sr is positively correlated with H_2O^+ concentrations and alteration intensity (chiefly smectite abundance). Significant macroscopic authigenic carbonate is developed in only two samples, all others show slightly elevated concentrations between 0.21 and 0.82 wt.% related to trace calcite in veinlets. Interestingly, 143Nd/144Nd is negatively correlated with CO_2 abundance suggesting that the 143Nd/144Nd may by ascribed to seawater alteration rather than mantle source heterogeneity. Our preliminary data indicate that the intensity of alteration and the magnitude of chemical change may be greater at Site 595 than in the 6 Ma old eastern Pacific crust at Sites 504 and 896 (Alt et al., 1996) but somewhat smaller than at Sites 417/418 in 118 Ma Atlantic crust (Staudigel et al., 1995). In addition to Sites 801 and 1149 in old Pacific crust, Site 595 may provide insights into western Pacific subduction zone inputs with particular relevance for

  15. SIMS Investigations on Growth and Sector Zoning in Natural Hydrothermal Quartz: Isotopic and Trace Element Analyses (United States)

    May, E.; Vennemann, T. W.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Meisser, N.


    Quartz is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust and is found in virtually every geological context. Despite its ubiquity and the detailed studies on the conditions of quartz crystallization, some questions concerning its growth and sector zoning with regard to trace element incorporation and oxygen isotope fractionations and the implications thereof for interpretations on the conditions of formation remain (e.g., Jourdan et al., 2009). This study presents new in-situ measurements of trace element and oxygen isotope ratios on natural hydrothermal quartz from an extensional gold-bearing quartz vein in the western Swiss Alps. The temperature of formation of the veins is estimated by quartz-hematite oxygen isotope thermometry to be about 360°C. A detailed SEM-CL study of this sample shows cyclic lamellar growth, alternating with phases of dissolution that are directly followed by macro-mosaic growth of the quartz, before returning to a cyclic lamellar growth again. Trace element concentrations (measured for Na, K, Li, Al, and Ti) notably showed Al/Si variations of three orders of magnitude and coupled Al and Li variations, likely substituting for Si in different growth zones with lower values in macro-mosaic zones precipitating after the period of dissolution. The oxygen isotope composition of the crystal, in contrast, is homogeneous through all growth zones (δ18O values between 15.6‰ and 16.2‰) indicating that the fluid must have been buffered by the host-rock and/or the source of the fluid remained the same despite the period of quartz dissolution. Furthermore, the temperature during crystallization of the quartz crystal has likely also remained similar. The fact that no variations are measured in oxygen isotope compositions but some variations in trace element contents may suggest that changes in pressure were important during the formation of this quartz crystal. Give the pressure effects on the solubility of quartz (Fournier and Potter, 1982), both

  16. Modeling results of calcium-containing minerals precipitation in the alkaline hydrotherms of Baikal Rift Zone: calcite and dolomite


    Tokarenko, Olga Grigorievna; Zippa, E. V.


    The calculation modeling results of the nitric hydrotherms saturation in Baikal Rift Zone with calcite and dolomite are presented. The calcite and dolomite make the carbonate barrier to thermal waters equilibrium with primary minerals of igneous rocks. In the research territory, there are three main types of geochemical thermal waters which are characterized by the saturation degree with the calcite and dolomite and the proportion of precipitating minerals phases. It has been established that...

  17. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: Petrographic characterization of the alteration to 2 kilometers depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.; Parry, W.T.


    Hydrothermal alteration in drill cuttings from Thermal Power drillhole 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, has been studied petrographically. The hole is sited in alluvium approximately 1.6 km southeast of the old Resort and was rotary drilled to a depth of 1866.0 m. The exact hole location is 2310 FNL, 350 FWL, Sec. 2, Twp 27S, Rge 9W, elevation 1908.5 m. Core was extracted from 792.5 to 795.5 m. Thin sections were made from samples at 15.2 m intervals of drill cuttings collected at 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals during drilling. Thin sections were made of 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals from 274.3 to 304.8 m, 487.9 to 581.2 m, and 868.7 to 899.2 m. These intervals were chosen for close spaced sampling on the basis of increases in temperature, porosity, conductivity and acoustic velocity shown in geophysical logs. A total of 153 thin sections of cuttings were made, and an additional 9 sections were made from the core. Depths of thin section samples are listed in the appendix. A visual estimate of the percentage of each rock type was made for each thin section.

  18. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W.T.; Bryant, N.L.; Dedolph, R.E.; Ballantyne, J.M.; Ballantyne, G.H.; Rohrs, D.T.; Mason, J.L.


    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter, and siliceous-sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, granite to granodiorite plutonic rocks, and amphibolite facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and to kaolinite, alunite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 60 m. Marcasite and pyrite occur below the water table at about 30m. Deeper alteration sampled to a depth of 2.26 km consists of muscovite, chlorite, calcite, K-feldspar, albite, and epidote with pyrite and sparse chalcopyrite. Thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium chloride brine. Surface water contains 10 times as much calcium and 100 times as much magnesium as the deep water. Sulfate varies from 48 to 200 mg/l. Present-day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C but in 1950 the spring temperature was 85/sup 0/C. Computed Na-K-Ca temperature is 241/sup 0/C for the present-day spring, 274/sup 0/C for a well and 283/sup 0/C for the 1957 spring. Quartz saturation temperatures are 170/sup 0/C for the present-day spring, 283/sup 0/C for the well, and 213/sup 0/C for the 1957 spring. A plausible model for development of the near-surface alteration consists of hydrothermal fluid which convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and hydrogen ion is produced by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. The low pH water percolates from the surface downward and reacts with rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen is consumed.

  19. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie


    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  20. Using micro-scale evidence to understand regional-scale hydrothermal alteration of plutonic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37155960X; King, H. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261088; Putnis, A.


    Subsolidus re-equilibration of plutonic feldspars induced by hydrothermal fluids provides a valuable record of fluid-rock interactions that affect large volumes of the Earth's continental crust (Taylor, 1977). The effect of hydrothermal fluids has important implications for the interpretation of the

  1. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

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    Tingbin Zhang


    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  2. Modeling results of calcium-containing minerals precipitation in the alkaline hydrotherms of Baikal Rift Zone: calcite and dolomite (United States)

    Tokarenko, O. G.; Zippa, E. V.


    The calculation modeling results of the nitric hydrotherms saturation in Baikal Rift Zone with calcite and dolomite are presented. The calcite and dolomite make the carbonate barrier to thermal waters equilibrium with primary minerals of igneous rocks. In the research territory, there are three main types of geochemical thermal waters which are characterized by the saturation degree with the calcite and dolomite and the proportion of precipitating minerals phases. It has been established that nitric thermal waters-rock system has equilibrium with these minerals, which leads to bonding migrated from the rocks calcium and magnesium by the secondary formed minerals - calcite and dolomite.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration and permeability changes in granitic intrusions related to Sn-W deposits : case study of Panasqueira (Portugal) (United States)

    Launay, Gaetan; Sizaret, Stanislas; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Pinto, Filipe


    The Panasqueira Sn-W deposit occurs as a dense network of flat wolframite and cassiterite-bearing quartz veins concentrated in the vicinity of a hidden greisen cupola, and to a lesser extent as disseminated cassiterites in the greisen. Previous studies (Thadeu 1951; 1979) have suggested that the Panasqueira deposit is genetically related to magmatic activity for which the most part is unexposed, and being only represented by the greisen cupola. Hydrothermal fluid circulation during the final stages of granite crystallisation has probably led to the greisenisation of the cupola followed by the deposition of the mineralization in the veins system. Mineral replacement reactions that occurred during the greisenisation could affect rock properties (porosity, density and permeability) which control fluid circulation in the granite. This study aims to investigate effects of greisenisation reactions on the dynamic (time varying) permeability that ultimately leads to fluid circulation in the greisen cupola. To do so, petrological study and experimental determinations of hydrodynamic features (porosity and permeability) for different granite alteration levels and petrographic types (unaltered granite to greisen) are combined and then integrated in coupled numerical models of fluid circulation around the granitic intrusion. Greisen occurs in the apical part of the granitic body and results in the pervasive alteration of the granite along the granite-schist contact. This greisen consists mainly of quartz and muscovite formed by the replacement of feldspars and bleaching of biotites of the initial granite. Otherwise, greisen is generally vuggy which suggests a porosity increase of the granite during hydrothermal alteration processes. This porosity increase has a positive effect on the permeability of the granitic system. Indeed, experimental measurements of permeability with the Paterson press indicate that the initial granite is impermeable (10-20 m2) whereas the greisen is

  4. State of stress and relationship of mechanical properties to hydrothermal alteration at Valles Caldera core hole 1, New Mexico (United States)

    Dey, Thomas N.; Kranz, Robert L.


    We measured the densities, total and microcrack porosities, and ultrasonic velocities of a number of core samples from an 856-m-deep core hole near the Banco Bonito vent at Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Reductions in porosity with depth define a zone from about 600 m down where hydrothermal mineralization and recrystallization have been most active. This zone is also reflected in a large decrease in the anisotropy of acoustic velocities. Stress orientation estimates based on microcrack orientations at the 812-m depth as determined by differential strain curve analysis, as well as anelastic strain recovery measurements on a sample from 472-m depth, show a horizontal E-W minimum compression direction and a maximum compression inclined about 30° from vertical.

  5. Th-Pb ion probe dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite and its implications for repeated shear zone activity: An example from the Central Alps, Switzerland (United States)

    Bergemann, C.; Gnos, E.; Berger, A.; Whitehouse, M.; Mullis, J.; Wehrens, P.; Pettke, T.; Janots, E.


    Th-Pb age dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite from alpine-type fissures/clefts is a powerful tool for constraining polyphase deformation at temperatures below 350°C and presents an alternative to K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques for dating brittle tectonics. This study considers the relationship between cleft orientations in ductile shear zones and cleft mineral crystallization during subsequent brittle overprinting. In the Grimsel area, located in the Aar Massif of the Central Alps, horizontal clefts formed during a primary thrust dominated deformation, while younger and vertically oriented clefts developed during secondary strike-slip movements. The change is due to a switch in orientation between the principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. The transition is associated with monazite crystallization and chloritization of biotite at around 11.5 Ma. Quartz fluid inclusion data allow a link between deformation stages and temperatures to be established and indicate that primary monazite crystallization occurred in both cleft systems at 300-350°C. While cleft monazite crystallization ceases at 11 Ma in inactive shear zones, monazite growth, and/or dissolution-reprecipitation continues under brittle deformation conditions in vertical clefts during later deformation until 7 Ma. This younger shear zone activity occurs in association with dextral strike-slip movement of the Rhone-Simplon fault system. With the exception of varying Th/U values correlated with the degree of oxidation, there is only limited compositional variation in the studied cleft monazites.

  6. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gettings


    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same

  7. Geothermal Frontier: Penetrate a boundary between hydrothermal convection and heat conduction zones to create 'Beyond Brittle Geothermal Reservoir' (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.; Asanuma, H.; Sakaguchi, K.; Okamoto, A.; Hirano, N.; Watanabe, N.; Kizaki, A.


    EGS has been highlightened as a most promising method of geothermal development recently because of applicability to sites which have been considered to be unsuitable for geothermal development. Meanwhile, some critical problems have been experimentally identified, such as low recovery of injected water, difficulties to establish universal design/development methodology, and occurrence of large induced seismicity. Future geothermal target is supercritical and superheated geothermal fluids in and around ductile rock bodies under high temperatures. Ductile regime which is estimated beyond brittle zone is target region for future geothermal development due to high enthalpy fluids and relatively weak water-rock interaction. It is very difficult to determine exact depth of Brittle-Ductile boundary due to strong dependence of temperature (geotherm) and strain rate, however, ductile zone is considered to be developed above 400C and below 3 km in geothermal fields in Tohoku District. Hydrothermal experiments associated with additional advanced technology will be conducting to understand ';Beyond brittle World' and to develop deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. We propose a new concept of the engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile basement, expecting the following advantages: (a)simpler design and control the reservoir, (b)nearly full recovery of injected water, (c)sustainable production, (d)cost reduction by development of relatively shallower ductile zone in compression tectonic zones, (e)large quantity of energy extraction from widely distributed ductile zones, (f)establishment of universal and conceptual design/development methodology, and (g) suppression of felt earthquakes from/around the reservoirs. In ductile regime, Mesh-like fracture cloud has great potential for heat extraction between injection and production wells in spite of single and simple mega-fracture. Based on field observation and high performance hydrothermal

  8. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared (United States)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.


    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  9. Heat flow, morphology, pore fluids and hydrothermal circulation in a typical Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank near Oceanographer Fracture Zone (United States)

    Le Gal, V.; Lucazeau, F.; Cannat, M.; Poort, J.; Monnin, C.; Battani, A.; Fontaine, F.; Goutorbe, B.; Rolandone, F.; Poitou, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Piedade, A.; Hipólito, A.


    Hydrothermal circulation affects heat and mass transfers in the oceanic lithosphere, not only at the ridge axis but also on their flanks, where the magnitude of this process has been related to sediment blanket and seamounts density. This was documented in several areas of the Pacific Ocean by heat flow measurements and pore water analysis. However, as the morphology of Atlantic and Indian ridge flanks is generally rougher than in the Pacific, these regions of slow and ultra-slow accretion may be affected by hydrothermal processes of different regimes. We carried out a survey of two regions on the eastern and western flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Oceanographer and Hayes fracture zones. Two hundred and eight new heat flow measurements were obtained along six seismic profiles, on 5 to 14 Ma old seafloor. Thirty sediment cores (from which porewaters have been extracted) have been collected with a Kullenberg corer equipped with thermistors thus allowing simultaneous heat flow measurement. Most heat flow values are lower than those predicted by purely conductive cooling models, with some local variations and exceptions: heat flow values on the eastern flank of the study area are more variable than on the western flank, where they tend to increase westward as the sedimentary cover in the basins becomes thicker and more continuous. Heat flow is also higher, on average, on the northern sides of both the western and eastern field regions and includes values close to conductive predictions near the Oceanographer Fracture Zone. All the sediment porewaters have a chemical composition similar to that of bottom seawater (no anomaly linked to fluid circulation has been detected). Heat flow values and pore fluid compositions are consistent with fluid circulation in volcanic rocks below the sediment. The short distances between seamounts and short fluid pathways explain that fluids flowing in the basaltic aquifer below the sediment have remained cool and unaltered

  10. Sm-Nd age of the Fazenda Brasileiro Gabbro, Bahia, Brazil: example of robust behavior of the Sm-Nd isotopic system under extreme hydrothermal alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio M. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:;; Silva, Maria da Gloria [Bahia Univ., Salvador (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia de Geofisica Aplicada]. E-mail:


    The Fazenda Brasileiro gold mineralization is hosted by a gabbroic sill, intrusive into metavolcanic-metasedimentary rocks of the Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt, Sao Francisco Craton. The 2.05 Ga old mineralization is associated with intense shearing and hydrothermal alteration, and the host gabbro is altered to a series of rocks rich in sericite, chlorite, actinolite, carbonate and quartz. Twelve whole-rock samples of the gold mineralization, representing varied degrees of alteration, from rocks with preserved igneous textures to the ore (quartz-carbonate-sulfide-chlorite), were studied by the Sm-Nd method. All analytical points resulted in an isochron (MSWD = 1.9) indicating the age of 2142 {+-} 47 Ma (1s) and Epsilon Nd (T) of +1.2. Chlorite-sericite-carbonate rich hydrothermal rocks indicate the age of 2148 {+-} 57 Ma and Epsilon Nd (T) of +1.1. The positive Epsilon Nd (T) suggest limited or no contamination with older continental crust, compatible with an oceanic setting for the tholeiites. Combined with REE data, the Sm-Nd isotopic results reveal that the hydrothermal alteration, although intense, was unable to alter significantly the Sm/Nd ratios of the original igneous rocks and did not cause important scatter of the analytical points, providing a rare example of robust behavior of the isotopic system, even under intense hydrothermal alteration. (author)

  11. Physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Tolhuaca geothermal system, southern Andes, Chile: Insights into the interplay between hydrothermal alteration and brittle deformation (United States)

    Sanchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Reich, Martin; Arancibia, Gloria; Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Cembrano, José; Driesner, Thomas; Lizama, Martin; Rowland, Julie; Morata, Diego; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Tardani, Daniele; Campos, Eduardo


    In this study, we unravel the physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of the active Tolhuaca geothermal system in the Andes of southern Chile. We used temperature measurements in the deep wells and geochemical analyses of borehole fluid samples to constrain present-day fluid conditions. In addition, we reconstructed the paleo-fluid temperatures and chemistry from microthermometry and LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions taken from well-constrained parageneses in vein samples retrieved from a ~ 1000 m borehole core. Based on core logging, mineralogical observations and fluid inclusions data we identify four stages (S1-S4) of progressive hydrothermal alteration. An early heating event (S1) was followed by the formation of a clay-rich cap in the upper zone (Tolhuaca has produced a mineralogical, hydrological and structural vertical segmentation of the system through the development of a low-permeability, low-cohesion clay-rich cap at shallow depth. The quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions and borehole fluids reveal a significant change in chemical conditions during the evolution of Tolhuaca. Whereas borehole (present-day) fluids are rich in Au, B and As, but Cu-poor (B/Na ~ 100.5, As/Na ~ 10- 1.1, Cu/Na ~ 10- 4.2), the paleofluids trapped in fluid inclusions are Cu-rich but poor in B and As (B/Na ~ 10- 1, As/Na ~ 10- 2.5, Cu/Na ~ 10- 2.5 in average). We interpret the fluctuations in fluid chemistry at Tolhuaca as the result of transient supply of metal-rich, magmatically derived fluids where As, Au and Cu are geochemically decoupled. Since these fluctuating physical and chemical conditions at the reservoir produced a mineralogical vertical segmentation of the system that affects the mechanical and hydrological properties of host rock, we explored the effect of the development of a low-cohesion low-permeability clay cap on the conditions of fault rupture and on the long-term thermal structure of the system. These analyses were performed by using

  12. Impact Lithologies and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Alteration Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico (United States)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Friedrich


    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole, which is approx.60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, approx.15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx.50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx.90 km radius final crater. Approximately approx.100 m of melt-bearing impactites were recoverd from a depth of 794 to 895 m, above approx.600 m of underlying megablocks of Cretaceous target sediments, before bottoming at 1511 m. Compared to lithologies at impact craters like the Ries, the YAX-1 impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity. The impactite sequence has also been altered by hydrothermal activity that may have largely been produced by the impact event.

  13. Hydrothermal alteration and Cu-Ni-PGE mobilization in the charnockitic rocks of the footwall of the South Kawishiwi intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA. (United States)

    Benkó, Zsolt; Mogessie, Aberra; Molnár, Ferenc; Krenn, Kurt; Poulson, Simon R; Hauck, Steven; Severson, Mark; Arehart, Greg B


    In the Neoarchean (~ 2.7 Ga) contact metamorphosed charnockitic footwall of the Mesoproterosoic (1.1 Ga) South Kawishiwi intrusion of the Duluth Complex, the primary metamorphic mineral assemblage and Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide mineralization is overprinted by an actinolite + chlorite + cummingtonite + prehnite + pumpellyite + quartz + calcite hydrothermal mineral assemblage along 2-3 cm thick veins. In calcite, hosted by the hydrothermal alteration zones and in a single recrystallized quartz porphyroblast, four different fluid inclusion assemblages are documented; the composition of these fluid inclusions provide p-T conditions of the fluid flow, and helps to define the origin of the fluids and evaluate their role in the remobilization and reprecipitation of the primary metamorphic sulfide assemblage. Pure CO2 fluid inclusions were found as early inclusions in recrystallized quartz porphyroblast. These inclusions may have been trapped during the recrystallization of the quartz during the contact metamorphism of the footwall charnockite in the footwall of the SKI. The estimated trapping pressure (1.6-2.0 kbar) and temperature (810-920 °C) conditions correspond to estimates based on felsic veins in the basal zones of the South Kawishiwi intrusion. Fluid inclusion assemblages with CO2-H2O-NaCl and CH4-N2-H2O-NaCl compositions found in this study along healed microfractures in the recrystallized quartz porphyroblast establish the heterogeneous state of the fluids during entrapment. The estimated trapping pressure and temperature conditions (240-650 bar and 120-150 °C for CO2-H2O-NaCl inclusions and 315-360 bar and 145-165 °C for CH4-N2-H2O-NaCl inclusions) are significantly lower than the p-T conditions (> 700 °C and 1.6-2 kbar) during the contact metamorphism, indicating that this fluid flow might not be related to the cooling of the Duluth Complex and its contact aureole. The presence of chalcopyrite inclusions in these fluid inclusions and in

  14. Hydrothermal alteration and Cu–Ni–PGE mobilization in the charnockitic rocks of the footwall of the South Kawishiwi intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA (United States)

    Benkó, Zsolt; Mogessie, Aberra; Molnár, Ferenc; Krenn, Kurt; Poulson, Simon R.; Hauck, Steven; Severson, Mark; Arehart, Greg B.


    In the Neoarchean (~ 2.7 Ga) contact metamorphosed charnockitic footwall of the Mesoproterosoic (1.1 Ga) South Kawishiwi intrusion of the Duluth Complex, the primary metamorphic mineral assemblage and Cu–Ni–PGE sulfide mineralization is overprinted by an actinolite + chlorite + cummingtonite + prehnite + pumpellyite + quartz + calcite hydrothermal mineral assemblage along 2–3 cm thick veins. In calcite, hosted by the hydrothermal alteration zones and in a single recrystallized quartz porphyroblast, four different fluid inclusion assemblages are documented; the composition of these fluid inclusions provide p–T conditions of the fluid flow, and helps to define the origin of the fluids and evaluate their role in the remobilization and reprecipitation of the primary metamorphic sulfide assemblage. Pure CO2 fluid inclusions were found as early inclusions in recrystallized quartz porphyroblast. These inclusions may have been trapped during the recrystallization of the quartz during the contact metamorphism of the footwall charnockite in the footwall of the SKI. The estimated trapping pressure (1.6–2.0 kbar) and temperature (810–920 °C) conditions correspond to estimates based on felsic veins in the basal zones of the South Kawishiwi intrusion. Fluid inclusion assemblages with CO2–H2O–NaCl and CH4–N2–H2O–NaCl compositions found in this study along healed microfractures in the recrystallized quartz porphyroblast establish the heterogeneous state of the fluids during entrapment. The estimated trapping pressure and temperature conditions (240–650 bar and 120–150 °C for CO2–H2O–NaCl inclusions and 315–360 bar and 145–165 °C for CH4–N2–H2O–NaCl inclusions) are significantly lower than the p–T conditions (> 700 °C and 1.6–2 kbar) during the contact metamorphism, indicating that this fluid flow might not be related to the cooling of the Duluth Complex and its contact aureole. The presence of chalcopyrite

  15. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from northern central Indian ridge and their geodynamic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Mevel, C.; Banerjee, R.

    assemblages: chlorite, albite, quartz and locally magnesio hornblende. Crystal plastic deformation resulted in mylonite formation and often porphyroclasts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains, while altered gabbro locally exhibits cataclastic texture...

  16. Surface heat flow and CO2 emissions within the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Rissmann, C.; Christenson, B.; Werner, C.; Leybourne, M.; Cole, J.; Gravley, D.


    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow have been determined from the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand following 20a of production (116MW e). Soil CO2 degassing was quantified with 2663 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method, and 2563 soil temperatures were measured and converted to equivalent heat flow (Wm -2) using published soil temperature heat flow functions. Both CO2 flux and heat flow were analysed statistically and then modelled using 500 sequential Gaussian simulations. Forty subsoil CO 2 gas samples were also analysed for stable C isotopes. Following 20a of production, current CO2 emissions equated to 111??6.7T/d. Observed heat flow was 70??6.4MW, compared with a pre-production value of 122MW. This 52MW reduction in surface heat flow is due to production-induced drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows (61.5MW) and steam-heated pools (8.6MW) within the Ohaaki West thermal area (OHW). The drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows at Ohaaki means that the soil zone is now the major natural pathway of heat release from the high-temperature reservoir. On the other hand, a net gain in thermal ground heat flow of 18MW (from 25MW to 43.3??5MW) at OHW is associated with permeability increases resulting from surface unit fracturing by production-induced ground subsidence. The Ohaaki East (OHE) thermal area showed no change in distribution of shallow and deep soil temperature contours despite 20a of production, with an observed heat flow of 26.7??3MW and a CO 2 emission rate of 39??3T/d. The negligible change in the thermal status of the OHE thermal area is attributed to the low permeability of the reservoir beneath this area, which has limited production (mass extraction) and sheltered the area from the pressure decline within the main reservoir. Chemistry suggests that although alkali-Cl outflows once contributed significantly to the natural surface heat flow (~50%) they contributed little (99% of the original CO 2

  17. A hybrid zone between Bathymodiolus mussel lineages from eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents (United States)


    Background The inhabitants of deep-sea hydrothermal vents occupy ephemeral island-like habitats distributed sporadically along tectonic spreading-centers, back-arc basins, and volcanically active seamounts. The majority of vent taxa undergo a pelagic larval phase, and thus varying degrees of geographical subdivision, ranging from no impedance of dispersal to complete isolation, often exist among taxa that span common geomorphological boundaries. Two lineages of Bathymodiolus mussels segregate on either side of the Easter Microplate, a boundary that separates the East Pacific Rise from spreading centers connected to the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Results A recent sample from the northwest flank of the Easter Microplate contained an admixture of northern and southern mitochondrial haplotypes and corresponding alleles at five nuclear gene loci. Genotypic frequencies in this sample did not fit random mating expectation. Significant heterozygote deficiencies at nuclear loci and gametic disequilibria between loci suggested that this transitional region might be a ‘Tension Zone’ maintained by immigration of parental types and possibly hybrid unfitness. An analysis of recombination history in the nuclear genes suggests a prolonged history of parapatric contact between the two mussel lineages. We hereby elevate the southern lineage to species status as Bathymodiolus antarcticus n. sp. and restrict the use of Bathymodiolus thermophilus to the northern lineage. Conclusions Because B. thermophilus s.s. exhibits no evidence for subdivision or isolation-by-distance across its 4000 km range along the EPR axis and Galápagos Rift, partial isolation of B. antarcticus n. sp. requires explanation. The time needed to produce the observed degree of mitochondrial differentiation is consistent with the age of the Easter Microplate (2.5 to 5.3 million years). The complex geomorphology of the Easter Microplate region forces strong cross-axis currents that might disrupt self

  18. Report on static hydrothermal alteration studies of Topopah Spring tuff waters in J-13 water at 150{sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.B.


    This report presents the results of preliminary experimental work done to define the package environment in a potential nuclear waste repository in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. The work is supported by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project as a part of the Waste Package task to design a package suitable for waste storage within volcanic units at the Nevada Test Site. Static hydrothermal alteration experiments were run for 4 months using polished wafers either fully submerged in an appropriate natural ground water or exposed to water-saturated air with enough excess water to allow refluxing. The aqueous results agreed favorably with similar experiments run using crushed tuff, and the use of solid polished wafers allowed us to directly evaluate the effects of reaction on the tuff. The results are preliminary in the sense that these experiments were run in Teflon-lined, static autoclaves, whereas subsequent experiments have been run in Dickson-type gold-cell rocking autoclaves. The results predict relatively minor changes in water chemistry, very minor alteration of the host rock, and the production of slight amounts of secondary minerals, when liquid water could return to the rock pores following the temperature maximum during the thermal period. 7 references, 16 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Variability of low temperature hydrothermal alteration in upper ocean crust: Juan de Fuca Ridge and North Pond, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Rutter, J.; Harris, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Alt, J.; Teagle, D. A. H.


    Over 2/3 of the global hydrothermal heat flux occurs at low temperatures (sports a thick sediment blanket. Rare basement outcrops are sites of fluid recharge and discharge. The average alteration extent (~10% secondary minerals), oxidation ratio (Fe3+/FeTOT=34%), and alteration character (orange, green, grey halos) of basement is constant with crustal age and depth along a 0.97-3.6 m.yr transect of ODP basement holes. However, vesicle fills record an increasingly complex history of successive alteration with age. In contrast, North Pond, a ~8 m.yr-old sediment-filled basin at 22N on the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge, hosts rapid, relatively cool SE to NW basinal fluid flow. Average alteration extent (~10%) and oxidation ratio (33%) of Hole 395A basalts are similar to JdF. However, 395A cores are dominated by orange alteration halos, lack celadonite, but have abundant zeolite. Vesicle fill combinations are highly variable, but the most common fill progression is from oxidising to less oxidising secondary assemblages. The comparable extent of alteration between these two sites and the absence of an age relationship on the JdF suggests that the alteration extent of the upper crust is uniform and mostly established by 1 Myr. However, the variable alteration character reflects the influence of regional hydrology on hydrothermal alteration.

  20. Seismic properties of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS mining camp (United States)

    Miah, K.; Bellefleur, G.; Schetselaar, E.


    Global demand of base metals, uranium, diamonds, and precious metals has been pushing technological barrier to find and extract minerals at higher depth, which was not feasible in just a few decades ago. Seismic properties of rocks containing and surrounding ore bodies have been useful in characterizing and modeling geologic structures, and mapping high-resolution images of ore bodies. Although seismic surveys and drill hole sonic and density logs are essential for mineral exploration at depth, limited availability of seismic logs to link rock properties of different ore forming geologic structure is a hindrance to seismic interpretations. Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides (VMS) are rich in minerals and of primary interests among geologists and mining industries alike. VMS deposits occur due to focused discharge of metal-enriched fluids associated in the hydrothermal alteration process, and are rich in Zn, Cu, Pb, Ag, Au, etc. Alteration halos surrounding ore deposits can be widespread, and their locations are easier to determine than the deposits within them. Physical rock properties affected by alteration can provide clues on type and potentially size of ore deposits in the surrounding area. In this context, variations in seismic properties of rocks due to hydrothermal alteration near the deposits can help in improving modeling accuracy, and better interpretation of seismic data for economic mineral exploration. While reflection seismic techniques can resolve ore bodies at higher depths than other conventional geophysical techniques, they are relatively expensive both in terms of field data acquisition and post-processing, especially for high-resolution 3D surveys. Acoustic impedance contrasts of ore lenses with their hosting rock environment; geometry, size and spatial location relative to the surface affect their detection with seismic data. Therefore, apriori knowledge of seismic rock properties from drill hole logs and core samples in the potential survey area

  1. Modeled temperatures and fluid source distributions for the Mexican subduction zone: Effects of hydrothermal circulation and implications for plate boundary seismic processes (United States)

    Perry, Matthew; Spinelli, Glenn A.; Wada, Ikuko; He, Jiangheng


    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the sliding behavior of the plate boundary fault. The pressure-temperature paths for subducting material control the distributions of dehydration reactions, a primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution. Thus, constraining subduction zone temperatures are required to understand the seismic processes along the plate interface. We present thermal models for three margin-perpendicular transects in the Mexican subduction zone. We examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high-permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust and compare the results with models that invoke extremely high pore fluid pressures to reduce frictional heating along the megathrust. We combine thermal model results with petrological models to determine the spatial distribution of fluid release from the subducting slab and compare dewatering locations with the locations of seismicity, nonvolcanic tremor, slow-slip events, and low-frequency earthquakes. Simulations including hydrothermal circulation are most consistent with surface heat flux measurements. Hydrothermal circulation has a maximum cooling effect of 180°C. Hydrothermally cooled crust carries water deeper into the subduction zone; fluid release distributions in these models are most consistent with existing geophysical data. Our models predict focused fluid release, which could generate overpressures, coincident with an observed ultraslow layer (USL) and a region of nonvolcanic tremor. Landward of USLs, a downdip decrease in fluid source magnitude could result in the dissipation in overpressure in the oceanic crust without requiring a downdip increase in fault zone permeability, as posited in previous studies.

  2. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite in altered granitic plutons and its implications for magnetite classification schemes: Insights from the Handan-Xingtai iron district, North China Craton (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Li, Jian-Wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Koenig, Alan E.; Lowers, Heather A.; Adams, David


    Magnetite is a common mineral in igneous rocks and has been used as an important petrogenetic indicator as its compositions and textures reflect changing physiochemical parameters such as temperature, oxygen fugacity and melt compositions. In upper crustal settings, igneous rocks are often altered by hydrothermal fluids such that the original textures and compositions of igneous magnetite may be partly or completely obliterated, posing interpretive problems in petrological and geochemical studies. In this paper, we present textural and compositional data of magnetite from variably albitized granitoid rocks in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton to characterize the hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite. Four types of magnetite have been identified in the samples studied: pristine igneous magnetite (type 1), reequilibrated porous magnetite (type 2), reequilibrated nonporous magnetite (type 3), and hydrothermal magnetite (type 4). Pristine igneous magnetite contains abundant well-developed ilmenite exsolution lamellae that are largely replaced by titanite during subsequent hydrothermal alteration. The titanite has a larger molar volume than its precursor ilmenite and thus causes micro-fractures in the host magnetite grains, facilitating dissolution and reprecipitation of magnetite. During sodic alteration, the igneous magnetite is extensively replaced by type 2 and type 3 magnetite via fluid-induced dissolution and reprecipitation. Porous type 2 magnetite is the initial replacement product of igneous magnetite and is subsequently replaced by the nonoporous type 3 variety as its surface area is reduced and compositional equilibrium with the altering fluid is achieved. Hydrothermal type 4 magnetite is generally euhedral and lacks exsolution lamellae and porosity, and is interpreted to precipitate directly from the ore-forming fluids. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite has led to progressive chemical purification, during which trace

  3. Physico-chemistry and geochemistry of Balengou clay deposit (West Cameroon) with inference to an argillic hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Tassongwa, Bernard; Eba, François; Njoya, Dayirou; Tchakounté, Jacqueline Numbem; Jeudong, Narcisse; Nkoumbou, Charles; Njopwouo, Daniel


    Field description and sampling along two pits, granulometry, Atterberg limits, mineralogical (XRD, FTIR, DSC & TGA) and geochemical analyses of the Balengou clays help to determine their characteristics and the genesis of the deposit. The mineralogical composition is comprised of halloysite-kaolinite, quartz, montmorillonite, hematite, anatase, feldspar, zircon, chromite, and apatite. Gibbsite and illite occur at the shallow and deep depth, respectively. Dikes of sand-poor clays contain also cristobalite and tridymite. Pairs of elements Rb-Ba, Rb-Sr, Nb-Ta, Ta-Zr, TiO2-Zr display good positive correlations (R2 > 0.85). REE patterns are highly fractionated (LaN up to 3312, LaN/YbN: 19-10) and are marked by deep Ce and Eu negative anomalies. Immobile element canonical ratios indicate that the protoliths were commendite/pantelerite, rhyolite and dacite, or their plutonic equivalents. Mineralogical and geochemical features lead to the suggestion that the clays derived from an advanced argillic hydrothermal alteration.

  4. A Conspicuous Clay Ovoid in Nakhla: Evidence for Subsurface Hydrothermal Alteration on Mars with Implications for Astrobiology (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian


    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  5. Nickeliferous pyrite tracks pervasive hydrothermal alteration in Martian regolith breccia: A study in NWA 7533 (United States)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Hewins, Roger H.; Remusat, Laurent; Zanda, Brigitte; Pont, Sylvain; Leroux, Hugues; Marinova, Maya; Jacob, Damien; Humayun, Munir; Nemchin, Alexander; Grange, Marion; Kennedy, Allen; Göpel, Christa


    Martian regolith breccia NWA 7533 (and the seven paired samples) is unique among Martian meteorites in showing accessory pyrite (up to 1% by weight). Pyrite is a late mineral, crystallized after the final assembly of the breccia. It is present in all of the lithologies, i.e., the fine-grained matrix (ICM), clast-laden impact melt rocks (CLIMR), melt spherules, microbasalts, lithic clasts, and mineral clasts, all lacking magmatic sulfides due to degassing. Pyrite crystals show combinations of cubes, truncated cubes, and octahedra. Polycrystalline clusters can reach 200 μm in maximum dimensions. Regardless of their shape, pyrite crystals display evidence of very weak shock metamorphism such as planar features, fracture networks, and disruption into subgrains. The late fracture systems acted as preferential pathways for partial replacement of pyrite by iron oxyhydroxides interpreted as resulting from hot desert terrestrial alteration. The distribution and shape of pyrite crystals argue for growth at moderate to low growth rate from just-saturated near neutral (6 FMQ + 2 log units. It is inferred from the maximum Ni contents (4.5 wt%) that pyrite started crystallizing at 400-500 °C, during or shortly after a short-duration, relatively low temperature, thermal event that lithified and sintered the regolith breccias, 1.4 Ga ago as deduced from disturbance in several isotope systematics.

  6. Formation of Hematite fine crystals by hydrothermal alteration of synthetic Martian basalt, static and fluid flow experiments (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Isobe, H.


    Exploration made by Martian rovers and probes provided enormous information on the composition of the Martian surface materials. Origin and formation processes of the Martian surface materials should be various depending on topography and history of the Martian crust. Especially, iron minerals in the Martian soil should have essential role to characterize surface environment of the "red planet". In the present study, experimental reproduction of the Martian soil was carried out by hydrothermal alteration of the synthetic iron-rich basaltic rock. Experimental conditions for temperature and fluid composition followed Isobe and Yoshizawa (2010). Static alteration experiments are carried out at 100 °C and 150 °C, and mass ratio of the starting material to the pH1.0 sulfuric acid solution is 1:50. Run durations are 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Appropriate mass of dry ice was sealed in the experimental vessels to expel atmospheric oxygen with CO2. For the static experiments, powdered starting materials were charged in PFA vial to keep textures of the run products. For the fluid flow experiments, we constructed closed loop with Teflon tube inclined approximately 45°. One of the vertical tube is charged with crushed synthetic basalt and heated approximately 150°C by aluminum block with ribbon heater. Surlfuric acid solution flows through the tube from bottom to top and cooled at the end of the aluminum block. Cooled solution returns to the bottom of the heated tube through another vertical tube without heating block. In the static condition run products, characteristic iron mineral particles are formed for 100°C and 150°C concordant with Isobe and Yoshizawa (2010). These iron minerals distributed not only inside the starting material powder but also on the surface of the reaction vessel and the PFA vial in the reactive solution. The surface of the reaction vessel shows orange and reddish color on 100°C and 150°C run products, respectively. By SEM observation, dissolution of

  7. Application of fractal modeling and PCA method for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Saveh area (Central Iran based on ASTER multispectral data

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    Mirko Ahmadfaraj


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determination and separation of alteration zones using Concentration-Area (C-A fractal model based on remote sensing data which has been extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images. The studied area is on the SW part of Saveh, 1:250,000 geological map, which is located in Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, Central Iran. The pixel values were computed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA method used to determine phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones. The C-A fractal model is utilized for separation of different parts of alteration zones due to their intensity. The log-log C-A plots reveal multifractal nature for phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones. The obtained results based on fractal model show that the main trend of the alteration zones is in NW-SE direction. Compared to the geological map of the study area and copper mineralizations, the alteration zones have been detected properly and correlate with the mineral occurrences, intrusive rock, and faults.

  8. Evolution evidence of a basic fluid to an acid based in the analysis of hydrothermal alteration of the geothermic field of the Azufres, Michoacan; Evidencias de evolucion de un fluido basico a acido a partir del analisis de la alteracion hidrotermal del campo geotermico de los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Hydrothermal alteration at the Los Azufres geothermal field is mostly composed of calc-silicate minerals that define a propylitic alteration zone, which shows progressive dehydration with depth and temperature increase. A generalized zoning of the calc-silicate zone can be observed, with zeolites in the upper part and epidote-clinozoisite at the deepest levels. An argillic alteration zone overlies the calc-silicate zone and is the dominant surface manifestation of the hydrothermal alteration. In some parts, there is a mineral assemblage composed of kaolinite-alunite-native sulfur-quartz (advanced argillic zone) formed by the interaction of vapor and shallow groundwater. The proto-fluid at the Los Azufres geothermal system is related to a neutral sodium chlorine brine, which favors deep propyllitic alteration (productive zone). This zone is characterized by secondary permeability due to fracturing. At depth the geothermal field is dominated by a pressurized liquid, yielding to vapor at more shallow zone. The gradual change from a liquid to a vapor phase occurs through boiling at depths between 1,200 and 1,500 m, and is accompanied by changes in the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy. The type of alteration passes from proylitic to argillic by means of an oxidation-acidification process, which includes the participation of a gas, particularly CO{sub 2}. Considering the physicochemical characteristic of the brine and the evolution of the paragenetic sequence, the Los Azufres geothermal field could de considered a model for hydrothermal behavior at ore deposits which develop by boiling and oxidation of low sulfidation fossil hydrothermal fluids. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres la zona de alteracion hidrotermal esta formada en su mayor parte por calcosilicatos (que definen una zona paragenetica del tipo propilitico), los cuales muestran una deshidratacion progresiva conforme se va profundizando e incrementandose la temperatura. Se puede generalizar un

  9. Quantification of porosity evolution from unaltered to propylitic-altered granites: the 14C-PMMA method applied on the hydrothermal system of Lavras do Sul, Brazil

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    Everton M. Bongiolo


    Full Text Available This work is an application of the 14C-Polymethylmethacrylate method to compare the porosity evolution between unaltered and propylitic-altered granites, using samples from Lavras do Sul region, Brazil. This method, when coupled with optical and electronic petrography has the advantage over other methods to provide the quantification and identification of total and local porosity of rocks. From petrographic observations, different kinds of porous zones were identified and quantified (microfractures, grain boundaries, alteration of minerals, etc. Results show that unaltered granites have 0.5 to 0.6% porosity and propylitic-altered ones have 1.7 to 1.8% porosity, even between samples with different textures. Porosity of altered rocks increases mainly due to higher porosity of neoformed chlorite, calcite, sericite and microfractures. Field observations show that later phyllic alteration halos are wider in equigranular than in porphyritic granites, which could not be explained by different original porosity between those rocks. The observed differences of phyllic halos diffusion were controlled by structural and fluid/rock ratio variations between the equigranular and porphyritic granitic facies during the later hydrothermal stage.Este trabalho é uma aplicação do método 14C-polimetilmetacrilato na comparação da evolução da porosidade entre granitos não alterados e propilitizados, utilizando amostras da região de Lavras do Sul, Brasil. Este método, quando associado a análises por petrografia ótica, eletrônica e processamento digital de imagens tem a vantagem de fornecer, além da porosidade total, a quantificação e identificação da porosidade em locais específicos das rochas. A partir da petrografia foi possível identificar e quantificar os diferentes tipos de poros presentes nas rochas (microfraturas, limites de grãos, alteração de minerais, etc. Os resultados mostram que granitos não alterados têm porosidade de 0,5 a 0,6% e

  10. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI Satellite Data

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    A. Beiranvand Pour


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  11. Structural setting of Fimiston- and Oroya-style pyrite-telluride-gold lodes, Paringa South mine, Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie: 1. Shear zone systems, porphyry dykes and deposit-scale alteration zones (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.


    The Golden Mile in the 2.7 Ga Eastern Goldfields Province of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, has produced 385 million tonnes of ore at a head grade of 5.23 g/t gold (1893-2016). Gold-pyrite ore bodies (Fimiston Lodes) trace kilometre-scale shear zone systems centred on the D2 Golden Mile Fault, one of three northwest striking sinistral strike-slip faults segmenting upright D1 folds. The Fimiston shear zones formed as D2a Riedel systems in greenschist-facies (actinolite-albite) tholeiitic rocks, the 700-m-thick Golden Mile Dolerite (GMD) sill and the Paringa Basalt (PB), during left-lateral displacement of up to 12 km on the D2 master faults. Pre-mineralisation granodiorite dykes were emplaced into the D2 shear zones at 2674 ± 6 Ma, and syn-mineralisation diorite porphyries at 2663 ± 11 Ma. The widespread infiltration of hydrothermal fluid generated chlorite-calcite and muscovite-ankerite alteration in the Golden Mile, and paragonite-ankerite-chloritoid alteration southeast of the deposit. Fluid infiltration reactivated the D2 shear zones causing post-porphyry displacement of up to 30 m at principal Fimiston Lodes moving the southwest block down and southeast along lines pitching 20°SE. D3 reverse faulting at the southwest dipping GMD-PB contact of the D1 Kalgoorlie Anticline formed the 1.3-km-long Oroya Shoot during late gold-telluride mineralisation. Syn-mineralisation D3a reverse faulting alternated with periods of sinistral strike-slip (D2c) until ENE-WSW shortening prevailed and was accommodated by barren D3b thrusts. North-striking D4 strike-slip faults of up to 2 km dextral displacement crosscut the Fimiston Lodes and the barren thrusts, and control gold-pyrite quartz vein ore at Mt. Charlotte (2651 ± 9 Ma).

  12. Are the alteration halos of massive sulfide deposits syngenetic Evidence from U-Pb dating of hydrothermal rutile at the Kidd volcanic center, Abitibi subprovince, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schandl, E.S.; Davis, D.W.; Krogh, T.E. (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))


    The Kidd volcanic complex is composed of felsic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Archean age. Metasomatic events affecting the lithology of the Kidd volcanic complex include silicification, extensive CO{sub 2} metasomatism (carbonate), K-metasomatism (sericite-fuchsite), and chlorite and minor carbonate alterations. Petrographic evidence, supported by stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies, suggests that silicification and early carbonate alteration were synvolcanic, and therefore related to ore deposition. During subsequent extensive K-metasomatism, sericite precipitated in the rhyolite, and fuschsite precipitated in the ultramafic rocks. Although chlorite postdates K-metasomatism, the micas and chlorite are both found in anastomosing microfissures, commonly occupying the same set of fractures. Hydrothermal rutile formed by the breakdown of magnetite-ilmenite during K-metasomatism and chlorite alteration gives an age of 2624 {plus minus} 62 Ma (95% confidence level). It is therefore approximately 100 m.y. younger than syngenetic massive sulfide mineralization (2712 {plus minus} 2 Ma). Sulfide stringers within sericite and chlorite veins suggest some remobilization of the ores during these later events. This alteration assemblage, is identical to that found associated with many lode-gold deposits in the Superior province. Recent dating of micas and rutile associated with gold deposits in the Abitibi subprovince gives comparable ages to the rutile in the Kidd volcanic complex, which must therefore record a widespread, late hydrothermal event affecting mineralized rocks.

