WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrothermablator system comparison

  1. Five-year follow-up after comparing bipolar endometrial ablation with hydrothermablation for menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninx, Josien P M; Herman, Malou C; Mol, Ben W; Bongers, Marlies Y

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the results of a previous study comparing bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation with hydrothermablation for the treatment of menorrhagia at 5-year follow-up. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was performed in a large teaching hospital in the Netherlands between March 2005 and August 2007. One-hundred sixty women with menorrhagia were randomly allocated to bipolar ablation or hydrothermablation. The results of follow-up at 12 months were previously reported. At 4-5 years of follow-up, a questionnaire was sent to all the participants to register amenorrhea rates, reinterventions, and patient satisfaction. At 5-year follow-up, response rates were 90% and 83% in the bipolar group and hydrotherm group, respectively. Amenorrhea rates were 55.4% and 35.3% in the bipolar group and the hydrotherm group, respectively (relative risk [RR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.3). The number of surgical reinterventions was 11 compared with 23 (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.80). Overall, more women were satisfied in the bipolar group compared with the hydrotherm group. After treatment, bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation system is more effective at 5 years than hydrothermablation in the treatment of menorrhagia. II.

  2. An Operational Comparison of Lightning Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. L.; Janota, D. E.; Hay, J. E.

    1982-05-01

    During the spring-summer of 1979, six lightning warning devices were evaluated in a side-by-side comparison study at three test sites. Stock commercial devices were selected based upon distinct concepts of operation. The devices tested included a sferics counter, a corona point, a radioactive probe, a field mill, an azimuth/range locator and a triangulation locator. The test sites were chosen to provide varied thunderstorm conditions: 1) San Antonio, Texas (cold air advection), 2) Kennedy Space Center, Florida (localized surface heating) and 3) Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico (orographic effects). The evaluation parameters were advance warning time, time to clear after hazard, alarm reliability, and false alarm and failure to alarm probabilities. The triangulation locator provided the best overall performance; however, all systems indicated a need for improvement in the failure to alarm rate.

  3. Cost comparisons for SSC magnet dependent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-08-15

    An SSC Cost Estimating Task Force was appointed by the SSC Director in May, 1985. The charge to the task force was to perform a detailed review of costs for all superconducting magnet design styles that are under consideration for the SSC. Cost information on five magnet styles was reviewed in detail by the task force members. The basic cost information was developed by participating laboratories and by industry. Details of the procedure and analysis are presented in Chapter III. The purpose of this report is to provide a comparison of all SSC construction project cost information that is dependent on the various magnet styles. It is emphasized that the costs displayed in the tables of this report are not the total costs for an SSC construction project. Only those systems for which costs vary with magnet style are included. In Appendix E, current results are compared with the relevant parts of the 1984 SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) cost estimate. Following the method used in the RDS, the costs that are developed here are non-site specific. The labor rates utilized are based on a national average for the various labor categories. The Conventional Systems costs for underground structures are derived from an extension of the ``median-site`` model as described in the RDS.

  4. Comparison between different papillary recession classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Chang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed a significant correlation between the two existing classification methods. The proposed PR classification system characterizes open embrasures in greater detail than previous systems.

  5. Comparison of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Prognostic Scoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özlen; Üner, Ayşegül; Eliaçık, Eylem; Uz, Burak; Işık, Ayşe; Etgül, Sezgin; Bozkurt, Süreyya; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim Celalettin; Göker, Hakan; Sayınalp, Nilgün; Aksu, Salih; Demiroğlu, Haluk; Özcebe, Osman İlhami; Büyükaşık, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease. Patients are at risk of developing cytopenias or progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Different classifications and prognostic scoring systems have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare the different prognostic scoring systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one patients who were diagnosed with primary MDS in 2003-2011 in a tertiary care university hospital’s hematology department were included in the study. Results: As the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), World Health Organization Classification-Based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MPSS), and revised IPSS (IPSS-R) risk categories increased, leukemia-free survival and overall survival decreased (p<0.001). When the IPSS, WPSS, MPSS, and IPSS-R prognostic systems were compared by Cox regression analysis, the WPSS was the best in predicting leukemia-free survival (p<0.001), and the WPSS (p<0.001) and IPSS-R (p=0.037) were better in predicting overall survival. Conclusion: All 4 prognostic systems were successful in predicting overall survival and leukemia-free survival (p<0.001). The WPSS was found to be the best predictor for leukemia-free survival, while the WPSS and IPSS-R were found to be the best predictors for overall survival. PMID:26376664

  6. Comparison of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Prognostic Scoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlen Bektaş

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease. Patients are at risk of developing cytopenias or progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Different classifications and prognostic scoring systems have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare the different prognostic scoring systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one patients who were diagnosed with primary MDS in 2003-2011 in a tertiary care university hospital’s hematology department were included in the study. Results: As the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS, World Health Organization Classification-Based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS, MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MPSS, and revised IPSS (IPSS-R risk categories increased, leukemia-free survival and overall survival decreased (p<0.001. When the IPSS, WPSS, MPSS, and IPSS-R prognostic systems were compared by Cox regression analysis, the WPSS was the best in predicting leukemia-free survival (p<0.001, and the WPSS (p<0.001 and IPSS-R (p=0.037 were better in predicting overall survival. Conclusion: All 4 prognostic systems were successful in predicting overall survival and leukemia-free survival (p<0.001. The WPSS was found to be the best predictor for leukemia-free survival, while the WPSS and IPSS-R were found to be the best predictors for overall survival.

  7. Multilevel comparison of large urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pumain, Denise; Cottineau, Clémentine; Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, Céline; Ignazzi, Antonio; Bretagnolle, Anne; Delisle, François; Cura, Robin; Lizzi, Liliane; Baffi, Solène

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the systems of cities in seven countries or regions among the largest in the world (China, India, Brazil, Europe, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), the United States and South Africa) are made comparable through the building of spatio-temporal standardised statistical databases. We first explain the concept of a generic evolutionary urban unit ("city") and its necessary adaptations to the information provided by each national statistical system. Second, the hierarchical structure and the urban growth process are compared at macro-scale for the seven countries with reference to Zipf's and Gibrat's model: in agreement with an evolutionary theory of urban systems, large similarities shape the hierarchical structure and growth processes in BRICS countries as well as in Europe and United States, despite their positions at different stages in the urban transition that explain some structural peculiarities. Third, the individual trajectories of some 10,000 cities are mapped at micro-scale following a...

  8. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...... in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser...

  9. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  10. A Comparison of Two Online Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Open Polytechnic is a single-mode provider of distance education with a rich history of print-based provision. Strategically, the institution is rapidly adopting an online-only approach, with some exceptions for programmes that require student contact. A recent and internal review of Moodle, the Open Polytechnic's learning management system (LMS)…

  11. Development of quality control system for fingerprint comparison processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint evidence played an important role in investigation, prosecution, and trial process due to the belief of its uniqueness and unchanged characteristics. However, in recent years, the science behind the process of fingerprint comparisons has been questioned. Main research questions have been focusing on the opaqueness within the comparison processes, subjective judgments, lack of universal standards, no error rate expression on final conclusions, and poor scientific fundamental research data. Facing the above-mentioned questions, this paper aims to suggest a quality control system (QCS for fingerprint comparison processes. This QCS is based on the use of software (PiAnoS and its technological features, being able to provide a data management model to increase the transparency and quality of fingerprint comparison processes.

  12. A system for multiattribute drug product comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Bruce L; Yu, Clement; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2004-02-01

    We describe a system for multiattribute drug product searching. We then demonstrate the system's performance on sample queries, and evaluate the name-based similarity searching component. Ten drug names were used to query a database of existing drug names using five different retrieval methods. Retrieved names were merged into master lists and presented to 15 pharmacists. Pharmacists rated the similarity between the query name and each retrieved names on a scale of 1-5. We report the precision of our five different retrieval methods at 11 levels of recall. The best single measure was editex, with a precision of 17.4% averaged across 11 levels of recall. A regression model using four objective measures of similarity as predictors accounted for 40.6% of the variance in observed mean similarity ratings. Automated, multiattribute drug product searching may improve the effectiveness and efficiency of preapproval screening processes and thereby prevent medication errors.

  13. Comparison of European Olive Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Russo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Spain, Italy, and Greece are the world’s top olive oil producers. In recent decades, these countries have gradually diversified their farming system in the olive groves. The element of innovation with respect to the state of the art is that this paper aims to compare the environmental performance of different farming systems in a European context by performing a simplified Life Cycle Assessment; (2 Methods: Environmental performance was calculated according to the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment and the “Guidance for the implementation of the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF”. Average data were considered in order to describe a system with a great degree of complexity and high spatial heterogeneity; (3 Results: The study highlights the difficulty of identifying the farming method that presents the best environmental performance in each of the impact categories considered. In Greece, the lowest use of diesel, electricity, and water brings about advantages for many impact categories, albeit with low yields. While the highest olive yield obtained in Italy has positive consequences in terms of global warming, the highest use of fertilisers, in many cases, entails higher environmental impacts. On the other hand, in Spain the highest use of organo-phosphorous pesticides entails the highest impacts of eco-toxicity; (4 Conclusion: the reduction of the use of fertilizers and pesticides, as well as water conservation, are important issues which require the optimization of timing and techniques in order to achieve environmental advantages.

  14. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  15. A Comparison of the Health Systems in China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    adults were obese and 22.8 percent were overweight. In India, the obesity rate was 1 percent for males and 4 percent for females in the slums ; the...by sponsoring sports and cultural events. 34 A Comparison of the Health Systems in China and India Table 5.1 Policy Levers Used in the Chinese and

  16. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, L.D.; Both, A.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    After reviewing basic information, three design examples have been presented to demonstrate a process of supplemental lighting design. The sequences of each example suggest careful thought and analysis are required to obtain supplemental lighting designs that provide both high levels of PAR and suitable uniformity. The end results should suggest how an analysis can evolve to achieve desired results, and the types of tools and adjustments required. It appears possible to design research greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve a {+-}10% PAR uniformity using HIPS luminaires. Further, HPS luminaires (and, by extension, NEHD, etc.) are required to achieve high PAR levels and have the decided advantage of providing the possibility of aiming, which reduces the region of the {open_quotes}edge effect{close_quotes}. Further, for designing plant lighting systems, a modification of the standard IES luminaire data file structure is potentially useful. Luminaire installation is an important factor to obtain PAR uniformity. Spacing and mounting height are critically important. Additionally, the mounting angle of each luminaire must be carefully adjusted to conform with design assumptions. This is true for both plant growth chambers and greenhouses. Surface reflectances are particularly important when designing for small lighted regions such as plant growth chambers and research greenhouses. It is not obvious, just from looking at a surface, what its reflectance is. It is suggested that an effort be mounted to develop valid surface reflectance data to be used by designers. The importance of the surfaces (particularly the walls) in achieving PAR uniformity suggests the importance of periodic cleaning/maintenance to retain initial reflectance values.

  17. Comparisons between PW Doppler system and enhanced FM Doppler system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new implementation of an echo-ranging FM Doppler system with improved performance, relative to the FM Doppler system reported previously. The use of long sweeps provides a significant reduction in peak to average power ratio compared to pulsed wave (PW) emission. A PW Doppler...... system exploits the direct relationship between arrival time of the received signal and range from the transducer. In the FM Doppler systems, a similar relationship exists in the spectral domain of the demodulated received signals, so that range is represented by frequency. Thus, a shift in location...... of moving scatterers between consecutive emissions corresponds to a frequency shift in the spectral signature. The improvement relative to the earlier version of the FM Doppler system is attained by utilizing cross-correlation of real spectra rather than of magnitude spectra for assessing flow velocity...