  13. Differing responses of zircon, chevkinite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and fergusonite-(Y) to hydrothermal alteration: Evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Macdonald, Ray; Bagiński, Bogusław; Zozulya, Dmitry


    A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65-2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9-1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66-1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.

  14. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Structural controls on hydrothermal alteration and ore mineralization (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Henley, Richard W.


    High-sulfidation copper–gold lode deposits such as Chinkuashih, Taiwan, Lepanto, Philippines, and Goldfield, Nevada, formed within 1500 m of the paleosurface in volcanic terranes. All underwent an early stage of extensive advanced argillic silica–alunite alteration followed by an abrupt change to spatially much more restricted stages of fracture-controlled sulfide–sulfosalt mineral assemblages and gold–silver mineralization. The alteration as well as ore mineralization stages of these deposits were controlled by the dynamics and history of syn-hydrothermal faulting.At the Sulfate Stage, aggressive advanced argillic alteration and silicification were consequent on the in situ formation of acidic condensate from magmatic vapor as it expanded through secondary fracture networks alongside active faults. The reduction of permeability at this stage due to alteration decreased fluid flow to the surface, and progressively developed a barrier between magmatic-vapor expansion constrained by the active faults and peripheral hydrothermal activity dominated by hot-water flow. In conjunction with the increased rock strength resulting from alteration, subsequent fault-slip inversion in response to an increase in compressional stress generated new, highly permeable fractures localized by the embrittled, altered rock. The new fractures focused magmatic-vapor expansion with much lower heat loss so that condensation occurred. Sulfide Stage sulfosalt, sulfide, and gold–silver deposition then resulted from destabilization of vapor phase metal species due to vapor decompression through the new fracture array. The switch from sulfate to sulfide assemblages is, therefore, a logical consequence of changes in structural permeability due to the coupling of alteration and fracture dynamics rather than to changes in the chemistry of the fluid phase at its magmatic source.

  15. A conspicuous clay ovoid in Nakhla: evidence for subsurface hydrothermal alteration on Mars with implications for astrobiology. (United States)

    Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian


    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  16. Comparison between the chemistry of igneous and hydrothermal biotite in the igneous rocks of Sakhtehesar mountain

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    Farima Ayati


    Full Text Available Sakhtehesar mountain is located in Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt and is composed of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (Pliocene andesite to dacite which intruded the volcanics and pyroclastics of Paleocene age. Three alteration zones including potassic, phyllic and propylitic are recognized in the area. In this paper, the mineral chemistry of magmatic and primary biotite and the mineral chemistry of biotite in potassic and phyllic alteration zones have been studied. Investigations show that primary and secondary biotites are different from each other and hydrothermal fluids associated with the potassic alteration are distinctively different from the fluids associated with the phyllic alteration zone in the area.

  17. New insights to the formation of dolomite and magnesite through hydrothermal alteration of Ca-carbonates: An experimental approach (United States)

    Kell-Duivestein, Isaac; Dietzel, Martin; Baldermann, Andre; Mavromatis, Vasileios


    Advanced knowledge about the physicochemical conditions and reaction paths underlying Ca-Mg carbonate formation, such as dolomite and magnesite, during the advanced stage of diagenesis is a pre-requirement for the accurate interpretation of proxy signals established from carbonate-hosting sedimentary archives. In this study, hydrothermal precipitation experiments were performed in order to trace and quantify the evolution of elemental (Ca, Mg and Sr) and stable isotopic δ18O signatures during the (trans)formation of intermediate aragonite and low-Mg calcite to more stable dolomite and magnesite in the presence of Mg- and Na-chloride-rich brines. Therefore, 330 mg of inorganic CaCO3 seed material (aragonite or calcite) was reacted with 30 mL of an artificial brine solution, originally containing 0.2 M of MgCl2(aq) and 0.1 M or 0.05 M of NaHCO3, in Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves at temperatures of 150, 180 and 220˚ C over the course of 365 days. The evolution of reaction products and of the experimental solutions was monitored by ICP-OES, CRDS, FTIR, XRD, EMPA and SEM analyses as well as pH and alkalinity measurements. Based on the apparent solid-phase composition and reactive fluid chemistry the following sequence of mineral growth was established: aragonite and/or low-Mg calcite reacted with aqueous Mg2+ ions to form intermediate huntite, brucite and high-Mg calcite, subsequently altered to Ca-excess dolomite and Ca-rich magnesite and finally converted to nearly stoichiometric endmembers. A progressive evolution in the stoichiometry of dolomite (from 42 to 50 mol% MgCO3) and magnesite (from 80 to 98 mol% MgCO3) as well as the increase in the degree of cation order in dolomite (from 0.26 to 0.74) were observed during this reaction sequence, implying a kinetic drive towards the (thermodynamically stable) end members. The latter processes were also traced, by means of δ18O isotope exchange kinetics between fluid and precipitating solids in bulk (Δ = δ18

  18. The effect of prior hydrothermal alteration on the melting behaviour during rhyolite formation in Yellowstone, and its importance in the generation of low-δ18O magmas (United States)

    Troch, Juliana; Ellis, Ben S.; Harris, Chris; Ulmer, Peter; Bachmann, Olivier


    Constraining the contribution of crustal lithologies to silicic magmas has important implications for understanding the dynamics of these potentially highly explosive systems. Low-δ18O rhyolite lavas erupted after caldera-forming events in Yellowstone have been interpreted as the products of bulk crustal melting of previously deposited and hydrothermally altered rhyolitic material in the down-dropped caldera roof. For lack of compositional data, the "self-cannibalisation bulk melting"-theory relies on the assumption that hydrothermally altered materials are near-cotectic and hydrous (>3 wt% H2O) and will therefore readily melt at temperatures below 850 °C. In this study, we examine the drillcores Y2, Y9 and Y13 from a USGS drilling campaign in Yellowstone in order to characterise the hydrothermally altered material in terms of major and trace elements, oxygen isotopes and water contents. Rhyolite δ18O values can decrease from "normal" (+5.8 to +6.1‰) on the surface to as low as -5‰ at depths of 100-160 m and probably lower as a function of increasing temperature with depth. While material in the drillcores is variably altered and silicified, oxygen isotope exchange in these samples is not accompanied by systematic changes in major and trace element composition and is independent of uptake of water. More than 75% of the drillcore samples have water the most limiting factor during melting. Modelled melting curves using rhyolite-MELTS suggest a maximum of 35% melt can be created at 850 °C, and that bulk melting would require extremely high temperatures >1100 °C. Therefore, large-scale bulk melting is unrealistic and low-δ18O rhyolite magmas more likely result from assimilation of <30% partially melted altered crust with low δ18O into a normal-δ18O rhyolite magma from the main reservoir. This mechanism is supported by isotopic mass-balance models as well as thermal and volumetric constraints, and may be similarly applicable to other low-δ18O settings

  19. Can Low Water/Rock Hydrothermal Alteration of Impact Materials Explain the Rock Component of the Martian Soil? (United States)

    Nelson, M. J.; Newsom, H. E.


    The martian regolith is a globally homogenized product of chemical and aeolian weathering processes. The soil is thought to consist of a rock component, with lesser amounts of mobile elements (Ca, Na, and K) than a presumed protolith, and a salt or mobile element component enriched in sulfur and chlorine. In this study we consider the contributions of hydrothermal processes to the origin of the rock component of the martian soil.

  20. Are the alteration halos of massive sulfide deposits syngenetic? Evidence from U-Pb dating of hydrothermal rutile at the Kidd volcanic center, Abitibi subprovince, Canada (United States)

    Schandl, E. S.; Davis, D. W.; Krogh, T. E.


    The Kidd volcanic complex is composed of felsic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Archean age. The felsic rocks are intercalated with sedimentary rocks, and are in contact with komatiitic ultramafic rocks. Large diorite plutons were emplaced into the rhyolite, and the complex is overlain by younger basalts. Metasomatic events affecting the lithology of the Kidd volcanic complex include silicification, extensive CO2 metasomatism (carbonate), K-metasomatism (sericite-fuchsite), and chlorite and minor carbonate alterations. Petrographic evidence, supported by stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies, suggests that silicification and early carbonate alteration were synvolcanic, and therefore related to ore deposition. During subsequent extensive K-metasomatism, sericite precipitated in the rhyolite, and fuchsite precipitated in the ultramafic rocks. Although chlorite post-dates K-metasomatism, the micas and chlorite are both found in anastomosing microfissures, commonly occupying the same set of fractures. Hydrothermal rutile formed by the breakdown of magnetiteilmenite during K-metasomatism and chlorite alteration gives an age of 2624 ±62 Ma (95% confidence level) by Pb-Pb isotopic measurements. It is therefore approximately 100 m.y. younger than syngenetic massive sulfide mineralization (2717 ±2 Ma). Sulfide stringers within sericite and chlorite veins suggest some remobilization of the ores during these later events. This alteration assemblage, generally thought to be intimately associated with mineralization, is identical to that found associated with many lode-gold deposits in the Superior province. Recent dating of micas and rutile associated with gold deposits in the Abitibi subprovince gives comparable ages to the rutile in the Kidd volcanic complex, which must therefore record a widespread, late hydrothermal event affecting mineralized rocks.

  1. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  2. Sm-Nd age of the fazenda brasileiro gabbro, Bahia, Brazil: example of robust behavior of the Sm-Nd isotopic system under extreme hydrothermal alteration

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    Márcio M. Pimentel


    Full Text Available The Fazenda Brasileiro gold mineralization is hosted by a gabbroic sill, intrusive into metavolcanicmetasedimentary rocks of the Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt, São Francisco Craton. The 2.05 Ga old mineralization is associated with intense shearing and hydrothermal alteration, and the host gabbro is altered to a series of rocks rich in sericite, chlorite, actinolite, carbonate and quartz. Twelve whole-rock samples of the gold mineralization, representing varied degrees of alteration, from rocks with preserved igneous textures to the ore (quartz-carbonate-sulfide-chlorite, were studied by the Sm-Nd method. All analytical points resulted in an isochron (MSWD = 1.9 indicating the age of 2142 +/- 47 Ma (1s and Epsilon Nd (T of +1.2. Chlorite-sericite-carbonate rich hydrothermal rocks indicate the age of 2148 +/- 57 Ma and Epsilon Nd (T of +1.1. The positive Epsilon Nd (T suggest limited or no contamination with older continental crust, compatible with an oceanic setting for the tholeiites. Combined withREEdata, the Sm-Nd isotopic results reveal that the hydrothermal alteration, although intense, was unable to alter significantly the Sm/Nd ratios of the original igneous rocks and did not cause important scatter of the analytical points, providing a rare example of robust behavior of the isotopic system, even under intense hydrothermal alteration.A mineralização de ouro de Fazenda Brasileiro é hospedada por um sill gabróico intrusivo em rochas metavulcânicas/metassedimentares do Greenstone Belt do Rio Itapicuru, Craton do São Francisco. A mineralização, com idade de ca. 2.05 Ga, está associada com forte cizalhamento e alteração hidrotermal, e o gabro hospedeiro está alterado para rochas ricas em clorita, actinolita, carbonato e quartzo. Doze amostras de rocha total representando graus variados de alteração hidrotermal, desde rochas com texturas ígneas reliquiares até o minério (quartzo-carbonato-sulfeto-clorita, foram estudadas pelo

  3. Identification of Cr-magnetite in Neoproterozoic serpentinites resulting of Cr-Spinel alteration in a past hydrothermal system: Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit (Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Morocco) (United States)

    Hodel, Florent; Macouin, Mélina; Carlut, Julie; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Trindade, Ricardo; Ennih, Nasser; Rousse, Sonia


    If magnetite is a common serpentinization product, centimetric, massive and almost pure magnetite veins are rarely observed in serpentinites. Unique examples of these, in the Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit (Bou Azzer Neoproterozoic ophiolite, Anti-Atlas, Morocco), offer the opportunity to assess the hydrothermal processes that prevailed at the end of the Precambrian. Pseudomorphic lizardite/chrysotile texture of unaltered serpentinites suggests an oceanic-like first serpentinization stage, under static and low temperature conditions (T CrM/M ratio providing a quantification of the Cr-magnetite contribution to the magnetic susceptibility, relatively to the pure magnetite one. This CrM/M ratio increases drastically with the hydrothermal alteration of serpentinites and Cr-spinels, attesting of a change of the magnetic mineralogy. Combined with petrography, mineral and bulk chemistry, these magnetic data allow us to propose that a Cl-rich acidic hydrothermal event, involving temperatures below 350 °C, appears to have been responsible of an intense magnetite leaching in host serpentinite and an advanced Cr-spinel alteration in ferritchromite and Cr-magnetite. Iron provided by this leaching may have conducted to the unique magnetite veins formation in the Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit. Two different settings are proposed concerning the nature of the hydrothermal event: (1) a continental hydrothermal system as advanced for the Co-Ni-As ores in the Bou Azzer inliers or (2) an oceanic black smoker type hydrothermal vent field on the Neoproterozoic sea-floor.

  4. Rhyolite genesis at the Picabo Volcanic Center of the Snake River Plain: Progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites revealed by high resolution analysis of individual zircons (United States)

    Drew, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Watts, K. E.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCurry, M. O.


    The Picabo eruptive center of the Snake River Plain (SRP) produced a series of normal and low δ18O rhyolites from 10.44 Ma to 6.62 Ma, providing the first evidence of progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites during the formation of a caldera complex. In this study we present a characterization of ignimbrites and associated lavas based on U-Pb ages and δ18O compositions of individual zircon cores measured by ion microprobe, phenocryst δ18O values measured by laser fluorination, whole rock 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd compositions, and whole rock geochemistry. Our data define rhyolite genesis at the Picabo volcanic center through time and have implications for the transition between volcanic centers. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44 ± 0.27 Ma Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned unit with a normal δ18Omelt value (8.15‰), very high 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.734430) and very low ɛNd (-18). Eruptions continued with the ~9.1 Ma Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite (Kellogg et al., 1988), a unit significant in that it has an even lower ɛNd than the TAV and a normal δ18Omelt value (8.10‰). This low ɛNd of -23, of the Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite, reveals that greater than 40% of Archean crust was assimilated. These normal δ18O eruptions were followed by a series of lower δ18O eruptions distinguishable by Sr and Nd isotopes and whole rock chemistry. The 8.25 ± 0.26 Ma Rhyolite of West Pocatello has the lowest δ18Omelt value (3.34‰) of these eruptions, and based on nearly identical age, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, and whole rock chemistry, we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff (present in the INEL drillcore). Along with a distinct decrease in δ18O, from the TAV to the Rhyolite of West Pocatello, there is a corresponding increase in δ18Ozircon heterogeneity from the TAV (1‰ variation) to the low δ18O units with the greatest δ18Ozircon diversity (up to 5‰). Although morphological evidence for

  5. Tracer-/Heat transfer decoupling in a heterogenous, fault zone based hydrothermal reservoir in the Upper Rhine Basin; Tracer-/Waermetrnasportentkopplung in einem heterogenen, stoerungszonengepraegten Hydrothermalreservoir im Oberrheingraben

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    Ghergut, I.; Licha, T.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Geologie; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany). Abt. Hydrogeologie


    Heat transport processes and tracer transport processes probe the boundaries of a tracer based prognosis of the thermal lifetime for a geothermal borehole doublet in a heterogeneous hydrothermal reservoir in the Upper Rhine Basin whose behaviour is characterized by two or three large-scale not bored fault zones. A hydro-geologic structure model of the reservoir is the fundament for the identification of decisive fluid transport processes. The thermal breakdown is a rather abstract threatening with a large time distance for the geothermal borehole doublet. Nearby dangers of hydro-geochemical and hydro-mechanical nature require tracer tests for their quantification. Long dwell times are expected in a circulation test, while interpretation difficulties are expected in early tracer signals. Heat-push-shut-in tests or tracer-push-flowback tests at the geothermal re-injection drilling can supply information on transport effective aquifer parameters in an even more appropriate time. A fluid transport based characterization of the fault zones is only imaginable by means of long-term circulation tests with conservative and thermo-sensitive tracers.

  6. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone. (United States)

    Beman, J Michael; Carolan, Molly T


    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans' largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  7. Evaluating the effect of spatial subsetting on subpixel unmixing methodology applied to ASTER over a hydrothermally altered terrain (United States)

    Ayoobi, Iman; Tangestani, Majid H.


    This study investigates the effect of spatial subsets of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) L1B visible-near infrared and short wave-infrared (VNIR-SWIR) data on matched filtering results at the central part of Kerman magmatic arc, where abundant porphyry copper deposits exist. The matched filtering (MF) procedure was run separately at sites containing hydrothermal minerals such as sericite, kaolinite, chlorite, and jarosite to map the abundances of these minerals on spatial subsets containing 100, 75, 50, and 25 percent of the original scene. Results were evaluated by comparing the matched filtering scores with the mineral abundances obtained by semi-quantitative XRD analysis of corresponding field samples. It was concluded that MF method should be applied to the whole scene prior to any data subsetting.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration, fluid inclusions and stable isotope systematics of the Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil): Implications for ore genesis (United States)

    Torresi, Ignacio; Xavier, Roberto Perez; Bortholoto, Diego F. A.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.


    The Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit (170 Mt at 1.0 wt.% Cu, 0.3 g/t Au) lies in the southern sector of the Itacaúnas Shear Belt, Carajás Mineral Province, along a WNW-ESE-striking, 60-km-long shear zone, close to the contact of the ~2.76-Ga metavolcano-sedimentary Itacaiúnas Supergroup and the basement (~3.0 Ga Xingu Complex). The Alvo 118 deposit is hosted by mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks and crosscutting granitoid and gabbro intrusions that have been subjected to the following hydrothermal alteration sequence towards the ore zones: (1) poorly developed sodic alteration (albite and scapolite); (2) potassic alteration (biotite or K-feldspar) accompanied by magnetite formation and silicification; (3) widespread, pervasive chlorite alteration spatially associated with quartz-carbonate-sulphide infill ore breccia and vein stockworks; and (4) local post-ore quartz-sericite alteration. The ore assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite (~60%), bornite (~10%), hematite (~20%), magnetite (10%) and subordinate chalcocite, native gold, Au-Ag tellurides, galena, cassiterite, F-rich apatite, xenotime, monazite, britholite-(Y) and a gadolinite-group mineral. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz point to a fluid regime composed of two distinct fluid types that may have probably coexisted within the timeframe of the Cu-Au mineralizing episode: a hot (>200°C) saline (32.8‰ to 40.6 wt.% NaCl eq.) solution, represented by salt-bearing aqueous inclusions, and a lower temperature (aqueous fluid defined by two-phase (LH2O + VH2O) fluid inclusions. This trend is very similar to those defined for other IOCG systems of the Carajás Mineral Province. δ 18OH2O values in equilibrium with calcite (-1.0‰ to 7.5‰ at 277°C to 344°C) overlap the lower range for primary magmatic waters, but the more 18O-depleted values also point to the involvement of externally derived fluids, possibly of meteoric origin. Furthermore, sulphide δ 34S values (5.1‰ to 6.3

  9. A GIS and statistical approach to identify variables that control water quality in hydrothermally altered and mineralized watersheds, Silverton, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Smith, Kathleen S.


    Hydrothermally altered bedrock in the Silverton mining area, southwest Colorado, USA, contains sulfide minerals that weather to produce acidic and metal-rich leachate that is toxic to aquatic life. This study utilized a geographic information system (GIS) and statistical approach to identify watershed-scale geologic variables in the Silverton area that influence water quality. GIS analysis of mineral maps produced using remote sensing datasets including Landsat Thematic Mapper, advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, and a hybrid airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer and field-based product enabled areas of alteration to be quantified. Correlations between water quality signatures determined at watershed outlets, and alteration types intersecting both total watershed areas and GIS-buffered areas along streams were tested using linear regression analysis. Despite remote sensing datasets having varying watershed area coverage due to vegetation cover and differing mineral mapping capabilities, each dataset was useful for delineating acid-generating bedrock. Areas of quartz–sericite–pyrite mapped by AVIRIS have the highest correlations with acidic surface water and elevated iron and aluminum concentrations. Alkalinity was only correlated with area of acid neutralizing, propylitically altered bedrock containing calcite and chlorite mapped by AVIRIS. Total watershed area of acid-generating bedrock is more significantly correlated with acidic and metal-rich surface water when compared with acid-generating bedrock intersected by GIS-buffered areas along streams. This methodology could be useful in assessing the possible effects that alteration type area has in either generating or neutralizing acidity in unmined watersheds and in areas where new mining is planned.

  10. The boron isotope geochemistry of tourmaline-rich alteration in the IOCG systems of northern Chile: implications for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin (United States)

    Tornos, Fernando; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Velasco, Francisco


    Hydrothermal tourmaline is common in the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits of the Coastal Cordillera of Chile where it occurs as large crystals in the groundmass of magmatic-hydrothermal breccias, such as in the Silvita or Tropezón ore bodies, or as small grains in replacive bodies or breccia cement in the ore-bearing andesite, as seen at the Candelaria or Carola deposits. Tourmaline shows strong chemical zoning and has a composition of schorl-dravite with significant povondraite and uvite components. The observed boron isotope composition is fairly variable, between -10.4‰ and +6.0‰ with no major differences among the different deposits, suggesting a common genetic mechanism. The δ11B values are significantly lower than those of seawater or marine evaporites and very similar to those of younger porphyry copper deposits and volcanic rocks in the region, indicating that the boron has a common, likely magmatic, origin. The predominant boron source was ultimately dewatering of the subducting slab with a significant contribution derived from the overlying continental basement. The range of δ11B values is between those of the porphyry copper deposits and the porphyry tin deposits of the Andes, suggesting that the IOCG mineralization might be genetically related to fluids having more crustal contamination than the porphyry copper deposits; such an interpretation is at odds with current models that propose that the Andean IOCG deposits are related to juvenile melts or to the circulation of basinal brines. Furthermore, the obtained δ11B data are markedly different from those of the tourmaline in the Carajás IOCG district (Brazil), suggesting that IOCGs do not form by a unique mechanism involving only one type of fluids.

  11. (238)U/(235)U isotope ratios of crustal material, rivers and products of hydrothermal alteration: new insights on the oceanic U isotope mass balance. (United States)

    Noordmann, Janine; Weyer, Stefan; Georg, R Bastian; Jöns, Svenja; Sharma, Mukul


    In this study, the U isotope composition, n((238)U)/n((235)U), of major components of the upper continental crust, including granitic rocks of different age and post-Archaean shales, as well as that of rivers (the major U source to the oceans) was investigated. Furthermore, U isotope fractionation during the removal of U at mid-ocean ridges, an important sink for U from the oceans, was investigated by the analyses of hydrothermal water samples (including low- and high-temperature fluids), low-temperature altered basalts and calcium carbonate veins. All analysed rock samples from the continental crust fall into a limited range of δ(238)U between -0.45 and -0.21 ‰ (relative to NBL CRM 112-A), with an average of -0.30 ± 0.15 ‰ (2 SD, N = 11). Despite differences in catchment lithologies, all major rivers define a relatively narrow range between -0.31 and -0.13 ‰, with a weighted mean isotope composition of -0.27 ‰, which is indistinguishable from the estimate for the upper continental crust (-0.30 ‰). Only some tributary rivers from the Swiss Alps display a slightly larger range in δ(238)U (-0.29 to +0.01 ‰) and lower U concentrations (0.87-3.08 nmol/kg) compared to the investigated major rivers (5.19-11.69 nmol/kg). These findings indicate that only minor net U isotope fractionation occurs during weathering and transport of material from the continental crust to the oceans. Altered basalts display moderately enriched U concentrations (by a factor of 3-18) compared to those typically observed for normal mid-ocean ridge basalts. These, and carbonate veins within altered basalts, show large U isotope fractionation towards both heavy and light U isotope compositions (ranging from -0.63 to +0.27 ‰). Hydrothermal water samples display low U concentrations (0.3-1 nmol/kg) and only limited variations in their U isotope composition (-0.43 ± 0.25 ‰) around the seawater value. Nevertheless, two of the investigated fluids display

  12. The Lassen hydrothermal system (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Clor, Laura; Evans, William C.


    The active Lassen hydrothermal system includes a central vapor-dominated zone or zones beneath the Lassen highlands underlain by ~240 °C high-chloride waters that discharge at lower elevations. It is the best-exposed and largest hydrothermal system in the Cascade Range, discharging 41 ± 10 kg/s of steam (~115 MW) and 23 ± 2 kg/s of high-chloride waters (~27 MW). The Lassen system accounts for a full 1/3 of the total high-temperature hydrothermal heat discharge in the U.S. Cascades (140/400 MW). Hydrothermal heat discharge of ~140 MW can be supported by crystallization and cooling of silicic magma at a rate of ~2400 km3/Ma, and the ongoing rates of heat and magmatic CO2 discharge are broadly consistent with a petrologic model for basalt-driven magmatic evolution. The clustering of observed seismicity at ~4–5 km depth may define zones of thermal cracking where the hydrothermal system mines heat from near-plastic rock. If so, the combined areal extent of the primary heat-transfer zones is ~5 km2, the average conductive heat flux over that area is >25 W/m2, and the conductive-boundary length summit of Lassen Peak. However, there is a rich record of intermittent hydrothermal measurement over the past several decades and more-frequent measurement 2009–present. These data reveal sensitivity to climate and weather conditions, seasonal variability that owes to interaction with the shallow hydrologic system, and a transient 1.5- to twofold increase in high-chloride discharge in response to an earthquake swarm in mid-November 2014.

  13. Mutant IDH1 Disrupts the Mouse Subventricular Zone and Alters Brain Tumor Progression. (United States)

    Pirozzi, Christopher J; Carpenter, Austin B; Waitkus, Matthew S; Wang, Catherine Y; Zhu, Huishan; Hansen, Landon J; Chen, Lee H; Greer, Paula K; Feng, Jie; Wang, Yu; Bock, Cheryl B; Fan, Ping; Spasojevic, Ivan; McLendon, Roger E; Bigner, Darell D; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai


    IDH1 mutations occur in the majority of low-grade gliomas and lead to the production of the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). To understand the effects of tumor-associated mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) on both the neural stem cell (NSC) population and brain tumorigenesis, genetically faithful cell lines and mouse model systems were generated. Here, it is reported that mouse NSCs expressing Idh1-R132H displayed reduced proliferation due to p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest as well as a decreased ability to undergo neuronal differentiation. In vivo , Idh1-R132H expression reduced proliferation of cells within the germinal zone of the subventricular zone (SVZ). The NSCs within this area were dispersed and disorganized in mutant animals, suggesting that Idh1-R132H perturbed the NSCs and the microenvironment from which gliomas arise. In addition, tumor-bearing animals expressing mutant Idh1 displayed a prolonged survival and also overexpressed Olig2, features consistent with IDH1-mutated human gliomas. These data indicate that mutant Idh1 disrupts the NSC microenvironment and the candidate cell-of-origin for glioma; thus, altering the progression of tumorigenesis. In addition, this study provides a mutant Idh1 brain tumor model that genetically recapitulates human disease, laying the foundation for future investigations on mutant IDH1 -mediated brain tumorigenesis and targeted therapy. Implications: Through the use of a conditional mutant mouse model that confers a less aggressive tumor phenotype, this study reveals that mutant Idh1 impacts the candidate cell-of-origin for gliomas. Mol Cancer Res; 15(5); 507-20. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The Hydrothermal System at Home Plate in Gusev Crater, Mars: Formation of High Silica Material by Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basalt (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Yen, A.; Clark, B. C.; Gnaff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.


    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit measured three targets on or adjacent to Home Plate in Gusev Crater that have unusually high SiO2 concentrations (68% to 91%), unusually low FeO concentrations (1% to 7%, with total Fe as FeO), and unusually high TiO2/FeO ratios (0.2 to 1.2 by weight) [1]. Two targets (Kenosha Comets and Lefty Ganote) are located on high albedo soil (Gertrude Weise) that was exposed by the rover wheels, and one target is a float rock called Fuzzy Smith. Kenosha Comets has the highest SiO2 concentration, lowest FeO concentration, and highest TiO2/FeO ratio. Mineralogical evidence from the MER Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) suggests that the SiO2 is present as amorphous (noncrystalline) SiO2 at Gertrude Weise and nearby targets [2,3]. Mini-TES data were not acquired for Fuzzy Smith. Home Plate is considered to have an explosive volcanic origin, resulting when basaltic magma came into contact with ground water or ice [4]. Within 50 m to 1 km of Home Plate are sulfate rich soil deposits (Paso Robles class soils with 22-35% SO3) which are considered to be probable fumarolic and/or hydrothermal deposits associated with the volcanism [5]. We develop the model here, suggested by [5], that the high-silica materials are another manifestation of acid-sulfate processes associated with fumarolic and hydrothermal activity at Home Plate. This is done by analogy with basaltic materials altered by acid sulfate processes on the Island of Hawaii.

  15. Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky

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    Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.


    The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

  16. Hydrothermal speleogenesis in carbonates and metasomatic silicites induced by subvolcanic intrusions: a case study from the Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, Slovakia

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    Pavel Bella


    Full Text Available Several caves of hydrothermal origin in crystalline limestones and metasomatic silicites were investigated in the central zone of the Štiavnica stratovolcano, Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, central Slovakia. Evidence of hydrothermal origin includes irregular spherical cave morphology sculptured by ascending thermal water, occurrence of large calcite crystals and hydrothermal alteration of host rocks, including hydrothermal clays. The early phases of speleogenesis in the crystalline limestone near Sklené Teplice Spa were caused by post-magmatic dissolution linked either to the emplacement of subvolcanic granodiorite intrusions during Late Badenian time or to the spatially associated Late Sarmatian epithermal system. Speleogenesis in metasomatic silicites in the Šobov area is related to hydrothermal processes associated with the pre-caldera stage of the Štiavnica stratovolcano in Late Badenian. Both localities are remarkable examples of hydrothermal speleogenesis associated with Miocene volcanic and magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians.

  17. SHRIMP U–Pb and REE data pertaining to the origins of xenotime in Belt Supergroup rocks: evidence for ages of deposition, hydrothermal alteration, and metamorphism (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen; Fanning, C. Mark


    The Belt–Purcell Supergroup, northern Idaho, western Montana, and southern British Columbia, is a thick succession of Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks with an age range of about 1470–1400 Ma. Stratigraphic layers within several sedimentary units were sampled to apply the new technique of U–Pb dating of xenotime that sometimes forms as rims on detrital zircon during burial diagenesis; xenotime also can form epitaxial overgrowths on zircon during hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Belt Supergroup units sampled are the Prichard and Revett Formations in the lower Belt, and the McNamara and Garnet Range Formations and Pilcher Quartzite in the upper Belt. Additionally, all samples that yielded xenotime were also processed for detrital zircon to provide maximum age constraints for the time of deposition and information about provenances; the sample of Prichard Formation yielded monazite that was also analyzed. Ten xenotime overgrowths from the Prichard Formation yielded a U–Pb age of 1458 ± 4 Ma. However, because scanning electron microscope – backscattered electrons (SEM–BSE) imagery suggests complications due to possible analysis of multiple age zones, we prefer a slightly older age of 1462 ± 6 Ma derived from the three oldest samples, within error of a previous U–Pb zircon age on the syn-sedimentary Plains sill. We interpret the Prichard xenotime as diagenetic in origin. Monazite from the Prichard Formation, originally thought to be detrital, yielded Cretaceous metamorphic ages. Xenotime from the McNamara and Garnet Range Formations and Pilcher Quartzite formed at about 1160– 1050 Ma, several hundred million years after deposition, and probably also experienced Early Cretaceous growth. These xenotime overgrowths are interpreted as metamorphic–diagenetic in origin (i.e., derived during greenschist facies metamorphism elsewhere in the basin, but deposited in sub-greenschist facies rocks). Several xenotime grains are older detrital grains of igneous

  18. Geochemical variability of hydrothermal emissions between three Pacific volcanic arc systems: Alaskan-Aleutian and Cascadian, North America and Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Blackstock, J. M.; Horton, T. W.; Gravley, D. M.; Deering, C. D.


    Knowledge of the source, transport, and fate of hydrothermal fluids in the upper crust informs our understanding and interpretation of ore-forming processes, volcanogenic hazards, geothermal resources, and volatile cycling. Co-variation between fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios is an established tracer of magmatic, meteoric, and crustal fluid end-members. Yet, this tracer has had limited application to macroscopic fluid reservoirs accessible via geothermal wells and hydrothermal features (e.g. pools). In this study, we compared the covariance CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of gases collected throughout the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (TVZ), the Alaska-Aleutian Volcanic Arc, USA (AAVA), and the Cascadian Volcanic Arc, USA (CVA) with corresponding δ13C and 3He/4He values. Our findings show that there is good agreement between these proxies for different end-member contributions at coarse scales. However, some samples classified as meteoric water according to the CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios also show more positive δ13C values (~ -7.0 per mil) and relatively higher 3He/4He ratios indicative of magmatic input from primarily mantle sources. This unexpected result may be related to magmatic fluids, CO2 in particular, mixing with predominantly meteoric derived waters. The potential to identify magmatic CO2 in groundwater samples overlying geothermal systems in differing volcanic arc settings using simple and cost-effective gas ratios is a promising step forward in the search for ';surface blind' but developable geothermal systems and volcanic monitoring. 3He/4He anomalies also support this inference and underscore the potential decoupling of thermal anomalies and magmatic-derived fluids in the Earth's crust. The general agreement between the co-variation of CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios with other isotope and geochemical proxies for magmatic, meteoric, and crustal end-members is encouraging to employ expanded use of these ratios for both the exploration and monitoring of

  19. Opaque assemblages in CR2 Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100 as indicators of shock-driven hydrothermal alteration in the CR chondrite parent body (United States)

    Abreu, Neyda M.; Bullock, Emma S.


    We have studied the petrologic characteristics of sulfide-metal lodes, polymineralic Fe-Ni nodules, and opaque assemblages in the CR2 chondrite Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100, one of the most altered CR chondrites. Unlike low petrologic type CR chondrites, alteration of metal appears to have played a central role in the formation of secondary minerals in GRA 06100. Differences in the mineralogy and chemical compositions of materials in GRA 06100 suggest that it experienced higher temperatures than other CR2 chondrites. Mineralogic features indicative of high temperature include: (1) exsolution of Ni-poor and Ni-rich metal from nebular kamacite; (2) formation of sulfides, oxides, and phosphates; (3) changes in the Co/Ni ratios; and (4) carbidization of Fe-Ni metal. The conspicuous absence of pentlandite may indicate that peak temperatures exceeded 600 °C. Opaques appear to have been affected by the action of aqueous fluids that resulted in the formation of abundant oxides, Fe-rich carbonates, including endmember ankerite, and the sulfide-silicate-phosphate scorzalite. We suggest that these materials formed via impact-driven metamorphism. Mineralogic features indicative of impact metamorphism include (1) the presence of sulfide-metal lodes; (2) the abundance of polymineralic opaque assemblages with mosaic-like textures; and (3) the presence of suessite. Initial shock metamorphism probably resulted in replacement of nebular Fe-Ni metal in chondrules and in matrix by Ni-rich, Co-rich Fe metal, Al-Ti-Cr-rich alloys, and Fe sulfides, while subsequent hydrothermal alteration produced accessory oxides, phosphates, and Fe carbonates. An extensive network of sulfide-metal veins permitted effective exchange of siderophile elements from pre-existing metal nodules with adjacent chondrules and matrix, resulting in unusually high Fe contents in these objects.

  20. OSCAR - Oceanographic and Seismic Characterisation of heat dissipation and alteration by hydrothermal fluids at an Axial Ridge (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard


    of 0.25°C combined with a decrease of 0.01 psu in salinity. Evidence of hydrothermally driven plumes were also detected along the CRR but exact locations of their sources were not found. Our best estimate from the OSCAR data show that the geothermal contribution is over 70% to the abyssal water upwelling. This is the largest contribution yet observed in abyssal basins and is in line with a growing number of studies arguing that geothermal heating plays a significant role in driving the abyssal and global circulation.

  1. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    , radon etc. to locate active venting site 4. Seabed sampling for rocks and minerals looking for indications of hydrothermal mineralization 5. TV and still Photographic surveys with real- time imaging on board 6. Submersible/ROVs for direct... thriving in this unique environments. However, the study of hydrothermal systems is still relatively young, and there are many fundamental questions that remain to be addressed in the forthcoming years. Suggested reading 1. Seafloor hydrothermal...

  2. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.


    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  3. Shear Zone-Hosted Base Metal Mineralization near Abraha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrusive post-tectonic granitoids mark the end of Proterozoic. Field observation and petrographic data indicate the presence of NS, NE-SW trending shear zones; hydrothermal quartz (±calcite) veins of different generations; malachite stains; alterations like chloritisation, kaolinization, epidotization, sericitization; and ...

  4. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran (United States)

    Calagari, Ali Asghar


    The porphyry copper deposit (PCD) at Sungun is located in East Azarbaidjan, NW of Iran. The magmatic suites in the Sungun area are a part of the NW-SE trending Cenozoic magmatic belt of Iran. The Sungun porphyries occur as stocks and dikes. The stocks are divided into two groups, I and II. Porphyry Stock II, ranging in composition from quartz monzonite through granodiorite to granite, hosts the Sungun PCD. Four distinct types of hypogene alterations were recognized at Sungun: (1) potassic; (2) potassic-phyllic; (3) phyllic; and (4) propylitic. Stable isotope (S, O, H, and C) studies were restricted to within the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones, where numerous cross-cutting quartz, sulfides, carbonates, and sulfate veinlets are present. The objective of these studies was to determine the origin of the ore-forming solutions, and their important components (e.g. sulfur and carbon). Twenty sulfide and four sulfate samples were taken from sulfide and gypsum veinlets within Porphyry Stock II and the associated skarn zone for sulfur isotopic analyses. The δ34S values of sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, galena, sphalerite) and sulfate (gypsum) range from -4.6 to -0.2‰ (mean of -1.5‰) and from 10.9 to 14.4‰ (mean of 12.9‰), respectively. These values are almost analogous to those from El Salvador (Chile) and Ajo (Arizona), and Twin Buttes (Arizona), and strongly suggest a magmatic source for the sulfur at Sungun. Twenty-eight fluid inclusion-rich quartz samples from quartz veinlets beneath the supergene zones of the Porphyry Stock II were chosen for O and H isotopic analyses. The δ18O (of quartz) and δD (of fluid inclusions in quartz) values range from 8.3 to 10.2‰ (mean of 9.2‰) and -58 to -75‰ (mean of -66‰) relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW), respectively. The calculated δ18O values of the fluids range from 4.4‰ (T=375 ° C) to 7.6‰ (T=570 ° C) with a mean of 6.4‰. The δ18O and δD values of the fluids lie

  5. Long-term hydrocephalus alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult subventricular zone (United States)

    Campos-Ordoñez, Tania; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Rigamonti, Daniele; García-Verdugo, Jose M.; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar


    Hydrocephalus can develop secondarily to a disturbance in production, flow and/or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental models of hydrocephalus, especially subacute and chronic hydrocephalus, are few and limited, and the effects of hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term obstructive hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone, which is the neurogenic niche lining the lateral ventricles. We developed a new method to induce hydrocephalus by obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mouse brain, thus simulating aqueductal stenosis in humans. In 120-day-old rodents (n = 18 per group), the degree of ventricular dilatation and cellular composition of the subventricular zone were studied by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In adult patients (age > 18 years), the sizes of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule were analyzed by magnetic resonance images obtained from patients with and without aqueductal stenosis (n=25 per group). Mice with 60-day hydrocephalus had a reduced number of Ki67+ and doublecortin+ cells on immunofluorescence, as well as decreased number of neural progenitors and neuroblasts in the subventricular zone on electron microscopy analysis as compared to non-hydrocephalic mice. Remarkably, a number of extracellular matrix structures (fractones) contacting the ventricular lumen and blood vessels were also observed around the subventricular zone in mice with hydrocephalus. In humans, the widths of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule in patients with aqueductal stenosis were significantly smaller than age and gender-matched patients without aqueductal stenosis. In summary, supratentorial hydrocephalus reduces the proliferation rate of neural progenitors and modifies the cytoarchitecture and extracellular matrix compounds of the subventricular zone. In humans, this similar process reduces the

  6. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review (United States)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John


    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts — (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition — element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) Ag–Pb–Zn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu–(Au)–(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United

  7. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.


    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  8. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process (United States)

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.


    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640??C) and low-temperature (375??C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375??C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640??C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375??C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite

  9. Microbial functional diversity alters the structure and sensitivity of oxygen deficient zones (United States)

    Penn, Justin; Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis


    Oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) below the ocean surface regulate marine productivity by removing bioavailable nitrogen (N). A complex microbial community mediates N loss, but the interplay of its diverse metabolisms is poorly understood. We present an ecosystem model of the North Pacific ODZ that reproduces observed chemical distributions yet predicts different ODZ structure, rates, and climatic sensitivity compared to traditional geochemical models. An emergent lower O2 limit for aerobic nitrification lies below the upper O2 threshold for anaerobic denitrification, creating a zone of microbial coexistence that causes a larger ODZ but slower total rates of N loss. The O2-dependent competition for the intermediate nitrite produces gradients in its oxidation versus reduction, anammox versus heterotrophic denitrification, and the net ecological stoichiometry of N loss. The latter effect implies that an externally driven ODZ expansion should favor communities that more efficiently remove N, increasing the sensitivity of the N cycle to climate change.

  10. Phosphorus-deficiency reduces aluminium toxicity by altering uptake and metabolism of root zone carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Ward, Caroline L; Kleinert, Aleysia; Scortecci, Katia C; Benedito, Vagner A; Valentine, Alexander J


    The role of phosphorus (P) status in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for organic acid synthesis during Al(3+) toxicity was assessed. Root-zone CO(2) can be incorporated into organic acids via Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC P-deficiency and Al(3+) toxicity can induce organic acid synthesis, but it is unknown how P status affects the utilisation of PEPC-derived organic acids during Al(3+) toxicity. Two-week-old Solanum lycopersicum seedlings were transferred to hydroponic culture for 3 weeks. The hydroponic culture consisted of a standard Long Ashton nutrient solution containing either 0.1μM or 1mM P. Short-term Al(3+) toxicity was induced by a 60-min exposure to a pH-buffered solution (pH 4.5) containing 2mM CaSO(4) and 50μM AlCl(3). Al(3+) toxicity induced a decline in root respiration, adenylate concentrations and an increase in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for both P sufficient and P-deficient plants. However during Al(3+) toxicity, P deficiency enhanced the incorporation and metabolism of root-zone CO(2) via PEPC. Moreover, P deficiency led to a greater proportion of the PEPC-derived organic acids to be exuded during Al(3+) toxicity. These results indicate that P-status can influence the response to Al(3+) by inducing a greater utilisation of PEPC-derived organic acids for Al(3+) detoxification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrothermal alterations of the meta volcanic rocks associated to the gold deposits from Pontes e Lacerda region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil; Alteracao hidrotermal das metavulcanicas associadas aos depositos auriferos de Pontes e Lacerda, MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Figueiredo, B.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias


    Geochemical changes due to hydrothermal alterations of volcanic rocks, which are associated with the gold deposits in the Pontes e Lacerda region, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, are investigated in the present study. These rocks were analyzed for major and trace elements, including REE. Nd and Sr isotopes were used to trace the origin and tectonic environment of the magmatism. The volcanic rocks resemble ocean floor basalts in composition and their isotopic signature indicates a Sr depleted and Nd enriched source in the mantle. The hydrothermal process were responsible for enhanced concentration of K{sub 2} O, Rb, Ba and Fe{sub 2} O{sub 3} and for losses in Ca O, Sr, Mg O, and Fe O. The Zr; Y, Cr; Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} Si O{sub 2} and Ti O{sub 2} contents remained unchanged. Increasing REE contents in the altered volcanics may be due to a probable magmatic contribution to the fluids, which is also indicated by positive Ce anomalies in some altered basalts. The processes which were responsible for these geochemical changes are discussed. (author) 33 refs., 10 figs., 2 tab.

  12. Fracture zones in the Mid Atlantic Ridge lead to alterations in prokaryotic and viral parameters in deep-water masses (United States)

    Muck, Simone; Griessler, Thomas; Köstner, Nicole; Klimiuk, Adam; Winter, Christian; Herndl, Gerhard J.


    We hypothesized that mixing zones of deep-water masses act as ecotones leading to alterations in microbial diversity and activity due to changes in the biogeochemical characteristics of these boundary systems. We determined the changes in prokaryotic and viral abundance and production in the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ) of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, where North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are funneled through this narrow canyon and therefore, are subjected to intense vertical mixing. Consequently, salinity, potential temperature, oxygen, PO4, SiO4, NO3 were altered in the NADW inside the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside of the VFZ. Also, viral abundance, lytic viral production (VP) and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) were elevated in the NADW in the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside the VFZ. In contrast to lytic VP, lysogenic VP and both the frequency of lytically (FIC) and lysogenically infected cells (FLC) did not significantly differ between in- and outside the VFZ. Generally, FIC was higher than FLC throughout the water column. Prokaryotic (determined by T-RFLP) and viral (determined by RAPD-PCR) community composition was depth-stratified inside and outside the VFZ. The viral community was more modified both with depth and over distance inside the VFZ as compared to the northern section and to the prokaryotic communities. However, no clusters of prokaryotic and viral communities characteristic for the VFZ were identified. Based on our observations, we conclude that turbulent mixing of the deep water masses impacts not only the physico-chemical parameters of the mixing zone but also the interaction between viruses and prokaryotes due to a stimulation of the overall activity. However, only minor effects of deep water mixing were observed on the community composition of the dominant prokaryotes and viruses. PMID:24917857

  13. Hydrothermal ore-forming processes in the light of studies in rock- buffered systems: II. Some general geologic applications (United States)

    Hemley, J.J.; Hunt, J.P.


    The experimental metal solubilities for rock-buffered hydrothermal systems provide important insights into the acquisition, transport, and deposition of metals in real hydrothermal systems that produced base metal ore deposits. Water-rock reactions that determine pH, together with total chloride and changes in temperature and fluid pressure, play significant roles in controlling the solubility of metals and determining where metals are fixed to form ore deposits. Deposition of metals in hydrothermal systems occurs where changes such as cooling, pH increase due to rock alteration, boiling, or fluid mixing cause the aqueous metal concentration to exceed saturation. Metal zoning results from deposition occurring at successive saturation surfaces. Zoning is not a reflection simply of relative solubility but of the manner of intersection of transport concentration paths with those surfaces. Saturation surfaces will tend to migrate outward and inward in prograde and retrograde time, respectively, controlled by either temperature or chemical variables. -from Authors

  14. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchen Song

    Full Text Available Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs. IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05. We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub

  15. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Lin, Wei-Chiang; Riera, Jorge J.


    Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs) have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05). We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral) of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation) and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub-based connectivity. PMID

  16. Discrimination of uranium alteration zones in selected areas by use of LANDSAT MSS imagery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, C.L.; Procter-Gregg, H.D.


    The surface alteration halos of fifty known uranium occurrences in the Western United States have been analyzed to determine spectral signatures in imagery acquired by the LANDSAT Multi-Spectral Scanner. The deposits included veins and metasediments in the northeast of Washington, batholitic districts in the northwest of Idaho, veins and intrusives in a portion of the Colorado Front Range and sedimentary deposits on the Colorado Plateau. Image analysis employed an analog hybrid video processing system composed of a light table, vidicon camera, image analyzer and color output monitor. A complete description of the theory and methodology is provided in the report.

  17. Crustal structure and mantle transition zone thickness beneath a hydrothermal vent at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E): a supplementary study based on passive seismic receiver functions (United States)

    Ruan, Aiguo; Hu, Hao; Li, Jiabiao; Niu, Xiongwei; Wei, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Aoxing


    As a supplementary study, we used passive seismic data recorded by one ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) station (49°41.8'E) close to a hydrothermal vent (49°39'E) at the Southwest Indian Ridge to invert the crustal structure and mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness by P-to-S receiver functions to investigate previous active seismic tomographic crustal models and determine the influence of the deep mantle thermal anomaly on seafloor hydrothermal venting at an ultra-slow spreading ridge. The new passive seismic S-wave model shows that the crust has a low velocity layer (2.6 km/s) from 4.0 to 6.0 km below the sea floor, which is interpreted as partial melting. We suggest that the Moho discontinuity at 9.0 km is the bottom of a layer (2-3 km thick); the Moho (at depth of 6-7 km), defined by active seismic P-wave models, is interpreted as a serpentinized front. The velocity spectrum stacking plot made from passive seismic data shows that the 410 discontinuity is depressed by 15 km, the 660 discontinuity is elevated by 18 km, and a positive thermal anomaly between 182 and 237 K is inferred.

  18. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  19. Falling phytoplankton: altered access to the photic zone over 60 years of warming in Lake Baikal, Siberia (United States)

    Hampton, S. E.; Izmest'eva, L. R.; Moore, M.; Katz, S. L.


    Vertical stratification of aquatic ecosystems can be strongly reinforced by long-term warming, altering access to suitable habitat differentially across plankton taxa. Surface waters in the world's most voluminous freshwater lake - Lake Baikal in Siberia - are warming at an average rate of 2.01°C century-1, with more dramatic warming in the summer (3.78°C century-1). This long-term warming trend occurs within seasonal cycles of freezing and thawing, and against the larger backdrop of shorter-term climate dynamics, such as those associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation, with which shifting Siberian weather patterns affect the timing of seasonal changes (e.g., stratification) at the lake. While the increasing temperature difference between surface and deeper waters implies stronger stratification in the summer in general, the available long-term temperature data are not sufficiently fine-scaled across depth to further resolve stratification patterns. However, analysis of long-term vertical phytoplankton distributions may give perspectives on the dynamics of the physical environment that plankton experience. For example, many of Lake Baikal's endemic, cold-adapted phytoplankton species are large and heavy diatoms that require strong mixing to remain suspended, a process that is suppressed by stronger summer stratification. Observed vertical patterns of algal distribution are consistent with the predictions of increased warming and intensified stratification with diatoms present in summer increasingly sinking far beyond the photic zone. Specifically, the average depth of diatoms in August, the most reliably stratified month at Lake Baikal, has increased from depths roughly aligned with photic zone (0.1% light penetration) limits (ca. 40 m) in the 1970s to average depths approximately 48 m below the photic zone by the end of the century. Concurrently, smaller motile algae such as cryptomonads have maintained or increased their presence in

  20. Distribution of Hydrothermal Mineral Assemblages in the Sevenmile Hole Area, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (United States)

    Phillips, A.; Larson, P.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pauley, B.; Manion, J.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.


    Incision of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River in Yellowstone National Park has exposed approximately 350 vertical meters of hydrothermally altered rhyolites. This older alteration formed in the shallow portion of a hydrothermal system that was most likely similar to the modern Yellowstone hydrothermal environment. Hydrothermal fluid circulation is related to the ongoing rhyolitic magmatism that produced the Yellowstone caldera at 640 ka. The rhyolitic magmatism and hydrothermal system are shallow expressions of deeper mantle- derived basalts. The older alteration is well exposed in the Sevenmile Hole area, near the northeastern margin of the caldera. Here, the alteration protolith is the high silica, low-18O, rhyolitic Tuff of Sulfur Creek. The tuff erupted at about 480 ka after resurgent doming associated with the third cycle collapse of the Yellowstone caldera. The tuff is a rheomorphically deformed densely welded agglutinate fallout ash that was deposited along the caldera wall. It contains phenocrysts of quartz, sodic plagioclase, and potassium feldspar. The tuff is exposed from the rim of the canyon, which is very close to the pre-alteration paleosurface, to the river bottom where it is covered by detrital sediments and actively forming hot spring deposits. Rocks exposed within the field area are pervasively hydrothermally altered. Mineral phases in approximately 90 samples were determined in the field using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser (PIMA). Subsequently, more precise mineral determinations were made using standard petrographic and powder XRD techniques. The alteration mineralogy consists of variable assemblages that include zones of kaolinite + opal; kaolinite + alunite with local dickite and typically high opal and/or quartz concentrations; highly silicified zones containing illite with or without smectite; and weakly silicified zones containing mostly illite. Minor (less than 1 percent) fine-grained disseminated pyrite is ubiquitous. The

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine oxide powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The authors describe. hydrothermal decomposition,; hydrothermal metal oxidation,; hydrothermal reaction,; hydrothermal precipitation and hydrothermal hydrolysis,; hydrothermal electrochemical,; reactive electrode submerged arc,; hydrothermal microwave,; hydrothermal sonochemical,. etc and also ideal and real powders ...

  2. Hydrogen, Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Systematics of Groundwater-Magma Interaction in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Kleine, B. I.; Stefansson, A.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Martin, W.; Barnes, J.; Jónasson, K.; Franzson, H.


    Magma often encounters groundwater (meteoric or seawater derived) when intruded into the crust. Magma-groundwater interactions result in the formation of hydrothermal fluids which can lead to contact metamorphism and elemental transport in the country rock. In fact, magma-hydrothermal fluid interaction (rather than magma-magmatic fluid interaction) may lead to classic contact metamorphic reactions. In order to explore the importance of hydrothermal fluid during contact metamorphism we use stable isotopes (δD, δ18O, δ30Si) from both active and extinct magma chambers and hydrothermal systems from across Iceland. Quartz grains from various hydrothermal systems, from crustal xenoliths from the Askja central volcano and from the Hafnarfjall pluton, as well as quartz grains associated with low-T zeolites were analysed for δ18O and δ30Si in-situ using SIMS. Whole rock material of these samples was analysed for δD values using a TCEA coupled to an IRMS. Our results indicate that low-T quartz (300°C). Combining the results from the analyses of δ18O and δD allows further division of samples into (i) seawater and/or rock dominated and (ii) meteoric water dominated hydrothermal systems. In order to isolate the effects of fluid-rock interaction, fluid source and formation temperature at the magma-groundwater contact, δD, δ18O and δ30Si values of rocks and fluids were modeled using the PHREEQC software. Comparison of analytical and model results shows that the isotopic compositions are influenced by multiple processes. In some cases, groundwater penetrates the contact zone and causes alteration at >400°C by groundwater-magma heat interaction. Other cases document "baked" contact zones without groundwater. Our analyses and modeling demonstrates that groundwater flow and permeability are crucial in setting the style of contact metamorphism around high T intrusions.

  3. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin


    This study identifies areas prone to lahars from hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices on a global scale, using visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) reflectance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and digital elevation data from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) dataset. This is the first study to create a global database of hydrothermally altered volcanoes showing quantitatively compiled alteration maps and potentially affected drainages, as well as drainage-specific maps illustrating modeled lahars and their potential inundation zones. We (1) identified and prioritized 720 volcanoes based on population density surrounding the volcanoes using the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database (GVP) and LandScan™ digital population dataset; (2) validated ASTER hydrothermal alteration mapping techniques using Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ASTER data for Mount Shasta, California, and Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Mexico; (3) mapped and slope-classified hydrothermal alteration using ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data on 100 of the most densely populated volcanoes; (4) delineated drainages using ASTER GDEM data that show potential flow paths of possible lahars for the 100 mapped volcanoes; (5) produced potential alteration-related lahar inundation maps using the LAHARZ GIS code for Iztaccíhuatl, Mexico, and Mount Hood and Mount Shasta in the United States that illustrate areas likely to be affected based on DEM-derived volume estimates of hydrothermally altered rocks and the ~2x uncertainty factor inherent within a statistically-based lahar model; and (6) saved all image and vector data for 3D and 2D display in Google Earth™, ArcGIS® and other graphics display programs. In addition, these data are available from the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) for distribution (available at

  4. Hydrothermal alteration and melting of the crust during the Columbia River Basalt-Snake River Plain transition and the origin of low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain (United States)

    Colón, Dylan P.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Ellis, Ben S.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Fisher, Christopher M.


    We present compelling isotopic evidence from ~15 Ma rhyolites that erupted coeval with the Columbia River Basalts in southwest Idaho's J-P Desert and the Jarbidge Mountains of northern Nevada at that suggests that the Yellowstone mantle plume caused hydrothermal alteration and remelting of diverse compositions of shallow crust in the area where they erupted. These rhyolites also constitute the earliest known Miocene volcanism in the vicinity of the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls (BJTF) volcanic complexes, a major center of voluminous (103-104 km3) low-δ18O rhyolitic volcanism that was previously defined as being active from 13 to 6 Ma. The Jarbidge Rhyolite has above-mantle δ18O (δ18O of +7.9‰ SMOW) and extremely unradiogenic εHf (- 34.7) and εNd (- 24.0). By contrast, the J-P Desert units are lower in δ18O (+4.5 to 5.8‰), and have more moderately unradiogenic whole-rock εHf (- 20.3 to - 8.9) and εNd (- 13.4 to - 7.7). The J-P Desert rhyolites are geochemically and petrologically similar to the younger rhyolites of the BJTF center (the one exception being their high δ18O values), suggesting a common origin for J-P Desert and BJTF rhyolites. The presence of low-δ18O values and unradiogenic Nd and Hf isotopic compositions, both of which differ greatly from the composition of a mantle differentiate, indicate that some of these melts may be 50% or more melted crust by volume. Individual J-P Desert units have isotopically diverse zircons, with one lava containing zircons ranging from - 0.6‰ to + 6.5‰ in δ18O and from - 29.5 to - 2.8 in εHf. Despite this diversity, zircons all have Miocene U/Pb ages. The range of zircon compositions fingerprints the diversity of their source melts, which in turn allow us to determine the compositions of two crustal end-members which melted to form these rhyolites. These end-members are: 1) Archean basement with normal to high-δ18O and unradiogenic εHf and 2) hydrothermally altered, shallow, young crust with low

  5. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics of mineral pairs in closed and open systems: Applications to problems of hydrothermal alteration of igneous rocks and Precambrian iron formations (United States)

    Gregory, R.T.; Criss, R.E.; Taylor, H.P.


    The systematics of stable-isotope exchange between minerals and fluids are examined in the context of modal mineralogical variations and mass-balance considerations, both in closed and in open systems. On mineral-pair ??18O plots, samples from terranes that have exchanged with large amounts of fluid typically map out steep positively-sloped non-equilibrium arrays. Analytical models are derived to explain these effects; these models allow for different exchange rates between the various minerals and the external fluids, as well as different fluid fluxes. The steep arrays are adequately modelled by calculated isochron lines that involve the whole family of possible exchange trajectories. These isochrons have initially-steep near-vertical positive slopes that rotate toward a 45?? equilibrium slope as the exchange process proceeds to completion. The actual data-point array is thus analogous to the hand of an "isotopic clock" that measures the duration of the hydrothermal episode. The dimensionless ratio of the volumetric fluid flux to the kinetic rate parameter ( u k) determines the shape of each individual exchange trajectory. In a fluid-buffered system ( u k ??? 1), the solutions to the equations: (1) are independent of the mole fractions of the solid phases; (2) correspond to Taylor's open-system water/rock equation; and (3) yield straight-line isochrons that have slopes that approach 1 f, where f is the fraction reacted of the more sluggishly exchanging mineral. The isochrons for this simple exchange model are closely congruent with the isochrons calculated for all of the more complex models, thereby simplifying the application of theory to actual hydrothermal systems in nature. In all of the models an order of magnitude of time (in units of kt) separates steep non-equilibrium arrays (e.g., slope ??? 10) from arrays approaching an equilibrium slope of unity on a ??-?? diagram. Because we know the approximate lifetimes of many hydrothermal systems from geologic and

  6. Characteristics of hydrothermal eruptions, with examples from New Zealand and elsewhere (United States)

    Browne, P. R. L.; Lawless, J. V.


    Hydrothermal eruptions have occurred in many hot water geothermal fields. This paper concentrates on examples from New Zealand but also mentions others elsewhere, which demonstrate points of particular interest. Numerous small eruptions (maximum focal depths of about 90 m) have occurred in historic times (past 150 years) at Wairakei/Tauhara, Rotorua, Tikitere, Ngatamariki, Mokai and Waimangu. The presence of breccia deposits shows that much larger (with estimated maximum focal depths of about 450 m), prehistoric hydrothermal eruptions have also occurred at Kawerau, Wairakei, Tikitere, Orakeikorako, Te Kopia, Rotokawa and Waiotapu. One of the largest known hydrothermal eruptions in New Zealand took place at Rotokawa 6060±60 years ago; this produced a deposit that extended over an area with a diameter of 4 km, and has a maximum thickness of 11 m. Deposits from hydrothermal eruptions are typically very poorly sorted, matrix-supported, and may contain hydrothermally altered clasts that derive from within the geothermal reservoir. Their lithologies and alteration mineralogies are useful guides to subsurface conditions. Hydrothermal eruptions do not require any direct input of either mass or energy derived directly from a magma and, thus, differ from both phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions. Many hydrothermal eruptions in a hot water field start very close to the ground surface and result from the rapid formation of steam due to a sudden pressure reduction. This steam provides the energy necessary to brecciate, lift and eject fragments of the host rocks as a flashing front descends and water nearby in the reservoir boils. A rock brecciation zone accompanies this front, and both precede the descent of the eruption surface. A hydrothermal eruption continues until the steam is produced too slowly to lift the brecciated rocks. There is no genetic difference between the small eruptions induced by exploitation and those which occur as a geothermal system evolves naturally

  7. Chronic Brucella Infection Induces Selective and Persistent Interferon Gamma-Dependent Alterations of Marginal Zone Macrophages in the Spleen. (United States)

    Machelart, Arnaud; Khadrawi, Abir; Demars, Aurore; Willemart, Kevin; De Trez, Carl; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric


    The spleen is known as an important filter for blood-borne pathogens that are trapped by specialized macrophages in the marginal zone (MZ): the CD209(+) MZ macrophages (MZMs) and the CD169(+) marginal metallophilic macrophages (MMMs). Acute systemic infection strongly impacts MZ populations and the location of T and B lymphocytes. This phenomenon has been linked to reduced chemokine secretion by stromal cells. Brucella spp. are the causative agent of brucellosis, a widespread zoonotic disease. Here, we used Brucella melitensis infection as a model to investigate the impact of chronic stealth infection on splenic MZ macrophage populations. During the late phase of Brucella infection, we observed a loss of both MZMs and MMMs, with a durable disappearance of MZMs, leading to a reduction of the ability of the spleen to take up soluble antigens, beads, and unrelated bacteria. This effect appears to be selective as every other lymphoid and myeloid population analyzed increased during infection, which was also observed following Brucella abortus and Brucella suis infection. Comparison of wild-type and deficient mice suggested that MZ macrophage population loss is dependent on interferon gamma (IFN-γ) receptor but independent of T cells or tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 (TNF-αR1) signaling pathways and is not correlated to an alteration of CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL13 chemokine mRNA expression. Our results suggest that MZ macrophage populations are particularly sensitive to persistent low-level IFN-γ-mediated inflammation and that Brucella infection could reduce the ability of the spleen to perform certain MZM- and MMM-dependent tasks, such as antigen delivery to lymphocytes and control of systemic infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations (United States)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.


    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places

  9. Hydrothermal Biogeochemistry (United States)

    Shock, E.; Havig, J.; Windman, T.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Michaud, A.; Hartnett, H.


    Life in hot spring ecosystems is confronted with diverse challenges, and the responses to those challenges have dynamic biogeochemical consequences over narrow spatial and temporal scales. Within meters along hot spring outflow channels at Yellowstone, temperatures drop from boiling, and the near-boiling conditions of hot chemolithotrophic communities, to those that permit photosynthesis and on down to conditions where nematodes and insects graze on the edges of photosynthetic mats. Many major and trace element concentrations change only mildly in the water that flows through the entire ecosystem, while concentrations of other dissolved constituents (oxygen, sulfide, ammonia, total organic carbon) increase or decrease dramatically. Concentrations of metals and micronutrients range from toxic to inadequate for enzyme synthesis depending on the choice of hot spring. Precipitation of minerals may provide continuous growth of microbial niches, while dissolution and turbulent flow sweeps them away. Consequently, microbial communities change at the meter scale, and even more abruptly at the photosynthetic fringe. Isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass reflect dramatic and continuous changes in metabolic strategies throughout the system. Chemical energy sources that support chemolithotrophic communities can persist at abundant or useless levels, or change dramatically owing to microbial activity. The rate of temporal change depends on the selection of hot spring systems for study. Some have changed little since our studies began in 1999. Others have shifted by two or more units in pH over several years, with corresponding changes in other chemical constituents. Some go through daily or seasonal desiccation cycles, and still others exhibit pulses of changing temperature (up to 40°C) within minutes. Taken together, hydrothermal ecosystems provide highly manageable opportunities for testing how biogeochemical processes respond to the scale of

  10. Identifying Alteration and Water on MT. Baker, WA with Geophysics: Implications for Volcanic Landslide Hazards (United States)

    Finn, C.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bedrosian, P.; Minsley, B. J.


    Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data, along with rock property measurements, local ground-based gravity, time domain electromagnetic (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data help identify alteration and water-saturated zones on Mount Baker, Washington. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water-saturated, can weaken volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. At Mount Baker volcano, collapses of hydrothermally altered rocks from the edifice have generated numerous debris flows that constitute their greatest volcanic hazards. Critical to quantifying this hazard is knowledge of the three-dimensional distribution of pervasively altered rock, shallow groundwater and ice that plays an important role in transforming debris avalanches to far traveled lahars. The helicopter geophysical data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of localized zones of less than 100 m thickness of water-saturated hydrothermally altered rock beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields at Mt. Baker. New stochastic inversions of the HEM data indicate variations in resistivity in inferred perched aquifers—distinguishing between fresh and saline waters, possibly indicating the influence of nearby alteration and/or hydrothermal systems on water quality. The new stochastic results better resolve ice thickness than previous inversions, and also provide important estimates of uncertainty on ice thickness and other parameters. New gravity data will help constrain the thickness of the ice and alteration. Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that the hydrothermal clays contain 50% water with no evidence for water beneath the ice. The HEM data identify water-saturated fresh volcanic rocks from the surface to the detection limit ( 100 m) over the entire summit of Mt. Baker. Localized time domain EM soundings indicate that

  11. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Begg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boggs, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kersting, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    across a range of temperatures (25-200 °C) that represent hydrothermal conditions representative of the underground nuclear test cavities (when groundwater has re-saturated the nuclear melt glass and glass dissolution occurs). Colloid loads and Pu concentrations were monitored along with the mineralogy of both the colloids and the secondary mineral phases. The intent was to establish an upper limit for Pu concentrations at the NNSS, provide context regarding the Pu concentrations observed at the NNSS to date and the Pu concentrations that may be observed in the future. The results provide a conceptual model for the risks posed by Pu migration at the NNSS.

  12. Temperature Effects on Phase Relations in Ultramafic-Hosted Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Seyfried, W. E.; Foustoukos, D. I.; Fu, Q.


    The effect of temperature on alteration processes in ultramafic hosted hydrothermal systems is significant and manifest by complex changes in secondary mineralization and the composition of coexisting fluids, as suggested by recent experimental and theoretical data. At relatively high temperatures (400C) olivine recrystallization reactions are sluggish, generally limiting mass transfer. In SiO2 bearing fluids, such as the case for the Rainbow hydrothermal system (36N, MAR), evidence indicates olivine recrystallization to a more fayalite-rich phase and talc, enhancing olivine stability at reaction zone conditions. These phases plus tremolite play a key role in maintaining fluid acidity, accounting for the unusually high levels of dissolved metals that characterize the high temperature Rainbow vent fluids. In contrast, hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks by seawater at temperatures below 300C generally results in high pH fluids, serpentinization of olivine and coexisting pyroxene, and Ca for Mg exchange in the fluid. Data also indicate potentially high dissolved H2 and low dissolved Fe and total dissolved sulfide species. Analogous processes likely characterize subseafloor reaction zones at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF), which lies on the Atlantis Massif at 30N, 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Indeed, geochemical modeling of the Lost City vent fluid chemistry suggests subseafloor temperatures of approximately 200C, which are considerably greater than the measured vent fluid temperatures (40 to 90C), suggesting conductive cooling and seawater mixing effects; processes consistent with the reported mineralization of chimney structures. Available data also suggest moderately high fluid/rock mass ratios, which in combination with reaction zone temperature estimates make it unlikely that hydrothermal circulation can be a direct result of the exothermic nature of the conversion of olivine to serpentine. Accordingly, alternative heat sources need to

  13. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert


    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary...... magmatic features such as concentric cooling-cracks and drainage cavities in pillows, volcanic breccia, ocelli interpreted as liquid immiscibility textures in pillows and gabbros, magmatic layering in gabbros, and clinopyroxene cumulates in ultramafic flows are well preserved in low-strain domains....... The belt underwent at least two stages of calc-silicate metasomatic alteration and polyphase deformation between 2963 and 3075 Ma. The stage I metasomatic assemblage is composed predominantly of epidote (now mostly diopside) + quartz + plagioclase ± hornblende ± scapolite, and occurs mainly in pillow cores...

  14. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming (United States)

    Larson, Peter B.; Phillips, Allison; John, David; Cosca, Michael; Pritchard, Chad; Andersen, Allen; Manion, Jennifer


    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300 m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ± alunite ± dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ± adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100 m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170 °C. An 40Ar/ 39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ± 16,000 years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera.

  15. 76 FR 34869 - Safety Zone; Truman-Hobbs Alteration of the Elgin Joliet & Eastern Railroad Drawbridge; Illinois... (United States)


    ... understanding the rule so that they could better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking... significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph... zone and will have constant communications with the involved safety vessels that will be provided by...

  16. Characterization and modelling of fluid flows in fissured and fractured media. relation with hydrothermal alterations and paleo-stress quantification; Caracterisation et modelisation des ecoulements fluides en milieu fissure. relation avec les alterations hydrothermales et quantification des paleocontraintes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausse, J.


    In all materials (rocks, concretes, ceramics,...), the presence of fractures at different scales implies high permeability and often oriented fluid flows. These fluid circulations in fractures induce more or less intense fluid-rock interactions with mineral crystallisation and/or dissolution. These phenomena directly depend on the nature of the fluids and the rocks, the physical and chemical properties of the media and the rate of fluid renewal (permeabilities). Usually, the development of such alterations leads to a massive sealing of the fractures (vein alterations) and of the fissures (fluid inclusion planes and microcracks, pervasive alteration). Therefore, their study brings us precious indications for the understanding of the mechanisms of fluid migrations in fossil systems. A geometrical study of the fracture systems at micro or macroscopic scales, based on the spatial distribution of sealing minerals, is applied to two different granites: the Soultz-sous-Foret granite (Bas-Rhin, France) and the Brezouard granite (Vosges, France). At the macroscopic scale, a new graphical method is proposed in order to study drilling data (Soultz granite). It allows to identify the presence of three independent mineral associations (quartz - illite, calcite-chlorite and hematite) in independent fracture systems characterised by a specific 3D geometry and hydraulic properties. These three types of vein alteration correspond to distinct and non contemporaneous fluid percolations. At the microscopic scale, the reconstitution of crack opening - fluid percolation - crack sealing stages is delicate. However, the study of their geometrical characteristics (orientations, radius, volume densities) and thereby the quantification of their porosities, exchange surfaces and permeabilities, allow to identify their respective roles in the fluid propagation. These microstructures, which are very numerous in granites, imply high but variable matrix permeabilities. This has been confirmed by

  17. Cu-As Decoupling in Hydrothermal Systems: A Link Between Pyrite Chemistry and Fluid Composition (United States)

    Reich, M.; Tardani, D.; Deditius, A.; Chryssoulis, S.; Wrage, J.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Andrea, H.; Cinthia, J.


    Chemical zonations in pyrite have been recognized in most hydrothermal ore deposit types, showing in some cases marked oscillatory alternation of metals and metalloids in pyrite growth zones (e.g., of Cu-rich, As-(Au)-depleted zones and As-(Au)-rich, Cu-depleted zones). This decoupled geochemical behavior of Cu and As has been interpreted as a result of chemical changes in ore-forming fluids, although direct evidence connecting fluctuations in hydrothermal fluid composition with metal partitioning into pyrite growth zones is still lacking. Here we report a comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from an active hydrothermal system, the Tolhuaca Geothermal System (TGS) in southern Chile. We combined high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capabilities of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of pyrite samples retrieved from a 1 km drill hole that crosses the argillic and propylitic alteration zones of the geothermal system. We show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te), and base and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Pb) in pyrite at the TGS are significant. Among the elements analyzed, arsenic, Cu and Co are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt. %. Pyrites from the deeper propylitic zone do not show significant zonation and high Cu-(Co)-As concentrations correlate with each other. In contrast, well-developed zonations were detected in pyrite from the shallow argillic alteration zone, where Cu(Co)-rich, As-depleted cores alternate with Cu(Co)-depleted, As-rich rims. These microanalytical data were contrasted with chemical data of fluid inclusion in quartz veins (high Cu/Na and low As/Na) and borehole fluids (low Cu/Na and high As/Na) reported at the TGS, showing a clear correspondence between Cu and As concentrations in pyrite-forming fluids and chemical

  18. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

  19. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Schist Belts comprise low grade, meta-sediment-dominated belts which are best developed in the western half of. Nigeria. These belts are considered to be Upper. Proterozoic supracrustal rocks which have been infolded into the migmatite-gneiss-quartzite complex. Most metallogenetic features of the Schist belts are.

  20. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimeh Sadat Komeili


    Full Text Available Introduction The Kahang Cu- Mo deposit is situated approximately 73 Km northeast of Isfahan. Asadi (2007 identified a geological reserve of 40 Mt (proven reserve grading at 0.53 Cu, 0.02 Mo and estimated reserve of 120 Mt. All the rock types in the region have been subjected to hydrothermal solutions which gave rise to three different alteration facies. The dacite and rhyodacite volcanic rocks and granitic- granodioritic stocks have experienced phyllic alteration. Disseminated and stockwork siliceous veins are the major styles of mineralization in this zone. Intermediate argillitic alteration developed on a part of dacitic and rhyodacitic rocks whereas andesite and basaltic-andesite plus related pyroclastic rocks have been subjected to propyllitic alteration. This paper presents the results of geological and mineralogical studies carried out in the Kahang area. This preliminary information is integrated with additional data on ore mineralogy, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in view of understanding the genesis of the Cu- Mo deposit and the nature of the fluids involved in ore formation. Materials and Methods A total of 18 polished thin sections were prepared at the University of Isfahan for optical study. Fluid inclusions study was carried out on 8 double polished quartz thin sections (stockworks containing ore mineralization from phyllic zone. H – O stable isotope analysis was performed on 4 quartz samples from siliceous stockworks (from phyllic altered zone and one vein epidote sample (from propyllitic zone. All isotopic analyses were performed at the University of Oregan, Oregan, USA. Discussion In the investigated mineralization area, the hypogene zone is characterized by the presence of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite and magnetite. Hematite, goethite, jarosite, malachite and azurite are the predominant minerals of supergene zone. The major textures of the primary sulfides are disseminated, vein and veinlet. Pyrite is the most common

  1. Pt-Os isotopic constraints on the age of hydrothermal overprinting on the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, China (United States)

    Yang, Shenghong; Yang, Gang; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao; Hanski, Eero; Lahaye, Yann; Chen, Jiangfeng


    Platinum group element (PGE) mineralization occurs associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks in different environments. Although the PGE enrichment is primarily caused by magmatic processes, remobilization of Pd and Pt by hydrothermal fluids has likely been an important mechanism in increasing the precious metal grade in many cases. However, the timing of PGE enrichment by hydrothermal fluid processes is commonly difficult to constrain. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in Northwest China is ranked the world's third largest magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit. Besides the main ore body consisting of net-textured and disseminated sulfides, there is hydrothermal mineralization associated with sheared contact zones of the intrusion, which shows elevated Cu and Pt concentrations. The unusually high Pt is hosted mainly in sperrylite within altered silicates. In this study, we applied the Pt-Os geochronometer to a Cu-Pt-rich ore body, yielding an isochron age of 436 ± 23 Ma. This age is significantly younger than the main ore formation age of ca. 825 Ma, but similar to that of the continental collision event between the Qaidam-Qilian Block and Alax Block of North China. This indicates that the intrusion may have been uplifted during the Paleozoic orogenic processes from deeper crust, resulting in the generation of the Cu-Pt-rich hydrothermal ore body. Our new data provide the first strong age constraints on the hydrothermal PGE enrichment, showing that the Pt-Os isotope system is potentially a powerful tool for dating hydrothermal overprinting on Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits.

  2. U-Pb dating of interspersed gabbroic magmatism and hydrothermal metamorphism during lower crustal accretion, Vema lithospheric section, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Jöns, Niels; Bowring, Samuel; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bach, Wolfgang; Kylander-Clark, Andrew; Hacker, Bradley; Dudás, Frank


    New U/Pb analyses of zircon and xenotime constrain the timing of magmatism, magmatic assimilation, and hydrothermal metamorphism during formation of the lower crust at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The studied sample is an altered gabbro from the Vema lithospheric section (11°N). Primary gabbroic minerals have been almost completely replaced by multiple hydrothermal overprints: cummingtonitic amphibole and albite formed during high-temperature hydration reactions and are overgrown first by kerolite and then prehnite and chlorite. In a previous study, clear inclusion-free zircons from the sample yielded Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates of 13.528 ± 0.101 to 13.353 ± 0.057 Ma. Ti concentrations, reported here, zoning patterns and calculated Th/U of the dated grains are consistent with these zircons having grown during igneous crystallization. To determine the timing of hydrothermal metamorphism, we dated a second population of zircons, with ubiquitous igneous zircon during or following hydrothermal metamorphism. Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates for the inclusion-rich zircons range from 13.598 ± 0.012 to 13.503 ± 0.018 Ma and predate crystallization of all but one of the inclusion-free zircons, suggesting that the inclusion-rich zircons were assimilated from older hydrothermally altered wall rocks. The xenotime dates are sensitive to the Th correction applied, but even using a maximum correction, 206Pb/238U dates range from 13.341 ± 0.162 to 12.993 ± 0.055 Ma and postdate crystallization of both the inclusion-rich zircons and inclusion-free igneous zircons, reflecting a second hydrothermal event. The data provide evidence for alternating magmatism and hydrothermal metamorphism at or near the ridge axis during accretion of the lower crust at a ridge-transform intersection and suggest that hydrothermally altered crust was assimilated into younger gabbroic magmas. The results of this study show that high-precision U-Pb dating is a powerful method for studying the timing of

  3. Early Archaean hydrothermal systems (United States)

    de Vries, S. T.; Nijman, W.


    Although many people have written about hydrothermal systems in the early Earth, little real evidence is available. New data from the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa) and greenstone belts of the East Pilbara (Western Australia), provide proof of the existence and nature of hydrothermal systems in the Early Archaean (around 3.4 Ga). Detailed field relationships between vein systems, host rock and overlying sediments are combined with data from fluid inclusions studies on quartz fills in the sediments. An intimate relationship between chert veins and the overlying sediments has been established (the veins are syn-sedimentary). The salinity and temperature of the fluids in the inclusions shows that these are of hydrothermal origin. Similar types of hydrothermal systems, of approximately the same age, have been found at different locations; in the Barberton greenstone belt and at various locations in the East Pilbara. The setting of these hydrothermal systems is not always identical however. Although a felsic substratum is more common, in the North Pole area (Pilbara) the hydrothermal systems rise from a basaltic substratum. In the Barberton greenstone belt, the systems are closely related to shallow intrusive (felsic) bodies. The study of these ancient hydrothermal systems forms an important framework for studies of early life on Earth. This study forms part of an international project on Earth's Earliest Sedimentary Basins, supported by the Foundation Dr. Schürmannfonds.

  4. Continental flood basalts derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone. (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Ya-Nan


    It has previously been postulated that the Earth's hydrous mantle transition zone may play a key role in intraplate magmatism, but no confirmatory evidence has been reported. Here we demonstrate that hydrothermally altered subducted oceanic crust was involved in generating the late Cenozoic Chifeng continental flood basalts of East Asia. This study combines oxygen isotopes with conventional geochemistry to provide evidence for an origin in the hydrous mantle transition zone. These observations lead us to propose an alternative thermochemical model, whereby slab-triggered wet upwelling produces large volumes of melt that may rise from the hydrous mantle transition zone. This model explains the lack of pre-magmatic lithospheric extension or a hotspot track and also the arc-like signatures observed in some large-scale intracontinental magmas. Deep-Earth water cycling, linked to cold subduction, slab stagnation, wet mantle upwelling and assembly/breakup of supercontinents, can potentially account for the chemical diversity of many continental flood basalts.

  5. Hydrothermal system of the Papandayan Volcano from temperature, self-potential (SP) and geochemical measurements (United States)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Revil, André; Gunawan, Hendra; Saing, Ugan B.; Grandis, Hendra


    Papandayan volcano in West Java, Indonesia, is characterized by intense hydrothermal activities manifested by numerous fumaroles at three craters or kawah, i.e. Mas, Manuk and Baru. The latter was created after November 2002 phreatic eruption. Since 2011, numerous volcano-tectonic B events are encountered and the volcano was set on alert status on several occasions. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the structure of the summital hydrothermal system from Self-Potential (SP), soil temperature and gas concentrations in the soil (CO2, SO2 and H2S) data. This combination of geophysical and geochemical methods allows identification of the weak permeable zones serving as preferential pathways for hydrothermal circulation and potential candidates to future landslides or flank collapses. This study is an on-going collaborative research project and we plan to conduct electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and also Induced-Polarization (IP) surveys. Additional data would allow the 3D imaging of the studied area. The IP parameters will be used to characterise and to quantify the degree of alteration of the volcanic rocks as has been shown very recently in the laboratory studies. There are also rocks and soil samples that will undergo laboratory analyses at ISTerre for IP and complex resistivity parameters at the sample scale that will help to interpret the survey results.

  6. The Link between Fluid Flow, Structure and Hydrothermal Inputs in Central Chile: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Low-Enthalpy Andean Hydrogeothermal Modeling (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Daniele, L.; Navarro, L.; Astudillo, F.; Vázquez, M.; Morata, D.


    The interaction between fault zones and hydrogeological domains are an open challenge and require the understanding of the complex relationship between structure, fluid flow and hydrothermal transport and processes. Faults stimulate hydraulic conductivity when acting as conduit, but it can also be a barrier by mineral precipitation and comminution. Structural heterogeneity of fractured lithology induces a flow partition within the aquifer system creating preferential flows paths and some fracture connectivity. We propose an interdisciplinary approach from hydrogeological and structural point of view, in a low-enthalpy aquifer system in the central valley of Central Chile, where several low-temperature thermal springs are spatially related to regional long-lived fault zone (Pocuro Fault Zone). Pocuro Fault zone is a kilometric NS-striking steeply dipping fault zone, with at least 50 km long. Metric wide fault core includes gouge and cataclastic rocks, whereas decametric damage zone consists of intensely fractured and hydrothermal altered Meso-Cenozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic host rocks, crossed by centimetric to milimetric subvertical NE-striking veins. Preliminary results of vein infill clays minerals and zeolites from damage zone, suggest P-T conditions interpreted as an exhumed fossil high-temperature (120º-230ºC) geothermal system. Currently, only low-temperature thermal springs are discharging with different geochemical patterns (bicarbonate to chlorine and sulphate dominant ions) and a homogeneous temperature range (20º-25ºC). This is an interesting study case, to better understand the permeability evolution of geothermal system and the link between internal fault architecture, hydrogeology and hydrothermal inputs.

  7. Quantification of unsaturated-zone alteration and cation exchange in zeolitized tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Vaniman, David T.; Chipera, Steve J.; Bish, David L.; Carey, J. William; Levy, Schön S.


    Zeolitized horizons in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, are an important component in concepts for a high-level nuclear waste repository at this site. The use of combined quantitative X-ray diffraction and geochemical analysis allows measurement of the chemical changes that accompanied open-system zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. This approach also provides measures of the extent of chemical migration that has occurred in these horizons as a result of subsequent cation exchange. Mass-balance analysis of zeolitized horizons with extensive cation exchange (drill hole UZ-16) and with only minimal cation exchange (drill hole SD-9) shows that Al is essentially immobile. Although zeolitization occurred in an open system, the mass transfer of constituents other than water is relatively small in initial zeolitization, in contrast to the larger scales of cation exchange that can occur after zeolites have formed. Cation exchange in the clinoptilolite ± mordenite zeolitized horizons is seen in downward-diminishing concentration gradients of Ca, Mg, and Sr exchanged for Na and (to lesser extent) K. Comparison with data from drill hole SD-7, which has multiple zeolitized horizons above the water table, shows that the upper horizons accumulate Ca, Mg, and Sr to such an extent that transport of these elements to the deepest UZ zeolitized horizon can be blocked. Quantitative analysis of zeolite formation yields insight into processes that are implied from laboratory studies and modeling efforts but are otherwise unverified at the site. Such analysis also yields information not provided by or contradicted by some models of flow and transport. The results include the following: (1) evidence of effective downward flow through zeolitic horizons despite the low permeability of these horizons, (2) evidence that alkaline-earth elements accumulated by zeolites are mostly derived from eolian materials in surface soils, (3) validation of the very effective

  8. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas


    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  9. Repeated occurrences of methanogenic zones, diagenetic dolomite formation and linked silicate alteration in southern Bering Sea sediments (Bowers Ridge, IODP Exp. 323 Site U1341) (United States)

    Wehrmann, L. M.; Ockert, C.; Mix, A. C.; Gussone, N.; Teichert, B. M. A.; Meister, P.


    Diagenetic precipitates, such as dolomite, and the chemistry of residual deeply buried porewater often represent the only traces of past biogeochemical activity in marine sediments. A 600 m thick sedimentary section, recently drilled at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1341 on Bowers Ridge (southern Bering Sea), provides insight into such a 4.3 Ma old paleo-diagenetic archive. Hard-lithified calcite-dolomite layers, and laminae of disseminated carbonate, were recovered in diatom-rich sediments over a depth range of 400 m. Carbon isotope values of the diagenetic carbonates between -16.6 and -14.4‰ (VPDB) and strontium isotope ratios of dolomites close to past seawater values suggest carbonate precipitation induced by the production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) during elevated rates of organic carbon mineralization, primarily via sulfate reduction, at shallow sediment depth below the paleo-seafloor. Diagenetic carbonates at 280-440 m below seafloor were likely also produced by the intermittent onset of sulfate reduction coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at sulfate-methane transition zones (SMTZ). These microbially mediated processes do not occur in the sediment at this site at present but were likely connected to the presence of a methanogenic zone at 2.58-2.51 Ma. A minimum in sulfate concentrations in modern porewaters and low sedimentary Ba/Al ratios resulting from former sulfate depletion are reminiscent of the presence of this large methanogenic zone. The minimum in sulfate concentrations is reflected in a minimum in magnesium concentrations, less radiogenic strontium and isotopically light calcium in the porewater. It is proposed that magnesium was removed from the porewater during carbonate precipitation and volcanic ash alteration which occurred in the former methanogenic zone and also released strontium with a less radiogenic isotope ratio and isotopically light calcium into the porewater. The isotopic composition of

  10. Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation of Sinter Deposits at Old Faithful Geyser and Immediately Adjacent Hydrothermal Features, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Foley, D.; Lynne, B. Y.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.; Smith, G.; Smith, I.


    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to evaluate the characteristics of the shallow subsurface siliceous sinter deposits around Old Faithful Geyser. Zones of fractures, areas of subsurface alteration and pre-eruption hydrologic changes at Old Faithful Geyser and surrounding hydrothermal mounds were observed. Despite being viewed directly by about 3,000,000 people a year, shallow subsurface geologic and hydrologic conditions on and near Old Faithful Geyser are poorly characterized. GPR transects of 5754 ft (1754m) show strong horizontal to sub-horizontal reflections, which are interpreted as 2.5 to 4.5 meters of sinter. Some discontinuities in reflections are interpreted as fractures in the sinter, some of which line up with known hydrothermal features and some of which have little to no surface expression. Zones with moderate and weak amplitude reflections are interpreted as sinter that has been hydrothermally altered. Temporal changes from stronger to weaker reflections are correlated with the eruption cycle of Old Faithful Geyser, and are interpreted as post-eruption draining of shallow fractures, followed by pre-eruption fracture filling with liquid or vapor thermal fluids.

  11. Imaging hydrothermal roots along the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge using elastic full waveform inversion. (United States)

    Arnulf, A. F.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.


    The Endeavour segment is a 90 km-long, medium-spreading-rate, oceanic spreading center located on the northern Juan de Fuca ridge (JDFR). The central part of this segment forms a 25-km-long volcanic high that hosts five of the most hydrothermally active vent fields on the MOR system, namely (from north to south): Sasquatch, Salty Dawg, High Rise, Main Endeavour and Mothra. Mass, heat and chemical fluxes associated to vigorous hydrothermal venting are large, however the geometry of the fluid circulation system through the oceanic crust remains almost completely undefined. To produce high-resolution velocity/reflectivity structures along the axis of the Endeavour segment, here, we combined a synthetic ocean bottom experiment (SOBE), 2-D traveltime tomography, 2D elastic full waveform and reverse time migration (RTM). We present velocity and reflectivity sections along Endeavour segment at unprecedented spatial resolutions. We clearly image a set of independent, geometrically complex, elongated low-velocity regions linking the top of the magma chamber at depth to the hydrothermal vent fields on the seafloor. We interpret these narrow pipe-like units as focused regions of hydrothermal fluid up-flow, where acidic and corrosive fluids form pipe-like alteration zones as previously observed in Cyprus ophiolites. Furthermore, the amplitude of these low-velocity channels is shown to be highly variable, with the strongest velocity drops observed at Main Endeavour, Mothra and Salty Dawg hydrothermal vent fields, possibly suggesting more mature hydrothermal cells. Interestingly, the near-seafloor structure beneath those three sites is very similar and highlights a sharp lateral transition in velocity (north to south). On the other hand, the High-Rise hydrothermal vent field is characterized by several lower amplitudes up-flow zones and relatively slow near-surface velocities. Last, Sasquatch vent field is located in an area of high near-surface velocities and is not

  12. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia (United States)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce


    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  13. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.


    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  14. Characterization of geochemical alteration halo associated with gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine, northern Tanzania (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani


    Alteration halo geochemical study was carried out along one transect at the Buzwagi mine which is found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania. The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization is hosted in quartz veins that are cross-cutting strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites. Mineralogical studies within the shear zone reveal that sericite, silica and sulphides are the most important hydrothermal mineral assemblages responsible for Au mineralization at the Buzwagi mine. The geochemical alteration halo is characterized by the addition of Au, Cu, Fe, K, Rb, Sn, W and U to wall rocks and simultaneous removal of Na, Sr, Ba, LREE and MREE from the host rocks. The concentrations of Cu (130-870 ppm) which show strong positive correlation with Au (R2 = 0.99) are so high in the alteration halo indicating that Cu is a strong Au pathfinder at the Buzwagi mine. Owing to their immobility during the post-emplacement processes, the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Th, Ta) remained unchanged during the hydrothermal alteration process. The addition of Fe and Cu is attributed to the presence of Fe- and Cu-sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalcocite) whereas the addition of K, Rb, Sn, W and U is a function of both primary concentrations of these elements in the host rocks as well as the subsequent strong hydrothermal alteration evidenced by sericitization and silicification which involved the destruction of feldspars into sericites). The destruction of albite and its replacement by sericite accounts for the depletion of Na, Sr (and Ba). The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization mineral association do not include the more known pathfinders like Ag, As, Sb, Bi, Te and Tl and they seem not to have played a role in the mineralization process. These elements, therefore, should not be considered as pathfinders for Au exploration purposes at a Buzwagi-like deposit.