  18. A Weak Comparison Principle for Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a weak comparison principle for a reaction-diffusion system without uniqueness of solutions. We apply the abstract results to the Lotka-Volterra system with diffusion, a generalized logistic equation, and to a model of fractional-order chemical autocatalysis with decay. Moreover, in the case of the Lotka-Volterra system a weak maximum principle is given, and a suitable estimate in the space of essentially bounded functions L∞ is proved for at least one solution of the problem.

  19. A comparison of queueing, cluster and distributed computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Joseph A.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Using workstation clusters for distributed computing has become popular with the proliferation of inexpensive, powerful workstations. Workstation clusters offer both a cost effective alternative to batch processing and an easy entry into parallel computing. However, a number of workstations on a network does not constitute a cluster. Cluster management software is necessary to harness the collective computing power. A variety of cluster management and queuing systems are compared: Distributed Queueing Systems (DQS), Condor, Load Leveler, Load Balancer, Load Sharing Facility (LSF - formerly Utopia), Distributed Job Manager (DJM), Computing in Distributed Networked Environments (CODINE), and NQS/Exec. The systems differ in their design philosophy and implementation. Based on published reports on the different systems and conversations with the system's developers and vendors, a comparison of the systems are made on the integral issues of clustered computing.

  20. A Virtual Environment System for the Comparison of Dome and HMD Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Harm, Deboran L.; Loftin, R. Bowen; Lin, Ching-yao; Leiss, Ernst L.

    2002-01-01

    For effective astronaut training applications, choosing the right display devices to present images is crucial. In order to assess what devices are appropriate, it is important to design a successful virtual environment for a comparison study of the display devices. We present a comprehensive system for the comparison of Dome and head-mounted display (HMD) systems. In particular, we address interactions techniques and playback environments.

  1. Comparison of topologies suitable for Capacitor Charging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Cravero, JM

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between topologies suitable for capacitor charging systems. The topologies under evaluation are a flyback converter, a half-bridge series resonant converter and a full-bridge phase-shifted converter. The main features of these topologies are highlighted, which allows the proper topology selection according to the application requirements. Moreover, the performed analysis permits to characterize the operational range of the main components thus allowing their appropriate sizing and selection. Simulation results are provided.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  3. Comparison of Photovoltaic Models in the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N. J.; Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is free software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for predicting the performance of renewable energy systems and analyzing the financial feasibility of residential, commercial, and utility-scale grid-connected projects. SAM offers several options for predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The model requires that the analyst choose from three PV system models, and depending on that choice, possibly choose from three module and two inverter component models. To obtain meaningful results from SAM, the analyst must be aware of the differences between the model options and their applicability to different modeling scenarios. This paper presents an overview the different PV model options and presents a comparison of results for a 200-kW system using different model options.

  4. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Two Solar Energy Systems with Domestic Water Heating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    KAYALI, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an economic analysis of different types of thermosiphons and geysers and flat plate collectors and solar ponds employeed in conventional solar energy systems used in houses is analized and the results obtained for these systems are compared with each other. These comparisons show that when the inflation rate is 50% or less solar energy systems are more economical than the other conventional systems, except for conventional systems in which solid fuels are used. If the calculatio...

  5. A framework for the comparison of mobile patient monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pravin; Jones, Val; van Beijnum, Bert-Jan F; Hermens, Hermie

    2012-06-01

    A mobile patient monitoring system makes use of mobile computing and wireless communication technologies for continuous or periodic measurement and analysis of biosignals of a mobile patient. In a number of trials these systems have demonstrated their user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness for both patients and healthcare professionals. In this paper we propose a generic architecture, associated terminology and a classificatory framework for comparing mobile patient monitoring systems. We then apply this comparison framework to classify six mobile patient monitoring systems selected according to the following criteria: use of diverse mobile communication techniques, evidence of practical trials and availability of sufficient published scientific information. We also show how to use this framework to determine feature sets of prospective real-time mobile patient monitoring systems using the example of epilepsy monitoring. This paper is aimed at both healthcare professionals and computer professionals. For healthcare professionals, this paper provides a general understanding of technical aspects of the mobile patient monitoring systems and highlights a number of issues implied by the use of these systems. The proposed framework for comparing mobile patient monitoring systems can be used by healthcare professionals to determine feature sets of prospective mobile patient monitoring systems to address particular healthcare related needs. Computer professionals are expected to benefit by gaining an understanding of the latest developments in the important emerging application area of mobile patient monitoring systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.G.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, four different system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are analyzed and tested, with particular focus on the methods used to acquire the necessary energy during a voltage sag. Comparisons are made between two topologies that can be realized with a minimum amount...... of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain...... voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage....

  7. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, F.T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Nassar, F.E. [Keith and Schnars, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    European and Japanese high-speed rail (HSR) and magnetically levitated (maglev) systems were each developed to respond to specific transportation needs within local economic, social, and political constraints. Not only is maglev technology substantially different from that of HSR, but also HSR and maglev systems differ in trainset design, track characteristics, cost structure, and cost sensitivity to design changes. This paper attempts to go beyond the traditional technology comparison table and focuses on the characteristics and conditions for which existing European and Japanese systems were developed. The technologies considered are the French train a grand vitesse (TGV), the Swedish X2000, the German Intercity Express (ICE) and Transrapid, and the Japanese Shinkansen, MLU, and high-speed surface train (HSST).

  8. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwacke John H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  9. A comparison of database systems for XML-type data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Judith E; Leunissen, Jack A M

    2010-01-01

    In the field of bioinformatics interchangeable data formats based on XML are widely used. XML-type data is also at the core of most web services. With the increasing amount of data stored in XML comes the need for storing and accessing the data. In this paper we analyse the suitability of different database systems for storing and querying large datasets in general and Medline in particular. All reviewed database systems perform well when tested with small to medium sized datasets, however when the full Medline dataset is queried a large variation in query times is observed. There is not one system that is vastly superior to the others in this comparison and, depending on the database size and the query requirements, different systems are most suitable. The best all-round solution is the Oracle 11~g database system using the new binary storage option. Alias-i's Lingpipe is a more lightweight, customizable and sufficiently fast solution. It does however require more initial configuration steps. For data with a changing XML structure Sedna and BaseX as native XML database systems or MySQL with an XML-type column are suitable.

  10. Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model.

  11. A Comparison of Candidate Seal Designs for Future Docking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick, H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce, M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, and other destinations. A key component of this system is the seal at the main docking interface which inhibits the loss of cabin air once docking is complete. Depending on the mission, the seal must be able to dock in either a seal-on-flange or seal-on-seal configuration. Seal-on-flange mating would occur when a docking system equipped with a seal docks to a system with a flat metal flange. This would occur when a vehicle docks to a node on the International Space Station. Seal-on-seal mating would occur when two docking systems equipped with seals dock to each other. Two types of seal designs were identified for this application: Gask-O-seals and multi-piece seals. Both types of seals had a pair of seal bulbs to satisfy the redundancy requirement. A series of performance assessments and comparisons were made between the candidate seal designs indicating that they meet the requirements for leak rate and compression and adhesion loads under a range of operating conditions. Other design factors such as part count, integration into the docking system tunnel, seal-on-seal mating, and cost were also considered leading to the selection of the multi-piece seal design for the new docking system. The results of this study can be used by designers of future docking systems and other habitable volumes to select the seal design best-suited for their particular application.

  12. Comparison of free energy methods for molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, F Marty; Swendsen, Robert H; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-11-14

    We present a detailed comparison of computational efficiency and precision for several free energy difference (DeltaF) methods. The analysis includes both equilibrium and nonequilibrium approaches, and distinguishes between unidirectional and bidirectional methodologies. We are primarily interested in comparing two recently proposed approaches, adaptive integration, and single-ensemble path sampling to more established methodologies. As test cases, we study relative solvation free energies of large changes to the size or charge of a Lennard-Jones particle in explicit water. The results show that, for the systems used in this study, both adaptive integration and path sampling offer unique advantages over the more traditional approaches. Specifically, adaptive integration is found to provide very precise long-simulation DeltaF estimates as compared to other methods used in this report, while also offering rapid estimation of DeltaF. The results demonstrate that the adaptive integration approach is the best overall method for the systems studied here. The single-ensemble path sampling approach is found to be superior to ordinary Jarzynski averaging for the unidirectional, "fast-growth" nonequilibrium case. Closer examination of the path sampling approach on a two-dimensional system suggests it may be the overall method of choice when conformational sampling barriers are high. However, it appears that the free energy landscapes for the systems used in this study have rather modest configurational sampling barriers.

  13. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev system costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper compares the two modes of transportation, and notes important similarities and differences in the technologies and in how they can be implemented to their best advantage. Problems with making fair comparisons of the costs and benefits are discussed and cost breakdowns based on data reported in the literature are presented and discussed in detail. Cost data from proposed and actual construction projects around the world are summarized and discussed. Results from the National Maglev Initiative and the recently-published Commercial Feasibility Study are included in the discussion. Finally, estimates will be given of the expected cost differences between HSR and maglev systems implemented under simple and complex terrain conditions. The extent to which the added benefits of maglev technology offset the added costs is examined.

  14. [Comparison of screens and screen-film-systems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H J; Goos, F

    1979-06-01

    Important details are to be payed attention in comparison of different scrreens resp. screen-film-systems: 1. Physical characteristics of different groups of luminescent materials: f.i. calcium tung-state, rare-earths compounds, double halogenides. - 2. Different types of screens: highest details up to highest speed intensifying screens, have to be defined more specifically and differentiated against to each other too. - 3. Besides intensification, resolution has to be included into consideration since one of these dates alone does not allow any statement on the total function of a screen or a screen-film-system. - 4. The technical methodological conditions of apparatuses, object and its positioning have to be defined, f.i. X-ray quality, distances, grid, and in automatically controlled exposition, if necessary, position of ionization chamber as well as absorption of cassetts and screen. - 5. Considering these points gradation curves have to include the whole necessary or interesting diagnostic range. - 6. Due to functional correlation between intensification and resolution, the resolution has to be taken in consideration due to application; its interdependence of density and object (f.i. scattered radiation) is often not taken enough in consideration.

  15. Comparison of two column characterisation systems based on pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghedooren, Erik; Németh, Tamás; Dragovic, Sanja; Noszál, Béla; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2008-05-02

    A useful column characterisation system should help chromatographers to select the most appropriate column to use, e.g. when a particular chromatographic column is not available or when facing the dilemma of selecting a suitable column for analysis according to an official monograph. Official monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopeia are not allowed to mention the brand name of the stationary phase used for the method development. Also given the overwhelming offer of several hundreds of commercially available reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns, the choice of a suitable column could be difficult sometimes. To support rational column selection, a column characterisation study was started in our laboratory in 2000. In the same period, Euerby et al. also developed a column characterisation system, which is now released as Column Selector by ACD/Labs. The aim of this project was to compare the two existing column characterisation systems, i.e. the KUL system and the Euerby system. Other research groups active in this field will not be discussed here. Euerby et al. developed a column characterisation system based on 6 test parameters, while the KUL system is based on 4 chromatographic parameters. Comparison was done using a set of 63 columns. For 7 different pharmaceutical separations (fluoxetine, gemcitabine, erythromycin, tetracycline, tetracaine, amlodipine and bisacodyl), a ranking was built based on an F-value (KUL method) or Column Difference Factor value (Euerby method) versus a (virtual) reference column. Both methods showed a similar ranking. The KUL and Euerby methods do not perfectly match, but they yield very similar results, allowing with a relatively high certainty, the selection of similar or dissimilar columns as compared to a reference column. An analyst that uses either of the two methods, will end up with a similar ranking. From a practical point of view, it must be noted that the KUL method only includes 4

  16. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  17. A Three-Port Topology Comparison for a Low Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Three-port converter (TPC) topologies for renewable energy systems aim to provide higher efficiency and power density than conventional cascaded structures. This work proposes an analytical comparison of different TPC topologies for a photovoltaic LED lamp stand-alone system. A comparison using...

  18. Energy and Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Combined Heat and Power Systems. Comparison of Various Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Costea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of various CHP system configurations, such as Vapour Turbine, Gas Turbine, Internal Combustion Engine, External Combustion Engine (Stirling, Ericsson, when different thermodynamic criteria are considered, namely the first law efficiency and exergy efficiency. Thermodynamic optimization of these systems is performed intending to maximize the exergy, when various practical related constraints (imposed mechanical useful energy, imposed heat demand, imposed heat to power ratio or main physical limitations (limited heat availability, maximum system temperature allowed, thermo-mechanical constraints are taken into account. A sensitivity analysis to model parameters is given. The results have shown that the various added constraints were useful for the design allowing to precise the influence of the model main parameters on the system design. Future perspective of the work and recommendations are stated.

  19. Quantitative comparison between PW-PSM and PW-TSM Doppler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation-based quantitative comparison between pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler systems using the conventional phase-shift measurement (PSM) technique and the newer time-shift measurement (TSM) technique is presented. A PSM system applying an autocorrelator is compared with a TSM system. The performa......A simulation-based quantitative comparison between pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler systems using the conventional phase-shift measurement (PSM) technique and the newer time-shift measurement (TSM) technique is presented. A PSM system applying an autocorrelator is compared with a TSM system...

  20. Comparison of indices of disproportionality in PR systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bolun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of 12 indices of disproportionality by such characteristics as: metric, definition domain, representation uniformity, invariance and utilization field, is done. As a result of comparison, the opportunity to use as index of disproportionality in elections the Average relative deviation one is argued. Graphic representation for the upper limit of optimal solutions' disproportionality, when using this index, is shown.

  1. A Global Comparison of Business Journal Ranking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Scherer, Robert F.; Lecoutre, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared business journal ranking systems from 6 countries. Results revealed a low degree of agreement among the systems, and a low to moderate relationship between pairs of systems. In addition, the French and United Kingdom ranking systems were different from each other and from the systems in Australia, Germany, Hong Kong, and the…

  2. Comparison of vertical and horizontal systems of constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Urša

    2011-01-01

    The constructed wetlands (CW) or artificial wetlands with the wastewater treatment as their primary function are complex systems of water, substrate, plants, animals and microorganisms (bacteria). In practice there are two general systems in use, the system with the surface and the system with the subsurface flow, which is further divided into the system with the horizontal water flow and in the system with the vertical water flow. Understanding of constructed wetlands function...

  3. A Firsthand Comparison of a System Office to a College Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard C.

    2010-01-01

    System offices for community college institutional research differ in many ways from campus offices for community college institutional research. The other chapters in this volume describe salient characteristics of system IR offices, but many readers may want to see a direct comparison of system IR offices to campus IR offices in the community…

  4. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the

  5. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  6. Learning from south–south comparison: the education systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Both education systems are not sufficiently adapted to their real educational ... It is concluded that one of the most basic problems of developing education systems ..... or severe lack of physical facilities such as teaching and learning materials ...

  7. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  8. The comparison of different medical electronic endoscope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Wang, Liqiang; Duan, Huilong

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a miniaturized CMOS camera for high-definition (HD) medical electronic endoscope system with resolution of 1.3 MegaPixel. LVDS technology is used for image data stream transmission between the sensor and the HD image workstation to realize a long distance, high speed, high signal integrity and low noise system. Considering the real-time video image processing and the complexity of the design of HD image workstation, four solutions for medical electronic endoscope systems, namely USB based image acquisition system, PCIe acquisition data board based method, ARM embedded system based solution and DSP based electronic endoscope system have been proposed, analyzed and compared with each other. We found that the four solutions have their own advantages and disadvantages. Taking into account the strong control capacity of ARM, powerful data processing ability and high operating speed of DSP, good portability and other factors, we decided to use ARM + DSP embedded based system.

  9. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances.

  10. Comparison Of A Neutron Kinetics Parameter For A Polyethylene Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, IV, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grove, Travis Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    This paper examines the comparison of MCNP® code’s capability to calculate kinetics parameters effectively for a thermal system containing highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Rossi-α parameter was chosen for this examination because it is relatively easy to measure as well as easy to calculate using MCNP®’s kopts card. The Rossi-α also incorporates many other parameters of interest in nuclear kinetics most of which are more difficult to precisely measure. The comparison looks at two different nuclear data libraries for comparison to the experimental data. These libraries are ENDF/BVI (.66c) and ENDF/BVII (.80c).

  11. Information systems planning methodologies: a framework for comparison and selection

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The success of organizational information systems (IS) depends largely upon effective planning for the information systems. A comprehensive IS plan should provide a coordinated approach to strategic business goals, organizational information requirements and an overall measure of performance. Acknowledging the importance of comprehensive planning in the process of managing the organization's information resource, a collection of meth...

  12. A Framework for the Comparison of Mobile Patient Monitoring Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, P.; Jones, Valerie M.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    A mobile patient monitoring system makes use of mobile computing and wireless communication technologies for continuous or periodic measurement and analysis of biosignals of a mobile patient. In a number of trials these systems have demonstrated their user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness

  13. A comparison of displacement measuring systems for single-axis measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdale, S.J.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses an attempt to make a relative comparison of the performance of an ordinary supermicrometer retrofitted with several different displacement measuring systems. The methodology used was a gage repeatability and reproducibility study. The environment, equipment, and operators were held constant in an experimental design that highlights the difference in capability of the various displacement measuring systems.

  14. Comparison of visual field severity classification systems for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Minna; Sample, Pamela A; Pascual, John P; Zangwill, Linda M; Girkin, Chris A; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Weinreb, Robert N; Racette, Lyne

    2012-01-01

    To compare categorical severity classification systems for glaucoma. This cross-sectional study included 1,921 eyes (49.5% right eye) from 1,137 participants from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study and African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study. Standard automated perimetry fields were classified using the: (1) Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study scoring system (AGIS), (2) Glaucoma Severity Staging system (GSS), and (3) Enhanced Glaucoma Severity Staging system (eGSS). Systems were characterized using the following continuous measures of severity: mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and visual field index. Classifications between systems and with optic disc stereophotograph assessment were compared (κ) and some stages were consolidated to evaluate severity classification across systems (Wilcoxon test). Mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and visual field index were significantly different between GSS and AGIS, and GSS and eGSS in normal and abnormal fields (PeGSS was substantial (κ=0.715±0.012); agreement between GSS and eGSS (κ=0.559±0.014) and AGIS (κ=0.519±0.016) was moderate. eGSS tended to stage abnormal fields most severely followed by GSS and then AGIS (PeGSS may be the better choice for its ease of use for both clinicians and researchers.

  15. COMPARISON EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF DENMARK AND TURKEY AT PRIMARY LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz YÜCEER; Sevgi COŞKUN KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Research is made according to the following problems: “How is education system for primary school in Denmark?” and “In what ways show Turkey?” In this search it is used the horizontal and descriptive approach as a method. For this purpose it is compared similarities and differences by examining the relevant literature in identifying approach; it is also discussed all dimensions in education system, the general structure of education system, funding, courses in primary school, duration of cour...

  16. Project JADE. Comparison of repository systems. Executive summary of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstedt, H. [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pers, K.; Birgersson, Lars [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ageskog, L. [SWECO VBB VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Munier, R. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    KBS-3 has since 1984 been the reference method for disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. Several other methods like WP-Cave, Very Deep Holes and Very Long Holes have been evaluated and compared with KBS-3. Though the methods have been judged to have a high safety potential, KBS-3 has been shown to provide advantages in the combined judgement of 'long-term performance and safety', 'technology' and 'costs'. In the present study, different variants of the KBS-3 method have been analysed and compared with the reference concept KBS-3 V (V for vertical). The variants are: KBS-3 H (H for horizontal) and MLH (medium long holes) - with canisters in a horizontal position, single or in a row respectively. The comparison has been carried out separately for the interim items 'technology', 'long-term performance and safety' and 'costs' respectively. The outcome in each of these comparisons have finally been combined in a ranking. This ranking placed KBS-3 V in the top followed by MLH and KBS-3 H. Vertical deposition of a single canister in one deposition hole, KBS-3 V, is robust as gravity is used for lowering the canister and the bentonite into the deposition hole and since each canister has its own barrier in the near field, which reduces the risk for interference between canisters. The drawback for MLH is the uncertainty about the emplacement technique as well as the impact of weak rock and water leakage into a long deposition hole for several canisters. The advantage is that a smaller volume of rock has to be excavated. This is positive regarding the long-term performance and safety, environmental impact and costs. KBS-3 H does not have the same positive potential. The conclusion of the JADE study is that KBS-3 V should remain as reference concept, and that MLH should be studied further with the aim of clarifying the technical feasibility of emplacement and the means of handling water inflow. It is recommended that KBS

  17. Comparison of district heating systems used in China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Li, Hongwei; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the technological differences between the district heating (DH) system used in China and Denmark is discussed. Although the Chinese DH systems are primarily fueled by coal and it is expected to remain this way in the near future, the reduction of network temperatures is a very...... important step towards increasing energy efficiency. If the Danish and the Chinese systems are compared from plant to consumer it can be seen that the Danish DR apply pre-insulated pipes, twin pipes where possible, with high insulation properties compared to the Chinese systems that generally apply single...... pipes with insulation typically added on-site. In Danish networks the control is situated in substations close to the consumers while in Chinese networks control is situated in big area substations. DHW is prepared by DR in Denmark while it is generally prepared by individual solutions in China...

  18. A Comparison of the Health Systems in China and India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Sai; Sood, Neeraj

    2008-01-01

    .... Intermediate outcomes are the efficiency, quality, and level of access to care. The ultimate ends of a health care system are to promote better health, reduce the financial risks associated with medical...

  19. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard

    1999-12-01

    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  20. Comparison of three-dimensional surface-imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Artner, Nicole M; Pona, Igor; Hold, Alina; Placheta, Eva; Kropatsch, Walter G; Frey, Manfred

    2014-04-01

    In recent decades, three-dimensional (3D) surface-imaging technologies have gained popularity worldwide, but because most published articles that mention them are technical, clinicians often have difficulties gaining a proper understanding of them. This article aims to provide the reader with relevant information on 3D surface-imaging systems. In it, we compare the most recent technologies to reveal their differences. We have accessed five international companies with the latest technologies in 3D surface-imaging systems: 3dMD, Axisthree, Canfield, Crisalix and Dimensional Imaging (Di3D; in alphabetical order). We evaluated their technical equipment, independent validation studies and corporate backgrounds. The fastest capturing devices are the 3dMD and Di3D systems, capable of capturing images within 1.5 and 1 ms, respectively. All companies provide software for tissue modifications. Additionally, 3dMD, Canfield and Di3D can fuse computed tomography (CT)/cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images into their 3D surface-imaging data. 3dMD and Di3D provide 4D capture systems, which allow capturing the movement of a 3D surface over time. Crisalix greatly differs from the other four systems as it is purely web based and realised via cloud computing. 3D surface-imaging systems are becoming important in today's plastic surgical set-ups, taking surgeons to a new level of communication with patients, surgical planning and outcome evaluation. Technologies used in 3D surface-imaging systems and their intended field of application vary within the companies evaluated. Potential users should define their requirements and assignment of 3D surface-imaging systems in their clinical as research environment before making the final decision for purchase. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, P; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B; De Roeck, G.; Hermans, L.; Krämer, C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner amo...