  15. Hydrothermal energy development projects (United States)

    Dibello, E. G.

    The development of hydrothermal energy for direct heat applications is being accelerated by twenty-two demonstration projects that are funded on a cost sharing basis by the US Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy. These projects are designed to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the direct use of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Engineering and economic data for the projects are summarized. The data and experience being generated by these projects will serve as an important basis for future direct heat development.

  16. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C


    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  17. Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at the Chicxulub Crater (United States)

    Kring, D. A.; Zurcher, L.; Abramov, O.


    Borehole samples recovered from PEMEX exploration boreholes and an ICDP scientific borehole indicate the Chicxulub impact event generated hydrothermal alteration throughout a large volume of the Maya Block beneath the crater floor and extending across the bulk of the ~180 km diameter crater. The first indications of hydrothermal alteration were observed in the crater discovery samples from the Yucatan-6 borehole and manifest itself in the form of anhydrite and quartz veins. Continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole reveal a more complex and temporally extensive alteration sequence: following a brief period at high temperatures, impact- melt-bearing polymict breccias and a thin, underlying unit of impact melt were subjected to metasomatism, producing alkali feldspar, sphene, apatite, and magnetite. As the system continued to cool, smectite-series phyllosilicates appeared. A saline solution was involved. Stable isotopes suggest the fluid was dominated by a basinal brine created mostly from existing groundwater of the Yucatan Peninsula, although contributions from down-welling water also occurred in some parts of the system. Numerical modeling of the hydrothermal system suggests circulation occurred for 1.5 to 2.3 Myr, depending on the permeability of the system. Our understanding of the hydrothermal system, however, is still crude. Additional core recovery projects, particularly into the central melt sheet, are needed to better evaluate the extent and duration of hydrothermal alteration.

  18. Prospecting for Modern and Ancient Hydrothermal Systems on Mars:Implications for Astrobiology and the Exploration for Past or Present Life (United States)

    Farmer, J. D.


    Hydrothermal systems are regarded to be prime targets in the search for a fossil record on Mars because they provide 1) Localized environments for sustaining high rates of microbial productivity and 2) Co-existing high rates of mineralization (chemical precipitation) favorable for capturing and preserving microbial biosignatures. Hydrothermal environments may have been widespread on Mars early in the planet's history. Previous authors have described a number of potential hydrothermal sites on Mars which may be grouped into the following geologic associations: 1) Channels and chaos terranes associated with volcanic heat sources (e.g. Dao Vallis - Hadriaca Patera and chaos at the base of Apollonaris), 2) Channel networks and modified central uplifts associated with large impact craters, 3) Channels and alteration zones associated with rift fracture systems and dike swarms (e.g. Cerberus volcanic plains, Elysium), 4) Channel systems in periglacial environments related to potential subglacial volcanic heat sources 5) Mineral signatures (coarse-grained hematite) associated with ancient lacustrine basins and extensional geologic features (e.g. Terra Meridian basin, floor of Candor Chasma, central Aram chaos) and 6) modern seeps and runoff channels found on steep, northward facing slopes at high latitudes. In addition, some attribute a hydrothermal origin to the Fe-rich carbonates of Martian meteorite, ALH 84001. In this talk I will review examples of these and related hydrothermal environments that may have been present on Mars from the perspective of terrestrial analogs and what that implies about preservation potential for fossil biosignatures. I will also discuss possible ways to test hydrothermal hypotheses that could be implemented during the next decade of Mars exploration.

  19. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.


    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  20. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.


    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  1. The deep structure of a sea-floor hydrothermal deposit (United States)

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Fouquet, Y.; Miller, D.J.; Bahr, J.M.; Baker, P.A.; Bjerkgard, T.; Brunner, C.A.; Duckworth, R.C.; Gable, R.; Gieskes, J.; Goodfellow, W.D.; Groschel-Becker, H. M.; Guerin, G.; Ishibashi, J.; Iturrino, G.; James, R.H.; Lackschewitz, K.S.; Marquez, L.L.; Nehlig, P.; Peter, J.M.; Rigsby, C.A.; Schultheiss, P.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Summit, M.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Urbat, M.; Zuffa, G.G.


    Hydrothermal circulation at the crests of mid-ocean ridges plays an important role in transferring heat from the interior of the Earth. A consequence of this hydrothermal circulation is the formation of metallic ore bodies known as volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits. Such deposits, preserved on land, were important sources of copper for ancient civilizations and continue to provide a significant source of base metals (for example, copper and zinc). Here we present results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 169, which drilled through a massive sulphide deposit on the northern Juan de Fuca spreading centre and penetrated the hydrothermal feeder zone through which the metal-rich fluids reached the sea floor. We found that the style of feeder-zone mineralization changes with depth in response to changes in the pore pressure of the hydrothermal fluids and discovered a stratified zone of high-grade copper-rich replacement mineralization below the massive sulphide deposit. This copper-rich zone represents a type of mineralization not previously observed below sea-floor deposits, and may provide new targets for land-based mineral exploration.

  2. Application of hydrothermal method derived titanate nanotubes as adsorbents. (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Liu, Shin-Shou; Chen, Huang-Chi


    Titanate nanotubes (TNT) derived from alkaline hydrothermal method are characterized by high specific surface area, specific pore volume, and ion-exchange capacity. They may be a promising and important adsorbent in the environmental protection. Although their applications in the fields of lithium ion batteries, dye-sensitized solar cell, photocatalysis, catalysts support, gas and humidity sensors, and ion exchange have been intensely studied during recent years, however, the researches concerning their potential application as an adsorbent are seldom reported. In this mini-review, we first highlight the effects of hydrothermal temperature and sodium content on the microstructures of hydrothermal method derived TNT, because the morphology and microstructure of TNT are highly dependent on the preparation conditions. Effects of the alterations of microstructures induced by the variation of hydrothermal temperature and sodium content on the dyes, heavy metal ions, and organic vapors adsorption characteristics of TNT are then introduced citing recent patents.

  3. Geochemistry of hydrothermal vent fluids and its implications for subsurface processes at the active Longqi hydrothermal field, Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Ji, Fuwu; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Gao, Hang; Wang, Hu; Lilley, Marvin D.


    The Longqi hydrothermal field at 49.6°E on the Southwest Indian Ridge was the first active hydrothermal field found at a bare-rock ultra-slow spreading mid-ocean ridge. Here we report the chemistry of the hydrothermal fluids, for the first time, that were collected from the S zone and the M zone of the Longqi field by gas-tight isobaric samplers by the HOV "Jiaolong" diving cruise in January 2015. According to H2, CH4 and other chemical data of the vent fluid, we suggest that the basement rock at the Longqi field is dominantly mafic. This is consistent with the observation that the host rock of the active Longqi Hydrothermal field is dominated by extensively distributed basaltic rock. It was very interesting to detect simultaneously discharging brine and vapor caused by phase separation at vents DFF6, DFF20, and DFF5 respectively, in a distance of about 400 m. Based on the end-member fluid chemistry and distance between the vents, we propose that there is a single fluid source at the Longqi field. The fluid branches while rising to the seafloor, and two of the branches reach S zone and M zone and phase separate at similar conditions of about 28-30.2 MPa and 400.6-408.3 °C before they discharge from the vents. The end-member fluid compositions of these vents are comparable with or within the range of variation of known global seafloor hydrothermal fluid chemical data from fast, intermediate and slow spreading ridges, which confirms that the spreading rate is not the key factor that directly controls hydrothermal fluid chemistry. The composition of basement rock, water-rock interaction and phase separation are the major factors that control the composition of the vent fluids in the Longqi field.

  4. Hydrothermal flake graphite mineralisation in Paleoproterozoic rocks of south-east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing-Schow, Nanna; Bagas, Leon; Kolb, Jochen


    , transporting carbon as CO2 and CH4, formed the mineralisation commonly hosted by shear zones, which acted as pathways for the mineralising fluids. The hydrothermal alteration assemblage is quartz-biotite-gruneriteedenite-pargasite-K-feldspar-titanite. The δ13C values of graphite, varying from −30 to −18‰ PDB......, indicate that the carbon was derived from organic matter most likely from metasedimentary sources. Devolatilisation of marble may have contributed a minor amount of carbon by fluid mixing. Precipitation of graphite involved retrograde hydration reactions, depleting the fluid in H2O and causing graphite......Flake graphite mineralisation is hosted in the Kuummiut Terrane of the Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, south-east Greenland. Eclogite-facies peak-metamorphic assemblages record temperatures of 640–830 °C and pressures of 22–25 kbar, and are retrogressed in the high-pressure amphibolite...

  5. Hydraulic structure of a fault zone at seismogenic depths (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps) (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Mittempergher, Silvia; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Garofalo, Paolo; Vho, Alice


    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps) was exhumed from c. 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes), but also by hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the fault zone over a continuous area > 1 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail (Bistacchi 2011, PAGEOPH; Smith 2013, JSG; Mittempergher 2016, this meeting), providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. Based on field and microstructural evidence, we infer that the opening and closing of fractures resulted in a toggle-switch mechanism for fluid flow during the seismic cycle: higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when the largest number of fractures was (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability dropped due to hydrothermal mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. Since the fracture network that we observe now in the field is the result of the cumulative deformation history of the fault zone, which probably includes thousands of earthquakes, a fundamental parameter that cannot be directly evaluated in the field is the fraction of fractures-faults that were open immediately after a single earthquake. Postseismic permeability has been evaluated in a few cases in the world thanks to seismological evidences of fluid migration along active fault systems. Therefore, we were able to develop a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrate it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the postseismic period, to obtain on one side realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and on the other side a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold

  6. Hyperspectral Alteration Information from Drill Cores and Deep Uranium Exploration in the Baiyanghe Uranium Deposit in the Xuemisitan Area, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Jun Xu


    Full Text Available The Baiyanghe uranium deposit is a currently important medium-sized deposit in the Xuemisitan area, Xinjiang. The hydrothermal alteration in this deposit is closely related to the uranium mineralization of the deposit. In this study, hyperspectral data are collected from drill cores in the Baiyanghe uranium deposit using a FieldSpec4 visible-shortwave infrared spectrometer to study the hydrothermal alteration. The results reveal that the altered mineral assemblages have obvious zonation characteristics: (1 the upper section comprises long-wavelength illite and minor hematite and montmorillonite; (2 the middle section contains three types of illite (long-, medium- and short-wavelength illite and hematite; and (3 the lower section includes short-wavelength illite, chlorite and carbonate. Additionally, the variety in the characteristic absorption-peak wavelength of illite at 2200 nm gradually shifts to shorter wavelength and ranges between 2195 nm and 2220 nm with increasing depth, while the SWIR-IC (short-wavelength infrared illite crystallinity, a dimensionless quantity of the drill holes gradually increases from 0.2 to 2.1. These patterns reflect the hydrothermal fluid activity in the deposit, which features relatively high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal fluid in the deeper section and low-temperature, low-pressure hydrothermal fluid in the shallower section. Additionally, the uranium mineralization is located near the fracture zone, which represents the center of hydrothermal fluid activity or mineralization. This area has abundant alteration minerals, and the minerals illite (short- and medium-wavelength, hematite and fluorite can be used as uranium-prospecting indicators for uranium exploration in the deeper sections of the Baiyanghe uranium deposit.

  7. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass


    Knezevic, D.


    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  8. Immediate placement and restoration of implants in the aesthetic zone with a trimodal approach: soft tissue alterations and its relation to gingival biotype. (United States)

    Cabello, Gustavo; Rioboo, María; Fábrega, Javier G


    papilla level was present in all cases at 1 year, with mean changes of 0.38 mm ( ± 0.60) for the mesial and 0.80 mm ( ± 0.90) of the distal papilla, respectively. No correlation could be established between the soft tissue changes and the periodontal biotype of the patient. Within the limitations of this study, the good aesthetic outcome and minimal complications seem to validate the trimodal approach protocol as a reliable and simple protocol to place and restore immediate implants in the aesthetic zone. No correlation between the patient's gingival biotype and the soft tissue alterations could be established. Additional studies are needed to verify long-term aesthetic results with this approach and to better define and quantify biotypes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Growth and alteration of uranium-rich microlite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giere, R.; Swope, R. J.; Buck, E. C.; Guggenheim, R.; Mathys, D.; Reusser, E.


    Uranium-rich microlite, a pyrochlore-group mineral, occurs in 440 Ma old lithium pegmatites of the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. Microlite exhibits a pronounced growth zoning, with a U-free core surrounded by a U-rich rim (UO{sub 2} up to 17 wt.%). The core exhibits conjugate sets of straight cracks (cleavage planes) which provided pathways for a late-stage U-enriched pegmatitic fluid which interacted with the U-free microlite to produce a distinct U enrichment along the cracks and led to the formation of the U-rich rim. Following the stage of U incorporation into microlite, a second generation of hydrothermal fluids deposited mica along the cleavage planes. Subsequent to these two hydrothermal stages, the host rock was uplifted and subjected to intense low-temperature alteration during which Na, Ca and F were leached from the microlite crystals. This alteration also led to a hydration of microlite, but there is no evidence of U loss. These low-temperature alteration effects were only observed in the U-rich rim which is characterized by a large number of irregular cracks which are most probably the result of metamictization, as indicated by electron diffraction images and powder X-ray patterns. The pyrochlore-group minerals provide excellent natural analogues for pyrochlore-based nuclear waste forms, because samples of variable age and with high actinide contents are available.

  10. Petrography and chemistry of tungsten-rich oxycalciobetafite in hydrothermal veins of the Adamello contact aureole, northern Italy (United States)

    Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Gieré, Reto; Williams, C. Terry; McGlinn, Peter J.; Payne, Timothy E.


    Tungsten-rich oxycalciobetafite occurs in complex Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within dolomite marble in the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith, northern Italy, where it occurs as overgrowths on zirconolite. The betafite is weakly zoned and contains 29-34 wt% UO2. In terms of end-members, the betafite contains approximately 50 mol% CaUTi2O7 and is one of the closest known natural compositions to the pyrochlore phase proposed for use in titanate nuclear waste forms. Amorphization and volume expansion of the betafite caused cracks to form in the enclosing silicate mineral grains. Backscattered electron images reveal that betafite was subsequently altered along crystal rims, particularly near the cracks. Electron probe microanalyses reveal little difference in composition between altered and unaltered areas, except for lower totals, suggesting that alteration is primarily due to hydration. Zirconolite contains up to 18 wt% ThO2 and 24 wt% UO2, and exhibits strong compositional zoning, but no internal cracking due to differential (and anisotropic) volume expansion and no visible alteration. The available evidence demonstrates that both oxycalciobetafite and zirconolite retained actinides for approximately 40 million years after the final stage of vein formation. During this time, oxycalciobetafite and zirconolite accumulated a total alpha-decay dose of 3.0-3.6 × 1016 and 0.2-2.0 × 1016 α/mg, respectively.

  11. Did the massive magnetite "lava flows" of El Laco (Chile) form by magmatic or hydrothermal processes? New constraints from magnetite composition by LA-ICP-MS (United States)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges


    The El Laco magnetite deposits consist of more than 98 % magnetite but show field textures remarkably similar to mafic lava flows. Therefore, it has long been suggested that they represent a rare example of an effusive Fe oxide liquid. Field and petrographic evidence, however, suggest that the magnetite deposits represent replacement of andesite flows and that the textures are pseudomorphs. We determined the trace element content of magnetite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from various settings at El Laco and compared them with magnetite from both igneous and hydrothermal environments. This new technique allows us to place constraints on the conditions under which magnetite in these supposed magnetite "lava flows" formed. The trace element content of magnetite from the massive magnetite samples is different to any known magmatic magnetite, including primary magnetite phenocrysts from the unaltered andesite host rocks at El Laco. Instead, the El Laco magnetite is most similar in composition to hydrothermal magnetite from high-temperature environments (>500 °C), such as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry-Cu deposits. The magnetite trace elements from massive magnetite are characterised by (1) depletion in elements considered relatively immobile in hydrothermal fluids (e.g. Ti, Al, Cr, Zr, Hf and Sc); (2) enrichment in elements that are highly incompatible with magmatic magnetite (rare earth elements (REE), Si, Ca, Na and P) and normally present in very low abundance in magmatic magnetite; (3) high Ni/Cr ratios which are typical of magnetite from hydrothermal environments; and (4) oscillatory zoning of Si, Ca, Mg, REE and most high field strength elements, and zoning truncations indicating dissolution, similar to that formed in hydrothermal Fe skarn deposits. In addition, secondary magnetite in altered, brecciated host rock, forming disseminations and veins, has the same composition as magnetite from the massive

  12. Discovering New Mantle-Hosted Submarine Ecosytems: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.; Karson, J. A.; Yoerger, D.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M.


    In April-May 2003, the Lost City Hydrothermal Field was investigated during 19 Alvin dives and 17 missions with the autonomous vehicle ABE to examine the linkages among geological, chemical and biological processes associated with a submarine hydrothermal system hosted on mantle material. In concert, these two programs resulted in 1) delineation of the geologic features that control hydrothermal flow in this area; 2) an extremely high-resolution bathymetric map (meter scale) of the field and adjacent areas of the Atlantis Massif; 3) interdisciplinary sampling of 10 individual venting sites within the field; and 4) documentation of a nearly continuous zone of deformation at the top of the massif that is very likely the surface expression of a long-lived detachment fault that caps the massif. This hydrothermal system, which is driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions beneath the Atlantis Massif, is unlike any known field examined to date. It is hosted on 1-2 my old variably altered mantle material, it contains more than 30 carbonate chimneys that reach up to 60 m in height, and generation of diffusely venting 40-90C fluids with pH 9-11 that are enriched in methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons support dense microbial communities. ABE bathymetry shows that a linear array of the largest structures within the field is controlled by an E-W trending, 200 m long lineament intersected by a N-S trending fault. Mapping of the near vertical cliffs adjacent to the field indicates that much of the subsurface flow within this area is controlled by very gently west-dipping faults that result in a nearly horizontal, sheet-like style of flow. Venting of diffuse fluids directly from the near vertical walls forms perpendicular growths of carbonate flanges, and results in the formation of vertical spires, and massive, shingled deposits that cascade down the cliff faces. The plumbing system within this area is very different from the vertical conduits that typify black smoker

  13. Resistivity structure of the Furnas hydrothermal system (Azores archipelago, Portugal) from AMT and ERT imaging. (United States)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rath, Volker; Silva, Catarina; Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Viveiros, Fatima; Eleuterio, Joana; Gresse, Marceau


    The Furnas volcanic complex is located in the eastern part of the São Miguel Island and comprises a 5 km × 8 km summit depression filled by two nested calderas with several craters and a lake. Present-day volcanic activity of Furnas volcano is mostly located in the northern part of the caldera, within the Furnas village and north to Furnas Lake, where hydrothermal manifestations are mainly fumarolic fields, steam vents, thermal springs, and intense soil diffuse degassing. Considering the Furnas volcano as a whole, the total integrated CO2 efflux is extremely high, with a total amount of CO2 close to 1000 ton per day (Viveiros et al., 2009). We present the first results of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), combined with audio-magneto-telluric (AMT) measurements aligned along two profiles inside the caldera. The purpose of this survey is to delimit the extent, the geometry, and the depth of the hydrothermal system and to correlate the deep resistivity structure with high resolution cartography of diffuse CO2 flux (Viveiros et al, 2015). The ERT and AMT methods are complementary in terms of resolution and penetration depth: ERT can image the structural details of shallow hydrothermal system (down to 100 m in our study) while AMT can image at lower resolution deeper structures at the roots of a volcano (down to 4 km in our study). Our first independent 2D inversions of the ERT-AMT data show a good agreement between the surficial and deeper features. Below the main fumarole area we observe a low resistivity body (less than 1 Ohmm) which corresponds well to the high CO2 flux at the surface and is associated with an extended conductive body at larger depth. These results strongly suggest the presence of hydrothermal waters at depth or/and the presence of altered clay-rich material. On a larger scale however, the geometry of the conducting zones differs slightly from what was expected from earlier surface studies, and may not be directly related to fault zones

  14. Results of Physical Property Measurements Obtained during the CHIKYU Cruise CK16-01 to Hydrothermal Fields of the Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Masaki, Y.; Komori, S.; Torimoto, J.; Makio, M.; Ohta, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Hamada, Y.


    The middle Okinawa trough, along the Ryukyu-arc on the margin of the western Pacific, fosters several hydrothermal fields. The cruise CK16-01 of D/V CHIKYU targeted the Iheya-North Field and Noho hydrothermal site. More than ten-days extensive coring was carried out with Logging While Drilling (LWD) and deployment of Kuroko cultivation apparatus between February 29th to March 17th2016. Here we present the results of the physical property measurements obtained using Chikyu's on-board laboratory. Cores were sampled among three sites where the seafloor environments were quite different: the Noho site (C9017), a site between the Natsu and Aki sites of the Iheya-North field (C9021), and the Iheya-North Aki site (C9023). Site C9017 was near the center of the hydrothermal activity, and the obtained core was limited 36 m in length and 30 % in the recovery rate. At 70 mbsf (meters below seafloor), the grain density and bulk density of the sediment reached their maxim (3.7 g/m3 and 2.7 g/cm3, respectively), while thermal conductivity reached its lowest value (0.6 W/m·K). Site C9021 yielded a 54 m core, with a core recovery rate of 50 %. Coarse pumiceous layers were found at 68 mbsf, with a hydrothermally altered layer appearing below 68 mbsf. The mean grain density value was 2.4 g/cm3 and was uniform throughout the core. The mean bulk density value of the pumiceous layers was 1.3 g/cm3, and of the hydrothermally altered layer was 2.1 g/cm3. Site C9023 was close to the active hydrothermal chimneys of the Iheya-North Aki site, and yielded 33 m of core with a core recovery rate of 16 %. Massive sulfide layers were found below 48 mbsf with grain density and bulk density values varying between 2.8-4.7 g/cm3 and 1.5-3.9 g/cm3, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility exhibited a high anomaly in a sedimented anhydrite layer found between 95 and 135 mbsf, and a high porosity and low resistivity zone was found below 150 mbsf. Together, these data from drilling cores and onboard

  15. Reactive Hydrothermal Flow Model for Mid-Oceanic Ridges (United States)

    Starger, J. L.; Garven, G.; Tivey, M. K.


    A two-dimensional finite-element code known as RST2D [1] is being used to study the geothermal energy, geohydrology, and geochemistry of fluid convection in seafloor hydrothermal systems such as the Juan de Fuca Ridge, East Pacific Rise, and TAG hydrothermal fields. Relative to black smoker vents and other discharge features, submarine recharge zones are understudied. We are attempting to model both the recharge and discharge limbs of these flow fields as a coupled system by mathematically and physically linking the fluid dynamics, heat flow, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulations have been made to quantify likely flow rates and relevant geochemical water-rock reactions including mineral precipitation and dissolution using a fully-coupled reactive flow modeling approach. In particular, the reactive flow model is being used to predict the formation, likely spatial-temporal distribution, and preservation of anhydrite in the hydrothermal recharge zone and its feedback influence on permeability, fluid flow, and heat transport in the discharge zone. We are focusing on the geochemical effects and controls of on- and off-ridge geology and geometry, permeability-porosity, vent width and geometry, and thermal boundary conditions on the predicted size and extent of the recharge and discharge zones, and whether hydrothermal recharge is focused along extensional faults or diffused across broad areas of the seafloor. Hydrothermal flow systems of this type are known to represent modern analogs for ancient systems such as those being studied for understanding the origin of life on the planet, but also as modern analogs for the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits. Reactive flow modeling provides a useful tool for developing a better understanding of the physiobiochemistry of these episodic flow systems, and could potentially guide exploration for modern and ancient ore deposits. [1] Raffensperger, J.P.,1996, Advances in Porous Media 3, 185 - 305.

  16. Predicting seed dormancy loss and germination timing for Bromus tectorum in a semi-arid environment using hydrothermal time models (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Phil S. Allen


    A principal goal of seed germination modelling for wild species is to predict germination timing under fluctuating field conditions. We coupled our previously developed hydrothermal time, thermal and hydrothermal afterripening time, and hydration-dehydration models for dormancy loss and germination with field seed zone temperature and water potential measurements from...

  17. Stable light isotope biogeochemistry of hydrothermal systems. (United States)

    Des Marais, D J


    The stable isotopic composition of the elements O, H, S and C in minerals and other chemical species can indicate the existence, extent, conditions and the processes (including biological activity) of hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermal alteration of the 18O/16O and D/H values of minerals can be used to detect fossil systems and delineate their areal extent. Water-rock interactions create isotopic signatures which indicate fluid composition, temperature, water-rock ratios, etc. The 18O/16O values of silica and carbonate deposits tend to increase with declining temperature and thus help to map thermal gradients. Measurements of D/H values can help to decipher the origin(s) of hydrothermal fluids. The 34S/32S and 13C/12C values of fluids and minerals reflect the origin of the S and C as well as oxygen fugacities and key redox processes. For example, a wide range of 34S/32S values which are consistent with equilibration below 100 degrees C between sulfide and sulfate can be attributed to sulfur metabolizing bacteria. Depending on its magnitude, the difference in the 13C/12C value of CO2 and carbonates versus organic carbon might be attributed either to equilibrium at hydrothermal temperatures or, if the difference exceeds 1% (10/1000), to organic biosynthesis. Along the thermal gradients of thermal spring outflows, the 13C/12C value of carbonates and 13C-depleted microbial organic carbon increases, principally due to the outgassing of relatively 13C-depleted CO2.

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.


    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  19. Characteristics of hydrothermal activity in the Tarim Basin and its reworking effect on carbonate reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available Hydrothermal activity is common in the Tarim Basin. In this paper, petrologic and geochemical features of the hydrothermal products in the carbonate rocks in this basin were analyzed so as to figure out the effect of hydrothermal activity on the Lower Palaeozoic carbonate reservoirs in this area. It is shown that the hydrothermal fluids in the Tarim Basin are generally high in CO2 content, but very low in Mg2+ content. Then, the reworking effect of hydrothermal activity on reservoir was further discussed. It is indicated that the component of hydrothermal fluid is the deciding factor for the reworking of reservoirs. The study provided the following findings. Firstly, hydrothermal fluid is rich in CO2. Dissolution is intense in the vicinity of fracture zones and dissolved pores of different sizes are developed. Therefore, small-scale high-quality reservoirs with good porosity and permeability are formed. Secondly, hydrothermal fluid itself is low in magnesium content and some additional magnesium can be produced from Cambrian dolomites by means of dissolution, but the scale of hydrothermal dolomitization is small. Thirdly, the hydrothermal fluids rich in CO2 form high-quality dissolved vug typed reservoirs by means of dissolving surrounding rocks and their distribution are controlled by faulting. Fourthly, the saddle-like dolomite with hydrothermal origin fills dissolved vugs. Furthermore, the hydrothermal activity in the vicinity of faults results in the recrystallization or excessive growth of dolomite crystal, blocking existed pores, which is a type of destructive diagenesis as a whole. The study results can provide a reference for carbonate reservoir prediction of deep basin.

  20. Geochemistry and strontium isotopic composition of mineralforming solutions of hydrothermal systems of southern Kamchatka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampura, V.D.; Plyusnin, G.S.; Sandimirova, G.P.


    In order to understand the genesis of hydrothermal systems in the regions of recent volcanism, the chemical composition of hydrothermal waters was studied. In addition, the behavior of strontium in the process of hydrothermal alteration of volcanic aquifers was considered. The data on strontium isotopy for thermal waters, effusives and volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Pauzhetka hydrothermal region are given. For depth-derived sodium-chloride hydrothermal waters /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values lie within the range of 0.7033 to 0.7056. Significant differences of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values in seawater and sodium-chloride hydrothermal waters at all levels of their geochemical metamorphism were noted. This is considered to be evidence of the absence of seawater in the chemical composition of hydrothermal waters of the Pauzhetka type. To determine the cause of low /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values of depth-derived sodium-chloride hydrothermal waters, the strontium isotopy of country rocks was studied and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr = 0.702 to 0.705 have been determined. The data indicate the possibility that recent hydrothermal waters inherited a ratio of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr = 0.703 to 0.704 at the aquifer level.

  1. Controls on the chemistry and temporal variability of seafloor hydrothermal fluids (United States)

    Von Damm, K. L.

    Hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers has an influence on all aspects of oceanography. The heat input from these systems affects the mid-depth circulation of the oceans, although the magnitude of this effect has not been rigorously quantified [Stommel, 1982]. The rising hydrothermal plumes also entrain deeper, and often saltier water, carrying it up in the water column thereby also affecting the thermohaline circulation of the oceans [Lupton et al., 1985]. The topography of the ridges may also influence deep circulation patterns. It is the inputs of heat and reduced chemical species from the hydrothermal systems that provide the energy for communities of chemosynthetic organisms, unknown prior to the discovery of venting. Hydrothermal activity also affects the chemistry of seawater by the direct addition and removal of various chemical species, and the more indirect scavenging of mid depth chemical constituents onto the Fe- and Mn-particles fanned in hydrothermal plumes. The composition of the oceanic crust is also changed by the addition and removal of chemical constituents as a result of hydrothermal alteration. Recycling of the oceanic crust into the Earth's mantle and the eventual transfer of some gases input by hydrothermal activity from the ocean to the atmosphere, extend the Influence of hydrothermal activity to beyond the oceans themselves. While the magnitude and importance of these linkages are still poorly quantified, we were unaware these linkages even existed prior to the discovery of seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  2. The interplay of evolved seawater and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in the 3.24 Ga panorama volcanic-hosted massive sulfide hydrothermal system, North Pilbara Craton, Western Australia (United States)

    Drieberg, Susan L.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Huston, David L.; Landis, Gary; Ryan, Chris G.; Van Achterbergh, Esmé; Vennemann, Torsten


    The ~3240 Ma Panorama volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) district is unusual for its high degree of exposure and low degree of postdepositional modification. In addition to typical seafloor VHMS deposits, this district contains greisen- and vein-hosted Mo-Cu-Zn-Sn mineral occurrences that are contemporaneous with VHMS orebodies and are hosted by the Strelley granite complex, which also drove VHMS circulation. Hence the Panorama district is a natural laboratory to investigate the role of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in VHMS hydrothermal systems. Regional and proximal high-temperature alteration zones in volcanic rocks underlying the VHMS deposits are dominated by chlorite-quartz ± albite assemblages, with lesser low-temperature sericite-quartz ± K-feldspar assemblages. These assemblages are typical of VHMS hydrothermal systems. In contrast, the alteration assemblages associated with granite-hosted greisens and veins include quartz-topaz-muscovite-fluorite and quartz-muscovite (sericite)-chlorite-ankerite. These vein systems generally do not extend into the overlying volcanic pile. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies suggest that the greisens were produced by high-temperature (~590°C), high-salinity (38–56 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids with high densities (>1.3 g/cm3) and high δ18O (9.3 ± 0.6‰). These fluids are compatible with the measured characteristics of magmatic fluids evolved from the Strelley granite complex. In contrast, fluids in the volcanic pile (including the VHMS ore-forming fluids) were of lower temperature (90°–270°C), lower salinity (5.0–11.2 wt % NaCl equiv), with lower densities (0.88–1.01 g/cm3) and lower δ18O (−0.8 ± 2.6‰). These fluids are compatible with evolved Paleoarchean seawater. Fluids that formed the quartz-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-cassiterite veins, which are present within the granite complex near the contact with the volcanic pile, were intermediate in temperature and isotopic composition between the greisen

  3. Sulphide mineral evolution and metal mobility during alteration of the oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 1256D (United States)

    Patten, C. G. C.; Pitcairn, I. K.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.


    Fluxes of metals during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust have far reaching effects including buffering of the compositions of the ocean and lithosphere, supporting microbial life and the formation of sulphide ore deposits. The mechanisms responsible for metal mobilisation during the evolution of the oceanic crust are complex and are neither fully constrained nor quantified. Investigations into the mineral reactions that release metals, such as sulphide leaching, would generate better understanding of the controls on metal mobility in the oceanic crust. We investigate the sulphide and oxide mineral paragenesis and the extent to which these minerals control the metal budget in samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D. The ODP Hole 1256D drill core provides a unique sample suite representative of a complete section of a fast-spreading oceanic crust from the volcanic section down to the plutonic complex. The sulphide population at Hole 1256D is divided into five groups based on mineralogical assemblage, lithological location and texture: the magmatic, metasomatised, high temperature hydrothermal, low temperature and patchy sulphides. The initiation of hydrothermal alteration by downward flow of moderate temperature (250-350 °C) hydrothermal fluids under oxidising conditions leads to metasomatism of the magmatic sulphides in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes. Subsequent increase in the degree of hydrothermal alteration at temperatures >350 °C under reducing conditions then leads to the leaching of the metasomatised sulphides by rising hydrothermal fluids. Mass balance calculations show that the mobility of Cu, Se and Au occurs through sulphide leaching during high temperature hydrothermal alteration and that the mobility of Zn, As, Sb and Pb is controlled by silicate rather than sulphide alteration. Sulphide leaching is not complete at Hole 1256D and more advanced alteration would mobilise greater masses of metals. Alteration of oxide

  4. Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ali


    Full Text Available El-Sibai mineralized shear zone trending NNE-SSW is located at the northern segment of Gabal El-Sibai (500m in length and 0.5 to 1.5 m in width. Rocks along the shear zone show different types of alterations such ashematization, kaolinitization, fluoritization, and silicification. These alterations are good traps for rare metals ofthorite, ferrocolumbite, pyroclore, plumbopyroclore, fluorite, cerite-(Ce, zircon, Th-rich zircon, zirconolite (mixtureof zircon & columbite, fluorapatite, titanite, and monazite minerals.The detailed mineralogical study of the El-Sibai shear zone revealed its enrichment in Th, Zr, Nb, Pb, U, F, P,LREE (Ce, especially concerning the hematization processes. The close correlation of ferruginated (hematitizedsamples with high radioactivity is related to the high ability of iron oxides for adsorption of radioactive elementsfrom their solutions. The rare-metal minerals found in altered peralkaline granites (shear zone are associated withhematitization, albititization, chloritization, fluoritization, and pyritization. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMAprovides an indication of a range of solid solution between thorite and zircon, in which intermediate phases, such asTh-rich zircon were formed. These phases have higher sum of all cations per formula (2.0 to 2.09 atoms per formulaunit, for 4 oxygen atoms than that of ideal thorite and zircon. This is attributed to the presence of substantialamount of interstitial cations such as U, Y, Ca, and Al in these phases. Altered zircon enriched in Th and U (Th-richzircon preferentially involves coupled substitution Ca2+ + (Th,U4+ ↔ 2Zr4+ + 2Si4+, implying that significant amountof U and Th may enter the Zr and Si position in zircon.Thorite and Th-rich zircon are related to hydrothermal fluid. Also the genesis of the studied zircon is related tometasomatic hydrothermal zircon (MHZ. The abundantly detected zircon, Th-rich zircon, Th-bearing minerals andfluorite of demonstrably

  5. Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes (United States)

    Knipping, Jaayke L.; Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur P.; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Holtz, François; Munizaga, Rodrigo


    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are an important source of iron and other elements (e.g., REE, P, U, Ag and Co) vital to modern society. However, their formation, including the namesake Kiruna-type IOA deposit (Sweden), remains controversial. Working hypotheses include a purely magmatic origin involving separation of an Fe-, P-rich, volatile-rich oxide melt from a Si-rich silicate melt, and precipitation of magnetite from an aqueous ore fluid, which is either of magmatic-hydrothermal or non-magmatic surface or metamorphic origin. In this study, we focus on the geochemistry of magnetite from the Cretaceous Kiruna-type Los Colorados IOA deposit (∼350 Mt Fe) located in the northern Chilean Iron Belt. Los Colorados has experienced minimal hydrothermal alteration that commonly obscures primary features in IOA deposits. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) transects and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectrometry mapping demonstrate distinct chemical zoning in magnetite grains, wherein cores are enriched in Ti, Al, Mn and Mg. The concentrations of these trace elements in magnetite cores are consistent with igneous magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt, whereas magnetite rims show a pronounced depletion in these elements, consistent with magnetite grown from an Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. Further, magnetite grains contain polycrystalline inclusions that re-homogenize at magmatic temperatures (>850 °C). Smaller inclusions (500 ppm) concentrations.

  6. Evidence for Hesperian Impact-Induced Hydrothermalism on Mars (United States)

    Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Dohm, James M.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Gross, Christoph; Kneissl, Thomas; Bishop, Janice L.; Roush, Ted L.; McKay, Chris P.


    Several hydrated silicate deposits on Mars are observed within craters and are interpreted as excavated Noachian material. Toro crater (71.8 deg E, 17.0 deg N), located on the northern edge of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Plains, shows spectral and morphologic evidence of impact-induced hydrothermal activity. Spectroscopic observations were used to identify extensive hydrated silicate deposits, including prehnite, chlorites, smectites, and opaline material, a suite of phases that frequently results from hydrothermal alteration in terrestrial craters and also expected on Mars from geochemical modeling of hydrothermal environments. When combined with altimetry and high-resolution imaging data, these deposits appear associated predominantly with the central uplift and with portions of the northern part of the crater floor. Detailed geologic mapping of these deposits reveals geomorphic features that are consistent with hydrothermal activity that followed the impact event, including vent-like and conical mound structures, and a complex network of tectonic structures caused by fluid interactions such as fractures and joints. The crater age has been calculated from the cumulative crater size-frequency distributions and is found to be Early Hesperian. The evidence presented here provides support for impact-induced hydrothermal activity in Toro crater, that extends phyllosilicate formation processes beyond the Noachian era.

  7. Geoelectrical structure of the central zone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion) (United States)

    Lenat, J.-F.; Fitterman, D.; Jackson, D.B.; Labazuy, P.


    A study of the geoelectrical structure of the central part of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion, Indian Ocean) was made using direct current electrical (DC) and transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM). Piton de la Fournaise is a highly active oceanic basaltic shield and has been active for more than half a million years. Joint interpretation of the DC and TEM data allows us to obtain reliable 1D models of the resistivity distribution. The depth of investigation is of the order of 1.5 km but varies with the resistivity pattern encountered at each sounding. Two-dimensional resistivity cross sections were constructed by interpolation between the soundings of the 1D interpreted models. Conductors with resistivities less than 100 ohm-m are present at depth beneath all of the soundings and are located high in the volcanic edifice at elevations between 2000 and 1200 m. The deepest conductor has a resistivity less than 20 ohm-m for soundings located inside the Enclos and less than 60-100 ohm-m for soundings outside the Enclos. From the resistivity distributions, two zones are distinguished: (a) the central zone of the Enclos; and (b) the outer zone beyond the Enclos. Beneath the highly active summit area, the conductor rises to within a few hundred meters of the surface. This bulge coincides with a 2000-mV self-potential anomaly. Low-resistivity zones are inferred to show the presence of a hydrothermal system where alteration by steam and hot water has lowered the resistivity of the rocks. Farther from the summit, but inside the Enclos the depth to the conductive layers increases to approximately 1 km and is inferred to be a deepening of the hydrothermally altered zone. Outside of the Enclos, the nature of the deep, conductive layers is not established. The observed resistivities suggest the presence of hydrated minerals, which could be found in landslide breccias, in hydrothermally altered zones, or in thick pyroclastic layers. Such formations often create perched

  8. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic study of Paleozoic sediment-hosted Zn-Pb(-Ag-Au-Ba-F) deposits and associated hydrothermal alteration zones in the Nome Complex, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Slack, John F.; Till, Alison B.; Thurston, Roland; Gemery-Hill, Pamela


    Results of sulfur and oxygen isotope studies of sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Zn-Pb(-Ag-Au-Ba-F) deposits hosted in metamorphosed Paleozoic clastic and carbonate rocks of the Nome Complex, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, are consistent with data for similar deposits worldwide. Stable isotopic studies of the Nome Complex are challenging because the rocks have undergone Mesozoic blueschist- and greenschist-facies metamorphism and deformation at temperatures estimated from 390–490 °C. Studies of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in other areas suggest that, in the absence of chemical and mineralogical evidence for metasomatism, the principal effect of metamorphism is re-equilibration between individual minerals at the temperature of metamorphism, which commonly leads to a narrowing of the overall range of isotope values for a suite of rocks, but generally does not significantly modify the average whole rock value for that suite. Sulfur isotope studies of the stratabound and locally stratiform sulfide lenses at the Aurora Creek-Christophosen deposit, which is of possible Late Devonian-early Carboniferous age, show a large range of δ34Ssulfide values from -9.7 to 39.4‰, suggesting multiple sulfur sources and possibly complex processes of sulfide formation that may include bacterial sulfate reduction, thermochemical sulfate reduction, and Rayleigh distillation. Low δ34S values probably represent bacterial sulfide minerals remobilized from the host metasedimentary rocks either during the original seafloor mineralization or are related to a Cretaceous mineralizing event that produced Au-vein and base-metal replacement deposits; the latter process is supported by Pb isotope data. The Wheeler North deposit is similar to Aurora Creek-Christophosen but does not have negative δ34S values. It also probably formed in an euxinic sub-basin.

  9. Hydrothemal Alteration Mapping Using Feature-Oriented Principal Component Selection (fpcs) Method to Aster DATA:WIKKI and Mawulgo Thermal Springs, Yankari Park, Nigeria (United States)

    Abubakar, A. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.


    Geothermal systems are essentially associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages such as iron oxide/hydroxide, clay, sulfate, carbonate and silicate groups. Blind and fossilized geothermal systems are not characterized by obvious surface manifestations like hot springs, geysers and fumaroles, therefore, they could not be easily identifiable using conventional techniques. In this investigation, the applicability of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were evaluated in discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with geothermal systems as a proxy in identifying subtle Geothermal systems at Yankari Park in northeastern Nigeria. The area is characterized by a number of thermal springs such as Wikki and Mawulgo. Feature-oriented Principal Component selection (FPCS) was applied to ASTER data based on spectral characteristics of hydrothermal alteration minerals for a systematic and selective extraction of the information of interest. Application of FPCS analysis to bands 5, 6 and 8 and bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 datasets of ASTER was used for mapping clay and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals in the zones of Wikki and Mawulgo thermal springs in Yankari Park area. Field survey using GPS and laboratory analysis, including X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) were carried out to verify the image processing results. The results indicate that ASTER dataset reliably and complementarily be used for reconnaissance stage of targeting subtle alteration mineral assemblages associated with geothermal systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Abubakar


    Full Text Available Geothermal systems are essentially associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages such as iron oxide/hydroxide, clay, sulfate, carbonate and silicate groups. Blind and fossilized geothermal systems are not characterized by obvious surface manifestations like hot springs, geysers and fumaroles, therefore, they could not be easily identifiable using conventional techniques. In this investigation, the applicability of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER were evaluated in discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with geothermal systems as a proxy in identifying subtle Geothermal systems at Yankari Park in northeastern Nigeria. The area is characterized by a number of thermal springs such as Wikki and Mawulgo. Feature-oriented Principal Component selection (FPCS was applied to ASTER data based on spectral characteristics of hydrothermal alteration minerals for a systematic and selective extraction of the information of interest. Application of FPCS analysis to bands 5, 6 and 8 and bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 datasets of ASTER was used for mapping clay and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals in the zones of Wikki and Mawulgo thermal springs in Yankari Park area. Field survey using GPS and laboratory analysis, including X-ray Diffractometer (XRD and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD were carried out to verify the image processing results. The results indicate that ASTER dataset reliably and complementarily be used for reconnaissance stage of targeting subtle alteration mineral assemblages associated with geothermal systems.

  11. Magnetic properties and opaque mineralogy of rocks from selected seafloor hydrothermal sites at oceanic ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.L. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States) NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)); Harrison, C.G.A. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)); Rona, P.A. (NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)); Haggerty, S.E. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))


    Magnetic properties (natural remanent magnetization, susceptibility, Curie point temperature, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, and Koeenigsberger ratio) and opaque mineralogy were determined for basalts, diabases, gabbros, peridotites, and serpentinites collected by dredging and submersible from the rift valley at five hydrothermal sites (the Snake Pit hydrothermal field, the Tag hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge). Evidence for unequivocal magnetic mineral modification by hydrothermal action is present only in a small percentage of extrusive basalts but is pervasive in diabases, gabbros, and ultramafic rocks. The studies reveal distinct correlations between magnetization intensity, thermomagnetic behavior, and magnetic mineralogy, grain size, style, and intensity of alteration and rock type. Layer 2A basalts are the source of median valley magnetic anomalies. The magnetic source may shift from the surface to deeper horizons with progressive seafloor aging and enhanced deuteric oxidation in layer 2B dikes and layer 3 gabbros and the formation of magnetite in derpentinized peridotites. This shift is influenced by fluctuations in the Curie isotherm related to the duration of active magma chambers and convective hydrothermal cells. The magnetic and mineralogic properties of oceanic rocks determined show the effects of a wide range of alteration processes that are variously related to depth in oceanic lithosphere, magmatic cooling history, and hydrothermal circulation.

  12. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal magma systems: geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.F.


    A brief discussion is given of the geochemical objectives and questions that must be addressed in such an evaluation. A summary of the currently published literature that is pertinent in answering these questions is presented for each of the five areas: The Geysers-Clear Lake region, Long Valley, Rio Grand Rift, Roosevelt Hot Springs, and the Salton Trough. The major geochemical processes associated with proposed hydrothermal sites are categorized into three groups for presentation: geochemistry of magma and associated volcanic rocks, geochemistry of hydrothermal solutions, and geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration. (MHR)

  13. Hydrothermal processes related to some Triassic and Jurassic submarine basaltic complexes in northeastern Hungary, the Dinarides and Hellenides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriella B Kiss; Ferenc Molnár; Ladislav A Palinkas


      Comparative studies on hydrothermal alteration of submarine peperitic basalt occurrences related to the Triassic early rifting of the Neotethys were carried out in various parts of the Dinarides and Hellenides...