  2. Comparison of heating systems in a residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veken, J.; Peeters, L.; Hens, H. [Leuven Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium). Laboratory of Building Physics

    2005-07-01

    Low temperature radiators, high temperature radiators and floor heating systems were compared via a case study approach in order to assess the overall efficiency between heating systems. The case study investigated the influence of radiant heating on temperature control as well as the introduction of an outside temperature sensor, insulation around piping, different boiler types and temperature profiles, such as night set back. The simulations were conducted using a TRNSYS16-model of a typical terraced house and compared four types of heating systems including, high temperature radiators, low temperature radiators, and two systems with floor heating in the day zone and temperature radiators in the night zone but differing in their floor capacity. The case study also investigated the influence of controlling the operative or air bulb temperature and the introduction of a condensing boiler possibly combined with a variable boiler exhaust temperature. It was concluded that floor heating systems do not outperform radiators, and only when coupled to condensing boilers, they consume less energy than the high temperature radiator system. Low temperature radiators perform best in all cases. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Psychiatric disorders, acne and systemic retinoids: comparison of risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, M; Bulteau, S; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Gerardin, M; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Jonville-Bera, A P; Jolliet, Pascale; Dreno, Brigitte; Victorri-Vigneau, C

    2017-09-01

    The link between isotretinoin, treatment of a severe form of acne, and psychiatric disorders remains controversial, as acne itself could explain the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. This study aims at assessing the disproportionality of psychiatric adverse events reported with isotretinoin in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database, compared with other systemic acne treatments and systemic retinoids. Data were extracted from the French National PharmacoVigilance Database for systemic acne treatments, systemic retinoids and drugs used as comparators. Each report was subjected to double-blind analysis by two psychiatric experts. A disproportionality analysis was performed, calculating the number of psychiatric ADRs divided by the total number of notifications for each drug of interest. Concerning acne systemic treatments: all 71 reports of severe psychiatric disorders involved isotretinoin, the highest proportion of mild/moderate psychiatric adverse events was reported with isotretinoin (14.1%). Among systemic retinoids, the highest proportion of severe and mild/moderate psychiatric events occurred with isotretinoin and alitretinoin. Our study raises the hypothesis that psychiatric disorders associated with isotretinoin are related to a class effect of retinoids, as a signal emerges for alitretinoin. Complementary studies are necessary to estimate the risk and further determine at-risk populations.

  4. Comparison of Excitation Signals in Active Magnetic Bearing System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Vuojolainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Active magnetic bearings (AMBs offer frictionless suspension, vibration insulation, programmable stiffness, and damping, among other advantages, in levitated rotor applications. However, AMBs are inherently unstable and require accurate system models for the high-performance model-based multi-input multi-output control of rotor position. Control electronics with high calculation capacity and accurate sensors of AMBs provide an opportunity to implement various identification schemes. A variety of artificial excitation signal-based identification methods can thus be achieved with no additional hardware. In this paper, a selection of excitation signals, namely the pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS, chirp signal, multisine, and stepped sine are presented, applied, and compared with the AMB system identification. From the identification experiments, the rotor-bearing system, the inner current control loop, and values of position and current stiffness are identified. Unlike recently published works considering excitation-based identification of AMB rotor systems, it is demonstrated that identification of the rotor system dynamics can be carried out using various well-established excitation signals. Application and feasibility of these excitation signals in AMB rotor systems are analyzed based on experimental results.

  5. Analysis of energy pricing system and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, D.H. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Energy is an indispensable element of national life, and the stable and effective supply of energy becomes the most important prerequisite for the continuous development of the economy. Energy pricing policy should be established in the direction to induce the effective use of energy in Korea which has a high degree of reliance on imported energy, but as the result of maintaining a low energy price policy, it became the cause of over-consumption. As a result of analyzing relative prices of domestic energy, natural gas is judged as the most economical or becomes the second best policy in all uses. It is noteworthy that this result is due to price. In the mean time, in comparison, an analysis result of the energy price with major countries in OECD, prices of petroleum products, power, and natural gas for household use that lead to the increase force of domestic energy consumption, are relatively inexpensive, and relatively low tax rates are applied to these energy sources. Therefore, in order for the energy price to escape from remaining unchanged, it will be necessary to prepare proper relative pricing structure that considers the pricing level between energy sources under long-term energy policy and let the level of prices to be decided with the frame. Therefore, this study tries to find out the direction of proper relative pricing structure through structural analysis of energy price between Korea and major countries in OECD in this dimension. 31 refs., 7 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. Preoxygenation: a comparison of three different breathing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J; Führer, I; Kuhly, P; Schaffartzik, W

    2001-12-01

    An end-tidal expiratory oxygen concentration (FE'O2) greater than 0.90 is considered to be adequate for preoxygenation. This is generally achieved using a face mask, but this can be unsatisfactory in some patients. We compared preoxygenation in 30 healthy volunteers using a face mask, the NasOral system, which is a novel preoxygenation device, and a mouthpiece with a nose-clip. We measured the maximal FE'O2, the FE'O2 after 2 min and the time to reach maximal FE'O2 and recorded the subjective judgement of the volunteers. The maximal FE'O2 with face mask and mouthpiece was significantly greater than with the modified NasOral system (P<0.05 and P<0.01). With the former devices, a FE'O2 of 0.90 was achieved in 73% of the volunteers vs 46% with the modified NasOral system. Using the mouthpiece, the FE'O2 after 2 min was significantly higher than using the face mask (P<0.01) or the modified NasOral system (P<0.01). The time to maximal FE'O2 was significantly shorter using the modified NasOral system than with the face mask or mouthpiece (P<0.001 and P=0.0001). The volunteers gave more positive ratings to the face mask and mouthpiece than to the modified NasOral system (P<0.001 and P<0.01). We conclude that the use of a mouthpiece can improve preoxygenation in some patients. The results obtained with the modified NasOral system do not justify its introduction into clinical practice.

  7. Comparison of Three Systems for Biological Greywater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Hernández Leal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Greywater consists of household wastewater excluding toilet discharges. Three systems were compared for the biological treatment of greywater at a similar hydraulic retention time of approximately 12–13 hours. These systems were aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor, anaerobic treatment in an up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor and combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment (up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor + sequencing batch reactor. Aerobic conditions resulted in a COD removal of 90%, which was significantly higher than 51% removal by anaerobic treatment. The low removal in the anaerobic reactor may have been caused by high concentration of anionic surfactants in the influent (43.5 mg/L and a poor removal of the colloidal fraction of the COD in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Combined aerobic-anaerobic treatment accomplished a COD removal of 89%, similar to the aerobic treatment alone. Greywater methanization was 32% for the anaerobic system and 25% for the anaerobic-aerobic system, yielding a small amount of energy. Therefore, anaerobic pre-treatment is not feasible and an aerobic system is preferred for the treatment of greywater.

  8. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Peeters, B.; Hermans, L.

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method......, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner among the four methods, but more to emphasize the different advantages of each of the methods....

  9. Comparison of scientific and administrative database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics found to be different for scientific and administrative data bases are identified and some of the corresponding generic requirements for data base management systems (DBMS) are discussed. The requirements discussed are especially stringent for either the scientific or administrative data bases. For some, no commercial DBMS is fully satisfactory, and the data base designer must invent a suitable approach. For others, commercial systems are available with elegant solutions, and a wrong choice would mean an expensive work-around to provide the missing features. It is concluded that selection of a DBMS must be based on the requirements for the information system. There is no unique distinction between scientific and administrative data bases or DBMS. The distinction comes from the logical structure of the data, and understanding the data and their relationships is the key to defining the requirements and selecting an appropriate DBMS for a given set of applications.

  10. Context-specific comparison of sleep acquisition systems in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Garbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is conserved across phyla and can be measured through electrophysiological or behavioral characteristics. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetic and neural mechanisms that regulate sleep. Multiple systems exist for measuring fly activity, including video analysis and single-beam (SB or multi-beam (MB infrared (IR-based monitoring. In this study, we compare multiple sleep parameters of individual flies using a custom-built video-based acquisition system, and commercially available SB- or MB-IR acquisition systems. We report that all three monitoring systems appear sufficiently sensitive to detect changes in sleep duration associated with diet, age, and mating status. Our data also demonstrate that MB-IR detection appeared more sensitive than the SB-IR for detecting baseline nuances in sleep architecture, while architectural changes associated with varying life-history and environment were generally detected across all acquisition types. Finally, video recording of flies in an arena allowed us to measure the effect of ambient environment on sleep. These experiments demonstrate a robust effect of arena shape and size as well as light levels on sleep duration and architecture, and highlighting the versatility of tracking-based sleep acquisition. These findings provide insight into the context-specific basis for choosing between Drosophila sleep acquisition systems, describe a novel cost-effective system for video tracking, and characterize sleep analysis using the MB-IR sleep analysis. Further, we describe a modified dark-place preference sleep assay using video tracking, confirming that flies prefer to sleep in dark locations.

  11. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  12. Comparison of three Land Evaluation Systems in Evaluating the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three land evaluation system.(Land Capability Classification, Fertility Capability Classification and Land Suitability Classification) were compared for their practical relevance in terms of the accuracy of their predictive value on seven major soil types in the humid forest zone of south western Nigeria. The result showed that ...

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Systems: A Three-Country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    This article compares the occupational safety and health systems of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, looking at the origins of their legislation and its effects on occupational safety and health, with a view to determining what lessons may emerge, particularly for developing countries. (Author/SSH)

  14. Comparison between Two Learning Management Systems: Moodle and Blackboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momani, Alaa M.

    2010-01-01

    Moodle and Blackboard are two of the most famous and widely-known Learning Management Systems (LMS) over the world especially in the universities and other educational organizations. They have lots in common, but also have some key differences which make each one special in its own way. We note these differences below. If you have used any one of…

  15. Comparison of the EndoVac System and Conventional Needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... more dentinal erosion. Ozone (O3) is a powerful oxidizing agent that has great ... EndoVac (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA, USA) is an apical negative pressure system that delivers irrigants ... The rationale of the study was that the dental literature shows a lack of importance of irrigation in primary root.

  16. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Pure hardware based biometric systems of user authentication have low rate of errors but increase computational and economic cost. Alternate biometric methods based purely on software development are now booming. This paper presents our results on improving authentication of users using a password mechanism ...

  17. The systemic nature of mustard lung: Comparison with COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriary Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin (IL, chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.

  18. A comparison of thermoelectric phenomena in diverse alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Bruce [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The study of thermoelectric phenomena in solids provides a wealth of opportunity for exploration of the complex interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of materials. As thermoelectricity implies some type of coupled thermal and electrical behavior, it is expected that a basic understanding of transport behavior in materials is the goal of such a study. However, transport properties such as electrical resistivity and thermal diffusivity cannot be fully understood and interpreted without first developing an understanding of the material's preparation and its underlying structure. It is the objective of this dissertation to critically examine a number of diverse systems in order to develop a broad perspective on how structure-processing-property relationships differ from system to system, and to discover the common parameters upon which any good thermoelectric material is based. The alloy systems examined in this work include silicon-germanium, zinc oxide, complex intermetallic compounds such as the half-Heusler MNiSn, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, and rare earth chalcogenides.

  19. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  20. A Comparison of the Polish and Soviet Armaments Decisionmaking Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    translated and published under the auspices of the U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C., 1977, p. 51; Antoni Rogucki, " Teoria potencjalu wojenno-ekonomicznego a...proizvodstvennogo oborudovaniia i sistema amortisatsii" (Managing the Renovation of the Production Equip- ment and Amortization System), Planovoe khoziaistvo, 1979

  1. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  2. Learning from south-south comparison: the education systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare two education systems in the southern hemisphere and particularly from the SADEC countries, namely, Madagascar and South Africa. Research was done by means of field observation as well as through discussions and interviews with role players at regional education ...

  3. A comparison of user and system query performance predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Kelly, Diane; Azzopardi, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Query performance prediction methods are usually applied to estimate the retrieval effectiveness of queries, where the evaluation is largely system sided. However, little work has been conducted to understand query performance prediction from the user's perspective. The question we consider is,

  4. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  5. Suicide Bulletin Board Systems Comparison between Japan and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime; Eichenberg, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    An online questionnaire (n = 301) was conducted to analyze the cross-cultural influence of the use of suicide bulletin board systems. Factor analysis demonstrated that participants had two types of motives: the constructive motive of mutual help and the destructive motive of suicide preparation. The results showed that suicidal thoughts did not…

  6. Comparison of Extruder Systems for 3D Printer Filament Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has grown in popularity over the past thirty years, due to its versatility, short design to product cycle, and capability to fabricate complex geometries, which cannot otherwise be produced. There exist several platforms that are able to print objects composed of different materials, making this technology significant in different fields such as: automotive, aerospace, medical, electronics, amongst others. Though several types of AM technologies are available, the expiration of the patents on fused deposition modeling (FDM) in 2009 has led to a widespread use of this platform in academia and home use settings. Widespread use of FDM-type AM platforms has led to a demand to fabricate feedstock materials for this AM platform. Particularly, in the home do it yourself (DIY) community there has been a widespread interest for users to manufacture their own feedstock filament leading to a large growth in home-use extrusion systems. The low cost of these desktop-grade systems has also made them attractive to academics, but there has not been a widespread effort into determining the efficacy of these small scale extrusion systems as compared to industrial quality extruders which are typically used to manufacture feedstock for FDM platforms. The aim of this study was to compare two extrusion processes: 1) a desktop grade single-screw extruder; and 2) an industrial scale twin-screw extruder. In order to understand differences between their performance and quality of mixing, a rubberized blend of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) mixed with styrene ethylene butylene styrene with a maleic anhydride graft (SEBS-g-MA) at different ratios was compounded on each extrusion system. Melt flow index, and mechanical properties were compared. In addition, a raster pattern sensitivity study was performed to evaluate the effect of the extruder system on 3D printed objects. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces

  7. Comparison of Question Answering Systems Based on Ontology and Semantic Web in Different Environment

    OpenAIRE

    DURAISWAMY, K.; Kalaivani, S.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Question Answering (QA) system is taking an important role in current search engine optimization concept. Natural language processing technique is mostly implemented in QA system for asking userâs question and several steps are also followed for conversion of questions to query form for getting an exact answer. Approach: This paper surveys different types of question answering system based on ontology and semantic web model with different query format. For comparison, the t...

  8. Mobile In Vivo Infrared Data Collection and Diagnoses Comparison System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick W. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Described is a mobile in vivo infrared brain scan and analysis system. The system includes a data collection subsystem and a data analysis subsystem. The data collection subsystem is a helmet with a plurality of infrared (IR) thermometer probes. Each of the IR thermometer probes includes an IR photodetector capable of detecting IR radiation generated by evoked potentials within a user's skull. The helmet is formed to collect brain data that is reflective of firing neurons in a mobile subject and transmit the brain data to the data analysis subsystem. The data analysis subsystem is configured to generate and display a three-dimensional image that depicts a location of the firing neurons. The data analysis subsystem is also configured to compare the brain data against a library of brain data to detect an anomaly in the brain data, and notify a user of any detected anomaly in the brain data.

  9. Comparison of Systems for Levitation Heating of Electrically Conductive Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Dolezel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Levitation heating of nonmagnetic electrically conductive bodies can be realized in various systems consisting of one of more inductors. The paper deals with compassion of the resultant. Lorentz lifts force acting on such a body (cylinder, sphere and velocity of its heating for different shapes of coils and parameters of the field currents (amplitudes, frequency. The tack is solved in quasi-coupled formulation. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with an illustrative example whose results are discussed.

  10. Thermodynamic comparison of three small-scale gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    to be more efficient (1000-2000 kJ/kgLNG) than expander-based ones (2500-5000 kJ/kgLNG) over larger ranges of operating conditions, at the expense of a greater system complexity and higher thermal conductance (250-500kW/K against 80-160 kW/K). The results show that the use of different thermodynamic models...

  11. Comparison between .NET and Java EEImplementation of Cash & Bank System

    OpenAIRE

    Waqar, Hafiz Umer

    2013-01-01

    The demands of software engineering increases with everyday passed and every organization shows interest to work on daily routine work in the computerized system to improve efficiency and accuracy of data. Most of organization demands different kinds of computerized software solutions that developed in modern technologies. There are different software development technologies that is getting popular with the passage of time and provide high quality product to their user. It is not an easy to ...

  12. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones’ potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls. In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  13. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-10-08

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  14. Comparison of tillage systems according to fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileusnic, Z.I.; Petrovic, D.V.; Devic, M.S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade Zemun (RS)

    2010-01-15

    Nowadays, tractor is still the basic power unit in almost all production processes in agriculture, including tillage. The structure of tractor-machinery systems depends on many parameters: seeding system, soil conditions, farm area etc. These relevant parameters are defined in this paper, as well as the energy inputs introduced in the tillage through the consumed fuel. Altogether, they simultaneously represent the input variables in the selection criteria of tractor-machinery systems. A method of selecting the optimal tractor for different tillage technologies is presented in this paper. The results obtained show that fuel energy consumption for all tractors in the conditions of conventional tillage is in range from 412 to 740 MJ/ha. In the case of mulch technology the energy consumption varied from 183 to 266 MJ/ha and in the case of zero tillage the energy consumption varied from 80 to 284 MJ/ha. These results show obvious differences in energy inputs regarding the applied production technology. (author)

  15. Comparison of Severity Scoring Systems in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Onur Alıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the ability of CURB-65, pneumonia severity index and SMART-COP systems to predict 30-day mortality and the need for intensive respiratory and vasopressor support (IVRS. Methods: We included 84 cases with community acquired pneumonia (CAP and followed up for 30 days. The scores were calculated at admission and associated with the 30-day mortality and the need for intensive respiratory and vasopressor support. Results: The mean age of patients was 58.6±18.7 years. The 30-day mortality level for CAP was 7.1%. Fourteen of 84 patients (16.7% with CAP were followed in ICU. The area under curve (AUC values of the three systems (CURB-65, PSI, and SMART-COP for 30-day mortality were 0.89, 0.89 and 0.91, respectively, and for the need for IRVS was 0.88, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Conclusion: The three systems accurately detected the need for IRVS and the 30-day mortality, but none individually demonstrated any advantage over the others.

  16. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  17. A system for the comparison of tools for the simulation of water-based radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Benjamin; Raimondo, Daniela; Zhang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    increase of water based radiant systems in modern buildings and a need for reliable simulation tools to predict the indoor environment and energy performance. This paper describes the comparison of the building simulation tools IDA ICE, IES , EnergyPlus and TRNSYS. The simulation tools are compared to each...

  18. Comparison of energy of tillage systems in wheat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaeefar, A.; Varnamkhasti, M. Ghasemi; Karimi, M. [Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, Faculty of Biosystems Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran); Emamzadeh, H. [Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran (Iran); Rahimizadeh, R. [Iranian Drylands Research Institute (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    Reducing tillage practices results in lower energy consumption as well as soil erosion protection, structural damage control, and a reduction in time and energy required for seedbed preparation. This research was conducted at the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh region of Iran to determine the amount of input energy for different tillage systems. The study was planned as a completely randomized block design with five tillage systems in four replications. The tillage treatments were: moldboard plow+roller+drill (T1); chisel+roller+drill (T2); cyclo-tiller+roller+drill (T3); sweep+roller+drill (T4); and no-till (T5). Wheat yield parameters and energy indices (net energy gain, energy productivity) were recorded. There were significant differences (1% probability level) among the treatments in terms of energy indices and for wheat yield and biomass values. It was found that T3 had the highest yield and biomass and T1 had the lowest. There were also significant differences (1% probability level) among tillage systems for the energy indices. T1 had the lowest energy productivity and energy ratios and T3 had the highest. The least energy consumed for wheat produced was 8.8 MJ kg{sup -1} for T5 and the most was 11.8 MJ kg{sup -1} for T1. Energy consumed for tillage using T1 was 32.5% of the total energy and using T5 was found to be 19% of total energy. It was concluded that T3 was the most efficient overall in the region studied. (author)

  19. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC, are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife. Output factor (St, tissue maximum ratio (TMR and off axis ratio (OAR of these three SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/ Welhofer and Pinpoint (PTW cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well.

  20. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  1. Structural Modeling for the Comparison Indicators in Various Electricity Generating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Comparison indicators of various power systems can be yielded by solving a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there are different grades of interdependence among the decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, based on an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, an independence model was developed for the comparison indicators under the assumption that there is no interdependence among the decision elements. For handling different interdependence phenomena (e.g., independence, inner dependence, outer dependence, feedback effect, a combination thereof) among the decision elements, one of the simplest graph structures was investigated on the basis of an analytic network process (ANP) technique. In the present work, the main objective is to study an assessment model with a high grade of interactions among the decision elements. Comparison indicators (e.g., weighting factors, overall priority scores, and risk attitudes towards a nuclear power plant) for seven power generation systems are obtained.

  2. Comparison of corrosion monitoring techniques in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    Investigations aimed at evaluating monitoring techniques as a function of the specific water chemistry has been conducted as a part of a Nordic project focused on improving the quality of corrosion monitoring in municipal district heating. A combination of techniques has been selected to measure...... both general and localised corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS) as well as direct techniques (high sensitive ER, weight loss, local crevice corrosion current) have been applied. The data show that the water quality in Danish systems is high resulting in low corrosion rates, but changes...... in the water quality induce localised corrosion. Useful monitoring results have been obtained with high sensitive ER technique (MetriCorr) and crevice corrosion measurements with the LOCORR cell (FORCE TECHNOLOGY)....

  3. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  4. The whereabouts of Migrants : A comparison of Dutch migrant registration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Faassen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The whereabouts of migrants: a comparison of Dutch migrant registration systems. Today, one way of visualising the current refugee and migrant crisis on the outer borders of Europe is by showing a bottleneck in the processing of migrant flows: large groups of people waiting endlessly for their

  5. COMPARISON OF CFC-114 AND HFC-236EA PERFORMANCE IN SHIPBOARD VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a comparison of the performance of two refrigerants - 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114) - in shipboard vapor compression refrigeration systems. (NOTE: In compliance with the Montreal Protocol and Dep...

  6. EDNA-An expert software system for comparison and evaluation of DNA profiles in forensic casework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldemann, B.; Dornseifer, S.; Heylen, T.

    2015-01-01

    eDNA is an expert software system for DNA profile comparison, match interpretation and automated report generation in forensic DNA casework. Process automation and intelligent graphical representation maximise reliability of DNA evidence, while facilitating and accelerating the work of DNA experts....

  7. Level-1 muon trigger performance in 2017 data and comparison with the legacy muon trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the performance of the CMS Level-1 muon trigger using data collected during 2017. The efficiency is greater than 90\\% for the dataset considered. This document includes a comparison of the performance of the upgrade and the legacy systems, showing a large reduction in trigger rate for similar efficiency.

  8. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-08-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  9. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  10. Comparison of Two Conceptions of the Vibration Isolation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šklíba, Jan; Sivčák, M.; Čižmár, J.