  14. The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Kesler, Stephen E.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Walshe, John; Ewing, Rodney C.


    The ubiquity of Au-bearing arsenian pyrite in hydrothermal ore deposits suggests that the coupled geochemical behaviour of Au and As in this sulfide occurs under a wide range of physico-chemical conditions. Despite significant advances in the last 20 years, fundamental factors controlling Au and As ratios in pyrite from ore deposits remain poorly known. Here we explore these constraints using new and previously published EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, and μ-PIXE analyses of As and Au in pyrite from Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry Cu, Cu-Au, and orogenic Au deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide (VHMS), Witwatersrand Au, iron oxide copper gold (IOCG), and coal deposits. Pyrite included in the data compilation formed under temperatures from ∼30 to ∼600 °C and in a wide variety of geological environments. The pyrite Au-As data form a wedge-shaped zone in compositional space, and the fact that most data points plot below the solid solubility limit defined by Reich et al. (2005) indicate that Au1+ is the dominant form of Au in arsenian pyrite and that Au-bearing ore fluids that deposit this sulfide are mostly undersaturated with respect to native Au. The analytical data also show that the solid solubility limit of Au in arsenian pyrite defined by an Au/As ratio of 0.02 is independent of the geochemical environment of pyrite formation and rather depends on the crystal-chemical properties of pyrite and post-depositional alteration. Compilation of Au-As concentrations and formation temperatures for pyrite indicates that Au and As solubility in pyrite is retrograde; Au and As contents decrease as a function of increasing temperature from ∼200 to ∼500 °C. Based on these results, two major Au-As trends for Au-bearing arsenian pyrite from ore deposits are defined. One trend is formed by pyrites from Carlin-type and orogenic Au deposits where compositions are largely controlled by fluid-rock interactions and/or can be highly perturbed by changes in temperature and

  15. Petrography, alteration and genesis of iron mineralization in Roshtkhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard


    Full Text Available Introduction Iron mineralization in Roshtkhar is located in 48 Km east of the city of Roshtkhar and south of the Khorasan Razavi province. It is geologically located in the north east of the Lut block and the Khaf-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt. The Khaf-Bardeskan belt is an important metallogenic province since it is a host of valuable ore deposits such as the Kuh-e-Zar Au-Spicularite, the Tanourcheh and the Khaf Iron ore deposits (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. Iron and Copper mineralization in this belt are known as the hydrothermal, skarn and IOCG types (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. IOCG deposits are a new type of magmatic to hydrothermal mineralization in the continental crust (Hitzman et al., 1992. Precambrian marble, Lower Paleozoic schist and metavolcanics are the oldest rocks of the area. The younger units are Oligocene conglomerate, shale and sandstone, Miocene marl and Quaternary deposits. Iron oxides and Cu sulfides are associated with igneous rocks. Fe and Cu mineralization in Roshtkhar has been subject of a few studies such as Yousefi Surani (2006. This study describes the petrography of the host rocks, ore paragenesis, alteration types, geochemistry, genesis and other features of the Fe and Cu mineralization in the Roshtkhar iron. Methods After detailed field studies and sampling, 30 thin sections and 20 polished sections that were prepared from host rocks and ores were studied by conventional petrographic and mineraloghraphic methods in the geology department of the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. 5 samples from the alteration zones were examined by XRD in the Yamagata University in Japan, and 8 samples from the less altered ones were analyzed by XRF and ICP-OES in the Kharazmi University and the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC in Karaj, respectively. The XRF and ICP-OES data are presented in Table 1. Result and discussion The host rocks of the Roshtkhar Iron deposit are diorite

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of tobacco stalk for fuel application. (United States)

    Cai, Jiaxiao; Li, Bin; Chen, Chaoying; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Ke


    Tobacco stalks are an abundant biomass resource which are otherwise treated as waste. In this work, the effect of hydrothermal carbonization temperature and time on the structures, chemical compositions and combustion characteristics of hydrochars obtained from tobacco stalks were evaluated. The carbon content, higher heating value, and energy yield increased with accompanying decrease in hydrogen and oxygen contents with the increase of treatment temperature and time. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios indicated dehydration and devolatilization processes occurred during hydrothermal carbonization. The weight loss, combustion range and characteristic temperatures of tobacco stalks were significantly modified after hydrothermal carbonization, resulting in higher ignition temperatures and higher energy density. The kinetics model, Coats-Redfern method revealed the activation energy of hydrochars in zone 2 and 3 were among 43.7-74.8kJ/mol and 46.7-85.8kJ/mol, respectively. Our results show that hydrothermal carbonization reaction can facilitate transforming tobacco stalks into energy-rich solid fuel. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Migration of hydrothermal systems in an evolving collisional orogen, New Zealand (United States)

    Craw, D.; Upton, P.; Horton, T.; Williams, J.


    The Pacific-Australian tectonic plate boundary through the South Island of New Zealand consists of the transpressional Southern Alps mountain belt and the transcurrent Marlborough Fault System, both of which have active tectonically driven hydrothermal systems, with topographically driven meteoric incursion and warm springs. The Southern Alps hydrothermal system is relatively diffuse, with little or no fault control, and is channelled through scattered extensional sites beneath the mountains, where gold mineralisation is occurring locally. The hydrothermal activity along the Marlborough Fault System is controlled by the principal faults in well-defined valleys separated by narrow high ridges. Lateral evolution of Marlborough fault strands southwestwards into the Southern Alps has caused diversion of diffuse Southern Alps hydrothermal activity into the structural superimposition zone, where fluid flow is increasingly being controlled by faults. This hydrothermal diversion was accompanied by major topographic reorientation and river drainage reversal in the late Quaternary. Vein swarms now exposed in the remnants of the Southern Alps north of the superimposition zone formed at shallow levels, with some evidence for fluid boiling, from a mixture of meteoric and deep-sourced fluid. These veins, some of which contain gold, are part of an abandoned lateral incursion of the Marlborough fault strands. Observations on this active plate boundary provide some insights into processes that controlled orogenic gold mineralisation in ancient belts, particularly with respect to relationships between hydrothermal fluid flow, structure and topography.

  18. Ore-bearing hydrothermal metasomatic processes in the Elbrus volcanic center, the northern Caucasus, Russia (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Dokuchaev, A. Ya.; Gazeev, V. M.; Abramov, S. S.; Groznova, E. O.; Shevchenko, A. V.


    Precaldera, caldera, and postcaldera cycles are recognized in the geological evolution of the Pleistocene-Holocene Elbrus volcanic center (EVC). During the caldera cycle, the magmatic activity was not intense, whereas hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of rocks was vigorous and extensive. The Kyukyurtli and Irik ore-magmatic systems have been revealed in the EVC, with the former being regarded as the more promising one. The ore mineralization in rocks of the caldera cycle comprises occurrences of magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite (including Ni-Co varieties), arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, millerite, galena, and finely dispersed particles of native copper. Pyrite and pyrrhotite from volcanics of the caldera cycle and dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion are similar in composition and differ from these minerals of the postcaldera cycle, where pyrite and pyrrhotite are often enriched in Cu, Co, and Ni and millerite is noted as well. The composition of ore minerals indicates that the hydrothermal metasomatic alteration related to the evolution of the Kyukyurtli hydrothermal system was superimposed on rocks of the caldera cycle, whereas the late mineralization in rocks of the postcaldera cycle developed autonomously. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in quartz and carbonate from crosscutting veinlets in the apical portion of the Kyukyurtli extrusion is 140-170°C and in quartz from geyserite, 120-150°C. The temperature of formation of the chalcopyrite-pyrite-pyrrhotite assemblage calculated using mineral geothermometers is 156 and 275°C in dacite from the middle and lower portions of the Malka lava flow and 190°C in dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion. The hydrothermal solutions that participated in metasomatic alteration of rocks pertaining to the Kyukyurtli ore-magmatic system (KOMS) and formed both secondary quartzite and geyserite were enriched in fluorine, as evidenced from the occurrence of F-bearing minerals-zharchikhite, ralstonite,

  19. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.


    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  20. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In the calculations we have assumed that all apatites are magmatic. The presence of chlorite and altered plagioclase within the granite and quartz-monzodiorite suggests that alteration may play a role in leading to erroneous estimates of initial melt Cl and F for 2 reasons: (1) the apatites may in fact not be magmatic in origin, but are hydrothermal, and (2) the halogen signature of magmatic apatite may be changed due to subsolidus exchange with a hydrothermal fluid. We are currently endeavoring to develop criteria for determining whether apatite composition represents earlier or later stages of magmatic-hydrothermal development.

  2. Surface and subsurface hydrothermal flow pathways at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Graham Wall, B. R.


    During summer 2003 at Yellowstone's Norris Geyser Basin notable changes were observed in the discharge of heat and steam, creating new thermal features, dying vegetation, and the consequent closure of trails to protect public safety. In order to interpret data collected from GPS, seismic, and temperature instruments deployed in response to the increased hydrothermal activity, a study has been undertaken to provide a more complete knowledge of the spatial distribution of subsurface fluid conduits. Geologic data, including mapped outcrops, aerial imagery, thermal infrared imagery, and subsurface core, indicate that fracture pathways in the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) channel flow in the hydrothermal system. These data show clear evidence that NE-SW and NW-SE trending structures provide major flow pathways at Norris. By mapping fracture sets in outcrops of LCT with varied degrees of hydrothermal alteration, one can consistently identify fractures that localize hydrothermal fluid flow, alteration, and the geometry of surface thermal features. Alteration is characterized by acid leaching that quickly alters LCT mafic minerals and glassy groundmass, which in outcrop is recognized by corroded and disaggregated LCT with local secondary mineral deposition. Mapping the sequence from unaltered to altered LCT has identified vertical cooling joints as primary conduits for hydrothermal fluids. These vertical joints correlate with the NE-SW trending geomorphic expression of the LCT in this area, and parallel the adjacent caldera boundary. Horizontal fractures parallel depositional stratigraphy, and in core from drill holes Y-9 (248 m) and Y-12 (332 m) appear to initiate at collapsed vapor-phase cavities or regions of altered fiamme. Vertical fractures in the core show sequences of hydrothermal minerals locally derived from water-rock interaction that line fracture walls, characteristic of mineral deposition associated with repeat reactivation. Although the hydrothermal system is

  3. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko


    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  4. Safety Zones (United States)

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  5. Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Heat Source of an Ultramafic-Hosted Hydrothermal System (Rainbow, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 36° 10-17'N) (United States)

    Canales, J. P.; Dunn, R. A.; Sohn, R. A.; Horning, G.; Arai, R.; Paulatto, M.


    Most of our understanding of hydrothermal systems and the nature of their heat sources comes from models and observations at fast and intermediate spreading ridges. In these settings, hydrothermal systems are mainly located within the axial zone of a spreading segment, hosted in basaltic rock, and primarily driven by heat extracted from crystallization of crustal melt sills. In contrast, hydrothermal systems at slow-spreading ridges like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) show a great variety of venting styles and host-rock lithology, and are located in diverse tectonic settings like axial volcanic ridges, non-transform discontinuities (NTDs), the foot of ridge valley walls, and off-axis inside corner highs. Among MAR systems, the Rainbow hydrothermal field (RHF) stands out as an end-member of this diversity: an ultramafic-hosted system emitting H2 and CH4-rich fluids at high temperatures and high flow rates, which suggests a magmatic heat source despite the lack of evidence for recent volcanism and its location within an NTD with presumably low magma budget. We present 2D multichannel seismic reflection images across the Rainbow massif from the NSF-funded MARINER multidisciplinary geophysical study that reveal, for the first time, the magmatic system driving hydrothermal circulation in an ultramafic setting. Data were acquired in 2013 onboard the RV M. Langseth with an 8-km-long hydrophone streamer. The images have been obtained from pre-stack depth migrations using a regional 3D P-wave velocity model from a coincident controlled-source seismic tomography experiment using ocean bottom seismometers. Our images show a complex magmatic system centered beneath the RHF occupying an areal extent of ~3.7x6 km2, with partially molten sills ranging in depth between ~3.4 km and ~6.9 km below the seafloor. Our data also image high-amplitude dipping reflections within the massif coincident with strong lateral velocity gradients that may arise from detachment fault planes

  6. Sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope variations in submarine hydrothermal deposits of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, USA (United States)

    Peter, J.M.; Shanks, Wayne C.


    Sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope values were measured in sulfide, sulfate, and carbonate from hydrothermal chimney, spire, and mound samples in the southern trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, USA. ??34S values of sulfides range from -3.7 to 4.5%. and indicate that sulfur originated from several sources: 1. (1) dissolution of 0??? sulfide contained within basaltic rocks, 2. (2) thermal reduction of seawater sulfate during sediment alteration reactions in feeder zones to give sulfide with positive ??34S, and 3. (3) entrainment or leaching of isotopically light (negative-??34S) bacteriogenic sulfide from sediments underlying the deposits. ??34S of barite and anhydrite indicate sulfur derivation mainly from unfractionated seawater sulfate, although some samples show evidence of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation reactions during mixing within chimneys. Oxygen isotope temperatures calculated for chimney calcites are in reasonable agreement with measured vent fluid temperatures and fluid inclusion trapping temperatures. Hydrothermal fluids that formed calcite-rich chimneys in the southern trough of Guaymas Basin were enriched in 18O with respect to seawater by about 2.4??? due to isotopic exchange with sedimentary and/or basaltic rocks. Carbon isotope values of calcite range from -9.6 to -14.0??? ??34CpDB, indicating that carbon was derived in approximately equal quantities from the dissolution of marine carbonate minerals and the oxidation of organic matter during migration of hydrothermal fluid through the underlying sediment column. Statistically significant positive, linear correlations of ??34S, ??34C, and ??18O of sulfides and calcites with geographic location within the southern trough of Guaymas Basin are best explained by variations in water/rock ( w r) ratios or sediment reactivity within subsurface alteration zones. Low w r ratios and the leaching of detrital carbonates and bacteriogenic sulfides at the southern vent sites result in relatively

  7. Assemblage of benthic diatoms and culturable heterotrophs in shallow-water hydrothermal vent of the D. Joao de Castro Seamount, Azores in the Atlantic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Cardigos, F.; De; Santos, R.S.; Colaco, A.

    The shallow-water hydrothermal vent of D. Joao de Castro Seamount in the North Atlantic, between the Azorean islands Sao Miguel and Terceira, is characterized by yellow and white zones which are distinct in physical and chemical characteristics...

  8. Structural and remote sensing studies of gold mineralization and associated alteration in Abu-Marawat area, northern Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Gabr, Safwat Salah

    Gold has been mined in the Eastern Desert of Egypt since the time of the Pharaohs, yet the geologic setting of the gold mineralization, the structural controls, and its association with hydrothermal alteration zones is still not fully understood. A common application of remote sensing is to identify variations in surface mineralogy, structural elements, and geologic contacts. In this study, surface reflectance data derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery is used to map areas of high potential gold mineralization within hydrothermal alteration zones through refining previously used satellite image processing techniques. Spectral unmixing in n-dimentional spectral feature space has proven very accurate in distinguishing different alteration minerals, as well as highlighting the extent and main trend of alteration zones around Abu-Marawat area. Band ratio image (bands 4/8, 4/2, 8/9 in RGB) has proved to be efficient in highlighting areas for high-potential gold mineralization. Studying the areas of potential gold mineralization by looking at the associated structural elements has helped us understand the formation and evolution of mineralized zones. Detailed field mapping and structural analysis has helped to identify the main phases of deformation affecting the study area of Abu-Marawat. Mineralized quartz veins, mainly hosted in normal fault shear zones, developed during a period of island arc formation and represent the oldest phase of hydrothermal events in the area. These mineralized veins have been deformed by folding and were subsequently cut by relatively undeformed barren quartz veins. This proposed early phase of arc-related gold mineralization is consistent with the presence of gold-rich banded iron formations of Abu-Marawat that also formed during the arc formation stage. The tectonic evolution model of the area is illustrated by relating the main structural elements to the major tectonic events that

  9. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.


    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  10. Uranium-lead dating of hydrothermal zircon and monazite from the Sin Quyen Fe-Cu-REE-Au-(U) deposit, northwestern Vietnam (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Wei Terry; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Tran, MyDung


    The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains economic concentrations of Cu, Au and LREE, and sub-economic concentration of U. In this deposit, massive and banded replacement ores are hosted in Neoproterozoic metapelite. The paragenetic sequence includes sodic alteration (stage I), calcic-potassic alteration and associated Fe-REE-(U) mineralization (stage II), Cu-Au mineralization (stage III), and sulfide-(quartz-carbonate) veins (stage IV). The Sin Quyen deposit experienced an extensive post-ore metamorphic overprint, which makes it difficult to precisely determine the mineralization age. In this study, zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronometers and the Rb-Sr isochron method are used to constrain the timing of mineralization. Zircon grains in the ore are closely intergrown or texturally associated with hydrothermal minerals of stage II (e.g., garnet, allanite, and hedenbergite). They may contain primary fluid inclusions and display irregular zoning in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. Zircon grains are rich in U (688 to 2902 ppm) and poor in Th (0.2 to 2.9 ppm). Their δ18OV-SMOW values range from 11.9 to 14.0‰, higher than those of typical magmatic zircon. These textural and compositional features imply that zircon precipitated from 18O- and U-rich hydrothermal fluids, coeval with the minerals of stage II. Monazite occurs in close association with stage II magnetite and allanite and has low contents of Th (<2700 ppm), indicative of a hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal zircon and monazite have indistinguishable U-Pb ages of 841 ± 12 and 836 ± 18 Ma, respectively, representing the timing of Fe-REE mineralization. There is no direct isotopic constraint on the timing of the Cu-Au mineralization, but geological observations suggest that the Cu-Au and Fe-REE ores most likely formed within a single evolved hydrothermal process. In the plot of 87Rb/86Sr vs. 87Sr/86Sr, the composition of bulk-ore and biotite separates from ore lie along a reference line for 30 Ma

  11. Learning about hydrothermal volcanic activity by modeling induced geophysical changes (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda M.; Napoli, Rosalba


    Motivated by ongoing efforts to understand the nature and the energy potential of geothermal resources, we devise a coupled numerical model (hydrological, thermal, mechanical), which may help in the characterization and monitoring of hydrothermal systems through computational experiments. Hydrothermal areas in volcanic regions arise from a unique combination of geological and hydrological features which regulate the movement of fluids in the vicinity of magmatic sources capable of generating large quantities of steam and hot water. Numerical simulations help in understanding and characterizing rock-fluid interaction processes and the geophysical observations associated with them. Our aim is the quantification of the response of different geophysical observables (i.e. deformation, gravity and magnetic field) to hydrothermal activity on the basis of a sound geological framework (e.g. distribution and pathways of the flows, the presence of fractured zones, caprock). A detailed comprehension and quantification of the evolution and dynamics of the geothermal systems and the definition of their internal state through a geophysical modeling approach are essential to identify the key parameters for which the geothermal system may fulfill the requirements to be exploited as a source of energy. For the sake of illustration only, the numerical computations are focused on a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island by simulating a generic 1-year unrest and estimating different geophysical changes. We solved (i) the mass and energy balance equations of flow in porous media for temperature, pressure and density changes, (ii) the elastostatic equation for the deformation field and (iii) the Poisson’s equations for gravity and magnetic potential fields. Under the model assumptions, a generic unrest of 1-year engenders on the ground surface low amplitude changes in the investigated geophysical observables, that are, however, above the accuracies of the modern

  12. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.


    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  13. Hydrothermal uranium deposits containing molybdenum and fluorite in the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rasmussen, J.D.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Rowley, P.D.; Romberger, S.B.; Selverstone, J.


    Uranium deposits containing molybdenum and fluorite occur in the Central Mining Area, near Marysvale, Utah, and formed in an epithermal vein system that is part of a volcanic/hypabyssal complex. They represent a known, but uncommon, type of deposit; relative to other commonly described volcanic-related uranium deposits, they are young, well-exposed and well-documented. Hydrothermal uranium-bearing quartz and fluorite veins are exposed over a 300 m vertical range in the mines. Molybdenum, as jordisite (amorphous MoS2, together with fluorite and pyrite, increase with depth, and uranium decreases with depth. The veins cut 23-Ma quartz monzonite, 20-Ma granite, and 19-Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed at 19-18 Ma in a 1 km2 area, above a cupola of a composite, recurrent, magma chamber at least 24 ?? 5 km across that fed a sequence of 21- to 14-Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, rhyolite lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Formation of the Central Mining Area began when the intrusion of a rhyolite stock, and related molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich, glassy rhyolite dikes, lifted the fractured roof above the stock. A breccia pipe formed and relieved magmatic pressures, and as blocks of the fractured roof began to settle back in place, flat-lying, concave-downward, 'pull-apart' fractures were formed. Uranium-bearing, quartz and fluorite veins were deposited by a shallow hydrothermal system in the disarticulated carapace. The veins, which filled open spaces along the high-angle fault zones and flat-lying fractures, were deposited within 115 m of the ground surface above the concealed rhyolite stock. Hydrothermal fluids with temperatures near 200??C, ??18OH2O ~ -1.5, ?? -1.5, ??DH2O ~ -130, log fO2 about -47 to -50, and pH about 6 to 7, permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine, molybdenum, potassium, and hydrogen sulfide, and contained uranium as fluoride complexes. The hydrothermal fluids reacted with the wallrock resulting in

  14. Alteration and dehydration of subducting oceanic crust within subduction zones: implications for décollement step-down and plate-boundary seismogenesis (United States)

    Kameda, Jun; Inoue, Sayako; Tanikawa, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Gaku


    The alteration and dehydration of predominantly basaltic subducting oceanic crustal material are thought to be important controls on the mechanical and hydrological properties of the seismogenic plate interface below accretionary prisms. This study focuses on pillow basalts exposed in an ancient accretionary complex within the Shimanto Belt of southwest Japan and provides new quantitative data that provide insight into clay mineral reactions and the associated dehydration of underthrust basalts. Whole-rock and clay-fraction X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the progressive conversion of saponite to chlorite proceeds under an almost constant bulk-rock mineral assemblage. These clay mineral reactions may persist to deep crustal levels ( 320 °C), possibly contributing to the bulk dehydration of the basalt and supplying fluid to plate-boundary fault systems. This dehydration can also cause fluid pressurization at certain horizons within hydrous basalt sequences, eventually leading to fracturing and subsequent underplating of upper basement rock into the overriding accretionary prism. This dehydration-induced breakage of the basalt can explain variations in the thickness of accreted basalt fragments within accretionary prisms as well as the reported geochemical compositions of mineralized veins associated with exposed basalts in onland locations. This fracturing of intact basalt can also nucleate seismic rupturing that would subsequently propagate along seismogenic plate interfaces.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. The hydrothermal outflow plume of Valles Caldera, New Mexico, and a comparison with other outflow plumes (United States)

    Goff, Fraser; Shevenell, Lisa; Gardner, Jamie N.; Vuataz, Francois-D.; Grigsby, Charles O.


    Stratigraphic, temperature gradient, hydrogeochemical, and hydrologic data have been integrated with geologic data from previous studies to show the structural configuration of the Valles caldera hydrothermal ouflow plume. Hydrologic data suggest that 25-50% of the discharge of the Valles outflow is confined to the Jemez fault zone, which predates caldera formation. Thermal gradient data from bores penetrating the plume show that shallow gradients are highest in the vicinity of the Jemez fault zone (up to 190°C/km). Shallow heat flow above the hydrothermal plume is as high as 500 mW m-2 near core hole VC-1 (Jemez fault zone) to 200 mW m-2 at Fenton Hill (Jemez Plateau). Chemical and isotopic data indicate that two source reservoirs within the caldera (Redondo Creek and Sulphur Springs reservoirs) are parents to mixed fluids flowing in the hydrothermal plume. However, isotopic data, borehole data, basic geology, and inverse relations between temperature and chloride content at major hot springs indicate that no single reservoir fluid and no single diluting fluid are involved in mixing. The Valles caldera hydrothermal plume is structurally dominated by lateral flow through a belt of vertical conduits (Jemez fault zone) that strike away from the source reservoir. Stratigraphically confined flow is present but dispersed over a wide area in relatively impermeable rocks. The Valles configuration is contrasted with the configuration of the hydrothermal plume at Roosevelt Hot Springs, which is dominated by lateral flow through a near-surface, widespread, permeable aquifer. Data from 12 other representative geothermal systems show that outflow plumes occur in a variety of magmatic and tectonic settings, have varying reservoir compositions, and have different flow characteristics. Although temperature reversals are commonly observed in wells penetrating outflow plumes, reversals are not observed in all plumes. Less information is available on the absolute age of

  16. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.


    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods, hydrothermal synthesis allows excellent control over particle size, shape, distribution and crystallinity of the material. Synthesis is conducted in a ... terns were recorded on Tecnai G2 S-twin transmission elec- tron microscope with field emission gun operating at 200 kV. Samples for TEM measurements were ...

  18. Oxygen and U-Th isotopes and the timescales of hydrothermal exchange and melting in granitoid wall rocks at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Valley, John W.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.


    highest U excess (≥5.8%) also has the most 18O isotope depletion (average δ18Oplag = −4.0‰). The granitoids are a probable assimilant and source of U excess in volcanic rocks from Mt. Mazama. Two granitoids have Th excess and low δ18O values, interpreted to record leaching of U during hydrothermal alteration. A U-Th isochron based on the U excess array of the granitoids and volcanic rocks indicates that hydrothermal circulation initiated ∼40–75 kyrs before the climactic eruption, potentially marking the initiation of a persistent upper-crustal magma chamber. The U-Th ages are consistent with the maximum timescales inferred for hydrothermal alteration based on oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

  19. Oxygen and U-Th isotopes and the timescales of hydrothermal exchange and melting in granitoid wall rocks at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Valley, John W.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.


    has the most 18O isotope depletion (average δ18Oplag = -4.0‰). The granitoids are a probable assimilant and source of U excess in volcanic rocks from Mt. Mazama. Two granitoids have Th excess and low δ18O values, interpreted to record leaching of U during hydrothermal alteration. A U-Th isochron based on the U excess array of the granitoids and volcanic rocks indicates that hydrothermal circulation initiated ∼40-75 kyrs before the climactic eruption, potentially marking the initiation of a persistent upper-crustal magma chamber. The U-Th ages are consistent with the maximum timescales inferred for hydrothermal alteration based on oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

  20. Remote Sensing Analysis of Mineralized Alteration in the Ramand Area (Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Ezzati


    Full Text Available Introduction The Ramand area, southwest of Buin- Zahra, about 60 kilometers from Qazvin, lies in the igneous belt of the Urmieh-Dokhtar region, the main structural zone of north-central Iran. Rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows are the principal host rocks of mineralization and alteration of the area, most of which occurs in faulted and brecciated zones alongmaj or northwest-trending fault systems (such as Kour-Cheshmeh, Hassan Abad and their branches. Clay minerals determined from satellite images indicated principally argillic hydrothermal alteration before laboratory mineralogical analysis. According to instrumental analyses, mineralized alteration with greater amounts of argillic halos and lesser amounts of sericitic-propylitic minerals contains quartz veinlets in the vertical and lateral sections. Initially, alteration in the Ramand area was revealed in ETM images by using the SPCA technique of Crosta and Moore, 1990 (Selective Principle Component Analysis. Compared with other techniques, SPCA results have reliable spectral signatures for identifying argillic minerals and Fe-oxides as the main mineralogical association in hydrothermal environments. Subsequently, multispectral images (ASTER were analyzed using band ratios.The results indicated silicification alteration along the faulted regions in the Ramand area. Later, areas of silicification alteration were prospected for precious and base metal mineralization.Sampling results suggested that the altered areas have some potential for epithermal mineralization, according to instrumental analyses and micrographic evidence. Materials and methods 1- Collecting satellite images, geological evidence and related documents 2- Image processing to reveal and identify the mineralized alteration. 3- Sampling of the mineralized zones indicated by the remote sensing. 4- Thin- and polished section microscopic studies. 5- X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD (19 samples, inductively coupled plasma mass

  1. Imaging Seafloor Massive Sulphides at the TAG hydrothermal fields, from the Blue Mining seismic project (United States)

    Gil de la Iglesia, Alba; Vardy, Mark; Bialas, Jörg; Dannowski, Anke; Schröder, Henning; Minshull, Tim; Chidlow, Kasia; Murton, Bramly


    The Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) hydrothermal field, located at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°N), is known for the existence of Seafloor Massive Sulphides (SMS) discovered by the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse cruise (Rona et al., 1986). The TAG comprises a low-temperature alteration zone, five inactive, high-temperature hydrothermal deposits, and the hydrothermal active TAG mound. TAG is also known for being one of the eight known SMS with a size larger than 2M tones (Hannington et al., 2011). The known SMS deposits do not have the same dimensions as the Massive Sulphides (MS) found on land, covering areas from 10s-100s m2 and their accessibility is more complicated, being located at 800-6000 m water depth. Although they do not seem to be economically exploitable at present, those deep-sea mineral resources could be important targets in the near future. One of the aims of the European-funded Blue Mining project is to identify the SMS deposit dimensions for the future environmentally sustainable and clean deep-sea mining. The Blue Mining project is focused on the extinct Seafloor Massive Sulphides (eSMS) in the TAG hydrothermal field, in particular Shinkai, Southern and Shimmering mounds. In May/June 2016 the German RV METEOR carried out a seismic refraction/reflection wide-angle (WA) experiment acquiring thirty multichannel seismic (MCS) profiles crossing the TAG hydrothermal field. GEOMAR's 2-unit air-gun array with a total volume of 760 cubic-inches was used, triggering seismic pulses every 12 s along the MCS profiles. Reflected and refracted events from the shallow-towed sources were recorded by 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and 5 Ocean Bottom Hydrophones (OBH). To obtain the internal velocities and gross geometries of these deposits, 10 of 20 OBS were located on top of the eSMS, Shinaki and Southern mounds, while the other 10 instruments were located in extension of the profiles, covering Shimmering mounds and regional targets. In this presentation, we

  2. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from Northern Central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clasts even sometimes twins in plagioclase bend with tapering ends and curvy due to ... (c) Deformed twins within plagioclase porphyroclast (shape preferred orientation subparallel to the foliation). Matrix composed of fine grained ..... clast are also enriched in MnO (up to 0.64wt%). Clinopyroxene is comparatively rich in iron ...

  3. Tectonothermal evolution of the northeastern Cantabrian zone (Spain) (United States)

    Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Sanz-López, Javier; García-López, Susana; Bastida, Fernando


    A tectonothermal study of the northeastern sector of the Cantabrian zone (Ponga-Cuera and Picos de Europa units) using the conodont color alteration index (CAI) and Kübler index (KI) methods shows a variation from diagenetic to anchizonal conditions. The latter are illustrated in geological maps and cross sections. The greater part of the studied area has CAI values lower than 2, caused by two long periods of burial separated by a compressive interval (corresponding to the Variscan deformation), in which thrusts were the dominant structures. Tectonic superimposition was balanced by intense and fast erosion and had little effect on the CAI values. In contrast, a high thermal gradient was produced in the southern outcrops that led to recognize the transition between diagenetic and anchizonal conditions through CAI values near the basal thrust of the Picos de Europa unit. The diagenesis/anchizone boundary appears a little further south through the determination of the Kübler index in phyllosilicate minerals (KI = 0.42). CAI isograds cut the Variscan structures as a consequence of a thermal episode that occurred near the Carboniferous-Permian boundary at the beginning of an extensional regime. The thermal source was located further south, in the adjacent Pisuerga-Carrión unit. Alterations in the CAI values, as well as dolomitization and ore deposits, locally resulted from Permian-Mesozoic hydrothermal activity. Microtextural analysis of the conodonts allowed us to relate several types of apatite overgrowth to diagenetic conditions and recrystallization to anchizonal ones, whereas dissolution was common during hydrothermalism. Alpine deformation hardly produced any changes in the previous thermal pattern, but was responsible of the northwards tilting of the structure and CAI isograds.

  4. Unraveling multiple phases of sulfur cycling during the alteration of ancient ultramafic oceanic lithosphere (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Johnston, David T.


    Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems - characterized by ongoing serpentinization reactions - exert an important influence on the global sulfur cycle. Extensive water-rock interaction causes elemental exchange between seawater and the oceanic lithosphere, effectively removing sulfate from seawater through both abiogenic and biogenic processes. Here, we use bulk rock multiple sulfur isotope signatures (32S, 33S, 34S) and in situ sulfide analyses together with petrographic observations to track the sulfur cycling processes and the hydrothermal evolution of ancient peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems. We investigate serpentinized peridotites from the Northern Apennine ophiolite in Italy and the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica and compare those with the Iberian Margin (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 149 and 173) and the 15°20‧N Fracture Zone along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (ODP Leg 209). In situ measurements of sulfides in the Northern Apennine serpentinites preserve a large range in δ34Ssulfide of -33.8 to +13.3‰ with significant heterogeneities within single sulfide grains and depending on mineralogy. Detailed mineralogical investigation and comparison with bulk rock Δ33Ssulfide and in situ δ34Ssulfide data implies a thermal evolution of the system from high temperatures (∼350 °C) that allowed thermochemical sulfate reduction and input of hydrothermal sulfide to lower temperatures (play a central role for the availability of sulfate to microbial communities within these systems. Overall, the combined application of in situ and bulk rock multiple sulfur isotope measurements with petrographic observations allows us to resolve the different episodes of sulfur cycling during alteration of the oceanic lithosphere and the temporal changes between abiogenic and biogenic processes that control the sulfur cycling in these systems.

  5. Microbial community structure across fluid gradients in the Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal system. (United States)

    Anderson, Rika E; Beltrán, Mónica Torres; Hallam, Steven J; Baross, John A


    Physical and chemical gradients are dominant factors in shaping hydrothermal vent microbial ecology, where archaeal and bacterial habitats encompass a range between hot, reduced hydrothermal fluid and cold, oxidized seawater. To determine the impact of these fluid gradients on microbial communities inhabiting these systems, we surveyed bacterial and archaeal community structure among and between hydrothermal plumes, diffuse flow fluids, and background seawater in several hydrothermal vent sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge using 16S rRNA gene diversity screening (clone libraries and terminal restriction length polymorphisms) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Community structure was similar between hydrothermal plumes and background seawater, where a number of taxa usually associated with low-oxygen zones were observed, whereas high-temperature diffuse fluids exhibited a distinct phylogenetic profile. SUP05 and Arctic96BD-19 sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were prevalent in all three mixing regimes where they exhibited overlapping but not identical abundance patterns. Taken together, these results indicate conserved patterns of redox-driven niche partitioning between hydrothermal mixing regimes and microbial communities associated with sinking particles and oxygen-deficient waters. Moreover, the prevalence of SUP05 and Arctic96BD-19 in plume and diffuse flow fluids indicates a more cosmopolitan role for these groups in the ecology and biogeochemistry of the dark ocean. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrothermal modification of host rock geochemistry within Mo-Cu porphyry deposits in the Galway Granite, western Ireland (United States)

    Tolometti, Gavin; McCarthy, Will


    Hydrothermal alteration of host rock is a process inherent to the formation of porphyry deposits and the required geochemical modification of these rocks is regularly used to indicate proximity to an economic target. The study involves examining the changes in major, minor and trace elements to understand how the quartz vein structures have influenced the chemistry within the Murvey Granite that forms part of the 380-425Ma Galway Granite Complex in western Ireland. Molybdenite mineralisation within the Galway Granite Complex occurred in close association with protracted magmatism at 423Ma, 410Ma, 407Ma, 397Ma and 383Ma and this continues to be of interest to active exploration. The aim of the project is to characterize hydrothermal alteration associated with Mo-Cu mineralisation and identify geochemical indicators that can guide future exploration work. The Murvey Granite intrudes metagabbros and gneiss that form part of the Connemara Metamorphic complex. The intrusion is composed of albite-rich pink granite, garnetiferous granite and phenocrytic orthoclase granite. Minor doleritic dykes post-date the Murvey Granite, found commonly along its margins. Field mapping shows that the granite is truncated to the east by a regional NW-SE fault and that several small subparallel structures host Mo-Cu bearing quartz veins. Petrographic observations show heavily sericitized feldspars and plagioclase and biotite which have undergone kaolinization and chloritisation. Chalcopyrite minerals are fine grained, heavily fractured found crystallized along the margins of the feldspars and 2mm pyrite crystals. Molybdenite are also seen along the margins of the feldspars, crystallized whilst the Murvey Granite cooled. Field and petrographic observations indicate that mineralisation is structurally controlled by NW-SE faults from the selected mineralization zones and conjugate NE-SW cross cutting the Murvey Granite. Both fault orientations exhibit quartz and disseminated molybdenite

  7. Deep-sea magnetic vector anomalies over the Hakurei hydrothermal field and the Bayonnaise knoll caldera, Izu-Ogasawara arc, Japan (United States)

    Honsho, Chie; Ura, Tamaki; Kim, Kangsoo


    We conducted deep-sea magnetic measurements using autonomous underwater vehicles in the Bayonnaise knoll caldera, the Izu-Ogasawara island arc, which hosts the large Hakurei hydrothermal field. We improved the conventional correction method applied for removing the effect of vehicle magnetization, thus greatly enhancing the precision of the resulting vector anomalies. The magnetization distribution obtained from the vector anomaly data shows a ˜2 km wide belt of high magnetization, trending NNW-SSE going through the caldera, and a low-magnetization zone ˜300 m by ˜500 m in area, extending over the Hakurei site. Comparison between the results obtained using the vector anomaly and the total intensity anomaly shows that the magnetic field is determined more accurately, especially in areas of sparse data distribution, when the vector anomaly rather than the total intensity anomaly is used. We suggest a geologically motivated model that basaltic volcanism associated with the back-arc rifting occurred after the formation of the caldera, resulting in the formation of the high-magnetization belt underneath the silicic caldera. The Hakurei hydrothermal field lies in the intersection of the basaltic volcanism belt and the caldera wall fault, suggesting a mechanism that hot water generated by the heat of the volcanic activity has been spouting out through the caldera wall fault. The deposit apparently extends beyond the low-magnetization zone, climbing up the caldera wall. This may indicate that hot water rising from the deep through the alteration zone is transported laterally when it comes near the seafloor along fissures and fractures in the caldera wall.

  8. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Baruah and Joydeep Dutta


    Full Text Available Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature.

  9. Hydrothermal stability of zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.Y. [Daelim College of Technology, Anyang (Korea); Gogotsi, G.A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Uzbekistan); Kim, D.J. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea); Park, N.J. [Kumho National University of Technology, Kumi (Korea)


    3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} partially-Stabilized Zirconia single Crystals (PSZCs) containing a small quantity (<0.5%) of rare-earth oxides (CeO{sub 2}, Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by using a direct high-frequency skull melting technique to evaluate hydrothermal stability in an autoclave. Pole figure measurements indicate that both CeO{sub 2} and Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing specimens prepared by the skull melting are single crystals. PSZCs exhibited no t{yields}m phase transformation during aging for 5 h at temperatures from 150 to 250 deg. C and 4 MPa water vapor pressure in an autoclave, resulting in excellent hydrothermal stability. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. Magnetization distribution of hydrothermal deposits from three component magnetometer survey using ROV in the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific (United States)

    Kim, C.; Choi, S.; Park, C.


    Deep sea three component magnetic surveys, using ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle), were conducted at Apr., 2011 and Jan., 2012 in TA25 and TA26 seamounts, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific. At 2011, the survey area was only the western slope of the caldera of TA25 using IBRV(Ice Breaker Research Vessel) ARAON of KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) and ROV of Oceaneering Co. And, at Jan. 2012, the magnetic survey was conducted in the western (site A) and eastern (site B) slopes of the caldera of TA25 and the summit area of TA26 using German R/V SONNE and ROV of ROPOS Co. The 2011 and 2012 three component magnetic survey lines were the 13 N-S lines and the 29 N-S lines (TA25-East : 12 lines, TA25-West : 11 lines, TA26 : 6 lines) with about 100 m spacing, respectively. Also, we conducted the 8 figure circle rotation survey of ROV for magnetic calibration at 2011 and 2012. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor was attached with the line frame of ROV and the data logger and motion sensor in ROV. The three component magnetometer measure the X (North), Y (East) and Z (Vertical) vector components of a magnetic field. A motion sensor (Octans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. In the survey, ROV followed the tracks of the plan at 50 m above seafloor. The data of the magnetometer and motion sensors and the USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) data of the position of ROV were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0 A/m magnetization. Low magnetization zones occur in the south-western and northern parts of TA25 site A and the south-south-western, north-western and central parts of TA25 site B. TA26 has low magnetization zones in the central part. The low magnetization zones of the survey

  11. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.


    A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

  12. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel


    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault

  13. The hydrothermal system at Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Sammel, E.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.


    Results of recent geological and geophysical studies at Newberry Volcano have been incorporated into conceptual and numerical models of a magma-based hydrothermal system. Numerical simulations begin with emplacement of a small magma body, the presumed source of silicic eruptions at Newberry that began about 10 000 BP, into a thermal regime representing 100 000 yr of cooling of a large underlying intrusion. Simulated flow patterns and thermal histories for three sets of hypothetical permeability values are compatible with data from four geothermal drill holes on the volcano. Meteoric recharge cools the caldera-fill deposits, but thermal water moving up a central conduit representing a permeable volcanic vent produces temperatures close to those observed in drill holes within the caldera. Meteoric recharge from the caldera moves down the flanks and creates a near-isothermal zone that extends several hundred meters below the water table, producing temperature profiles similar to those obserbed in drill holes on the flanks. The temperatures observed in drillholes on the flanks are not influenced by the postulated Holocene magma body. The elevated temperature gradients measured in the lower portions of these holes may be related to the cumulative effect of older intrusions. The models also indicate that meteoric recharge to the deep hyrothermal system probably originates within or near the caldera. Relatively low fluid velocities at depth suggest that at least a significant fraction of the thermal fluid may be very old. -Authors

  14. Connecting the Surface and the Deep: Evolving Role of Subduction Zone Fluids Through Time (United States)

    Galvez, Matthieu Emmanuel


    The speciation of aqueous fluids controls the transport and exchange of metals and volatile elements on Earth. Subduction zones are the most important geodynamic setting for this fluid-mediated chemical exchange. Characterizing the ionic speciation and pH of fluids equilibrated with rocks at subduction zone conditions has been a major challenge in Earth science. I will first present thermodynamic predictions of fluid-rock equilibria that tie together models of mineralogy and fluid speciation along a range of model P-T paths. The pH of fluids in subducted crustal lithologies is uniform and confined to a mildly alkaline range, controlled by rock volatile and chlorine contents. In contrast, the pH of mantle wedge fluids exhibits marked sensitivity to minor variations in rock chemistry. These variations may be caused by intramantle differentiation, or by infiltration of fluids enriched in alkali components extracted from the subducted crust. The sensitivity of pH to carbon, alkali and halogens illustrates a top-down control of Earth's atmosphere - ocean chemistry on the speciation of subduction zone fluids via the hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. These results provide a perspective on the physicochemical mechanisms that have coupled metal and volatile cycles in subduction zones for over 2.5 billion years.

  15. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [and others


    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma).

  16. Copper and zinc isotope systematics of altered oceanic crust at IODP Site 1256 in the eastern equatorial Pacific (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Gao, Yongjun; Xiao, Yilin; Chen, Sha


    This paper presents the first combined Cu and Zn isotopic study of altered oceanic crust at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1256D that penetrates a volcanic section, a lava-dyke transition zone, a sheeted dyke complex, and a plutonic complex. In the volcanic section, all but one rocks have Cu and Zn isotopic compositions similar to fresh mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), reflecting restricted seawater circulation and low oxygen fugacity. Rocks in the transition zone have MORB-like δ65Cu and δ66Zn, indicating the dominant influence of basalt-derived Cu and Zn during alteration. Rocks in the dyke complex have more variable δ65Cu (-0.50-0.90‰) and δ66Zn (0.19-0.55‰) and those in the plutonic complex have δ65Cu of -0.43 to 0.20‰ and δ66Zn of 0.21 to 0.41‰. The rocks with heavier δ66Zn and heavier or lighter δ65Cu relative to MORB are characterized by Cu-Zn depletions, low Li/Yb (<1.0) and low δ18O (<5‰), suggesting that hydrothermal extraction during high temperature alteration of oceanic crust can result in significant Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. Such large Cu and Zn isotopic variations are the results of redox transformation of Cu as well as Cu and Zn isotope fractionation between altered basaltic rocks and dissolved Cu and Zn species in hydrothermal fluids (e.g., [CuCl3]1-, Zn(HS)42-). This work is the first to define the distribution of Cu and Zn isotopes in an intact oceanic crust with concentration-weighted averages of δ65Cu (0.05 ± 0.03‰) and δ66Zn (0.27 ± 0.01‰). The potential implications of these new observations are discussed.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems. Annual report, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In the calculations we have assumed that all apatites are magmatic. The presence of chlorite and altered plagioclase within the granite and quartz-monzodiorite suggests that alteration may play a role in leading to erroneous estimates of initial melt Cl and F for 2 reasons: (1) the apatites may in fact not be magmatic in origin, but are hydrothermal, and (2) the halogen signature of magmatic apatite may be changed due to subsolidus exchange with a hydrothermal fluid. We are currently endeavoring to develop criteria for determining whether apatite composition represents earlier or later stages of magmatic-hydrothermal development.

  18. Zoned high-pressure assemblages in pillow lavas of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite zone, Switzerland (United States)

    Barnicoat, A. C.