    The sprung stretcher of a ground ambulance litter as the space conducting mechanism with three degrees of freedom. The first degree is determined to compensate the vertical translations of a carriage, the second and third to compensate both horizontal rotations (so called pitching and rolling). The first degree is realized with scissor or with parallelogram, on the upper base on which the double Cardane suspension is placed (as the second and third degree). The second Cardane frame is connected with an own stretcher. The vibration isolation is realized with controlled pneumatic springs. Their control has two sensing units: sensor of the relative position of the upper and lower base and sensor of the absolute angle deflection of the second Cardane frame from an horizontal plane (double electrolytic level). This level is modeled as a spherical pendulum (on the base of its identified characteristics). There was analyzed this dynamic system with five degrees of freedom. The analyze of two conceptions demonstrates that the scissor mechanism is for the complete space mechanism more useful than the parallelogram.

  11. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  12. A Comparison of Different HCI styles in a KBSE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Santos Gerardo

    1995-01-01

    There has been a sizable amount of research about the relative merits of different styles of human-computer interfaces and information presentation. However, it has not been possible to declare a definitive winner between graphical and text-based interfaces. Each of these interface styles provides its own advantages that may be more relevant than the other depending on the domain and characteristics of the user population in which they are applied. This paper compares graphical and text-based interfaces for formal specifications in the context of the Amphion system. It focuses in those features that make the text-based interface desirable as a substitute or a complement to a graphical interface. In order to address these problems, a new, text-based interface has been developed as an alternative/complement to the existing graphical interface. The text-based interface avoids problems by representing the information about objects and their relationships in the form of natural language sentences. This representation makes it easy for novice users to better understand the specifications. By presenting the specification information organized in the form of outlines that can be selectively expanded and collapsed, the user is given a high degree of control over the information that is displayed at any given time.

  13. Time comparison in image processing: APS sensors versus an artificial retina based vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouardi, A.; Bouaziz, S.; Dupret, A.; Lacassagne, L.; Klein, J. O.; Reynaud, R.

    2007-09-01

    To resolve the computational complexity of computer vision algorithms, one of the solutions is to perform some low-level image processing on the sensor focal plane. It becomes a smart sensor device called a retina. This concept makes vision systems more compact. It increases performance thanks to the reduction of the data flow exchanges with external circuits. This paper presents a comparison between two different vision system architectures. The first one involves a smart sensor including analogue processors allowing on-chip image processing. An external microprocessor is used to control the on-chip dataflow and integrated operators. The second system implements a logarithmic CMOS/APS sensor interfaced to the same microprocessor, in which all computations are carried out. We have designed two vision systems as proof of concept. The comparison is related to image processing time.

  14. Comparison of Different toll collections system’s and RFID tool collection system

    OpenAIRE

    Omarhommadi; Hussain Asiri; Mamdoohalzahrani

    2017-01-01

    This research paper is based on comparison of manual toll collection verses automatic toll collection systems and proposes idea of tool collection using RFID. ATCSR is an Automated Toll Collection System using RFID used for collecting tax automatically. In this we do the identification with the help of radio frequency. A vehicle will hold an RFID tag. In accordance with this number we will store, all basic information as well as the amount he has paid in advance for the TOLL collection. Reade...

  15. [Application and comparison of two shade guide training systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Tong-kai; Xu, Ming-ming; Feng, Hai-lan; Song, Guang-ying

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of shade guide training box and shade guide training software on shade matching ability of observers when used separately. To find out the difference between two training plans when the two training methods were used in combination, and to provide information on shade matching training system. Sixty-two postgraduate dental students who specialized in prosthodontics with 1 to 5 year clinical experience were enrolled in this study. At base line, each participant were asked to match 7 standard shade tabs which have been randomly chosen from Vita 3D-Master shade guide and 7 intermediate shade tabs from Vita bleached guide 3D-Master. Then the subjects were allocated to 2 groups [Toothguide Training Box (TTB) group and Toothguide Training (TT) group] according to the baseline data. Participants in group TTB received training session once a week for 3 weeks, while those in group TT received TT training session once a week for 3 weeks. All participants took a middle term shade-matching test. Then the two groups exchange the training methods and repeat the whole process, a final test was given to each participant. The elapsed time and number of accurate shade matching were recorded for each training session. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and ANOVA were used in data analysis. There were no significant differences in the number of accurate shade matching (standard shade tab and the sum) between group TTB (4.4 +/- 1.3 and 5.3 +/- 1.6) and TT (4.0 +/- 1.4 and 4.9 +/- 1.5) in the middle term test with higher value found in group TTB. In the final test, the number of accurate shade matching (standard shade tab and the sum) in group TT (4.9 +/- 0.8 and 6.4 +/- 0.8) was higher than that in group TTB (4.7 +/- 1.1 and 5.8 +/- 0.9), but significant difference was found only when the sum number of accurate shade matching was compared between the two groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between data from middle term test and from final test in group

  16. Comparison of Transformer Winding Methods for Contactless Power Transfer Systems of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yasuyoshi; Ehara, Natsuki; Iwata, Takuya; Abe, Shigeru; Yasuda, Tomio; Ida, Kazuhiko

    This paper describes the comparison of the characteristics of double- and single-sided windings of contactless power transfer systems used in electric vehicles. The self-inductance changes with the electric current when the gap length is fixed in single-sided windings. The issue is resolved by maintaining the secondary voltage constant. In the case of double-sided windings, the transformer can be miniaturized in comparison with the single-sided winding transformer. However, the coupling factor is small, and appropriate countermeasures must be adopted to reduce the back leakage flux. The leakage flux is reduced by placing an aluminum board behind the transformer. Thus, the coupling factor increases.

  17. Comparison of strategies for model predictive control for home heating in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, Pierre Jacques Camille; Popovski, Petar; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Model predictive control is seen as one of the key future enabler in increasing energy efficiency in buildings. This paper presents a comparison of the performance of the control for different formulations of the objective function. This comparison is made in a simulation study on a single building...... using historical weather and power system data from Denmark. Trade-offs between energy consumption, comfort and incurred CO2 emissions depending on the chosen objective function are quantified, highlighting the need to carefully select the strategy used in future design and implementation, rather than...

  18. Variations in optical coherence tomography resolution and uniformity: a multi-system performance comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Anthony; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Chen, Chao-Wei; Gong, Wei; Agrawal, Anant; Tomlins, Peter H.; Woolliams, Peter D.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Point spread function (PSF) phantoms based on unstructured distributions of sub-resolution particles in a transparent matrix have been demonstrated as a useful tool for evaluating resolution and its spatial variation across image volumes in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. Measurements based on PSF phantoms have the potential to become a standard test method for consistent, objective and quantitative inter-comparison of OCT system performance. Towards this end, we have evaluated three PSF phantoms and investigated their ability to compare the performance of four OCT systems. The phantoms are based on 260-nm-diameter gold nanoshells, 400-nm-diameter iron oxide particles and 1.5-micron-diameter silica particles. The OCT systems included spectral-domain and swept source systems in free-beam geometries as well as a time-domain system in both free-beam and fiberoptic probe geometries. Results indicated that iron oxide particles and gold nanoshells were most effective for measuring spatial variations in the magnitude and shape of PSFs across the image volume. The intensity of individual particles was also used to evaluate spatial variations in signal intensity uniformity. Significant system-to-system differences in resolution and signal intensity and their spatial variation were readily quantified. The phantoms proved useful for identification and characterization of irregularities such as astigmatism. Our multi-system results provide evidence of the practical utility of PSF-phantom-based test methods for quantitative inter-comparison of OCT system resolution and signal uniformity. PMID:25071949

  19. System Accuracy Evaluation of Different Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Following ISO 15197:2013 by Using Two Different Comparison Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Link, Manuela; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Haug, Cornelia

    2015-09-01

    Adherence to established standards (e.g., International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 15197) is important to ensure comparable and sufficient accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Accuracy evaluation was performed for different SMBG systems available in Europe with three reagent lots each. Test procedures followed the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013. Comparison measurements were performed with a glucose oxidase (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) and a hexokinase (cobas Integra(®) 400 Plus analyzer; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) method. Compliance with ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria was determined by calculating the percentage of results within ±15% or within ±0.83 mmol/L of the comparison measurement results for glucose concentrations at and above or below 5.55 mmol/L, respectively, and by calculating the percentage of results within consensus error grid Zones A and B. Seven systems showed with all three tested lots that 95-100% of the results were within the accuracy limits of ISO 15197:2013 and that 100% of results were within consensus error grid Zones A and B, irrespective of the comparison method used. Regarding results of individual lots, slight differences between the glucose oxidase method and the hexokinase method were found. Accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003 (±20% for concentrations ≥4.2 mmol/L and±0.83 mmol/L for concentrations ISO 15197:2013. The results also indicate that the comparison measurement method/system is important, as it may have a considerable impact on accuracy data obtained for a system.

  20. Multi-system comparison of optical coherence tomography performance with point spread function phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefer, Joshua; Fouad, Anthony; Chen, Chao-Wei; Gong, Wei; Tomlins, Peter; Woolliams, Peter; Drezek, Rebekah; Agrawal, Anant; Chen, Yu

    2013-03-01

    Point spread function (PSF) phantoms based on unstructured distributions of sub-resolution particles in a transparent matrix have proven effective for evaluating resolution and its spatial variation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. Measurements based on PSF phantoms have the potential to become a standard test method for consistent, objective and quantitative inter-comparison of OCT system performance. Towards this end, we have evaluated three PSF phantoms and investigated their ability to compare the performance of four OCT systems. The phantoms are based on 260-nm-diameter gold nanoshells, submicron-diameter iron oxide particles and 1.5-micron-diameter silica particles. The OCT systems included spectral-domain and swept source systems in free-beam geometries as well as a time-domain system in both free-beam and fiberoptic probe geometries. Results indicated that iron oxide particles and gold nanoshells were most effective for measuring spatial variations in the magnitude and shape of PSFs across the image volume. The intensity of individual particles was also used to evaluate spatial variations in signal intensity uniformity. Significant system-to-system differences in resolution and signal intensity and their spatial variation were readily quantified. The phantoms proved useful for identification and characterization of irregularities such as astigmatism. Particle concentrations of 5000 per cubic millimeter or greater provided accurate determination of performance metrics. Our multi-system inter-comparison provides evidence of the effectiveness of PSF-phantom-based test methods for comparison of OCT system resolution and signal uniformity.

  1. Comparison of two stand-alone CADe systems at multiple operating points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems are typically designed to work at a given operating point: The device displays a mark if and only if the level of suspiciousness of a region of interest is above a fixed threshold. To compare the standalone performances of two systems, one approach is to select the parameters of the systems to yield a target false-positive rate that defines the operating point, and to compare the sensitivities at that operating point. Increasingly, CADe developers offer multiple operating points, which necessitates the comparison of two CADe systems involving multiple comparisons. To control the Type I error, multiple-comparison correction is needed for keeping the family-wise error rate (FWER) less than a given alpha-level. The sensitivities of a single modality at different operating points are correlated. In addition, the sensitivities of the two modalities at the same or different operating points are also likely to be correlated. It has been shown in the literature that when test statistics are correlated, well-known methods for controlling the FWER are conservative. In this study, we compared the FWER and power of three methods, namely the Bonferroni, step-up, and adjusted step-up methods in comparing the sensitivities of two CADe systems at multiple operating points, where the adjusted step-up method uses the estimated correlations. Our results indicate that the adjusted step-up method has a substantial advantage over other the two methods both in terms of the FWER and power.

  2. Experimental research and comparison of LDPC and RS channel coding in ultraviolet communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menglong; Han, Dahai; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Guangxin

    2014-03-10

    We have implemented a modified Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codec algorithm in ultraviolet (UV) communication system. Simulations are conducted with measured parameters to evaluate the LDPC-based UV system performance. Moreover, LDPC (960, 480) and RS (18, 10) are implemented and experimented via a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV test bed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation and suggest that based on the given power and 10(-3)bit error rate (BER), in comparison with an uncoded system, average communication distance increases 32% with RS code, while 78% with LDPC code.

  3. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  4. Comparison of complementary and Kalman filter based data fusion for attitude heading reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tariqul; Islam, Md. Saiful; Shajid-Ul-Mahmud, Md.; Hossam-E-Haider, Md

    2017-12-01

    An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides 3D orientation of an aircraft (roll, pitch, and yaw) with instantaneous position and also heading information. For implementation of a low cost AHRS system Micro-electrical-Mechanical system (MEMS) based sensors are used such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. Accelerometers suffer from errors caused by external accelerations that sums to gravity and make accelerometers based rotation inaccurate. Gyroscopes can remove such errors but create drifting problems. So for getting the precise data additionally two very common and well known filters Complementary and Kalman are introduced to the system. In this paper a comparison of system performance using these two filters is shown separately so that one would be able to select filter with better performance for his/her system.

  5. Accelerating Pathology Image Data Cross-Comparison on CPU-GPU Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaibo; Huai, Yin; Lee, Rubao; Wang, Fusheng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Saltz, Joel H

    2012-07-01

    As an important application of spatial databases in pathology imaging analysis, cross-comparing the spatial boundaries of a huge amount of segmented micro-anatomic objects demands extremely data- and compute-intensive operations, requiring high throughput at an affordable cost. However, the performance of spatial database systems has not been satisfactory since their implementations of spatial operations cannot fully utilize the power of modern parallel hardware. In this paper, we provide a customized software solution that exploits GPUs and multi-core CPUs to accelerate spatial cross-comparison in a cost-effective way. Our solution consists of an efficient GPU algorithm and a pipelined system framework with task migration support. Extensive experiments with real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution, which improves the performance of spatial cross-comparison by over 18 times compared with a parallelized spatial database approach.

  6. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  7. Comparison of specific production performances by two crystalline silicon PV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two independent photovoltaic (PV systems located close to each other on the south of the Czech Moravian Highland was accomplished. Due to differences in installation parameters; reference quantities were used to calculate transformed data sets for specific production performances comparison. Differences in monthly and annually daily production were performed by t-test.According to obtained results, it was concluded that annually mean daily productions per 1 kWp of installed capacity and per 1 m2 of active area of the panels are significantly better by single crystal silicon installation in tracking system than by stable installation of a different technology of single crystal silicon. However, comparing this performance per 1 m2 of occupied land by studied power-plants the stable installation performed higher production rates on daily mean basis in majority of months of the year 2010 as well as by annually mean daily production.

  8. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  9. Comparison of the Hospice Systems in the United States, Japan and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yul Lee, RN, PhD

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: Based on the comparison of three countries, the most interesting thing was that home hospice care accounted for more than 90% of all hospice services in the United States and Taiwan. The results of this study will aid the countries that are in the process of developing a hospice system including Korea, which has been implementing a pilot project only for hospital hospice services.

  10. Analysis and performance comparison of adaptive differential pulse code modulation data compression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cooperwood, Michael Vonshay.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical Engineering Advances in audio data compression are largely driven by the need to conserve transmission rate or bandwidth, while maintaining the ability to accurately reconstruct the signal at the receiver. This report examines data compression methods with an emphasis on techniques for the compression of audio data. An overview of data compression schemes is presented to provide the background for a performance comparison between selected versions of data compression systems fea...

  11. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  12. Comparison of systems for memory allocation in the C programming language

    OpenAIRE

    Zavrtanik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis describes memory allocation. Work begins with description of mechanism, system calls and data structures used in memory allocators. Goals of memory allocation ares listed along with problems which must be avoided. Afterwards construction and allocating of popular memory allocators is described. Work ends with comparison of memory allocators based on time of execution of programs and memory usage, on which conclusion is based.

  13. Comparison of eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponic and aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Sajjadinia; A. Ershadi; H.R. Roosta

    2010-01-01

    Aquaponics is one of the recirculating aquaculture systems in which plant grows without soil. Considering the lack of information about aquaponic culture for main crops like pepper and the absence of comparison of plant conditions in soilless culture, in this experiment eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponics and aquaponics were investigated. After starting the plants to flowering, eco-physiological parameters were measured using potable far-red gas analyzer LCA-4, ADC. The...

  14. Comparison of Microleakage of Composite Resin Veneering Systems at the Alloy Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    technique that there is leakage around resin veneers in gold crowns. Microleakage studies have been used primarily for the evaluation of direct...investigation is to evaluate the bond between veneering composite resin and metal substructure. Measurement of microleakage at the composite resin-alloy...34OVERPRINT" COMPARISON OF MICROLEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESIN VENEERING SYSTEMS AT THE ALLOY INTERFACE A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The University

  15. Comparisons of GNSS and leveling-derived orthometric heights using geographic information system software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K. M.; Satalich, J.

    2012-12-01

    We make comparisons between GNSS- and leveling-derived orthometric heights along a 31-km long leveling line of NAVD 88 benchmarks located on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, southern California. Our study makes comparisons using both the GEOID09 and GEOID12 models and note improvements using the newer model. The Palos Verdes Peninsula is located 40 km southeast of downtown Los Angeles. Geodetic leveling observations span 16 years over three epochs: 1978, 1989, and 1994. GNSS observations span 20 years over five epochs: 1992, 1994, 1997, 2011, and 2012. Comparisons between GNSS-derived and leveled orthometric heights indicate a systematic trend reaching a maximum of about +8 cm along the western flank of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The greatest improvements between the GEOID09 and GEOID12 models are shown on the southern portion of the peninsula between San Pedro and Point Vicente. Based upon new-minus-old comparisons of the GNSS and leveling observations, these differences cannot be attributed to either leveling or GNSS errors. We examine whether these differences may be attributable to steep gravity gradients in this region of the Peninsula. Our analysis of these results makes use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system (GIS) software. The analysis takes into account subsidence and rebound effects due to fluid extraction (petroleum and water), water injection, landslide prone areas, and faulting.

  16. Application of a full body inertial measurement system in alpine skiing: a comparison with an optical video based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Andreas; Edelmann-Nusser, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

    This study aims at determining the accuracy of a full body inertial measurement system in a real skiing environment in comparison with an optical video based system. Recent studies have shown the use of inertial measurement systems for the determination of kinematical parameters in alpine skiing. However, a quantitative validation of a full body inertial measurement system for the application in alpine skiing is so far not available. For the purpose of this study, a skier performed a test-run equipped with a full body inertial measurement system in combination with a DGPS. In addition, one turn of the test-run was analyzed by an optical video based system. With respect to the analyzed angles, a maximum mean difference of 4.9° was measured. No differences in the measured angles between the inertial measurement system and the combined usage with a DGPS were found. Concerning the determination of the skier's trajectory, an additional system (e.g., DGPS) must be used. As opposed to optical methods, the main advantages of the inertial measurement system are the determination of kinematical parameters without the limitation of restricted capture volume, and small time costs for the measurement preparation and data analysis.

  17. A comparison and conversion table of 'the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system' and 'the Yanagihara grading system'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Y; Kanzaki, J; Yoshihara, S

    2000-07-01

    A comparison between the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system (the HB-system) and the Yanagihara grading system (the Y-system) was studied with 199 evaluations of 62 cases of postoperative unilateral acoustic neuroma. In the beginning, an original draft of the conversion table was formulated according to the 199 evaluations, in which, 0-6, 8-14, 16-20, 22-28, 30-38, and 40 points in the Y-system were matched with grade VI, V, IV, III, II, and I in the HB-system respectively. The result of the present study for prediction of sequelae showed that it was not necessary to consider the sequelae in a conversion table. And more, the study of an inter-observer variation showed that the lower and upper limits of the scores in the Y-system may shift within about a 2-point range in the draft table. From these aspects, a newly revised conversion table was proposed as a revised conversion table, in which, 0-6, 8-14, 16-22, 24-30, 32-38, and 40 points in the Y-system were matched with grade VI, V, IV, III, II, and I in the HB-system. This revised conversion table is much easier to remember for clinical use, because the score of the lower limit of each grade is simply in multiples of 8, that is, 0, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40.

  18. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Final report, Inter-group comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The individual tests are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 8 and Volume 11, and are summarized in Volume 1. Inter-group comparisons are addressed in this document, Volume 9. These comparisons are grouped as follows: mapping versus SBLOCA transients, SBLOCA, pump effects, and the effects of noncondensible gases. Appendix A provides an index and description of the microfiched plots for each test, which are enclosed with the corresponding Volumes 2 through 8. 147 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Dosimetric characterization of the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector through comparison with an in-house developed scintillator system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, Claus F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2014-01-01

    New commercial dosimetry systems need careful characterization and can benefit from the comparison with similar, in-house developed solutions. A comparison between such two dosimetry systems, both based on fibre-coupled organic plastic scintillator detectors, is presented. One system is the Exradin...... W1, fully commercialized by Standard Imaging, while the other system is the non-commercial ME40 system, developed by DTU Nutech with the aim of fundamental dosimetric research. Both systems employ plastic scintillator detectors that can be considered similar in design, calibrated using the same....... © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  20. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  1. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF USART COMMUNICATION BETWEEN REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM (RTOS AND NATIVE INTERRUPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novian Habibie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Comunication between microcontrollers is one of the crucial point in embedded sytems. On the other hand, embedded system must be able to run many parallel task simultaneously. To handle this, we need a reliabe system that can do a multitasking without decreasing every task’s performance. The most widely used methods for multitasking in embedded systems are using Interrupt Service Routine (ISR or using Real Time Operating System (RTOS. This research compared perfomance of USART communication on system with RTOS to a system that use interrupt. Experiments run on two identical development board XMega A3BU-Xplained which used intenal sensor (light and temperature and used servo as external component. Perfomance comparison done by counting ping time (elapsing time to transmit data and get a reply as a mark that data has been received and compare it. This experiments divided into two scenarios: (1 system loaded with many tasks, (2 system loaded with few tasks. Result of the experiments show that communication will be faster if system only loaded with few tasks. System with RTOS has won from interrupt in case (1, but lose to interrupt in case (2.

  2. Endodontic retreatment: clinical comparison of reciprocating systems versus rotary system in disinfecting root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Freitas, Lilian F; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Fernandes, Aleteia M; Leite, Fabio R M; Gomes, Ana P M; Camões, Izabel C G

    2015-07-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of single-file reciprocating systems and rotary systems in removing endotoxins and cultivable bacteria in endodontic retreatment. Thirty endodontically treated teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis were selected. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the system used: WaveOne (n = 10), Reciproc instrument (n = 10), and ProTaper Universal Retreatment system (n = 10). Samples were collected before and after chemomechanical preparation. The irrigation was performed by using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay test was used to quantify endotoxins. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial colony-forming unit counts. At baseline, endotoxins and cultivable bacteria were recovered from 100% of the root canal samples in a median value of 5.84 EU/mL and 4.98 × 10(3) CFU/mL, respectively. After CMP, no differences were found in the median percentage values of endotoxin reduction achieved with reciprocating systems-WaveOne [94.11%] and Reciproc [93.29%] and with rotary systems-ProTaper [94.98%] (P > 0.05). Both single-file reciprocating systems [WaveOne (98.27%) and Reciproc (99.54%)] and rotary system [ProTaper (98.73%)] were effective in reducing bacterial load (P > 0.05). Moreover, no differences were found among the systems tested. The Reciproc and WaveOne reciprocating systems were as effective as the ProTaper system for removal of endotoxins and bacteria in endodontic retreatment. All systems tested were effective to remove cultivable bacteria and endotoxin in endodontic retreatment. As no differences among systems were observed, it is possible to suggest that clinicians should choose the preferred technique to perform endodontic.