    Pillow lavas of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite zone of the western Swiss Alps in places consist of zoned high-pressure parageneses. These assemblages, which developed subsequent to the metamorphic peak, are of lawsonite eclogite in the cores of pillows and dolomite-bearing blueschist or glaucophane eclogite in the rims. The matrix between the pillows comprises dolomite-glaucophane-rich material. An analysis of reactions in the system Na 2OCaOFeOMgOAl 2O 3SiO 2H 2OCO 2 (NCFMAS-H 2OCO 2) indicates that one possible model is that these assemblages formed cofacially due to systematic intra-pillow variations in the chemical potentials of H 2O and CO 2. Pillow rims equilibrated at higher values of μCO 2 and lower values of μH 2O than pillow cores. Textural evidence suggests that infiltration has controlled the distribution of CO 2 generated by the breakdown of dolomite-bearing assemblages during the return of the rocks to the surface. Variation in H 2O content was caused by ocean-floor hydrothermal alteration. In these rocks, therefore, blueschist assemblages have been stabilised by higher values of μCO 2 and eclogites by higher values of μH 2O . If fluids were present (as suggested by various lines of evidence) then blueschist pillow rims equilibrated at higher {CO2}/{( CO2+ H2O) } than eclogitic pillow cores.

  19. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.


    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. Geochemical characteristics of fault core and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin (NW China) with implications for the fault sealing process (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Pei, Yangwen; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun


    Faults may have a complex internal structure, including fault core and damage zone, and can act as major conduits for fluid migration. The migration of fluids along faults is generally associated with strong fluid-rock interaction, forming large amounts of cement that fill in the fractures. The cementation of the fault fractures is considered to be one of the important parameters of fault sealing. The different components of faults have diverse geochemical features because of varying physical characteristics. The investigation of the geochemical characteristics of the fault and damage zones could provide important information about the fault sealing process, which is very important in oil and gas exploration. To understand the fault-cemented sealing process, detailed geochemical studies were conducted on the fault and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault of the northwestern Junggar Basin in China. The major and trace element data of our study suggest that the fault core is characterized by higher loss on ignition (LOI), potassium loss, Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values and lower high field strength element (HFSE), large-ion lithosphile element (LILE), and rare earth element (REE) concentrations compared with the damage zone, implying more serious elemental loss and weathering of the fault core compared with the damage zone during faulting. The carbon and oxygen isotope data reveal that the cement of the Hong-Che Fault Zone formed due to multiple sources of fluids. The fault core was mainly affected by deep sources of hydrothermal fluids. In combination with previous studies, we suggest a potential fault-cemented sealing process during the period of fault movement. The fault core acts as the fluid conduit during faulting. After faulting, the fault core is cemented and the damage zone becomes the major conduit for fluid migration. The cementation firstly occurs on two sides of the damage zone in the upper part of the

  1. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus. (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf


    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

  2. Magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the early Triassic Laodou lode gold deposit in the Xiahe-Hezuo district, West Qinling orogen, China: implications for gold metallogeny (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-ye; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Sui, Ji-xiang


    The Xiahe-Hezuo district in the West Qinling orogen contains numerous Au-(As-Sb) and Cu-Au-(W) deposits. The district is divided into eastern and western zones by the Xiahe-Hezuo Fault. The western zone is exposed at a shallow level and contains sediment-hosted disseminated Au-(As-Sb) deposits, whereas the eastern zone is exposed at a deeper level and contains Cu-Au-(W) skarn and lode gold deposits within or close to granitic intrusions. The Laodou gold deposit in the eastern zone consists of auriferous quartz-sulfide-tourmaline and minor quartz-stibnite veins that are structurally controlled by fault zones transecting the Laodou quartz diorite porphyry stock and enveloped by potassic and phyllic alteration. Both the veins and alteration halos commonly contain quartz, sericite, tourmaline, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, with minor galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and enargite. Gold occurs mainly as invisible gold in pyrite or arsenopyrite and locally as inclusions less than 50 μm in diameter. The zircon U-Pb age of 247.6 ± 1.3 Ma (2 σ) on the host quartz diorite porphyry and the sericite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 249.1 ± 1.6 and 249.0 ± 1.5 Ma (2 σ) on two ore-related hydrothermal sericite samples are within analytical errors of one another. At the formation temperature (275 °C) inferred from microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion, sericite and tourmaline yield calculated δDH2O values of -70 to -45‰ and δ 18OH2O of 5.8 to 9.7‰, while quartz yields calculated δ 18OH2O values of 5.1˜5.7‰. Hydrothermal tourmaline in quartz-sulfide-tourmaline veins has δ 11B of -11.2 to -0.9‰ (mean of -6.3‰) that are similar to the values of magmatic tourmaline (-8.9 to -5.5‰ with a mean of -6.8‰) in the host quartz diorite porphyry. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range from -5.9 to +5.8‰ with a mean of -0.6‰ that is typical of magmatic sulfur. Pyrite from hydrothermally altered quartz diorite porphyry and quartz

  3. Microbiological and chemical characterization of hydrothermal fluids at Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area, southern New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John F.


    The Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area is part of the larger hydrothermal system of the Rio Grande Rift, southern New Mexico, USA. Chemical and microbial parameters indicate that the sampled hydrothermal water derives from a mixture zone of deep, anaerobic water with meteoric water from an adjacent alluvial, non-thermal groundwater flow system. A microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicates that biomass and diversity of hydrothermal groundwater are very low, whereas hydrothermal surface water is diverse and bacteria are in a rapid growth phase. A nucleic acid (DNA) analysis of the hydrothermal groundwater resulted in the identification of one eubacterium and two Archaea (archaebacteria); the eubacterium and one Archaea were previously unknown. The one Archaea that could be related to a known species is an extreme halophilic methanomicrobacterium. The presence of the halophilic Archaea and the other Archaea species supports the hypothesis of the Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area being the discharge area of deep circulating groundwater within a bedrock-hosted regional groundwater flow system.

  4. Learning about Hydrothermal Volcanic Activity by Modeling Induced Geophysical Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda M. Currenti


    Full Text Available Motivated by ongoing efforts to understand the nature and the energy potential of geothermal resources, we devise a coupled numerical model (hydrological, thermal, mechanical, which may help in the characterization and monitoring of hydrothermal systems through computational experiments. Hydrothermal areas in volcanic regions arise from a unique combination of geological and hydrological features which regulate the movement of fluids in the vicinity of magmatic sources capable of generating large quantities of steam and hot water. Numerical simulations help in understanding and characterizing rock-fluid interaction processes and the geophysical observations associated with them. Our aim is the quantification of the response of different geophysical observables (i.e., deformation, gravity, and magnetic fields to hydrothermal activity on the basis of a sound geological framework (e.g., distribution and pathways of the flows, the presence of fractured zones, caprock. A detailed comprehension and quantification of the evolution and dynamics of the geothermal systems and the definition of their internal state through a geophysical modeling approach are essential to identify the key parameters for which the geothermal system may fulfill the requirements to be exploited as a source of energy. For the sake of illustration only, the numerical computations are focused on a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island by simulating a generic 1-year unrest and estimating different geophysical changes. We solved (i the mass and energy balance equations of flow in porous media for temperature, pressure and density changes, (ii the elastostatic equation for the deformation field and (iii the Poisson's equations for gravity and magnetic potential fields. Under the model assumptions, a generic unrest of 1-year engenders on the ground surface low amplitude changes in the investigated geophysical observables, that, being above the accuracies of

  5. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.


    possibly result from hydrothermal alteration imposed by fluids migrating along intra-basin faults related to recent north-south extension. The Pilgrim River valley is characterized by a NE-elongate gravity low that reveals a basin extending to depths of ~300 m beneath Pilgrim Springs and deepening to ~800 m to the southwest. The margins of the gravity low are sharply defined by northeasttrending gradients that probably reflect the edges of fault-bounded structural blocks. The southeastern edge of the low, which lies very close to the springs, also corresponds with prominent NE-striking anomalies seen in magnetic and resistivity models. Together, these features define a structure we refer to as the Northeast Fault. The location of the hot springs appears to be related to the intersection of the Northeast Fault with a N-oriented structure marked by the abrupt western edge of a resistivity low surrounding the hot springs. While the hot springs represent the primary outflow of geothermal fluids, additional outflow extends from the springs northeast along the Northeast fault to another thaw zone that we interpret to be a secondary region of concentrated upflow of geothermal fluids. The Northeast Fault apparently controls shallow geothermal fluid flow, and may also provide an important pathway conveying deep fluids to the shallow subsurface. We suggest that geothermal fluids may derive from a reservoir residing beneath the sediment basin southwest of the springs. If so, the shape of the basin, which narrows and shallows towards the springs, may funnel fluids beneath the springs where they intersect the Northeast Fault allowing them to reach the surface. An alternative pathway for reservoir fluids to reach intermediate to shallow depths may be afforded by the main Kigluaik range front fault that coincides with a resistivity anomaly possibly resulting from fluid flow and associated hydrothermal mineralization occurring within the fault zone.

  6. Dissolved Fe and Fe binding ligand concentrations at the hydrothermal vent fields in the Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc (United States)

    Kleint, C.; Hawkes, J. A.; Sander, S. G.; Koschinsky, A.


    It is globally accepted that hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in Fe compared to the surrounding seawater and for long it was believed that the majority of the dissolved Fe is precipitated either directly out of the fluid with seawater contact or from the plume within a short distance. Recent research at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents has shown, however, that organic ligands are able to keep Fe soluble and therefore facilitating its transport into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is also considered a limiting factor for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. The New Hebrides Island Arc is not studied well with respect to the fluid chemistry of its numerous vents. Up until now, no data is published for the crucial micronutrient Fe in these fluids. Several hydrothermal vent fluids, divided into mixing zone, outlet and pure fluid as well as one hydrothermal plume from the Coriolis Troughs have been analyzed with respect to total dissolved Fe (dFe) and Fe binding ligands (FeL), using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV) with Salicylaldoxime as the artificial ligand. Our dFe data for the hydrothermal plume show concentrations ranging from 9.6 nM to 30.1 nM, being highly enriched compared to the surrounding seawater. Good correlation is observed between dFe and turbidity, which can be used as a proxy for hydrothermal plumes. Hydrothermal fluid samples collected near and directly from the vent outlet show total dissolved Fe concentrations varying from 0.46 µM up to 380 µM, respectively. We find enriched organic ligand concentrations in the plume samples as well as in the samples taken near the hydrothermal vent outlets. Pure hydrothermal fluid samples with an in-situ temperature of up to 370 °C show different ligand properties than low to mid temperature samples.

  7. Mud volcano origin of the Mottled Zone, South Levant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Novikov


    Full Text Available The Mottled Zone (MZ or Hatrurim Formation, which occurs near the Levantine Transform in the South Levant, has been studied during the last 150 years but its origin remains debatable. Mottled Zone Complex/Complexes (MZC/MZCs consist of brecciated carbonate and low-temperature calcium-hydrosilicate rocks, which include unusual high- and ultra-high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP metamorphic mineral assemblages. The MZ has been regarded as a product of combustion of bituminous chalks of the Ghareb Fm. of Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age. In this paper we present detailed geographic, geomorphologic, structural and geological data from the MZCs of the South Levant, which show that the MZCs cannot be stratigraphically correlated with the Ghareb Fm., because MZC late Oligocene–late Pleistocene deposits occur within or unconformably, i.e., with stratigraphic hiatus, overlap both the late Cretaceous and, in places, Neogene stratigraphic units. We propose an alternative model for the formation of MZCs by tectonically induced mud volcanism during late Oligocene–late Pleistocene time. This model explains (i the presence of dikes and tube-like bodies, which consist of brecciated exotic clastic material derived from stratigraphically and hypsometrically lower horizons; (ii mineral assemblages of sanidinite facies metamorphism; (iii multi-stage character of HT-LP pyrometamorphism; and (iv multi-stage low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. High temperatures (up to 1500 °C mineral assemblages resulted from combustion of hydrocarbon gases of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanism was spatially and structurally related to neotectonic folds and deformation zones formed in response to opening of the Red Sea rift and propagation of the Levantine Transform Fault. Our model may significantly change the prospects for oil-and-gas deposits in the region.

  8. Volcanogenic-hydrothermal iron-rich materials from the southern part of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gupta, S.M.; Charan, S.N.; Mills, O.P.

    to the north in the vicinity of the 76 degrees 30'E fracture zone. Considering radiolarian age dating of the sediment, the age of the volcano-hydrothermal episode responsible for the formation of these materials seems to be between 425 and 650 ka...

  9. Weathering of post-impact hydrothermal deposits from the Haughton impact structure: implications for microbial colonization and biosignature preservation. (United States)

    Izawa, M R M; Banerjee, Neil R; Osinski, G R; Flemming, R L; Parnell, J; Cockell, C S


    Meteorite impacts are among the very few processes common to all planetary bodies with solid surfaces. Among the effects of impact on water-bearing targets is the formation of post-impact hydrothermal systems and associated mineral deposits. The Haughton impact structure (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, 75.2 °N, 89.5 °W) hosts a variety of hydrothermal mineral deposits that preserve assemblages of primary hydrothermal minerals commonly associated with secondary oxidative/hydrous weathering products. Hydrothermal mineral deposits at Haughton include intra-breccia calcite-marcasite vugs, small intra-breccia calcite or quartz vugs, intra-breccia gypsum megacryst vugs, hydrothermal pipe structures and associated surface "gossans," banded Fe-oxyhydroxide deposits, and calcite and quartz veins and coatings in shattered target rocks. Of particular importance are sulfide-rich deposits and their associated assemblage of weathering products. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages were characterized structurally, texturally, and geochemically with X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Primary sulfides (marcasite and pyrite) are commonly associated with alteration minerals, including jarosite (K,Na,H(3)O)Fe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6), rozenite FeSO(4)·4(H(2)O), copiapite (Fe,Mg)Fe(4)(SO(4))(6)(OH)(2)·20(H(2)O), fibroferrite Fe(SO(4))(OH)·5(H(2)O), melanterite FeSO(4)·7(H(2)O), szomolnokite FeSO(4)·H(2)O, goethite α-FeO(OH), lepidocrocite γ-FeO(OH) and ferrihydrite Fe(2)O(3)·0.5(H(2)O). These alteration assemblages are consistent with geochemical conditions that were locally very different from the predominantly circumneutral, carbonate-buffered environment at Haughton. Mineral assemblages associated with primary hydrothermal activity, and the weathering products of such deposits, provide constraints on possible microbial activity in the post-impact environment. The initial period of

  10. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd


    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  11. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.


    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  12. Powering hydrothermal activity on Enceladus (United States)

    Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gael; Sotin, Christophe; Behounkova, Marie; Cadek, Ondrej; Postberg, Frank; Soucek, Ondrej


    A series of evidence gathered by the Cassini spacecraft indicates that the intense activity at the South Pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus is related to a subsurface salty water reservoir associated with seafloor hydrothermal activity (Hsu et al. 2015, Waite et al. 2017). The observation of an elevated libration implies that this reservoir is global with a thin ice shell (20-25 km in average (Thomas et al. 2016) and power and a mechanism to focus the release of heat in the SPT, unexplained by previous models. Here we investigate heat generation by tidal friction in the porous core and simulate heat transport by water flow for core porosities consistent with Cassini gravity data (Iess et al. 2014). We demonstrate that, for effective viscosity and permeability values typical of water-saturated terrestrial rock analogues, more than 20 GW can be generated in the core, which can maintain a global liquid ocean and power hydrothermal activity at the seafloor. By performing 3D simulations of water flow in a tidally-heated porous rock matrix, we show that heat is extracted from the core in the form of focused outflows of hot water (> 90 °C) mostly in the polar regions, explaining strongly localized ice shell thinning. Owing to strong dissipation in Saturn (Lainey et al. 2017), we show that circulation of hot waters in the core may last at least 20-25 million years and that 10 to 100% of the oceanic volume may be processed in the core at temperature higher than 90°C on this timescale. Whether this has been sufficient for the emergence of life can be explored by future spacecraft missions (Mitri et al., this meeting; Lunine et al. 2017).

  13. Light hydrocarbons in hydrothermal and magmatic fumaroles: hints of catalytic and thermal reactions (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Martini, Marino; Mangani, Filippo


    Volcanic gaseous mixtures emitted from active volcanoes frequently show variable amounts of saturated (alkanes), unsaturated (alkenes) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons. Three major patterns of distributions can be recognized, apparently related to the chemical-physical environment of formation of the gas exhalations: alkane-rich, low-temperature gas emissions from recently active volcanic areas; aromatic-rich hydrothermal manifestations; and alkene-rich, ‘magmatic’ fumaroles on active volcanoes. Thermodynamic data, together with theoretical and practical findings from the petroleum industry, point to two main types of reactions occurring in these volcanic environments: cracking and reforming. Cracking processes, mainly caused by thermal effects, occur when hydrocarbon-bearing hydrothermal fluids enter and mix with a hot and dry, rapidly rising magmatic gas phase. The most probable products are light alkenes with carbon numbers decreasing with increasing reaction temperatures. The presence of aromatic species in hydrothermal fluids can be linked to reforming processes, catalysed by several possible agents, such as smectites and zeolites, generally present in the hydrothermally altered volcanic terranes, and facilitated by long residence times in a hydrothermal envelope.

  14. Beyond the vent: New perspectives on hydrothermal plumes and pelagic biology (United States)

    Phillips, Brennan T.


    Submarine hydrothermal vent fields introduce buoyant plumes of chemically altered seawater to the deep-sea water column. Chemoautotrophic microbes exploit this energy source, facilitating seafloor-based primary production that evidence suggests may transfer to pelagic consumers. While most hydrothermal plumes have relatively small volumes, there are recent examples of large-scale plume events associated with periods of eruptive activity, which have had a pronounced effect on water-column biology. This correlation suggests that hydrothermal plumes may have influenced basin-scale ocean chemistry during periods of increased submarine volcanism during the Phanerozoic eon. This paper synthesizes a growing body of scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis that hydrothermal plumes are the energetic basis of unique deep-sea pelagic food webs. While many important questions remain concerning the biology of hydrothermal plumes, this discussion is not present in ongoing management efforts related to seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) mining. Increased research efforts, focused on high-resolution surveys of midwater biology relative to plume structures, are recommended to establish baseline conditions and monitor the impact of future mining-based disturbances to the pelagic biosphere.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hb"'/ H“ —_'~. Fig. l: Schematic plan showing the incident wave and subsequent breaking in the nearshore zone. The still-water line indicates the mean water level and .... obtained by taking the square of the high frequency velocity components.

  16. Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps) (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo


    The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation

  17. Relationship between enhanced dewaterability and structural properties of hydrothermal sludge after hydrothermal treatment of excess sludge. (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Li, Aimin; Chang, Yuzhi


    Hydrothermal treatment is an effective method to enhance the deep dewaterability of excess sludge with low energy consumption. In this study, an insight into the relationship between enhanced dewaterability and structural properties of the produced hydrothermal sludge was presented, aiming at better understanding the effect of hydrothermal process on excess sludge dewatering performance. The results indicated that hydrothermal effect induced the transformation of surface water to interstitial and free water by lowering the binding strength between adjacent water and solid particles and that free water became the main form for moisture existence in hydrothermal sludge as temperature was higher than 180 °C. Increase in temperature of hydrothermal treatment generated a significant size reduction of sludge flocs but treated sludge with a higher rigidity, which not only strengthened the network of hydrothermal sludge but also destroyed the binding of EPS with water. Hydrothermal process caused crevice and pore structures of excess sludge to disappear gradually, which was a main driving force of water removal as temperature was below 150 °C. With the temperature of hydrothermal treatment exceeding 180 °C, the morphology of hydrothermal sludge became rough which linked closely to the solid precipitation of condensation polymerization, and further became smooth at higher temperature (210 °C) due to the coal-like structures with higher aromaticities, indicating that hydrothermal reaction pathways began to play a main role in enhanced dewaterability. Hydrothermal treatment led to more alkyl and aromatic carbon, but lower O-alkyl, carboxyl and carbonyl carbon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tidal Evolution and Hydrothermal Activity in IcyWorlds (United States)

    Vance, S.; Hussmann, H.


    The tidal heating that sustains a subsurface ocean in Europa likely varied in intensity through the moons history due to the exchange of orbital angular momentum with the innermost Galilean satellite, Io [1]. Tidal interactions elsewhere in the solar system — e.g. in Neptunes moon Triton, and in Kuiper belt systems such as Pluto-Charon and the 2003 EL61 system (Santa-Rudolph-Blitzen) — highlight the potential for vigorously heated subsurface oceans and thus the existence of hydrothermal systems in icy worlds. Understanding the extent and nature of hydrothermal activity in such systems is important for assessing the availability of essential elements and organic compounds necessary sustain and, possibly, originate life [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. During periods of low tidal heating in such systems, hydrothermalism driven by serpentinization (reaction of water with ultramafic rock) may be extensive, with implications for seafloor production of hydrogen, methane and other potential nutrients, and elements necessary to originate and support life in icy world oceans. For Enceladus, an anomalously dense satellite for its size, radiogenic heating and overburden pressure in the mantle are sufficiently low to permit fracturing of the entirety of the moons rocky interior on long time scales [8]. Estimates of methane production from serpentinization of Enceladus interior, based on measured fluxes from the Lost City Hydrothermal Field [9], are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes observed at Enceladuss south polar plume by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer [10]. For the largest icy worlds in the Solar System — Titan, Ganymede and Callisto—pressures at and below the H2Orock interface are likely too high to permit the formation of microfractures, so an alternative explanation is required if methane is endogenous. Aqueous alteration may be augmented from the above estimates if altered crust is rejuvenated during periods of increased tidal dissipation. Crustal

  19. Hydrothermal circulation in fast spread ocean crust - where and how much? Insight from ODP Hole 1256D (United States)

    Harris, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Smith-Duque, C. E.; Teagle, D. A. H.


    Understanding and quantifying hydrothermal circulation is critical to testing models of the accretion of lower ocean crust and quantifying global geochemical cycles. However, our understanding is principally limited by a lack of direct observations from intact ocean crust. Key questions remain about the magnitude of hydrothermal fluid fluxes, the nature and distribution of fluid pathways and their global variability. ODP Hole 1256D in the eastern equatorial Pacific samples a complete section of 15 Myr old upper ocean crust down to the dike/gabbro transition zone. A high spatial resolution Sr isotope profile is integrated with wireline studies, volcanostratigraphy, petrography and mineral geochemistry to document fluid pathways and develop a model for the evolving hydrothermal system during volcanic construction of the crust. Major off-axis fluid conduits in the volcanic sequence are restricted to the flow margins of two anomalously thick (>25 m) massive flows, indicating that massive flows act as a permeability barrier for fluid flow. Dike margins are pathways for both recharge and discharge hydrothermal fluids. Sub-horizontal channeling of high temperature fluids at the dike/gabbro boundary is a common attribute of most cartoons of mid ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Hole 1256D provides the first in situ observations of the dike/gabbro transition zone and records lateral fluid transport along intrusive boundaries. The time-integrated fluid flux in the sheeted dikes of Hole 1256D calculated using Sr isotope mass balance is ~1.8 x 106 kg/m2. This is similar to fluid fluxes from other studies (Hole 504B, Pito Deep, Hess Deep) despite large variations in the thickness and Sr isotope profiles of the sheeted dike complexes, suggesting that hydrothermal fluid fluxes are remarkably uniform and independent of the local structure of the crust. This fluid flux is not large enough to completely remove the heat flux from crystallizing and cooling the lower crust and requires

  20. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.


    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PCH2PO3H)] (A = Rb (1), NH4 (2) and Tl (3)) have been synthesized by hydrothermal method and structurally characterised by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. These compounds crystallize in monoclinic space group, 21/ ...

  2. Hydrothermal syntheses and single crystal structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), and Zn(II); OPTA = 1-oxopyridinium-2-thioacetato) was prepared from the appropriate metal acetates, 1-oxopyridinium-2-thioacetic acid (OPTAH), and potassium hydroxide in hydrothermal media and structurally characterized. The structure ...

  3. Effect of hydrothermal processing on ginseng extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebin Ryu


    Conclusion: Therefore, hydrothermal processing offers significant improvements over the conventional steaming process. In particular, at temperatures over 140°C, high yields of the transformed ginsenosides and increased antioxidant activities were obtained in tens of minutes.

  4. Hydrothermal activity in the Tulancingo-Acoculco Caldera Complex, central Mexico. Exploratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Hernandez, Aida [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, CFE, Alejandro Volta 655, 58290 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico); Garcia-Estrada, Gerardo; Palma-Guzman, Hugo; Quijano-Leon, Jose L. [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, CFE, Alejandro Volta 655, 58290 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Partida, Eduardo [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico)


    Mineral alteration and fluid inclusion studies of drill cuttings and core samples indicate that the sedimentary basement rocks and the volcanic rocks associated with Tulancingo-Acoculco Caldera Complex have been the site of two distinct and major hydrothermal events. The complex, located in the eastern portion of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, is formed by the Pliocene Tulancingo Caldera and the younger (Pleistocene) Acoculco Caldera, which developed within the older depression. The volcanic rocks are underlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The earliest important hydrothermal event occurred during the emplacement of Mid-Tertiary granitic intrusions that metamorphosed the sedimentary rocks; these intrusives are not exposed at the surface. However, granitic rocks were encountered at the bottom of exploratory borehole EAC-1, drilled within the Caldera Complex. The second main event occurred during the formation of the Tulancingo and Acoculco Calderas. Both episodes lead to secondary mineralization that reduced the permeability of the reservoir rocks. A possible third hydrothermal event may be associated with the recent magmatic activity within the Acoculco Caldera.Thermal logs from well EAC-1 display a conductive thermal gradient with maximum temperatures exceeding 300 C at 2000 m depth. Although there are no active thermal springs in the area, there is extensive fossil surface hydrothermal alteration and cold gas discharges with high He{sup 3}/He{sup 4} ratios. (author)

  5. Hydrothermal system of the Papandayan Volcano, West Java, Indonesia and its geochemistry evolution of thermal water after the November 2002 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Mazot


    Full Text Available is a strato volcano situated in West Java, Indonesia. After the last magmatic eruptionin 1772, only few phreatic explosions have been occurring. At the present time, the activity is centeredin the northeast crater manifested by the presence of fumaroles and hot springs. In November 2002an explosive eruption occurred and ejected ash and altered rocks. Study of the altered rocks revealedthat an advanced argillic alteration took place in the hydrothermal system by an interaction betweenacid fl uids and rocks. Four zones of alteration have been formed as a limited extension along faults oracross permeable structures at different levels beneath the active crater of the volcano.Two types of acid fl uids are distinguished in the crater of the Papandayan Volcano: (1 acidsulphate-chloride water with pH values between 1.6 and 4.6, and (2 acid sulphate water with pHvalues between 1.2 and 2.5. The samples collected after the eruption revealed an increase in the SO4/Cl and Mg / Cl ratios. This evolution is likely explained by an increase in the neutralization of acidfl uids which tends to show that water-rock interactions were more signifi cant after the eruption. Thechanges in chemistry observed in 2003 were the consequence of the opening of new fractures whereunaltered or less altered volcanic rocks were in contact with the ascending acid water. The high δ34Svalues (9-17‰ observed in the acid sulphate-chloride water before the November 2002 eruptionsuggest that dissolved sulphates were mainly formed by the disproportionation of magmatic SO2. Onthe other hand, the low δ34S values (-0.3-7 ‰ observed in acid sulphate-chloride water sampled afterthe eruption suggest that the origin of dissolved sulphates for these waters is the surfi cial oxidation ofhydrogen sulphide.

  6. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  7. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy) (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco


    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  8. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz. (United States)

    Budd, David A; Troll, Valentin R; Deegan, Frances M; Jolis, Ester M; Smith, Victoria C; Whitehouse, Martin J; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Bindeman, Ilya N


    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ(18)O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ(18)O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ(18)O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ(18)O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ(18)O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  9. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz (United States)

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.


    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  10. Hydrothermal mobilization of pegmatite-hosted REE and Zr at Strange Lake, Canada: A reaction path model (United States)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.


    Petrological and geochemical observations of pegmatites in the Strange Lake pluton, Canada, have been combined with numerical simulations to improve our understanding of fluid-rock interaction in peralkaline granitic systems. In particular, they have made it possible to evaluate reaction paths responsible for hydrothermal mobilization and mineralization of rare earth elements (REE) and Zr. The focus of the study was the B-Zone in the northwest of the pluton, which contains a pegmatite swarm and is the target of exploration for an economically exploitable REE deposit. Many of the pegmatites are mineralogically zoned into a border consisting of variably altered primary K-feldspar, arfvedsonite, quartz, and zirconosilicates, and a core rich in quartz, fluorite and exotic REE minerals. Textural relationships indicate that the primary silicate minerals in the pegmatites were leached and/or replaced during acidic alteration by K-, Fe- and Al-phyllosilicates, aegirine, hematite, fluorite and/or quartz, and that primary zirconosilicates (e.g., elpidite) were replaced by gittinsite and/or zircon. Reaction textures recording coupled dissolution of silicate minerals and crystallization of secondary REE-silicates indicate hydrothermal mobilization of the REE. The mobility of the light (L)REE was limited by the stability of REE-F-(CO2)-minerals (basnäsite-(Ce) and fluocerite-(Ce)), whereas zirconosilicates and secondary gadolinite-group minerals controlled the mobility of Zr and the heavy (H)REE. Hydrothermal fluorite and fluorite-fluocerite-(Ce) solid solutions are interpreted to indicate the former presence of F-bearing saline fluids in the pegmatites. Numerical simulations show that the mobilization of REE and Zr in saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids is controlled by pH, ligand activity and temperature. Mobilization of Zr is significant in both saline HF- and HCl-HF-bearing fluids at low temperature (250 °C). In contrast, the REE are mobilized by saline HCl-bearing fluids

  11. Surficial extent and conceptual model of hydrothermal system at Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Frank, David


    A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly destructive manner about 5000 years ago. Today, hydrothermal processes are depositing clayey alteration products that have the potential to reset the stage for similar events in the future. Areas of active hydrothermal alteration occur in three representative settings: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m 2) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82 °C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit, where alteration products include smectite, halloysite and disordered kaolinite, cristobalite, tridymite, opal, alunite, gibbsite, and calcite. (2) A small area (less than 500 m 2) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60 °C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver with smectite alteration and chalcedony, tridymite, and opal-A encrustations. Similar areas probably occur at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls. (3) Sulfate- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs at 9-24 °C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers, where calcite, opal-A, and gypsum are being deposited. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers. Maximum spring temperatures of 19-25 °C and 38-50 °C, respectively, and extensive travertine deposits have developed in these more distant localities. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration minerals and fluids suggest a conceptual model of a narrow, central hydrothermal system within Mount Rainier, with steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 km of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is marked by discharge of

  12. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  13. Hyperactive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Keener, P.; Martinez Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.


    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning

  14. Extensive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N. J.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Kenner-Chavis, P.; Martinez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.


    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning

  15. Hydrothermal REE and Zr Ore Forming Processes in Peralkaline Granitic Systems (United States)

    Gysi, A. P.


    Anorogenic peralkaline igneous systems display extreme enrichment of REE and Zr with a hydrothermal overprint leading to post-magmatic metal mobilization. Strange Lake in Canada, for example, is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion and host to a world-class REE-Zr deposit with >50 Mt ore (>1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr). In contrast to porphyry systems, peralkaline systems are poorly understood and hydrothermal metal mobilization models are only in the early stage of their development. This is partly due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for REE-bearing minerals and aqueous species, and the complexity of the hydrothermal fluids (enrichment of F, P and Cl), which make it difficult to develop thermodynamic models of metal partitioning. This study aims to show the link between alteration stages and metal mobilization using Strange Lake as a natural laboratory and combine these observations with numerical modeling. Four types of alteration were recognized at Strange Lake: i) alkali (i.e. K and Na) metasomatism related to interaction with NaCl-bearing orthomagmatic fluids, ii) acidic alteration by HCl-HF-bearing fluids originating from the pegmatites followed by iii) aegirinization of the border of the pegmatites and surrounding granites and by iv) pervasive Ca-F-metasomatism. The acidic alteration accounts for most of the hydrothermal metal mobilization in and outward from the pegmatites, whereas the Ca-F-metasomatism led to metal deposition and resulted from interaction of an acidic F-rich fluid with a Ca-bearing fluid. Numerical simulations of fluid-rock reactions with saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids at 400 °C to 250 °C indicate that temperature, availability of F/Cl and pH limit the mobility of Zr and REE. Fluids with pH peralkaline granitic systems is the formation of a fluid-buffered subsystem providing the acids and ligands required for REE and Zr mobilization.

  16. Hydrothermal phenomena in Risovaca cave and within Vencac massif Shumadies, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzak-Tomić Janina


    Full Text Available In the Risovaca cave are found, for the karst, atypical alteration in the limestones structure. Also, morphogenesis of the object can not be logically interpret. Those differences are result of hydrothermal process in initial phase of karstic cycle. And then activity of hot water and hot emanations brought up to the metasomatism and destruction of rock, enormous excrete of ornaments and later, ceiling collapse and fill up of cave room.

  17. Integrated geophysical investigations to study thermal zones at Boku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigations have clearly mapped the Quaternary faults that are the major tectonic structures for the passage of the deep-seated vapour to the surface, and the recharging of the geothermal reservoir. Key words/phrases: Boku caldera, hydrothermal alterations, magnetic anomaly, vapour-dominated geothermal systems ...

  18. Geology, mineralization and geochemistry of the Aqkand Cu occurrence (north of Zanjan, Tarom-Hashtjin zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Feyzi


    Full Text Available Introduction The Aqkand Cu occurrence, 48 km north of Zanjan, is located in the Tarom subzone of the Western Alborz-Azerbaijan structural zone. Apart from small scale geological maps of the area, i.e., 1:250,000 geological maps of Bandar-e-Anzali (Davies, 1977 and 1:100,000 geological maps of Hashtjin (Faridi and Anvari, 2000 and a number of unpublished perlite exploration reports, prior to this research no work has been done on Cu mineralization at Aqkand. The present paper provides an overview of the geological framework, the mineralization characteristics, and the results of geochemistry study of the Aqkand Cu occurrence with an application to the ore genesis. Identification of these characteristics can be used as a model for exploration of this type of copper mineralization in the Tarom area and elsewhere. Materials and methods Detailed field work has been carried out at different scales in the Aqkand area. About 35 polished thin and thin sections from host rocks and mineralized and altered zones were studied by conventional petrographic and mineralogic methods at the University of Zanjan. In addition, a total of 6 samples from ore zones at the Aqkand occurrence were analyzed by ICP-MS for trace elements and REE compositions at Kimia Pazhuh Alborz Co., Isfahan, Iran. Results and Discussion The oldest units exposed in the Aqkand area are Eocene volcanic rocks which are overlain unconformably by Oligocene acidic rocks. The Eocene units consist of lithic and vitric tuff with intercalations of andesitic basalt lavas (equal to Karaj Formation, Hirayama et al., 1966. The andesitic basalt lavas show porphyritic texture consisting of plagioclase and altered ferromagnesian minerals set in a fine-grained groundmass. The Oligocene acidic rocks consist of rhyolite-rhyodacite, perlite, pitchstone and ignimbrite. These rocks are exposed as domes and lava flows. The rhyolite-rhyodacite lavas usually show onion-skin weathering and locally display flow bands

  19. Peptide synthesis in early earth hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Lemke, K.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bird, D.K.


    We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260??C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160??C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ ?? mol-1) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. Astrobiology 9, 141-146. ?? 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009.

  20. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China (United States)

    Zhang, J.


    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  1. Au-bearing magnetite mineralizaion in Kashmar (alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, geochemistry and fluid inclusions;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi


    fractures of rocks are filled with tourmaline (Dumortierite type and iron oxides. Kashmar surface mineralization is described in the ore-bearing quartz veins. Principal mineralization textures are layered, comb and Brecciation. The most important types of veins are those containing Chalcopyrite - Quartz veins, Specularite-rich veins – Quartz-Galena veins accompany with hydrothermal Breccias. Barren barite veins also exist in the region. The Chalcopyrite - Quartz veins occur on the main fracture zone and next to the Argillic alterations and silica cap in three regions (Bahariyeh, Uch Palang and Sarsefidal. Hydrothermal Breccias, Spicularite- rich veins, Quartz - Galena and barite veins occurred within Hematite- Carbonate-Chlorite-Silicification alterations in the Kamarmard area. Geochemistry of veins indicates anomalies of gold, copper, lead and zinc in them. Most enrichments of gold are accompanied with copper, lead and zinc and they occurs in hydrothermal Breccias and then specularite- rich veins. Gold values up to about 15 ppm and Cu, Pb and Zn each to > 1%. Temperature – salinity studies of fluid inclusions of ore-bearing Quartz veins in Kashmar show the fluid temperature and salinity values in all veins are close together. Temperatures are moderate to relatively high and between 245° C and 530 ° C and salinities are relatively low to moderate and between 14 to 18 (wt% NaCl. Maximum and minimum of temperatures and salinities are related to fluid inclusions of hydrothermal Breccias and Quartz-Galena vein. Co-existence between two-phase liquid-vapor rich fluids and single-phase gas fluids in the veins indicate that conditions were close to boiling, and maybe a little boiling occurred, which strengthened with brecciaing of rock and view rare CO2-bearing fluid inclusion in veins on the Kamarmard peak. Non-existence of vuggy Quartz in silica caps in the region shows this issue. The frequency of oxide minerals (Specularite, Barite, H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 system, and the low

  2. Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.


    A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

  3. Preliminary Mineralogic and Stable Isotope Studies of Altered Summit and Flank Rocks and Osceola Mudflow Deposits on Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Breit, George N.; Zimbelman, David R.


    About 5600 years ago part of Mount Rainier?s edifice collapsed with the resultant Osceola Mudflow traveling more than 120 km and covering an area of at least 505 km2. Mineralogic and stable isotope studies were conducted on altered rocks from outcrops near the summit and east flank of the volcano and samples of clasts and matrix from the Osceola Mudflow. Results of these analyses are used to constrain processes responsible for pre-collapse alteration and provide insight into the role of alteration in edifice instability prior to the Osceola collapse event. Jarosite, pyrite, alunite, and kaolinite occur in hydrothermally altered rock exposed in summit scarps formed by edifice collapse events and in altered rock within the east-west structural zone (EWSZ) of the volcano?s east flank. Deposits of the Osceola Mudflow contain clasts of variably altered and unaltered andesite within a clay-rich matrix. Minerals detected in samples from the edifice are also present in many of the clasts. The matrix includes abundant smectite, kaolinite and variably abundant jarosite. Hydrothermal fluid compositions calculated from hydrogen and oxygen isotope data of alunite, and smectite on Mount Rainier reflect mixing of magmatic and meteoric waters. The range in the dD values of modern meteoric water on the volcano (-85 to 155?) reflect the influence of elevation on the dD of precipitation. The d34S and d18OSO4 values of alunite, gypsum and jarosite are distinct but together range from 1.7 to 17.6? and -12.3 to 15.0?, respectively; both parameters increase from jarosite to gypsum to alunite. The variations in sulfur isotope composition are attributed to the varying contributions of disproportionation of magmatic SO2, the supergene oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite and possible oxidation of H2S to the parent aqueous sulfate. The 18OSO4 values of jarosite are the lowest recorded for the mineral, consistent with a supergene origin. The mineralogy and isotope composition of alteration

  4. Ultrasonic transducer for the hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias [University of Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany); Littmann, Walter [ATHENA Technologie Beratung GmbH, Paderborn (Germany); Ageba, Ryo; Kadota, Yoishi; Morita, Takeshi [University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan)


    Direct ultrasound irradiation is advantageous for increasing the efficiency of the hydrothermal method, which can be used to produce piezoelectric thin films and lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. To apply ultrasound directly to the process, transducer prototypes were developed regarding the boundary conditions of the hydrothermal method. LiNbO{sub 3} and PIC 181 were proven to be feasible materials for high-temperature-resistant transducers ({>=} 200 .deg. C). The resistance of the transducer's horn against a corrosive mineralizer was achieved by using Hastelloy C-22. The efficiency of the ultrasound-assisted hydrothermal method depends on the generated sound field.The impedance and the sound field measurements have shown that the sound field depends on the filling level and on the position and design of the transducer.

  5. The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano


    We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

  6. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham


    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.


    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Vanadium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Livage


    Full Text Available A wide range of vanadium oxides have been obtained via the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous V(V solutions. They exhibit a large variety of nanostructures ranging from molecular clusters to 1D and 2D layered compounds. Nanotubes are obtained via a self-rolling process while amazing morphologies such as nano-spheres, nano-flowers and even nano-urchins are formed via the self-assembling of nano-particles. This paper provides some correlation between the molecular structure of precursors in the solution and the nanostructure of the solid phases obtained by hydrothermal treatment.

  9. Effect of hydrothermally ‘Hass” avocado about antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Tremocoldi


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and color in avocado ‘Hass’ hydrothermally treated. The fruits were hydrothermally treated at 45oC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. After treatment, fruit were stored at room temperature (21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity and cold (10°C±1 and 90±5% relative humidity. The fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity by DPPH method and phenolic compounds at 0, 3, 9 and 12 days. The fruits color was measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. The control fruits had higher antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds during the storage period, compared to the fruits hydrothermally treated. The hydrothermally treatment altered the behavior as for the maintenance of the antioxidant activity in relation to the fruits control. In spite of superior values of antioxidant activity for the fruits maintained at 21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity, those refrigerated presented better aspect for commercialization. The refrigerated fruits presented better aspect for commercialization in relation to the maintained under room temperature. The brightness, color a * and b * values decreased with the storage days. Values color superiors were observed for the fruits control and those maintained under refrigeration. As it increased the irradiation dose reduced the fruits antioxidant activity and coloration.

  10. Isoflavone aglycone content and the thermal, functional, and structural properties of soy protein isolates prepared from hydrothermally treated soybeans. (United States)

    Wally-Vallim, Ana Paula; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Zambiazi, Rui Carlos; de Castro, Luis Antônio Suita; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Elias, Moacir Cardoso


    Soybeans were hydrothermally treated at 2 different temperatures (40 °C and 60 °C) and for 4 different hydration times (4, 8, 12, and 16 h) to (i) increase the isoflavone aglycone content in a soy protein isolate and (ii) evaluate the changes in thermal, functional, and structural properties of a soy protein isolate as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Our study is the first to evaluate aglycone content, extraction yield, β-glucosidase activity, differential scanning calorimetry, protein digestibility, scanning electron microscopy, water absorption capacity (WAC), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability of soy protein isolates prepared from hydrothermally treated soybeans. For aglycone enhancement and the extraction yield maintenance of soy protein isolates, the condition of 40 °C for 12 h was the best soybean hydrothermal treatment. The structural rearrangement of proteins that occurred with the hydrothermal treatment most likely promoted the capacity of proteins to bind to aglycone. Moreover, the structure shape and size of soy protein isolates verified by scanning electron microscopy appears to be related to the formation of hydrophobic surfaces and hydrophobic zones at 40 °C and 60 °C, respectively, affecting the protein digestibility, WAC, and FC of soy protein isolates. The aglycone content in the soy protein isolate can be improved with the hydrothermal treatment of soybeans. The temperature and time used for hydrothermal treatment must be selected in order to achieve a soy protein isolate with high aglycone content, extraction yield, and functionality. This technology is suitable for providing healthier soy protein isolates for food industry with improved functional and structural properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Response of Hydrothermal System to Stress Transients at Lassen Volcanic Center, California inferred from Seismic Interferometry with Ambient Noise (United States)

    Taira, T.; Brenguier, F.


    Time-lapse monitoring of seismic velocity at volcanic areas can provide unique insight into the property of hydrothermal and magmatic fluids and their temporal variability. We established a quasi real-time velocity monitoring system by using seismic interferometry with ambient noise to explore the temporal evolution of velocity in the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California. Our monitoring system finds temporal variability of seismic velocity in response to stress changes imparted by an earthquake and by seasonal environmental changes. Dynamic stress changes from a magnitude 5.7 local earthquake induced a 0.1% velocity reduction at a depth of about 1 km. The seismic velocity susceptibility defined as ratio of seismic velocity change to dynamic stress change is estimated to be about 0.006 MPa-1, which suggests the Lassen hydrothermal system is marked by high-pressurized hydrothermal fluid. By combining geodetic measurements, our observation shows that the long-term seismic velocity fluctuation closely tracks snow-induced vertical deformation without time delay, which is most consistent with an hydrologic load model (either elastic or poroelastic response) in which surface loading drives hydrothermal fluid diffusion that leads to an increase of opening of cracks and subsequently reductions of seismic velocity. We infer that heated-hydrothermal fluid in a vapor-dominated zone at a depth of 2-4 km range is responsible for the long-term variation in seismic velocity.

  12. Making a black shale shine: the interaction of hydrothermal fluids and diagenetic processes (United States)

    Gleeson, Sarah; Magnall, Joe; Reynolds, Merilie


    Hydrothermal fluids are important agents of mass and thermal transfer in the upper crust. This is exemplified by shale-hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS), which are anomalous accumulations of Zn and Pb sulphides (± barite) in sedimentary basins created by hydrothermal fluids. These deposits occur in passive margin settings and, typically, there is no direct evidence of magmatic input. Recent studies of Paleozoic deposits in the North American Cordillera (MacMillan Pass and Red Dog Districts) have shown that the deposits are formed in a sub-seafloor setting, where the potential for thermal and chemical gradients is high. Mineralization is characterized by the replacement and displacement of unconsolidated, partially lithified and lithified biosiliceous mudstones (± carbonates), and commonly the sulphide mineralization post-dates, and replaces, bedded barite units in the sediments. The Red Dog District (Alaska, USA) contain some of the largest Zn-Pb deposits ever discovered. The host-rocks are dominantly carbonaceous mudstones, with carbonate units and some radiolarites. The ore forms massive sulphide bodies that replace pyritized mudstones, barite and carbonate units. Lithological and textural relationships provide evidence that much of the ore formed in bioturbated, biosiliceous zones that may have had high primary porosity and/or permeability. Sediment permeability may have been further modified by aging of the silica rich sediments and the dissolution/replacement of carbonate and barite beds. At the Tom and Jason deposits (MacMillan Pass, Yukon) the fault-controlled hydrothermal upflow zone is uniquely preserved as an unequivocal vent complex. Here, the metal bearing fluids are hot (300°C), low salinity (6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and acidic (pH district). The complex textures that are commonly encountered in these systems are the result of hydrothermal fluids interacting with their host-rocks in a heterogeneous and dynamic physical and chemical environment.

  13. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results. (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.


    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  14. Near-inertial motions over a mid-Ocean Ridge; Effects of topography and hydrothermal plumes (United States)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Roth, Sharon E.; Dymond, Jack


    We investigate the spatial structure of near-inertial motions in the vicinity of the Endeavour segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge (approximately 48°N, 129°W) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. On the basis of time series current and water property data collected from September 1984 to September 1987, near-inertial motions are ubiquitous features of the 2200-m water column, with root-mean-square (rms) current speeds comparable to those of the dominant M2 tidal currents. Within the lower 1000 m of the water column where most of the observations were obtained, near-inertial oscillations have rms current speeds of O(1 cm/s) and vertical isotherm displacements of O(10 m). The fluctuations are confined to the frequency band 0.966-1.079 f(f is the local Coriolis parameter) and have characteristic event durations of 1 week. Although the spectra of subsurface motions are dominated by the "blue-shifted" superinertial band, significant spectral peaks are found also in the subinertial and inertial frequency bands. Marked alteration of the near-inertial current amplitudes occurs over two well-defined depth zones within the study region. Within the 200-m zone immediately above the 2100-m ridge crest, current amplitudes are amplified by a factor of 1.2-1.7 because of bottom reflection and/or scattering of the downward propagating energy. Evidence that the amplification may be linked to bottom reflection rather than to scattering is provided by flattening and cross-slope rotation of the near-inertial current ellipses with increased proximity to the top of the ridge. Reflection would occur at grazing angles of less than 1° and would be associated with surface-generated waves originating at distances of over 100 km from the observational site. In contrast to the enhanced amplitudes immediately above the top of the ridge, near-inertial currents within the 1600- to 1800-m depth range undergo pronounced attenuation and frequency alteration. Amplitude attenuation is especially pronounced for

  15. Studies of petrography, metasomatic alteration, and genesis of Kamtal iron-copper skarn, northeast of Kharvana, East-Azarbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Ferdowsi


    Full Text Available Kamtal skarn is located 15 km northeast of Kharvana, East-Azarbaijan. A quartz-monzonitic stock of Oligocene age intruded the upper Cretaceous sedimentary sequence (claystone, limestone, marl, and siltstone developing noticeable metamorphic (marble, hornfels and metasomatic (skarn alteration zones along the contact. Kamtal skarn is of calcic type and consists of both endoskarn and exoskarn zones. Exoskarn includes two zones of garnet skarn and epidote skarn. Skarnification processes are divided mainly in two major stages (1 prograde and (2 retrograde. During prograde stage, the emplacement of intrusive body caused isochemical metamorphism of the wall rocks and developed marble and hornfels units in enclosing rocks. Crystallization of intrusive body led to evolvement of hydrothermal fluid phase which infiltrated into enclosing rocks. Reaction of these fluids with the early-formed metamorphosed wall rocks brought about extensive progressive metasomatic alteration characterized by the formation of anhydrous calc-silicate minerals such as garnets and pyroxenes at a temperature range of 420-550°C and ¦O2=10-22-10-25. Retrograde stage was accompanied by some physicochemical changes (decrease in temperature to <420°C and increase in ¦S2 which caused the alteration of pre-existing anhydrous calc-silicates to hydrous calc-silicates (epidote, and tremolite-actinolite, silicates (quartz, chlorites, and other clay minerals, oxides (magnetite and hematite, sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite, and carbonate (calcite. Comparison of Kamtal skarn with some other ones of corresponding type from Iran and other countries shows that Kamtal skarn well resembles to Anjerd and Pahnavar skarns in East-Azarbaijan.

  16. Alteration mineral mapping using ETM+ and hyperion remote sensing data at Bau Gold Field, Sarawak, Malaysia (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.


    The area under investigation is the Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has tropical climate with limited bedrock exposures. Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits. Geological analyses coupled with remote sensing data were used to detect hydrothermally altered rocks associated with gold mineralization. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) and Hyperion data were used to carry out mineral mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Directed Principal Components Analysis (DPCA) transformation of four appropriate ETM+ band ratios were applied to produce DPC images, allowing the removal of the effects of vegetation from ETM+ data and the detection of separate mineral images at a regional scale. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) was used to produce image maps of hydroxyl-bearing minerals using Hyperion data at a district scale. Results derived from the visible and near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Hyperion represented iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals rich zones associated with the known gold prospects in the Bau district. The results show that the known gold prospects and potentially interesting areas are recognizable by the methods used, despite limited bedrock exposure in this region and the constraints imposed by the tropical environment. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide an opportunity for detecting potentially interesting areas of gold mineralization using the ETM+ and Hyperion data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  17. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications




    Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce), followed by ...

  18. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.


    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric


    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence property ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence property of a three dimensional Sm(III) coordination polymer with. 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. KRANTHI KUMAR GANGU, ANIMA S DADHICH and. SARATCHANDRA BABU MUKKAMALA. ∗. Department of Chemistry, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam 530 045, ...

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence property ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 12. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence property of a three dimensional Sm(III) coordination polymer with 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. Kranthi Kumar Gangu Anima S Dadhich Saratchandra Babu Mukkamala. Volume 127 Issue 12 ...

  2. Hydroprocessing Microalgae Derived Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-crude, a biomass derived oil similar to petroleum crude in properties, can be produced from microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and upgraded to ... for hydroprocessing the bio-crude; the products obtainable, their compositions & properties; as well as the inputs required for modelling and simulation of the ...

  3. Valorization of Furfural Residue by Hydrothermal Carbonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Fen; Zhang, Jia; Pedersen, Christian Marcus


    Furfural residue (FR) is a low-cost by-product generated in the furfural production from corncobs, which is mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. In this report, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of deashed FR was conducted at various reaction temperatures (200, 220 and 240 °C) and reaction tim...

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of BIS (4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Infrared and UV- visible spectroscopy. The complexes show broad band absorption in the region 3760 – 3765.71 cm-1 due to the symmetric stretching vibration of the co-ordinated water molecule. Keywords: Hydrothermal reaction, metalloligand, parahydroxybenzaldehyde, para-phenylenediamine, zinc phosphate.

  5. Phase Transformation of Hydrothermally Synthesized Nanoparticle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mild hydrothermal hydrolysis of TiCl4 produces nanorods of the rutile phase of titanium dioxide in high yield, while in the presence of organic acids (citric, acetic, D-tartaric and benzoic acids) anatase is the only product. The effect of these organic acids on the products of the hydrolysis reaction as well as the reaction kinetics ...

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and characterization of new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The structure has tunnel-type cavities and are congenial for ion transportation through them. The compound exhibits moderate thermal stability. Keywords. Hydrothermal; crystal structure; solid electrolyte; iron (III) pyrophosphate. 1. Introduction. NASICON and related compounds belong to the well known family of solid ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A BINUCLEAR. COMPLEX AND A COORDINATION POLYMER OF COPPER(II). Masoumeh Tabatabaee1*, Reza Mohamadinasab1, Kazem Ghaini1 and Hamid Reza Khavasi2. 1Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran.

  8. Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal intercalated hexagonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 5-6. Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal intercalated hexagonal molybdates, M x + Mo 6 − x / 3 O 18 − x (OH) x . y H2O (M = Li, Rb, Cs, NH4). S Upreti A Ramanan. Volume 115 Issue 5-6 October-December 2003 pp 411-417 ...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 5. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of a coordination polymer based on dinuclear (Pyrazinyl tetrazolate) Copper(II) cations and βOctamolybdate Anions. SHAOBIN LI LI ZHANG HUIYUAN MA HAIJUN PANG. Regular Article Volume ...

  10. Quantitative analysis of the hydrothermal system in Lassen Volcanic National Park and Lassen Known Geothermal Resource Area (United States)

    Sorey, M.L.; Ingebritsen, S.E.


    The conceptual model of the Lassen system is termed a liquid-dominated hydrothermal system with a parasitic vapor-dominated zone. The essential feature of this model is that steam and steam-heated discharge at relatively high elevations in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) and liquid discharge with high chloride concentrations at relatively low elevations outside LVNP are both fed by an upflow of high-enthalpy two-phase fluid within the Park. Liquid flows laterally away from the upflow area towards the areas of high-chloride discharge, and steam rises through a vapor-dominated zone to feed the steam and steam-heated features. Numerical simulations show that several conditions are necessary for the development of this type of system, including (1) large-scale topographic relief, (2) an initial period of convective heating within an upflow zone followed by some change in hydrologic or geologic conditions that initiates drainage of liquid from portions of the upflow zone, and (3) low permeability barriers that inhibit the movement of cold water into the vapor zone. Simulations of thermal fluid withdrawal south of LVNP, carried out in order to determine the effects of such withdrawal on portions of the hydrothermal system within the Park, showed decreases in pressure and liquid saturation beneath the vapor zone which result in a temporary increase and subsequent decrease in the rate of upflow of steam. (USGS)

  11. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from the PACMANUS, Northeast Pual and Vienna Woods hydrothermal fields, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter; Bach, Wolfgang; Craddock, Paul R.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Sylva, Sean P.; Walsh, Emily; Pichler, Thomas; Rosner, Martin


    Processes controlling the composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in silicic back-arc or near-arc crustal settings remain poorly constrained despite growing evidence for extensive magmatic-hydrothermal activity in such environments. We conducted a survey of vent fluid compositions from two contrasting sites in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, to examine the influence of variations in host rock composition and magmatic inputs (both a function of arc proximity) on hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Fluid samples were collected from felsic-hosted hydrothermal vent fields located on Pual Ridge (PACMANUS and Northeast (NE) Pual) near the active New Britain Arc and a basalt-hosted vent field (Vienna Woods) located farther from the arc on the Manus Spreading Center. Vienna Woods fluids were characterized by relatively uniform endmember temperatures (273-285 degrees C) and major element compositions, low dissolved CO2 concentrations (4.4 mmol/kg) and high measured pH (4.2-4.9 at 25 degrees C). Temperatures and compositions were highly variable at PACMANUS/NE Pual and a large, newly discovered vent area (Fenway) was observed to be vigorously venting boiling (358 degrees C) fluid. All PACMANUS fluids are characterized by negative delta DH2O values, in contrast to positive values at Vienna Woods, suggesting substantial magmatic water input to circulating fluids at Pual Ridge. Low measured pH (25 degrees C) values (~2.6-2.7), high endmember CO2 (up to 274 mmol/kg) and negative delta 34SH2S values (down to -2.7 permille) in some vent fluids are also consistent with degassing of acid-volatile species from evolved magma. Dissolved CO2 at PACMANUS is more enriched in 13C (-4.1 permille to -2.3 permille) than Vienna Woods (-5.2 permille to -5.7 permille), suggesting a contribution of slab-derived carbon. The mobile elements (e.g. Li, K, Rb, Cs and B) are also greatly enriched in PACMANUS fluids reflecting increased abundances in the crust there relative to the Manus

  12. Chemical zoning of muscovite megacrystal from the Brazilian Pegmatite Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia R. Viana


    Full Text Available Macroscopically homogenous muscovite plate from the Cruzeiro pegmatite, located in the Eastern Pegmatite Province in Minas Gerais, may show complex distribution patterns of some trace elements. In geochronological and petrological studies, as for example in the distinction of magmatic and post-magmatic mica, the cause of zoning could be taken into consideration. The complex chemical zoning in the studied mica plate can be best explained by growth in an evolving magma followed by alteration due to percolation of hydrothermal fluids. Enrichment of Rb towards the border is interpreted as resulting from the chemical evolution of the residual magma during crystal growth. The depletion in (IV Al+VI Al as well as the increase in (Fe+Mg and Si along a fracture could be due to the hydrothermal celadonitic substitution of muscovite. This alteration also caused depletion in the contents of Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn and residual concentration of Ti. Elements such as Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn, rarely considered in the discussion of differentiation or alteration processes in micas, have been shown to be as significant as the alkali-elements.Um grande cristal de muscovita, macroscopicamente homogêneo, procedente do Pegmatito Cruzeiro, localizado na Província Pegmatítica Oriental, em Minas Gerais, exibe padrão de distribuição complexa para alguns elementos traços. Em estudos geocronológicos e petrológicos, como, por exemplo, na separação entre micas magmáticas e pós-magmáticas, a causa de zoneamento deve ser levada em consideração. O complexo zoneamento químico no cristal de mica estudado é melhor explicado pelo crescimento em um magma evoluído, seguido pela alteração, proveniente da percolação de fluidos hidrotermais. O enriquecimento de Rb nas bordas é interpretado como resultado da evolução química do magma residual durante o crescimento do cristal. A diminuição em (IV Al+VI Al, bem como o aumento de (Fe+Mg e Si ao longo da fratura

  13. The Origin of Carbon-Bearing Volatiles in a Continental Hydrothermal System in the Great Basin: Water Chemistry and Isotope Characterizations (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike


    Hydrothermal systems on Earth are active centers in the crust where organic molecules can be synthesized biotically or abiotically under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions [1-3]. Not only are volatile species (CO, CO2, H2, and hydrocarbons) a reflection of deep-seated hydrothermal alteration processes, but they also form an important component of biological systems. Studying carbon-bearing fluids from hydrothermal systems is of specific importance to understanding (bio-)geochemical processes within these systems. With recent detection of methane in the martian atmosphere [4-7] and the possibility of its hydrothermal origin [8, 9], understanding the formation mechanisms of methane may provide constraints on the history of the martian aqueous environments and climate.

  14. The seismogenic Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Italian Southern Alps): quantitative 3D characterization of the fault/fracture network, mapping of evidences of fluid-rock interaction, and modelling of the hydraulic structure through the seismic cycle (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Garofalo, P. S.


    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) was exhumed from 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes) and hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the 400 m-thick fault zone over a continuous area > 1.5 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail, providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. The fault and fracture network has been characterized combining > 2 km of scanlines and semi-automatic mapping of faults and fractures on several photogrammetric 3D Digital Outcrop Models (3D DOMs). This allowed obtaining robust probability density functions for parameters of fault and fracture sets: orientation, fracture intensity and density, spacing, persistency, length, thickness/aperture, termination. The spatial distribution of fractures (random, clustered, anticlustered…) has been characterized with geostatistics. Evidences of fluid/rock interaction (alteration halos, hydrothermal veins, etc.) have been mapped on the same outcrops, revealing sectors of the fault zone strongly impacted, vs. completely unaffected, by fluid/rock interaction, separated by convolute infiltration fronts. Field and microstructural evidence revealed that higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when fractures were (re)opened by off-fault deformation. We have developed a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrated it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the post-seismic, with the goal of obtaining realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold of the DFN, and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic

  15. Hydrothermal karst and associated breccias in Neoproterozoic limestone from the Barker-Villa Cacique area (Tandilia belt), Argentina (United States)

    Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan C.; van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Theye, Thomas; Frisicale, María C.; Gregori, Daniel A.


    In the Barker-Villa Cacique area (Tandilia belt), remarkable megabreccias, limestone breccias and phosphate-bearing breccias hosted in black limestone and along the contact with the upper section of the sedimentary succession are exposed. These rocks are the result of extensive hydrothermal alteration of the original micritic limestone and other fine-grained clastic sediments. Typical alteration minerals are sericite, chlorite, interstratified chlorite/K-white mica, kaolinite, dickite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, goethite, quartz, calcite, Fe-calcite, dolomite, ankerite, fluor-apatite, barite and aluminium-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals. Quartz and calcite cements from hydraulic breccias in the limestone contain low-salinity aqueous fluid inclusions. Corresponding homogenization temperatures display 200-220 °C and 110-140 °C in hydrothermal quartz, and 130-150 °C in late calcite cement. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses of carbonates from the Loma Negra quarry (LNQ) support the major role of hydrothermal activity. A significant difference was found between δ18Ocar values from unaltered micritic limestone (ca. 23.8‰ SMOW) and secondary calcite (ca. 18.5‰ SMOW). The lower δ18Ocar values are interpreted as a result of calcite precipitation from hot hydrothermal fluids. At a late stage, the hydrothermal fluid containing H2S mixed with descending and oxidizing meteoric waters. Circulation of the ensuing acid fluids resulted in the partly dissolution and collapse brecciation of the Loma Negra Formation. The hydrothermal stage can be tentatively dated ca. 590-620 Ma corresponding to the Brasiliano orogeny.

  16. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products (United States)

    Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi


    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid—phosphorus.

  17. Fault-related controls on hydrothermal flows in Eastern Pyrénées (France) (United States)

    Taillefer, Audrey; Soliva, Roger; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Le Goff, Elisabeth; Martin, Guillaume


    The way faults control upward fluid flow in extensive hydrothermal systems without an abnormal heat source such as volcanic or plutonic activity is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrénées, an alignment of 29 hot springs (from 29°C to 73°C) along the Têt normal Fault offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multi-scale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, macro and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that hot springs locate close to high topographic reliefs related to fault throw and segmentation. Emergences are always in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Têt Fault footwall. In more details, they localize either (1) in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Têt Fault and subsidiary faults, and (2) into hercynian ductile faults where dissolution cavities run along shear zones. Using these observations and 2D preliminary numerical simulations, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids infiltrate at high altitude in the fault footwall relief where they acquire temperature because of the geothermal gradient. Hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces allow them to upflow along fault-related permeability anisotropies. The identification and prioritization of the features controlling this kind of system have important implications for geothermal exploration and for the understanding of fluid-flow into the brittle Earth's crust in general.

  18. Hydrothermal System of the Lastarria Volcano (Central Andes) Imaged by Magnetotellurics (United States)

    Diaz, D.


    Lazufre volcanic complex, located in the central Andes, is recently undergoing an episode of uplift, conforming one of the most extensive deforming volcanic systems worldwide. Recent works have focused on the subsurface of this volcanic system at different scales, using surface deformation data, seismic noise tomography and magnetotellurics. Here we image the electrical resistivity structure of the Lastarria volcano, one of the most important features in the Lazufre area, using broadband magnetotelluric data at 30 locations around the volcanic edifice. Results from 3-D modeling show a conductive zone at 6 km depth south of the Lastarria volcano interpreted as a magmatic heat source, which is connected to a shallower conductive area beneath the volcanic edifice and its close vicinity. This shallow highly conductive zone fits with geochemical analysis results of thermal fluid discharges, related to fumaroles present in this area, in terms of depth extent and possible temperatures of fluids, and presents also a good correlation with seismic tomography results. The horizontal extension of this shallow conductive zone, related to the hydrothermal system of Lastarria, suggests that it has been draining one of the lagoons in the area (Laguna Azufrera), forming a sulfur rich area which can be observed at the southern side of this lagoon. Joint modeling of the hydrothermal system using magnetotellurics and seismic data is part of the current work.

  19. Transmission Electron Microscope Observations of Phyllosilicate Development During Experimental Aqueous Alteration of Allende (United States)

    Jones, C. L.; Brearley, A. J.


    Samples of Allende have been altered hydrothermally under oxidizing conditions at 200 C. TEM studies show that within 30 days evidence of replacement of matrix olivines by fine-grained serpentine is present and by 90 days complete alteration of many grains has occurred.

  20. Regional setting and characteristics of the Neoproterozoic Wadi Hamama Zn-Cu-Ag-Au prospect: evidence for an intra-oceanic island arc-hosted volcanogenic hydrothermal system (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, Yasser; Surour, Adel A.; El-Manawi, Abdel Hamid W.; El-Dougdoug, Abdel-Monem A.; Omar, Sayed


    The Wadi Hamama area is a volcanogenic Zn-Cu-Au-Ag prospect. It is hosted by a Neoproterozoic bimodal-mafic sequence, which comprises basalt, dacite and rhyolite along with volcaniclastic rocks. The rocks have a low-K tholeiitic affinity and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, which indicated their formation in an intra-oceanic island arc tectonic setting. The area was intruded by a tonalite-trondhjemite body, which has an intra-oceanic island arc affinity and later by diorite, which has a cordilleran-margin geochemical affinity. These rock units were intruded by post-tectonic granite dykes, which have a within-plate geochemical signature. There is a quartz-carbonate horizon extending along the contact between the basalt and the volcaniclastic rocks, mainly banded and lapilli tuffs. This horizon is of exhalative origin and is underlain by a mushroom-shaped alteration zone extending from the horizon down to the massive basalt. The footwall alteration is characterized by a silica-rich core surrounded by a thick chlorite sheath. Both the quartz-carbonate horizon and the footwall-altered rocks enclose historical trenches and pits. Sulfide-rich core samples are enriched in Zn, relative to Cu, and in Ag, which indicates the low-temperature nature of the hydrothermal system. The prospect was affected by supergene processes, which led to the widespread occurrence of secondary copper minerals and gold enrichment relative to the leached base metals, especially Zn. The prospect formed through a limited rifting of an intra-oceanic island arc which resulted in the formation of a small-scale volcanogenic Zn-Cu-Ag-Au prospect.

  1. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of the hydrothermal system in Long Valley Caldera, California, from magnetotellurics (United States)

    Peacock, Jared R.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Wannamaker, Phil E.


    Though shallow flow of hydrothermal fluids in Long Valley Caldera, California, has been well studied, neither the hydrothermal source reservoir nor heat source has been well characterized. Here a grid of magnetotelluric data were collected around the Long Valley volcanic system and modeled in 3-D. The preferred electrical resistivity model suggests that the source reservoir is a narrow east-west elongated body 4 km below the west moat. The heat source could be a zone of 2–5% partial melt 8 km below Deer Mountain. Additionally, a collection of hypersaline fluids, not connected to the shallow hydrothermal system, is found 3 km below the medial graben, which could originate from a zone of 5–10% partial melt 8 km below the south moat. Below Mammoth Mountain is a 3 km thick isolated body containing fluids and gases originating from an 8 km deep zone of 5–10% basaltic partial melt.

  2. The Root Apex of Arabidopsis thaliana Consists of Four Distinct Zones of Growth Activities: Meristematic Zone, Transition Zone, Fast Elongation Zone and Growth Terminating Zone. (United States)

    Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; De Cnodder, Tinne; Le, Jie; Vissenberg, Kris; Baluska, Frantisek


    In the growing apex of Arabidopsis thaliana primary roots, cells proceed through four distinct phases of cellular activities. These zones and their boundaries can be well defined based on their characteristic cellular activities. The meristematic zone comprises, and is limited to, all cells that undergo mitotic divisions. Detailed in vivo analysis of transgenic lines reveals that, in the Columbia-0 ecotype, the meristem stretches up to 200 microm away from the junction between root and root cap (RCJ). In the transition zone, 200 to about 520 microm away from the RCJ, cells undergo physiological changes as they prepare for their fast elongation. Upon entering the transition zone, they progressively develop a central vacuole, polarize the cytoskeleton and remodel their cell walls. Cells grow slowly during this transition: it takes ten hours to triplicate cell length from 8.5 to about 35 microm in the trichoblast cell files. In the fast elongation zone, which covers the zone from 520 to about 850 microm from the RCJ, cell length quadruplicates to about 140 microm in only two hours. This is accompanied by drastic and specific cell wall alterations. Finally, root hairs fully develop in the growth terminating zone, where root cells undergo a minor elongation to reach their mature lengths.

  3. Mihi Breccia: A stack of lacustrine sediments and subaqueous pyroclastic flows within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Downs, Drew


    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, encompasses a wide variety of arc-related strata, although most of its small-volume (non-caldera-forming) eruptions are poorly-exposed and extensively hydrothermally altered. The Mihi Breccia is a stratigraphic sequence consisting of interbedded rhyolitic pyroclastic flows and lacustrine sediments with eruption ages of 281 ± 18 to at least 239 ± 6 ka (uncertainties at 2σ). In contrast to other small-volume rhyolitic eruptions within the TVZ, Mihi Breccia is relatively well-exposed within the Paeroa fault block, and contains minimal hydrothermal alteration. Pyroclastic flow characteristics and textures including: 1) breadcrusted juvenile clasts, 2) lack of welding, 3) abundant ash-rich matrix, 4) lack of fiamme and eutaxitic textures, 5) lack of thermal oxidation colors, 6) lack of cooling joints, 7) exclusive lacustrine sediment lithic clasts, and 8) interbedding with lacustrine sediments, all indicating that Mihi Breccia strata originated in a paleo-lake system. This ephemeral paleo-lake system is inferred to have lasted for > 50 kyr (based on Mihi Breccia age constraints), and referred to as Huka Lake. Mihi Breccia pyroclastic flow juvenile clast geochemistry and petrography correspond with similar-aged (264 ± 8, 263 ± 10, and 247 ± 4 ka) intra-caldera rhyolite domes filling the Reporoa caldera (source of the 281 ± 81 Kaingaroa Formation ignimbrite). These exposed intra-caldera rhyolite domes (as well as geophysically inferred subsurface domes) are proposed to be source vents for the Mihi Breccia pyroclastic flows. Soft-sediment deformation associated with Mihi Breccia strata indicate either seismic shock, rapid sediment loading during pyroclastic flow emplacement, or both. Thus, the Mihi Breccia reflects a prolonged series of subaqueous rhyolite dome building and associated pyroclastic flows, accompanied by seismic activity, emplaced into a large paleo-lake system within the TVZ.

  4. Preliminary study of the importance of hydrothermal reactions on the temperature history of a hot, dry rock geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.R.


    The conditions under which the heat associated with hydrothermal reactions may be recovered from a dry rock geothermal reservoir were assessed. A theoretical computer model, based upon the finite element method, of a two-dimensional fracture in a hot, dry rock geothermal reservoir was developed and tested. Simulated water circulation through the fracture at constant velocity extracted heat from the wall rock via conduction as well as from chemical processes. Water temperature was assumed equal to the temperature of the wall rock boundary: thus, the combined processes of water circulation and heat transport were simply described by the two-dimensional heat diffusion equation with a time dependent water circulation boundary. The accuracy of the basic finite element approximation was tested by comparing numerical solutions to known analytical solutions for related mathematical models. Hydrothermal reactions occurring between water and a granitic source rock were subdivided into two categories; dissolving reactions and alteration reactions. It was found that the quartz dissolving reaction had little or no direct effect on reservoir temperatures for any combination of flow and fracture parameters. It was shown that hydrothermal alteration reactions could contribute significant chemical energy to a fractured system under conditions of small flow rate and large alteration velocities. Detailed studies of the time dependence of rock and water temperatures with and without alteration were determined.

  5. Zonation of Microbial Communities by a Hydrothermal Mound in the Atlantis II Deep (the Red Sea)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong


    In deep-sea geothermal rift zones, the dispersal of hydrothermal fluids of moderately-high temperatures typically forms subseafloor mounds. Major mineral components of the crust covering the mound are barite and metal sulfides. As a result of the continental rifting along the Red Sea, metalliferous sediments accumulate on the seafloor of the Atlantis II Deep. In the present study, a barite crust was identified in a sediment core from the Atlantis II Deep, indicating the formation of a hydrothermal mound at the sampling site. Here, we examined how such a dense barite crust could affect the local environment and the distribution of microbial inhabitants. Our results demonstrate distinctive features of mineral components and microbial communities in the sediment layers separated by the barite crust. Within the mound, archaea accounted for 65% of the community. In contrast, the sediments above the barite boundary were overwhelmed by bacteria. The composition of microbial communities under the mound was similar to that in the sediments of the nearby Discovery Deep and marine cold seeps. This work reveals the zonation of microbial communities after the formation of the hydrothermal mound in the subsurface sediments of the rift basin.

  6. Hydrothermal phase transformation of hematite to magnetite. (United States)

    Lu, Jie-Feng; Tsai, Cho-Jen


    Different phases of iron oxide were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of ferric solution at 200°C with the addition of either KOH, ethylenediamine (EDA), or KOH and EDA into the reaction system. As usually observed, the α-Fe2O3 hexagonal plates and hexagonal bipyramids were obtained for reaction with KOH and EDA, respectively. When both KOH and EDA were added into the reaction system, we observed an interesting phase transformation from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 at low-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The phase transformation involves the formation of α-Fe2O3 hexagonal plates, the dissolution of the α-Fe2O3 hexagonal plates, the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and the nucleation and growth of new Fe3O4 polyhedral particles.

  7. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua


    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  8. Resistivity methods in exploration for hydrothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiracek, G.R.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)


    The practical aspects of using dc resistivity in the exploration for hydrothermal resources are discussed. There are several reasons why low electrical resistivity is expected in hydrothermal aquifers but the association is not without pit falls. Besides outlining the reasons why resistivity has proven a successful geothermal exploration tool, a section on how resistivity is practiced is included. Here, the common electrode arrays are considered with their major advantages and disadvantages pointed out. The current status in resistivity interpretation schemes is touched upon with emphasis on computer modeling. Finally, a successful resistivity case history of a low-temperature resource at Las Alturas Estates, New Mexico is included to illustrate a specific resistivity exploration philosophy. The case history concludes with drilling results which are, of course, the ultimate test.

  9. Numerical 3D models support two distinct hydrothermal circulation systems at fast spreading ridges (United States)

    Hasenclever, Jörg; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars


    half-widths in-between these numbers both systems interact periodically with each other. The potential coexistence of two hydrothermal circulations at fast spreading ridges is of importance for the interpretation of chemical signatures of hydrothermal vents and the quantification of the mass and energy exchange between ocean and solid Earth: (1) An extended off-axis system will expose a much larger volume of the crust to high-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Especially the lower crust (below the level of the melt lens) would also be exposed to hydrothermal fluid flow. (2) The off-axis vents may therefore have a different chemical signature as they sample the lower crust whereas their on-axis counterparts only sample the upper crust. This distinct signature may, however, be lost when both systems merge and mix before discharging. (3) The residence time of the off-axis fluids in the crust is much longer compared to that of the on-axis fluids. (4) The off-axis hydrothermal system may lead to additional ore deposits at some distance (1-2km) to the ridge axis, where one may not expect them to be.

  10. Bioavailability, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of arsenic in coral reef organisms surrounding an arsenic-rich marine shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in the coastal waters of Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Wallschläger, D.; Price, R. E.


    Marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems are often enriched in biologically toxic elements, thus making them ideal natural analogs for coastal anthropogenic pollution. Here, we report our investigation of the bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of hydrothermally-derived arsenic into several coral reef organisms from the arsenic-rich marine shallow-water hydrothermal system of Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, in northeastern Papua New Guinea. Hydrothermal venting provided bioavailable As by two major pathways throughout Tutum Bay: 1) easily-exchangeable As from hydrothermally influenced sediments to as far away as 200 m from focused venting, and 2) in surface seawaters, which may allow for biological uptake by phytoplankton and transfer up the food web. The soft coral Clavularia sp., the calcareous algae Halimeda sp., and the tunicate Polycarpa sp. collected from the hydrothermal area each displayed distinctly higher (up to 20 times) total arsenic compared to the control site, with increasing trends while approaching focused hydrothermal venting. Organic and inorganic arsenic species were extracted intact from the tissues of each organism, separated by anion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Overall, speciation patterns for Clavularia were similar for the control site versus the hydrothermal site, although the concentrations were much higher. Elevated concentrations of DMA and cationic forms of arsenic, most likely AB, in Clavularia, both from the control site and from the hydrothermal area suggest its metabolic pathway is not altered due to hydrothermal activity, and is similar to other marine organisms. Arsenic speciation patterns in Polycarpa were also similar for both sites, and suggests uptake of arsenic via food chain, containing neither As(III) nor As(V), but abundant excluded As and DMA. It is unclear if methylation is taking place within this organism or prior to

  11. Subaqueous cryptodome eruption, hydrothermal activity and related seafloor morphologies on the andesitic North Su volcano (United States)

    Thal, Janis; Tivey, Maurice; Yoerger, Dana R.; Bach, Wolfgang


    North Su is a double-peaked active andesite submarine volcano located in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea that reaches a depth of 1154 m. It hosts a vigorous and varied hydrothermal system with black and white smoker vents along with several areas of diffuse venting and deposits of native sulfur. Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 and 2011 combined with morphologic features identified from repeated bathymetric surveys in 2002 and 2011 documents the emplacement of a volcanic cryptodome between 2006 and 2011. We use our observations and rock analyses to interpret an eruption scenario where highly viscous, crystal-rich andesitic magma erupted slowly into the water-saturated, gravel-dominated slope of North Su. An intense fragmentation process produced abundant blocky clasts of a heterogeneous magma (olivine crystals within a rhyolitic groundmass) that only rarely breached through the clastic cover onto the seafloor. Phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions beneath the seafloor cause mixing of juvenile and pre-existing lithic clasts and produce a volcaniclastic deposit. This volcaniclastic deposit consists of blocky, non-altered clasts next, variably (1-100%) altered clasts, hydrothermal precipitates and crystal fragments. The usually applied parameters to identify juvenile subaqueous lava fragments, i.e. fluidal shape or chilled margin, were not applicable to distinguish between pre-existing non-altered clasts and juvenile clasts. This deposit is updomed during further injection of magma and mechanical disruption. Gas-propelled turbulent clast-recycling causes clasts to develop variably rounded shapes. An abundance of blocky clasts and the lack of clasts typical for the contact of liquid lava with water is interpreted to be the result of a cooled, high-viscosity, crystal-rich magma that failed as a brittle solid upon stress. The high viscosity allows the lava to form blocky and short lobes. The pervasive volcaniclastic cover on North Su is

  12. Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.


    The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Internal Structure of the Extinct Skagi-Hunafloi Rift Zone and Implications for Magmatic Construction (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Karson, J. A.; Varga, R. J.; Horst, A. J.


    Structural relief ~1.5 km of basaltic crust on the eastern flank of the now-extinct Skagi-Hunafloi rift zone (active between 8 and 4 Ma) is exposed in two mountain ranges bounding the glacially excavated Vatnsdalur in northwestern Iceland. This area reveals both the along- and across-strike variations within an abandoned Tertiary rift zone. Regionally the rift zone is characterized by a "flexure zone" with basaltic lavas that dip 5-10° westward, toward the rift axis. Superimposed on this structure is a bowl-shaped depression at least 800 m deep and ~5 km in diameter in which lava flows dip as much as 50° inward. The lowest package of lavas associated with the depression are basaltic and minor rhyolitic flows (7.62±0.32 Ma), which are at least 400 m thick and have been tectonically rotated during subsidence, as indicated by field relationships and preliminary paleomagnetic data. Overlying these tilted, pre-subsidence flows are syn-subsidence basaltic lavas, which are at least 150 m thick and breccias all of which thicken toward the center of the depression. Overlying the syn- subsidence flows is a ~250 m thick basaltic lens (6.98±0.32 Ma). Ages and thicknesses of units associated with the depression roughly constrain the local subsidence rates at ~1 km/my. Just to the west, gabbroic to granophyric intrusions and hydrothermally altered igneous rocks and breccias mark a dissected volcanic center. Dense (cone?) sheet swarms dip radially inward. This entire assemblage is overlain by gently dipping basaltic to rhyolitic lavas showing that magmatic construction did not result in generation of high relief. Crustal thickening was accommodated by subsidence and backfilling near the depression and by basaltic to minor rhyolitic sheet intrusions over a broader surrounding area. Folding of the pre-subsidence lavas was likely accommodated by slip on steeply dipping fractures and within flow top breccia units. Focused subaxial subsidence in rift zones may result from

  14. Hyperspectral Alteration Information from Drill Cores and Deep Uranium Exploration in the Baiyanghe Uranium Deposit in the Xuemisitan Area, Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qing-Jun Xu; Fa-Wang Ye; Shao-Feng Liu; Zhi-Xin Zhang; Chuan Zhang


    .... In this study, hyperspectral data are collected from drill cores in the Baiyanghe uranium deposit using a FieldSpec4 visible-shortwave infrared spectrometer to study the hydrothermal alteration...

  15. Geophysical imaging of hydrothermal shallow degassing in Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Sims, K. W. W.


    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is the world's largest active hydrothermal system, with over 10,000 thermal features. Yet very little is known about the shallow "plumbing" system connecting hydrothermal reservoirs with the surface features. Here we present the results of geophysical investigations of shallow hydrothermal degassing in Yellowstone. In addition to electrical methods, we combined seismic refraction and surface-wave profiling to estimate pressure and shear wave velocities together with the Poisson's ratio. We find that resistivity data helps identifying hydrothermal areas and fluids flowpaths. Poisson's ratio shows a good sensitivity to saturation variations, highlighting gas saturated areas. Porosity and saturation predicted from rock physics modeling provide critical insight to estimate the depth of fluid phase separation and understand the evolution of hydrothermal systems. Finally, the consistency between Poisson's ratio and predicted saturation illustrates its ability to map shallow "plumbing" systems in hydrothermal areas and constrain gas saturation in depth.

  16. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (United States)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin


    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  17. Hydrothermal Conditions and the Origin of Cellular Life. (United States)

    Deamer, David W; Georgiou, Christos D


    The conditions and properties of hydrothermal vents and hydrothermal fields are compared in terms of their ability to support processes related to the origin of life. The two sites can be considered as alternative hypotheses, and from this comparison we propose a series of experimental tests to distinguish between them, focusing on those that involve concentration of solutes, self-assembly of membranous compartments, and synthesis of polymers. Key Word: Hydrothermal systems.

  18. Post-impact hydrothermal system geochemistry and mineralogy: Rochechouart impact structure, France. (United States)

    Simpson, Sarah


    Hypervelocity impacts generate extreme temperatures and pressures in target rocks and may permanently alter them. The process of cratering is at the forefront of research involving the study of the evolution and origin of life, both on Mars and Earth, as conditions may be favourable for hydrothermal systems to form. Of the 170 known impact structures on Earth, over one-third are known to contain fossil hydrothermal systems [1]. The introduction of water to a system, when coupled with even small amounts of heat, has the potential to completely alter the target or host rock geochemistry. Often, the mineral assemblages produced in these environments are unique, and are useful indicators of post-impact conditions. The Rochechouart impact structure in South-Central France is dated to 201 ± 2 Ma into a primarily granitic target [2]. Much of the original morphological features have been eroded and very little of the allochthonous impactites remain. This has, however, allowed researchers to study the shock effects on the lower and central areas of the structure, as well as any subsequent hydrothermal activity. Previous work has focused on detailed classification of the target and autochthonous and allochthonous impactites [3, 4], identification of the projectile [5], and dating the structure using Ar-isotope techniques [2]. Authors have also noted geochemical evidence of K-metasomatism, which is pronounced throughout all lithologies as enrichment in K2O and depletion in CaO and Na2O [3, 4, 5]. This indicates a pervasive hydrothermal system, whose effects throughout the structure have yet to be studied in detail, particularly in those parts at and below the transient floor. The purpose of this study is to classify the mineralogical and geochemical effects of the hydrothermal system. Samples were collected via permission from the Réserve Naturelle de l'Astroblème de Rochechouart-Chassenon [6]. Sample selection was based on the presence of secondary mineralization in hand

  19. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.


    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  20. Hydrothermal metasomatism of a peralkaline granite pegmatite, Khaldzan Buragtag massif, Mongolian Altai; complex evolution of REE-Nb minerals (United States)

    Bagiński, Bogusław; Jokubauskas, Petras; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Kartashov, Pavel; Macdonald, Ray


    The low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of certain rare-metal minerals is recorded in a quartz-epidote metasomatite from the Tsakhirin Khuduk occurrence in the Khaldzan-Buragtag Nb-REE-Zr deposit, Mongolian Altai. A peralkaline granitic pegmatite was metasomatized by hydrothermal fluids released from associated intrusions, with the formation of, inter alia, chevkinite-(Ce), fergusonite-(Nd) and minerals of the epidote group. The textural pattern indicates recrystallization and coarsening of these phases. Later, low-temperature alteration by fluids resulted in the chevkinite-(Ce) being replaced by complex titanite-TiO2 -cerite-(Ce)-hingganite-hydroxylbastnasite-( Ce) assemblages. Calcite formed late-stage veins and patches. The hydrous fluids were poor in F and CO2 but had high Ca contents.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Brine Formation and Serpentinization at the Rainbow Hydrothermal System (United States)

    Sekhar, P.; Lowell, R. P.


    The Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge is a high-temperature hydrothermal system hosted in peridotite. The vent fluids are rich in methane and hydrogen suggesting that serpentinization is occurring at depth in the system. Vent temperature of ~365°C, salinity of ~4.5 wt%, and heat output of ~500 MW suggest that Rainbow field is driven by a magmatic heat source and that phase separation is occurring at depth. To understand the origin of high salinity in the Rainbow hydrothermal fluid, we construct a 2D numerical model of two-phase hydrothermal circulation using the numerical simulator FISHES. This code uses the finite volume method to solve the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and salt equations in a NaCl-H2O fluid. We simulate convection in an open top 2D box at a surface pressure of 23 MPa and seawater temperature of 10oC. The bottom and sides of the box are insulated and impermeable, and a fixed temperature distribution is maintained at the base to ensure phase separation. We first consider a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and system depths of 2 and 1 km, respectively. The brine-derived fluid from the deeper system barely exceeds seawater, whereas the shallower system produces a short pulse of 9.0 wt% for 5 years. We then consider 1 km deep systems with a high permeability discharge zone of 5x10-13 m2 that corresponds to a fault zone, surrounded by recharge zones of 10-13, 10-14 and 10-15 m2, respectively. The model with recharge permeability of 10-14 m2 yields stable plumes that vent brine-derived fluid of 4.2 wt% for 150 years. Using the quasi- steady state of this model as a base, we estimate the rate of serpentinization along the fluid flow paths, and evolution of porosity and permeability. This analysis will indicate the extent to which serpentinization will affect the dynamics of the system and will provide insight into methane flux in the Rainbow vent field.

  2. Cuprous oxide thin films grown by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, M., E-mail:; Biswas, I.; Pujaru, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.


    Semiconducting cuprous oxide films were grown by a hydrothermal electro-deposition technique on metal (Cu) and glass (ITO) substrates between 60 °C and 100 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of cubic cuprous oxide films in different preferred orientations depending upon the deposition technique used. Film growth, uniformity, grain size, optical band gap and photoelectrochemical response were found to improve in the hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O thin films were grown on Cu and glass substrates. • Conventional and hydrothermal electrochemical deposition techniques were used. • Hydrothermal electrochemical growth showed improved morphology, thickness and optical band gap.

  3. Chemical, mineralogical, and mass-change examinations across a gold bearing vein zone in the Akoluk area, Ordu, NE Turkey (United States)

    Yaylalı-Abanuz, Gülten; Tüysüz, Necati


    Chemical changes associated with gold mineralization in the Akoluk field in the western part of the eastern Pontides are investigated. The eastern Black Sea region hosts several Kuroko-type, massive sulfide deposits and, therefore, has drawn the attention of numerous workers. Acidic intrusions play an important role and structurally controlled zones of alteration are widespread thus leading to a great potential for epithermal gold deposits in this region. Rocks in the study area are part a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Vein-type mineralization occurs along fault systems in dacitic tuffs of upper Cretaceous age. These rocks are cut by a N45-50oE trending fault system, which is partly truncated by another N55-60oW extending fault system. Mineralization is observed in areas where these fault systems intersect. Native gold, zinckenite, stibnite, orpiment, realgar, cinnabar, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, and galena are the main ore minerals. Gangue minerals are quartz, barite and dolomite. Mineralization occurs as a replacement type in the wall rock, and filling type in fracture zones where voids are filled mostly by realgar, orpiment, zincenite, stibnite, quartz, barite, and sericite. The presence of framboidal and colloidal ore minerals and textures indicate that mineralization occur at low temperatures in an epithermal system. Zonal alteration is observed along the fault systems. Outward from the fault alteration types change from silicification through illitization, smectization to carbonatization. As a result of alteration, wall rock has undergone a total mass loss of 2.19%. Almost all the major oxide contents decreased to certain levels. Due to alteration of feldspar and hornblende, the concentrations of Na, Ca and Fe significantly decreased while silica and ore-forming elements were added to the host rocks. Development of carbonate minerals at the fringe of the fracture zone in the host rock indicates relatively alkaline conditions for the hydrothermal fluids in

  4. Supergene destruction of a hydrothermal replacement alunite deposit at Big Rock Candy Mountain, Utah: Mineralogy, spectroscopic remote sensing, stable-isotope, and argon-age evidences (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Rockwell, B.W.; Kunk, M.J.; Councell, T.B.


    Big Rock Candy Mountain is a prominent center of variegated altered volcanic rocks in west-central Utah. It consists of the eroded remnants of a hypogene alunite deposit that, at ???21 Ma, replaced intermediate-composition lava flows. The alunite formed in steam-heated conditions above the upwelling limb of a convection cell that was one of at least six spaced at 3- to 4-km intervals around the margin of a monzonite stock. Big Rock Candy Mountain is horizontally zoned outward from an alunite core to respective kaolinite, dickite, and propylite envelopes. The altered rocks are also vertically zoned from a lower pyrite-propylite assemblage upward through assemblages successively dominated by hypogene alunite, jarosite, and hematite, to a flooded silica cap. This hydrothermal assemblage is undergoing natural destruction in a steep canyon downcut by the Sevier River in Marysvale Canyon. Integrated geological, mineralogical, spectroscopic remote sensing using AVIRIS data, Ar radiometric, and stable isotopic studies trace the hypogene origin and supergene destruction of the deposit and permit distinction of primary (hydrothermal) and secondary (weathering) processes. This destruction has led to the formation of widespread supergene gypsum in cross-cutting fractures and as surficial crusts, and to natrojarosite, that gives the mountain its buff coloration along ridges facing the canyon. A small spring, Lemonade Spring, with a pH of 2.6 and containing Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Cl, and SO4, also occurs near the bottom of the canyon. The 40Ar/39 Ar age (21.32??0.07 Ma) of the alunite is similar to that for other replacement alunites at Marysvale. However, the age spectrum contains evidence of a 6.6-Ma thermal event that can be related to the tectonic activity responsible for the uplift that led to the downcutting of Big Rock Candy Mountain by the Sevier River. This ???6.6 Ma event also is present in the age spectrum of supergene natrojarosite forming today, and probably dates

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of bi-functional nanostructured manganese tungstate catalysts for selective oxidation. (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Lunkenbein, Thomas; Kröhnert, Jutta; Pfeifer, Verena; Girgsdies, Frank; Rosowski, Frank; Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette


    The mechanism of C-H activation in selective oxidation reactions of short-chain alkane molecules over transition metal oxides is critically affected by the balance of acid-base and redox sites at the surface of the catalyst. Using the example of manganese tungstate we discuss how the relative abundance of these sites can be controlled via synthetic techniques. Phase-pure catalysts composed of the thermodynamic stable monoclinic MnWO4 phase have been prepared using hydrothermal synthesis. Variation of the initial pH value resulted in rod-shaped nano-crystalline MnWO4 catalysts composed of particles with varying aspect ratio. The synthesis products have been analysed using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared, and photoelectron spectroscopy. In situ Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the dissolution-re-crystallization processes occurring under hydrothermal conditions. Ethanol oxidation was applied to probe the surface functionalities in terms of acid-base and redox properties. Changes in the aspect ratio of the primary catalyst particles are reflected in the product distribution induced by altering the fraction of acid-base and redox sites exposed at the surface of the catalysts in agreement with the proposed mechanism of particle growth by re-crystallization during ageing under hydrothermal conditions.

  6. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.


    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  7. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan) based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data


    Salimeh Sadat Komeili; Mahmoud Khalili; Hooshang Asadi Haroni; Hashem Bagheri; Farimah Ayati


    Introduction The Kahang Cu- Mo deposit is situated approximately 73 Km northeast of Isfahan. Asadi (2007) identified a geological reserve of 40 Mt (proven reserve) grading at 0.53 Cu, 0.02 Mo and estimated reserve of 120 Mt. All the rock types in the region have been subjected to hydrothermal solutions which gave rise to three different alteration facies. The dacite and rhyodacite volcanic rocks and granitic- granodioritic stocks have experienced phyllic alteration. Disseminated and stockw...

  8. Zinc and germanium in the sedimentary rocks of Gale Crater on Mars indicate hydrothermal enrichment followed by diagenetic fractionation (United States)

    Berger, Jeff A.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Gellert, Ralf; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Desouza, Elstan D.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Ming, Douglas W.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Thompson, Lucy M.; VanBommel, Scott J. V.; Yen, Albert S.


    Zinc and germanium enrichments have been discovered in sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the rover Curiosity. Concentrations of Zn (910 ± 840 ppm) and Ge (65 ± 58 ppm) are tens to hundreds of times greater than in Martian meteorites and estimates for average silicate Mars. Enrichments occur in diverse rocks including minimally to extensively altered basaltic and alkalic sedimentary rocks. The magnitude of the enrichments indicates hydrothermal fluids, but Curiosity has not discovered unambiguous hydrothermal mineral assemblages. We propose that Zn- and Ge-rich hydrothermal deposits in the source region were dispersed in siliciclastic sediments during transport into the crater. Subsequent diagenetic mobilization and fractionation of Zn and Ge is evident in a Zn-rich sandstone (Windjana; Zn 4000 ppm, Ge 85 ppm) and associated Cl-rich vein (Stephen; Zn 8000 ppm, Ge 60 ppm), in Ge-rich veins (Garden City; Zn 2200 ppm, Ge 650 ppm), and in silica-rich alteration haloes leached of Zn (30-200 ppm). In moderately to highly altered silica-rich rocks, Ge remained immobile relative to leached elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, and Ca), consistent with fluid interaction at pH ≪ 7. In contrast, crosscutting Ge-rich veins at Garden City suggest aqueous mobilization as Ge-F complexes at pH Gale sediments and can aid in unraveling fluid histories as Curiosity's traverse continues.

  9. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin


    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.


    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  11. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit; using Amphibole and Plagioclas mineral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb


    Full Text Available Introduction The formation of porphyry copper deposits is attributed to the shallow emplacement, and subsequent cooling of the hydrothermal system of porphyritic intrusive rocks (Titley and Bean, 1981. These deposits have usually been developed along the chain of subduction-related volcanic and calc-alkalin batholiths (Sillitoe, 2010. Nevertheless, it is now confirmed that porphyry copper systems can also form in collisional and post collisional settings (Zarasvandi et al., 2015b. Detailed studies on the geochemical features of ore-hosting porphyry Cu-Mo-Au intrusions indicate that they are generally adakitic, water and sulfur- riched, and oxidized (Wang et al., 2014. For example, high oxygen fugacity of magma has decisive role in transmission of copper and gold to the porphyry systems as revealed in (Wang et al., 2014. In this regard, the present work deals with the mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit. The data is used to achieve the physical and chemical conditions of magma and its impact on mineralization. Moreover, the results of previous studies on the hydrothermal system of the Dalli deposit such as Raman laser spectroscopy and fluid inclusion studies are included for determination of the evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal conditions. Materials and methods In order to correctly characterize the physical and chemical conditions affecting the trend of mineralization, 20 least altered and fractured samples of diorite and quartz-diorite intrusions were chosen from boreholes. Subsequently, 20 thin-polished sections were prepared in the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Finally, mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase were determined using electron micro probe analyses (EMPA in the central lab of the Leoben University. Results Amphibole that is one of the the main rock-forming minerals can form in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Accordingly, amphibole chemistry can be

  12. Hydrothermal origin of halogens at Home Plate, Gusev Crater (United States)

    Schmidt, M.E.; Ruff, S.W.; McCoy, T.J.; Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Cabrol, N.; Lewis, K.W.; Schroeder, C.


    In the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater is Home Plate, an 80 m platform of layered elastic rocks of the Barnhill class with microscopic and macroscopic textures, including a bomb sag, suggestive of a phreatomagmatic origin. We present data acquired by the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover by Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), Mo??ssbauer Spectrometer, Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) for the Barnhill class rocks and nearby vesicular Irvine class basalts. In major element concentrations (e.g., SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and FeO*), the two rock classes are similar, suggesting that they are derived from a similar magmatic source. The Barnhill class, however, has higher abundances of Cl, Br, Zn, and Ge with comparable SO3 to the Irvine basalts. Nanophase ferric oxide (np ox) and volcanic glass were detected in the Barnhill class rocks by Mo??ssbauer and Mini-TES, respectively, and imply greater alteration and cooling rates in the Barnhill than in the Irvine class rocks. The high volatile elements in the Barnhill class agree with volcanic textures that imply interaction with a briny groundwater during eruption and (or) by later alteration. Differences in composition between the Barnhill and Irvine classes allow the fingerprinting of a Na-Mg-Zn-Ge-Cl-Br (??Fe ?? Ca ?? CO2) brine with low S. Nearby sulfate salt soils of fumarolic origin may reflect fractionation of an acidic S-rich vapor during boiling of a hydrothermal brine at depth. Persistent groundwater was likely present during and after the formation of Home Plate. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Hydrothermal stability of microporous silica and niobia-silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.


    The hydrothermal stability of microporous niobia–silica membranes was investigated and compared with silica membranes. The membranes were exposed to hydrothermal conditions at 150 and 200 °C for 70 h. The change of pore structure before and after exposure to steam was probed by single-gas permeation

  14. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life. (United States)

    Shock, E L


    Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system.

  15. Levulinic acid from orange peel waste by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puccini, Monica; Licursi, Domenico; Stefanelli, Eleonora; Vitolo, Sandra; Galletti, Anna Maria Raspolli; Heeres, Hero Jan


    With the awareness of the need for optimal and sustainable use of natural resources, hydrothermal treatment of biomass and biomass waste for energy and resource recovery has received increasing attention. The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a biomass is achieved using water as the reaction


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity have modified the diagenetic minerals. In the Ulster Basin, UK, most of the authigenic mineralization in the Permo-Triassic sandstones pre-dated tertiary volcanic intrusions. The hydrothermal fluids and heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions did not affect quartz and feldspar ...

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B dye using hydrothermally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sunlight mediated photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RB) dye was studied using hydrothermally prepared ZnO ( = 150°C and ∼ 20–30 bars). Zinc chloride was used as the starting material along with sodium hydroxide as a solvent in the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO. Different durations were tried to ...

  18. Seismicity associated with magmatism, faulting and hydrothermal circulation at Aluto Volcano, Main Ethiopian Rift (United States)

    Wilks, Matthew; Kendall, J.-Michael; Nowacki, Andy; Biggs, Juliet; Wookey, James; Birhanu, Yelebe; Ayele, Atalay; Bedada, Tulu


    The silicic volcanic centres of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) play a central role in facilitating continental rifting. Many of these volcanoes host geothermal resources and are located in heavily populated regions. InSAR studies have shown several are deforming, but regional seismic networks have detected little seismicity. A local network of 12 seismometers was deployed at Aluto Volcano from 2012 to 2014, and detected 2142 earthquakes within a 24-month period. We locate the events using a 1D velocity model that exploits a regional model and information from geothermal boreholes and calculate local magnitudes, b-values and focal mechanisms. Event depths generally range from the near surface to 15 km with most of the seismicity clustering in the upper 2 km. A significant amount of seismicity follows the Artu Jawa Fault Zone, which trends in alignment with the Wonji Fault Belt, NNE-SSW and is consistent with previous studies of strain localisation in the MER. Focal mechanisms are mostly normal in style, with the mean T-axes congruent to the orientation of extension in the rift at this latitude. Some show relatively small left-lateral strike-slip components and are likely associated with the reactivation of NE-ENE structures at the southern tip of the Aluto-Gedemsa segment. Events range from - 0.40 to 2.98 in magnitude and we calculate an overall b-value of 1.40 ± 0.14. This relatively elevated value suggests fluid-induced seismicity that is particularly evident in the shallow hydrothermal reservoir and above it. Subdividing our observations according to depth identifies distinct regions beneath the volcanic edifice: a shallow zone (- 2-0 km) of high seismicity and high b-values that corresponds to the hydrothermal system and is influenced by a high fluid saturation and circulation; a relatively aseismic zone (0-2 km) with low b-values that is impermeable to ascending volatiles; a region of increased fluid-induced seismicity (2-9 km) that is driven by magmatic

  19. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  20. Crustal-scale recycling in caldera complexes and rift zones along the Yellowstone hotspot track: O and Hf isotopic evidence in diverse zircons from voluminous rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field, Idaho (United States)

    Drew, Dana L.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Fu, Bin; McCurry, Michael


    Rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field (10.4-6.6 Ma) in eastern Idaho are preserved as thick ignimbrites and lavas along the margins of the Snake River Plain (SRP), and within a deep (>3 km) borehole near the central axis of the Yellowstone hotspot track. In this study we present new O and Hf isotope data and U-Pb geochronology for individual zircons, O isotope data for major phenocrysts (quartz, plagioclase, and pyroxene), whole rock Sr and Nd isotope ratios, and whole rock geochemistry for a suite of Picabo rhyolites. We synthesize our new datasets with published Ar-Ar geochronology to establish the eruptive framework of the Picabo volcanic field, and interpret its petrogenetic history in the context of other well-studied caldera complexes in the SRP. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44±0.27 Ma (U-Pb) Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned and normal-δ18O (δ18O magma=7.9‰) unit with high, zoned 87Sr/86Sri (0.71488-0.72520), and low-ɛNd(0) (-18) and ɛHf(0) (-28). The TAV and an associated post caldera lava flow possess the lowest ɛNd(0) (-23), indicating ˜40-60% derivation from the Archean upper crust. Normal-δ18O rhyolites were followed by a series of lower-δ18O eruptions with more typical (lower crustal) Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios and whole rock chemistry. The voluminous 8.25±0.26 Ma West Pocatello rhyolite has the lowest δ18O value (δ18Omelt=3.3‰), and we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff present in the INEL-1 borehole (with published zircon ages 8.04-8.35 Ma, and similarly low-δ18O zircon values). The significant (4-5‰) decrease in magmatic-δ18O values in Picabo rhyolites is accompanied by an increase in zircon δ18O heterogeneity from ˜1‰ variation in the TAV to >5‰ variation in the late-stage low-δ18O rhyolites, a trend similar to what is characteristic of Heise and Yellowstone, and which indicates remelting of variably hydrothermally altered tuffs followed by rapid batch

  1. Crustal-scale recycling in caldera complexes and rift zones along the Yellowstone hotspot track: O and Hf isotopic evidence in diverse zircons from voluminous rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field, Idaho (United States)

    Drew, Dana L.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Fu, Bin; McCurry, Michael


    Rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field (10.4–6.6 Ma) in eastern Idaho are preserved as thick ignimbrites and lavas along the margins of the Snake River Plain (SRP), and within a deep (>3 km) borehole near the central axis of the Yellowstone hotspot track. In this study we present new O and Hf isotope data and U–Pb geochronology for individual zircons, O isotope data for major phenocrysts (quartz, plagioclase, and pyroxene), whole rock Sr and Nd isotope ratios, and whole rock geochemistry for a suite of Picabo rhyolites. We synthesize our new datasets with published Ar–Ar geochronology to establish the eruptive framework of the Picabo volcanic field, and interpret its petrogenetic history in the context of other well-studied caldera complexes in the SRP. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44±0.27 Ma (U–Pb) Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned and normal-δ18O (δ18O magma=7.9‰) unit with high, zoned 87Sr/86Sri (0.71488–0.72520), and low-εNd(0) (−18) and εHf(0) (−28). The TAV and an associated post caldera lava flow possess the lowest εNd(0) (−23), indicating ∼40–60% derivation from the Archean upper crust. Normal-δ18O rhyolites were followed by a series of lower-δ18O eruptions with more typical (lower crustal) Sr–Nd–Hf isotope ratios and whole rock chemistry. The voluminous 8.25±0.26 Ma West Pocatello rhyolite has the lowest δ18O value (δ18Omelt=3.3‰), and we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff present in the INEL-1 borehole (with published zircon ages 8.04–8.35 Ma, and similarly low-δ18O zircon values). The significant (4–5‰) decrease in magmatic-δ18O values in Picabo rhyolites is accompanied by an increase in zircon δ18O heterogeneity from ∼1‰ variation in the TAV to >5‰ variation in the late-stage low-δ18O rhyolites, a trend similar to what is characteristic of Heise and Yellowstone, and which indicates remelting of variably hydrothermally altered tuffs

  2. Vadose zone microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.


    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.


    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  4. Powering prolonged hydrothermal activity inside Enceladus (United States)

    Choblet, Gaël; Tobie, Gabriel; Sotin, Christophe; Běhounková, Marie; Čadek, Ondřej; Postberg, Frank; Souček, Ondřej


    Geophysical data from the Cassini spacecraft imply the presence of a global ocean underneath the ice shell of Enceladus1, only a few kilometres below the surface in the South Polar Terrain2-4. Chemical analyses indicate that the ocean is salty5 and is fed by ongoing hydrothermal activity6-8. In order to explain these observations, an abnormally high heat power (>20 billion watts) is required, as well as a mechanism to focus endogenic activity at the south pole9,10. Here, we show that more than 10 GW of heat can be generated by tidal friction inside the unconsolidated rocky core. Water transport in the tidally heated permeable core results in hot narrow upwellings with temperatures exceeding 363 K, characterized by powerful (1-5 GW) hotspots at the seafloor, particularly at the south pole. The release of heat in narrow regions favours intense interaction between water and rock, and the transport of hydrothermal products from the core to the plume sources. We are thus able to explain the main global characteristics of Enceladus: global ocean, strong dissipation, reduced ice-shell thickness at the south pole and seafloor activity. We predict that this endogenic activity can be sustained for tens of millions to billions of years.

  5. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro


    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Influence of hydrothermal venting on water column properties in the crater of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Santorini volcanic field (Greece) (United States)

    Christopoulou, Maria E.; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Carey, Steven; Mandalakis, Manolis


    The Kolumbo submarine volcano, located 7 km northeast of the island of Santorini, is part of Santorini's volcanic complex in the south Aegean Sea, Greece. Kolumbo's last eruption was in 1650 AD. However, a unique and active hydrothermal vent field has been revealed in the northern part of its crater floor during an oceanographic survey by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in 2006. In the present study, conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data collected by ROV Hercules during three oceanographic surveys onboard E/V Nautilus in 2010 and 2011 have served to investigate the distribution of physicochemical properties in the water column, as well as their behavior directly over the hydrothermal field. Additional CTD measurements were carried out in volcanic cone 3 (VC3) along the same volcanic chain but located 3 km northeast of Kolumbo where no hydrothermal activity has been detected to date. CTD profiles exhibit pronounced anomalies directly above the active vents on Kolumbo's crater floor. In contrast, VC3 data revealed no such anomalies, essentially resembling open-sea (background) conditions. Steep increases of temperature (e.g., from 16 to 19 °C) and conductivity near the maximum depth (504 m) inside Kolumbo's cone show marked spatiotemporal correlation. Vertical distributions of CTD signatures suggest a strong connection to Kolumbo's morphology, with four distinct zones identified (open sea, turbid flow, invariable state, hydrothermal vent field). Additionally, overlaying the near-seafloor temperature measurements on an X-Y coordinate grid generates a detailed 2D distribution of the hydrothermal vent field and clarifies the influence of fluid discharges in its formation.

  7. 3D structure and formation of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Møre Basin (United States)

    Kjoberg, Sigurd; Schmiedel, Tobias; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik H.; Galland, Oliver; Jerram, Dougal A.


    The mid-Norwegian Møre margin is regarded as a type example of a volcanic rifted margin, with its formation usually related to the influence of the Icelandic plume activity. The area is characterized by the presence of voluminous basaltic complexes such as extrusive lava sequences, intrusive sills and dikes, and hydrothermal vent complexes within the Møre Basin. Emplacement of hydrothermal vent complexes is accommodated by deformation of the host rock. The edges of igneous intrusions mobilize fluids by heat transfer into the sedimentary host rock (aureoles). Fluid expansion may lead to formation of piercing structures due to upward fluid migration. Hydrothermal vent complexes induce bending of overlying strata, leading to the formation of dome structures at the paleo-surface. These dome structures are important as they indicate the accommodation created for the intrusions by deformation of the upper layers of the stratigraphy, and may form important structures in many volcanic margins. Both the morphological characteristics of the upper part and the underlying feeder-structure (conduit-zone) can be imaged and studied on 3D seismic data. Seismic data from the Tulipan prospect located in the western part of the Møre Basin have been used in this study. The investigation focusses on (1) the vent complex geometries, (2) the induced surface deformation patterns, (3) the relation to the intrusions (heat source), as well as (4) the emplacement depth of the hydrothermal vent complexes. We approach this by doing a detailed 3D seismic interpretation of the Tulipan seismic data cube. The complexes formed during the initial Eocene, and are believed to be a key factor behind the rapid warming event called the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). The newly derived understanding of age, eruptive deposits, and formation of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Møre Basin enables us to contribute to the general understanding of the igneous plumbing system in volcanic basins and

  8. Dating magmatic and hydrothermal processes using andradite-rich garnet U-Pb geochronometry (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Luo, Tao; Wang, Hong-Qiang


    Andradite-rich garnet is a common U-bearing mineral in a variety of alkalic igneous rocks and skarn deposits, but has been largely neglected as a U-Pb chronometer. In situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dates of andradite-rich garnet from a syenite pluton and two iron skarn deposits in the North China craton demonstrate the suitability and reliability of the mineral in accurately dating magmatic and hydrothermal processes. Two hydrothermal garnets from the iron skarn deposits have homogenous cores and zoned rims (Ad86Gr11 to Ad98Gr1) with 22-118 ppm U, whereas one magmatic garnet from the syenite is texturally and compositionally homogenous (Ad70Gr22 to Ad77Gr14) and has 0.1-20 ppm U. All three garnets have flat time-resolved signals obtained from depth profile analyses for U, indicating structurally bound U. Uranium is correlated with REE in both magmatic and hydrothermal garnets, indicating that the incorporation of U into the garnet is largely controlled by substitution mechanisms. Two hydrothermal garnets yielded U-Pb dates of 129 ± 2 (2 σ; MSWD = 0.7) and 130 ± 1 Ma (2 σ; MSWD = 0.5), indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb dates of 131 ± 1 and 129 ± 1 Ma for their respective ore-related intrusions. The magmatic garnet has a U-Pb age of 389 ± 3 Ma (2 σ; MSWD = 0.6), consistent with a U-Pb zircon date of 388 ± 2 Ma for the syenite. The consistency between the garnet and zircon U-Pb dates confirms the reliability and accuracy of garnet U-Pb dating. Given the occurrence of andradite-rich garnet in alkaline and ultramafic magmatic rocks and hydrothermal ore deposits, our results highlight the potential utilization of garnet as a powerful U-Pb geochronometer for dating magmatism and skarn-related mineralization.

  9. Free energy distribution and hydrothermal mineral precipitation in Hadean submarine alkaline vent systems: Importance of iron redox reactions under anoxic conditions (United States)

    Shibuya, Takazo; Russell, Michael J.; Takai, Ken


    Thermodynamic calculations of mixing between hypothetical seawater and hydrothermal fluid in the Hadean deep ocean were carried out to predict saturation states of mineral precipitates and redox reactions that could occur in Hadean submarine alkaline hydrothermal systems associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. In the calculations, the seawater was assumed to be weakly acidic (pH = 5.5) and to include carbon dioxide, ferrous iron and silica, with or without nitrate, while the Hadean hydrothermal fluid was assumed to be highly alkaline (pH = 11) and to contain abundant molecular hydrogen, methane and bisulfide, based on the Archean geologic record, the modern low-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vent fluid (Lost City field), and experimental and theoretical considerations. The modeling indicates that potential mineral precipitates in the mixing zone (hydrothermal chimney structures) could consist mainly of iron sulfides but also of ferrous serpentine and brucite, siderite, and ferric iron-bearing minerals such as goethite, hematite and/or magnetite as minor phases. The precipitation of ferric iron-bearing minerals suggests that chemical iron oxidation would be made possible by pH shift even under anoxic condition. In the mixing zone, comprising an inorganic barrier precipitated at the interface of the two contrasting solutions, various redox reactions release free energy with the potential to drive endergonic reactions, assuming the involvement of coupling inorganic protoenzymes. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis - long considered the most ancient forms of biological energy metabolisms - are able to achieve higher maximum energy yield (>0.5 kJ/kg hydrothermal fluid) than those in the modern serpentinization-associated seafloor hydrothermal systems (e.g., Kairei field). Furthermore, the recently proposed methanotrophic acetogenesis pathway was also thermodynamically investigated. It is known that methanotrophic acetogenesis would

  10. The Guaymas Basin hiking guide to hydrothermal mounds, chimneys and microbial mats: complex seafloor expressions of subsurface hydrothermal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eTeske


    Full Text Available The hydrothermal mats, mounds and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heatflow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for a wider survey of the entire spreading region.

  11. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain) (United States)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús


    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  12. U-Pb dating of minerals in alteration halos of Superior Province massive sulfide deposits: syngenesis versus metamorphism (United States)

    Davis, D. W.; Schandl, E. S.; Wasteneys, H. A.


    U-Pb geochronology of igneous zircon from rhyolitic host rocks to the Archean Kidd Creek, Geco and Winston Lake massive sulfide deposits, in the Superior Province of Ontario, shows that volcanism, which accompanied mineralization, occupied a narrow time span (2717±2 Ma, 2720±2 Ma and 2723±2 Ma, respectively). Precise ages of hydrothermal monazite, allanite and rutile from alteration zones surrounding the above deposits indicate that these minerals crystallized 40 70 million years after volcanism. Monazite from Kidd Creek mine is 2659±3 Ma old, in agreement with spatially associated 2664±25 Ma old rutile. Monazite from a biotite schist at Geoco mine gives a similar age of 2661±1 Ma. However, monazite from a sericite schist, which hosts the ore at Geco mine, is 2675±2 Ma old. Abraded large monazite grains from three units in the Winston Lake deposit are coeval with biotite crystallization and record an age of 2677±2 Ma, approximately the same as monazite in the sericite schist at Geco. Data points from allanite fractions from both the Winston Lake and Geco deposits fall on a Pb-Pb isochron that gives an age of 2672±5 Ma. Rutile from Winston Lake gives a younger age of 2651±6/-2 Ma and may date retrograde alteration of biotite to chlorite. The ca. 2676 Ma age of monazite from Winston Lake and in the sericite schist at Geco mine probably dates a regional metamorphic event that affected most of the southern Superior Province. The ca. 2660 Ma old monazite in the biotite schist at Geco mine and in the chlorite-sericite alteration at Kidd Creek may date later K-metasomatism caused by metamorphically derived fluids that were focussed along old fault structures. Such fluids were also responsible for local sulfide remobilization. Monazite and rutile are spatially associated with chlorite and sericite alterations at Kidd Creek. Their young ages indicate that these originally syngenetic mineral assemblages may have been significantly affected by regional metamorphism

  13. Volcano electrical tomography unveils edifice collapse hazard linked to hydrothermal system structure and dynamics. (United States)

    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Nicollin, Florence; Gibert, Dominique


    Catastrophic collapses of the flanks of stratovolcanoes constitute a major hazard threatening numerous lives in many countries. Although many such collapses occurred following the ascent of magma to the surface, many are not associated with magmatic reawakening but are triggered by a combination of forcing agents such as pore-fluid pressurization and/or mechanical weakening of the volcanic edifice often located above a low-strength detachment plane. The volume of altered rock available for collapse, the dynamics of the hydrothermal fluid reservoir and the geometry of incipient collapse failure planes are key parameters for edifice stability analysis and modelling that remain essentially hidden to current volcano monitoring techniques. Here we derive a high-resolution, three-dimensional electrical conductivity model of the La Soufrière de Guadeloupe volcano from extensive electrical tomography data. We identify several highly conductive regions in the lava dome that are associated to fluid saturated host-rock and preferential flow of highly acid hot fluids within the dome. We interpret this model together with the existing wealth of geological and geochemical data on the volcano to demonstrate the influence of the hydrothermal system dynamics on the hazards associated to collapse-prone altered volcanic edifices.

  14. Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan


    Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate

  15. Strengths, challenges, and opportunities for hydrothermal pretreatment in lignocellulosic biorefineries: Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Bioproducts, Sciences, and Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA USA; Tao, Ling [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Wyman, Charles E. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California at Riverside, CA, USA, BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA


    Pretreatment prior to or during biological conversion is required to achieve high sugar yields essential to economic production of fuels and chemicals from low cost, abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Aqueous thermochemical pretreatments achieve this performance objective from pretreatment coupled with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, but chemical pretreatment can also suffer from additional costs for exotic materials of construction, the need to recover or neutralize the chemicals, introduction of compounds that inhibit downstream operations, and waste disposal, as well as for the chemicals themselves. The simplicity of hydrothermal pretreatment with just hot water offers the potential to greatly improve the cost of the entire conversion process if sugar degradation during pretreatment, production of un-fermentable oligomers, and the amount of expensive enzymes needed to obtain satisfactory yields from hydrothermally pretreated solids can be reduced. Biorefinery economics would also benefit if value could be generated from lignin and other components that are currently fated to be burned for power. However, achieving these goals will no doubt require development of advanced hydrothermal pretreatment configurations. For example, passing water through a stationary bed of lignocellulosic biomass in a flowthrough configuration achieves very high yields of hemicellulose sugars, removes more than 75% of the lignin for potential valorization, and improves sugar release from the pretreated solids with lower enzyme loadings. Unfortunately, the large quantities of water needed to achieve this performance result in very dilute sugars, high energy costs for pretreatment and product recover, and large amounts of oligomers. Thus, improving our understanding of hydrothermal pretreatment fundamentals is needed to gain insights into R&D opportunities to improve performance, and help identify novel configurations that lower capital and operating costs and achieve higher yields.

  16. Detailed paragenesis and Li-mica compositions as recorders of the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Maoping W-Sn deposit (Jiangxi, China) (United States)

    Legros, Hélène; Marignac, Christian; Mercadier, Julien; Cuney, Michel; Richard, Antonin; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Charles, Nicolas; Lespinasse, Marc-Yves


    Li-micas have been used as indicators of the evolution of granites. However, hydrothermal Li-micas are less documented. World-class W-Sn deposits associated with Early Yanshanian granites (South Jiangxi, China) show magmatic and hydrothermal Li-micas which could help unravelling the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of rare metal deposits. Six types of Li-micas have been identified in the vein system of the Maoping W-Sn deposit through detailed petrography and EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analyses, by chronological order: (i) late-magmatic Li-micas in feldspar veins, associated with late crystallization of a peraluminous melt; (ii) hydrothermal Fe-Li micas (Fe-Li mica veins and selvages); (iii) hydrothermal Fe-Li micas in W-Sn veins; (iv) Fe-Li micas in later banded quartz veins; (v) Li-muscovite in the final stages; and finally (vi) micas associated with alteration at each stage. Based on oscillatory variations and trends in major elements composition, the chemical variations in Li-micas from the successive stages and in hydrothermal micas that crystallized in the veins are interpreted to reflect mixing between at least three fluids of possible magmatic, meteoric and metamorphic origins. The crystallization of zircons and REE minerals, combined with variations of major and trace element concentrations in the Li-micas, notably an enrichment of rare metals (W-Sn-Ta-Nb) in the Li-micas, implies emplacement of a hidden peralkaline REE-rich magma during the crystallization of the banded quartz veins, a source which was different to the pre-existing peraluminous granites. The possible involvement of both peraluminous and peralkaline intrusives suggests the existence of polyphase magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the Maoping deposit, during the Yanshanian event (190-80 Ma).

  17. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331 on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014 where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the

  18. Hydrothermal Gelation of Aqueous Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions. (United States)

    Lewis, Lev; Derakhshandeh, Maziar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J


    We report the facile preparation of gels from the hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The properties of the hydrogels have been investigated by rheology, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy with respect to variation in the temperature, time, and CNC concentration used in preparation. Desulfation of the CNCs at high temperature appears to be responsible for the gelation of the CNCs, giving highly porous networks. The viscosity and storage modulus of the gels was shown to increase when samples were prepared at higher treatment temperature. Considering the wide natural abundance and biocompatibility of CNCs, this simple, green approach to CNC-based hydrogels is attractive for producing materials that can be used in drug delivery, insulation, and as tissue scaffolds.

  19. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent Sampler (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthur; Matthews, Jaret B.


    An apparatus is being developed for sampling water for signs of microbial life in an ocean hydrothermal vent at a depth of as much as 6.5 km. Heretofore, evidence of microbial life in deep-sea hydrothermal vents has been elusive and difficult to validate. Because of the extreme conditions in these environments (high pressures and temperatures often in excess of 300 C), deep-sea hydrothermal- vent samplers must be robust. Because of the presumed low density of biomass of these environments, samplers must be capable of collecting water samples of significant volume. It is also essential to prevent contamination of samples by microbes entrained from surrounding waters. Prior to the development of the present apparatus, no sampling device was capable of satisfying these requirements. The apparatus (see figure) includes an intake equipped with a temperature probe, plus several other temperature probes located away from the intake. The readings from the temperature probes are utilized in conjunction with readings from flowmeters to determine the position of the intake relative to the hydrothermal plume and, thereby, to position the intake to sample directly from the plume. Because it is necessary to collect large samples of water in order to obtain sufficient microbial biomass but it is not practical to retain all the water from the samples, four filter arrays are used to concentrate the microbial biomass (which is assumed to consist of particles larger than 0.2 m) into smaller volumes. The apparatus can collect multiple samples per dive and is designed to process a total volume of 10 L of vent fluid, of which most passes through the filters, leaving a total possibly-microbe-containing sample volume of 200 mL remaining in filters. A rigid titanium nose at the intake is used for cooling the sample water before it enters a flexible inlet hose connected to a pump. As the water passes through the titanium nose, it must be cooled to a temperature that is above a mineral

  20. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Dicalcium Silicate Based Cement (United States)

    Dutta, N.; Chatterjee, A.


    It is imperative to develop low energy alternative binders considering the large amounts of energy consumed as well as carbon dioxide emissions involved in the manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. This study is on the synthesis of a dicalcium silicate based binder using a low temperature hydrothermal route.The process consists of synthesizing an intermediate product consisting of a calcium silicate hydrate phase with a Ca:Si ratio of 2:1 and further thermal treatment to produce the β-Ca2SiO4 (C2S) phase.Effect of various synthesis parameters like water to solid ratio, dwell time and temperature on the formation of the desired calcium silicate hydrate phase is reported along with effect of heating conditions for formation of the β-C2S phase. Around 77.45% of β-C2S phase was synthesized by thermal treatment of the intermediate phase at 820°C.

  1. Fractionation of 238U/235U in rivers and hydrothermal systems: Constraints for the oceanic U isotope cycle (United States)

    Noordmann, J.; Weyer, S.; Sharma, M.; Georg, R.; Rausch, S.; Bach, W.


    Recently, fractionation of 238U/235U has been observed between oxic and anoxic oceanic environments (Weyer et al., 2008). Sedimentary deposits that formed under oxic conditions (containing U+6) are typically enriched in 235U and anoxic or euxinic sediments (containing U+4) typically show enrichment in 238U. These findings are in agreement with theoretical modeling by Schauble (2007) predicting that U isotope fractionation is dominated by volume-dependent effects. To constrain redox evolution of the oceans (Montoya-Pino et al., 2010), we need detailed information on the U isotope mass balance. However, U isotope fractionation during continental weathering and transport to the oceans, as well as during hydrothermal alteration (the second most important sink for U) is yet unknown. To constrain the isotope composition of the dominant U source to the oceans, we investigated water samples from rivers of different climatic conditions. To obtain an estimate on the U isotope composition of the hydrothermal sink, we analyzed five different hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and, additionally, altered oceanic crust from the Bermuda Rise, Reykjanes Ridge and Pigafetta Basin. Furthermore, δ238U has been measured for granites of different localities and ages to expand the very limited data set for samples from the continental crust. Large rivers display an average δ238U of -0.24 ‰ (relative to CRM-112A) which is very similar to the average value of granites (δ238U= -0.30 ‰) and basalts (δ238U= -0.28 ‰), indicating that in average only minor U isotope fractionation occurs during weathering and transport. Only smaller rivers display larger U isotope variations (between 0.01 and -0.28 ‰) likely monitoring U isotope variations of their bed rocks. The hydrothermal waters display a tight range of δ238U (-0.32 and -0.54 ‰) around the seawater value of δ238U= -0.41 ‰ (Weyer et al., 2008), however, at much lower U concentration levels (0.08 to 0.24 ppb

  2. Root Apex Transition Zone as Oscillatory Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Baluska


    Full Text Available Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command centre. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwins, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  3. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures - revew article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Baruah and Joydeep Dutta


    Full Text Available One-dimensional nanostructures exhibit interesting electronic and optical properties due to their low dimensionality leading to quantum confinement effects. ZnO has received lot of attention as a nanostructured material because of unique properties rendering it suitable for various applications. Amongst the different methods of synthesis of ZnO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is attractive for its simplicity and environment friendly conditions. This review summarizes the conditions leading to the growth of different ZnO nanostructures using hydrothermal technique. Doping of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal method are also highlighted.

  4. Implications of Chloride, Boron, and Lithium in Hydrothermal Systems of Jamaica, WI (United States)

    Wishart, D.


    Chloride (Cl) often termed a "relatively conservative element" served as a very useful tracer (pathfinder element) in fluids from hydrothermal systems by comparing its concentration to those of select ions in solution. The concentrations of major ions of three thermal spring water samples: Bath hot springs (BTHS and BTHN), Milk River (MKR), Windsor (WS) and a cold spring water sample-Salt River spring (SR) of Jamaica were plotted against the Cl concentration. Results of chemical analyses, graphical analyses, and hydrogeochemical modeling confirmed three water types: Na-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, and Ca-Na-Cl. Whereas chloride concentrations at MKR, WS and SR strongly indicate the influence of sea water mixing, the concentrations at MKR and SR are spatially related to a major tectonic feature, the South Coast Fault Zone (SCFZ). A principal component analysis (PCA) performed for the water samples showed a direct correlation between the concentrations of chloride and other conservative elements: boron (B), lithium (Li), bromide (Br), strontium (Sr), arsenic (As), and cesium (Cs). Isotope results (δ18O, δ2H, 3H) of the water samples implied minimal shallow mixing with deep circulating thermal fluids at the Bath site and the predominance of mixing with deep-circulating brines at the WS, MKR, and SR sites. Ionic ratios (Cl/B, Br/Cl, Li/B, have provided further interesting results for these hydrothermal systems including (1) a power series relationship between Li/B and SO4/Cl ratios; (2) the variation of B/Li versus Cl/SO4 concentrations with relatively prolonged water-rock contact time for these waters occurring at depth; and (3) low enthalpy. A discriminant analysis (DA) aided in the delineation of three independent hydrothermal systems based on processes affecting the chemical compositions of the water samples. Calculated chloride convective heat fluxes range between compared to the boron flux range of 3.41 x 104 - 1.63 x 106 Calories/second.

  5. Coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for energy valorization from model biomass feedstocks. (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Kim, Andrew H; Usack, Joseph G; Tester, Jefferson W; Angenent, Largus T


    Hydrothermal liquefaction converts food waste into oil and a carbon-rich hydrothermal aqueous phase. The hydrothermal aqueous phase may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Here, the feasibility of coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for the conversion of food waste into energy products was examined. A mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, representing food waste, underwent hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350°C. The anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was examined through conducting biochemical methane potential assays. The results demonstrate that the anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was lower when the temperature of hydrothermal processing increased. The chemical composition of the hydrothermal aqueous phase affected the anaerobic biodegradability. However, no inhibition of biodegradation was observed for most samples. Combining hydrothermal and anaerobic digestion may, therefore, yield a higher energetic return by converting the feedstock into oil and biomethane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A facile hydrothermal route to self-assembled ZnGa2O4 particles and their microwave application (United States)

    Lu, Mingjia; Ouyan, Xin; Wu, Songping; Ge, Rongyun; Xu, Rui


    Self-assembled porous ZnGa2O4 particles were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route in this work. The phase evolution and microstructure of specimens were identified by XRD and SEM. Various morphologies (i.e. porous, nanorods or spherical particles) and size (nano or micro-sized) could be rationally designed through altering the reaction conditions. Hydrothermal ZnGa2O4 particles exhibited an outstanding microwave dielectric performance, i.e. a dielectric constant of 9.93, a Q × f value of 73 000 GHz, and a τf value of -68.7 ppm/ °C. What is more, the ZnGa2O4 ceramics displayed a stable quality factor in the high temperature region (1400-1500 °C) due to the unique frame-structured ZnGa2O4 particles. Therefore, they can be regarded as potential candidate materials for millimeter-wave device.

  7. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  8. Hydrothermal ecotones and streamer biofilm communities in the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Swingley, Wesley; Raymond, Jason; Havig, Jeff; Shock, Everett L; Summons, Roger E


    In Yellowstone National Park, a small percentage of thermal features support streamer biofilm communities (SBCs), but their growth criteria are poorly understood. This study investigates biofilms in two SBC hosting, and two non-SBC springs. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones indicates changing community structure as a function of downstream geochemistry, with many novel representatives particularly among the Crenarchaeota. While some taxonomic groups show little genetic variation, others show specialization by sample location. The transition fringe environment between the hotter chemosynthetic and cooler photosynthetic zones hosts a larger diversity of organisms in SBC bearing springs. This transition is proposed to represent an ecotone; this is the first description of an ecotone in a hydrothermal environment. The Aquificales are ubiquitous and dominate among the Bacteria in the hottest environments. However, there is no difference in species of Aquificales from SBC and non-SBC locations, suggesting they are not responsible for the formation of SBCs, or that their role in SBC formation is competitively suppressed in non-SBC sites. In addition, only SBC locations support Thermotogales-like organisms, highlighting the potential importance these organisms may have in SBC formation. Here, we present a novel view of SBC formation and variability in hydrothermal ecosystems. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste for nutrient recovery and resuse (United States)

    Food waste represents a rather large and currently underutilized source of potentially available and reusable nutrients. Laboratory-scale experiments evaluating the hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes collected from restaurants were conducted to understand how changes in feedstock composition ...

  10. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Layton, D.


    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  11. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X


    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  12. Development of a hydrothermal method to synthesize spherical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vis spectroscopy. Through these techniques, it was found that the pure ZnSe nanoparticles have a zinc blend structure and in a spherical form with average diameter of 30 nm. KEY WORDS: ZnSe, Nanosphere, Hydrothermal, Surfactant. Bull.

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.


    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  14. Development of acoustic observation method for seafloor hydrothermal flows (United States)

    Mochizuki, M.; Tamura, H.; Asada, A.; Kinoshita, M.; Tamaki, K.


    In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance using a manned deep-sea submersible Shinkai6500 in Central Indian Ridge 18-20deg.S, where hydrothermal plume signatures were previously perceived. Acoustic video camera "DIDSON" was equipped on the top of Shinkai6500 in order to get acoustic video images of hydrothermal plumes. The acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes had been captured in three of seven dives. We could identify shadings inside the acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. Silhouettes of the hydrothermal plumes varied from second to second, and the shadings inside them also varied. These variations corresponded to internal structures and flows of the plumes. DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) is acoustic lens-based sonar. It has sufficiently high resolution and rapid refresh rate that it can substitute for optical system in turbid or dark water where optical systems fail. Ins. of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo has understood DIDSON's superior performance and tried to develop a new observation method based on DIDSON for hydrothermal discharging from seafloor vent. We expected DIDSON to reveal whole image of hydrothermal plume as well as detail inside the plume. The proposed method to observe and measure hydrothermal flow is the one to utilize a sheet-like acoustic beam. Scanning with concentrated acoustic beam gives distances to the edges of the hydrothermal flows. And then, the shapes of the flows can be identified even in low and zero visibility conditions. Tank experiment was conducted. The purposes of this experiment were to make an attempt at proposed method to delineate underwater hydrothermal flows and to understand relationships among acoustic video image, flow rate and water temperature. Water was heated in the hot tub and pumped to the water tank through the silicon tube. We observed water flows discharging from the tip of the tube with DIDSON. Flow rate had been controlled and temperatures of the

  15. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca


    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite particles with uncommon crystal facets


    Sato, Junki; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kato, Hideki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Kakihana, Masato


    Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 (magnetite) particles was carried out using organic compounds as morphology control agents to obtain magnetite crystals with uncommon facets. It was established that the morphology of Fe3O4 crystals obtained by hydrothermal treatment of an aqueous solution containing Fe2+ and organic compounds depended on the organic compound used. The shape of the Fe3O4 particles obtained when no additives were used was quasi-octahedral. In contrast, the addition of picolinic ...

  17. Alteration and petrology of Intrusive Rocks associated with Gold Mineralization at Kuh-E-Zar Gold Deposit, Torbat-e-Heydaryeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mazloumi Bajestani


    Full Text Available Kuh- e -Zar gold deposit located 35 km west of Torbat-e-Heydaryeh, (Khorassan e- Razavi province, East of Iran. This deposit is a specularite-rich Iron oxide type (IOCG. This mine is situated within Khaf-Bardascan volcanic plutonic belt. Based on recent exploration along this belt, several IOCG type system plus Kuh-e-Zar deposit are discovered. In the study area, several type of tuff and lava having acid to intermediate composition are identified (upper Eocene. Oligo-Miocene granite, granodiorite, synogranite and monzonite intruded upper Eocene andesite-dacite-rhyolite. Intrusive rocks are meta-aluminous, medium to high-K series I-type. Based on spider diagram, intrusive rocks show enrichment in LILE = K, Th, Rb and depletion in HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti. Based geochemistry of igneous rock, they formed in continental margin subduction zone. Propylitic (chlorite alteration is dominated and covers large area. Silicification is restricted only to mineralized zones. Argillic and albitization is found in certain location and cover small areas. The style of mineralization was controlled by the type and geometry of fault zones. Mineralization is found as vein, stockwork and breccias. Hypogene mineral Paragenesis include: specularite-quartz-gold-chlorite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± galena ± barite. Secondary minerals formed due to oxidation are: goethite, limonite, lepidocrucite, Malachite, Azurite, Covelite, Cerucite, hydrocerucite, Pyrolusite and Smitsonite. In a few localities, chalcopyrite and minor pyrite and galena are found. Based on SEM analysis gold is present as electrum. Mineralization appeared in different type such as vein, stockwork and Hydrothermal breccia in strike sleep fault zone which are hidden inside volcano plutonic rocks. The average gold grade is between 3.02 ppm and ore reserve is estimated more than 3 million tons (cut off grade = 0.7 ppm.

  18. 3D seismic Unterhaching 2009 within hydrothermal exploration and modelling; 3D-Seismik Unterhaching 2009 im Rahmen hydrothermaler Exploration und Modellierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueschen, Ewald; Dussel, Michael; Thomas, Ruediger; Schulz, Ruediger [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany)


    Within the exploration of hydrothermal reservoirs, results of 3D reflexion-seismic measurements are presented. These measurements were performed in June / July 2009 according to the vibroseis method on an area of 26.3 square kilometers in the area Unterhaching (Federal Republic of Germany). The 3D seismic survey exhibits much more complex structures than previously known by 2D seismic lines. Subsequent to sinistral transtension (active in the Cretaceous to the Eocene) a short transpression impetus was performed. This is evident from graduated normal faults as well as staggered reverse fault structures and inversion structures in the Upper Jurassic. Top and base of the 600-650 m mighty Malm are well resolved. Brittle fault structures are formed linearly at the top Malm but rounded and chaotic within the Malm. This can be explained by a radical karstification / hydrothermal solution. Several circular structures are interpreted as karstified incursion structures. The seismic facies of the Malm is characterized by a shift from relatively transparent zones