  3. Theoretical and experimental comparison of an ultra-high-speed laser data transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycz, M.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of a digital optical data transmission system is specified by the probability that the system erroneously decides a signal has or has not been transmitted. Two factors which induce signal fading and thereby decrease system performance are atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing inaccuracy. A channel simulator was developed that is capable of producing the effects of both atmospheric scintillation and the transmitter pointing problem for a neodymium-yag optical data transmission systems. Comparison of data taken from the modulated intensity of a beam having been transmitted through the channel simulator with experimental data from GEOS-B argon laser transmission through the atmosphere to a low earth-orbiting satellite indicates that the modulated signal intensity is log-normal to the degree of measured atmospheric scintillation.

  4. Observer reproducibility in grading dysplasia in colorectal adenomas: comparison between two different grading systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Bak, Martin; Kronborg, O

    1990-01-01

    The two most well known and well defined grading systems for dysplasia in colorectal adenomas were compared with regard to reproducibility. The Konishi-Morson system (KMS) operates with several histological and cytological variables and grades of mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia. The Kozuka...... system is based on the extent of nuclear pseudostratification and also has three grades of dysplasia (III-V). As the group of severe dysplasia is very large in this system, it was extended with two higher grades, similarly based on individual histological criteria, known hereafter as the extended Kozuka...... can be obtained, but this implies that all the original grades (III-V) for the EKS must be grouped together. It is therefore recommended that a simplified KMS is used for further studies on the biological importance of dysplasia and for comparison between histological changes and other markers...

  5. Comparison of the specific energy demand of aeroplanes and other vehicle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzballa, H.A.; Schmitt, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Luftfahrttechnik der TU, Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A method will be described which allows for a uniform approach to determine the specific energy demand of aeroplanes and other vehicle systems. By the introduction of a dimensionless figure, it can be used for comparison irrespective of the very dissimilar definitions. The entity {epsilon}, well known from the physics of flight, the glide number - i.e. the inverse of the L/D-ratio in Anglo-American literature - proves to be a convenient starting point. In order to utilise the primary energy demand as a basis for comparison, further factors have to be taken into consideration and expressed as efficiency levels, as is usual in energy sciences. By doing this, a deep insight will be gained into the different physical and technical elements of transportation processes. Some unexpected results are derived. In particular, the role of the aeroplane has to be adjusted substantially with respect to public opinion. (author)

  6. A Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms for Tracking Time-Varying Recursive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made of the behaviour of some evolutionary algorithms in time-varying adaptive recursive filter systems. Simulations show that an algorithm including random immigrants outperforms a more conventional algorithm using the breeder genetic algorithm as the mutation operator when the time variation is discontinuous, but neither algorithm performs well when the time variation is rapid but smooth. To meet this deficit, a new hybrid algorithm which uses a hill climber as an additional genetic operator, applied for several steps at each generation, is introduced. A comparison is made of the effect of applying the hill climbing operator a few times to all members of the population or a larger number of times solely to the best individual; it is found that applying to the whole population yields the better results, substantially improved compared with those obtained using earlier methods.

  7. A comparison of the performance of two types of inertial systems for strapdown airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurloo, R. A.; Martin, J.; Bastos, M. L.; Becker, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past two decades so-called strapdown airborne gravimetry systems have proven to have the potential to compete with more traditional measurement systems such as modified spring gravimeters (e.g. LaCoste & Romberg Air-Sea gravimeters). Strapdown gravimetry systems rely on the integration of high-accuracy data from a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver and from a strapdown IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit). These GNSS/IMU integrated systems have the advantage of being less expensive and more compact, while being easier to use and install than spring gravimeters, which tend to be bulky and require specialized human resources for its operation. In the scope of a research project developed through the collaboration of the University of Porto and the Portuguese Air Force (PAF), an airborne survey was recently performed over the middle and southern area of Continental Portugal using a CASA C212 aircraft. The goal of this survey was to acquire data to assess the performance of different GNSS/IMU systems and associated processing approaches to determine the gravity field and evaluate their potential and effectiveness for airborne gravimetry using different types of airborne platforms, including UAVs (Unmanned Airborne Vehicles). Among the systems on board were a medium-quality (tactical grade) IMU with fiber-optic gyros (FOG), a Litton LN-200, and a high-quality (navigation grade) IMU with ring-laser gyros (RLG), an iMAR RHQ-1003, which are the focus of the present comparison. The advantage of using a strapdown airborne gravimetry system with high-quality inertial sensor is that it allows the complete gravity vector to be determined from the triads of accelerometers and gyros in the IMU (vector gravimetry). On the other hand a medium-quality inertial system is limited to determining only the magnitude of the gravity vector (scalar gravimetry). The limited quality of the gyros of the medium-quality inertial systems does not allow the horizontal

  8. Comparison of silicon drift detectors made by Amptek and PNDetectors in application to the PHA system for W7-X

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia Krawczyk; Jacek Kaczmarczyk; Monika Kubkowska; Leszek Ryć

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents comparison of two silicon drift detectors (SDD), one made by Amptek, USA, and the second one by PNDetector, Germany, which are considered for a soft X-ray diagnostic system for W7-X...

  9. Comparison of the effectiveness of the protaper system versus hand instrumentation in endodontic retreatment: a scanning electron microscopy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luana Schwerz; Carlos Eduardo Fontana; Carlos Eduardoda Silveira Bueno; Roberta Aranha de Araújo Arruda; Rina Andréa Pelegrine; Flavia Casale Abe; Alexandre Sigrist De Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... Moreover, studies focusing on the comparison of the effectiveness of rotary systems versus hand instrumentation have yielded mixed results in terms of the efficacy and amount of time required by each technique. Objective...

  10. COMPARISON OF ENERGY AND EXERGY EFFICIENCIES OF ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH MECHANICAL COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay YAKAR

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, energy and exergy analysis of absorption refrigeration system using LiBr- water and mechanical compression refrigeration system using R134-a were performed at different evaporation temperatures. The results are presented in tables and figures.

  11. Project JADE. Long-term function and safety. Comparison of repository systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Lars; Pers, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    A comparison of the KBS-3 V(ertical deposition), KBS-3 H(orizontal deposition) and MLH repository systems with regard to the long-term repository performance and the radionuclide migration is presented in the report. Several differences between the repository systems have been identified. The differences are mainly related to the: distance between canister and backfilled tunnels, excavated rock volumes, deposition hole direction. The overall conclusion is that the differences are in general quite small with regard to the repository function and safety. None of the differences are of such importance for the long-term repository performance and radionuclide migration that they discriminate any of the repository systems. The differences between the two KBS-3 systems are small. Based on this study, there is no reason to change from the reference system KBS-3 V to KBS-3 H. MLH has the potential to be a very robust system, especially in a long-term perspective. However, the MLH system will require extensive research, development, and analysis before it will be as confident as the reference repository system, KBS-3 V. Although the MLH and KBS-3 H systems are in some ways favourable compared to the reference system KBS-3 V, the overall conclusion is that the KBS-3 V system is still a very attractive system. A major advantage with KBS-3 V is that it is by far the most investigated and developed system. The JADE-project was initiated in 1996, and the main part of the study was carried out during 1997 and 1998. The JADE study is consequently based on presumptions that were valid a few years ago. Some of these presumptions have been modified since then. The new presumptions are however not judged to change the overall conclusions.

  12. Combined sewer system versus separate system--a comparison of ecological and economical performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing the cost-effectiveness of the two main types of urban drainage systems, that is, the combined sewer system and the separate sewer system, based on the analysis of simulations. The problem of which of the two systems is better was heavily discussed over the years and the answer given to the question was usually: 'it depends'. In this work, specific impacts are investigated in terms of a cause-effect analysis. The results are subsequently summarized and can help in the choice of the system to be implemented. Despite earlier reasoning, studies on river water quality strongly indicate that the separate system is not always the preferable solution because the polluted runoff from the street, containing e.g. different heavy metals, is discharged directly into the river. This analysis aims to compare the two different sewer systems on the basis of literature data and simulation of specific cases. The results are evaluated, as suggested in the EU-Water Framework Directive, on the basis of different assessment criteria: river water quality and morphology impacts, emissions and costs.

  13. Junior plastic surgeon's confidence in aesthetic surgery practice: a comparison of two didactic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterodimas, Aris; Boriani, Filippo; Bogetti, Paolo; Radwanski, Henrique N; Bruschi, Stefano; Pitanguy, Ivo

    2010-08-01

    The importance of residents' training in aesthetic surgery and the need for acquiring confidence in performing cosmetic procedures is an established knowledge. A survey was done in two different training systems to evaluate the experience of junior plastic surgeons in performing four common aesthetic surgery procedures at the end of their residency. The first system guarantees a theoretical background and a certain number of aesthetic procedures to be performed by the trainee, in contrast to the second system where mainly theoretical knowledge in cosmetic surgery is warranted to residents. The residents' comfort in performing specific operations was quite varied between the two systems. The comparison showed that junior plastic surgeons reached a higher degree of self-confidence in aesthetic practice in system A when compared to system B. The similarities and differences between the two systems are analysed and discussed. The possibility of reforming residency programmes by following the structure and the philosophy of system A is proposed. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the translucency of shaded zirconia all-ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Ulusoy, Mutahhar

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of shaded zirconia all-ceramic systems. Translucency of 3 different zirconia all-ceramic systems colored by different techniques was compared with a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press). Square-shaped specimens with 0.5 mm thickness were fabricated from In-Ceram YZ, ICE Zirkon and Katana systems in A1, A2 and A3.5 shades according to Vitapan Classical shade tab (n=11). Specimens were then veneered and glazed with corresponding veneer ceramic recommended by each zirconia system manufacturer and the total thickness was set to 1.5 mm. Translucency measurements were performed with VITA Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer after each stage and translucency parameter was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test. The control group was significantly more translucent than the zirconia systems (Ptranslucency; neither In-Ceram YZ nor Katana systems were superior to each other in terms of translucency. Translucency of all specimens was decreased after veneering, and the translucency rankings were changed. Coloring technique did not have a significant effect on translucency of zirconia cores. Although zirconia systems were less translucent than lithium disilicate glass ceramic, they had partial translucency and there were translucency differences among the zirconia systems. Chroma affected the translucency of precolored zirconia cores.

  15. Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

  16. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  17. Open Access Intellectual Property Systems: A Comparison to Commercial Solutions in Competitive Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cerny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ICT/IS management plays an important role within the framework of innovation management, and one of the key elements of this role is the support of Competitive Intelligence in the context of innovation processes. The strategic information needs of innovation management are also directed towards different kinds of intellectual property (IP information entities and commercialization. The purpose of this paper is to define these entities and IP information systems as an important part of a company’s Competitive Intelligence Unit for competitor analysis and technology trends. The open access IP information systems will be analysed together with commercial solutions.. The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of open access IP systems compared to added value commercial solutions for competitive intelligence purposes for SMEs. The comparison will be carried out using examples of patent searches within a concrete dataset.

  18. Comparison of impedance based fault location methods for power distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Florez, J. [Electrical Engineering School, Technological University of Pereira (UTP), La Julita, Pereira (Colombia); Melendez, J. [Electronics, Computer Engineering and Automatics Department, University of Girona (UdG), EPS, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Carrillo-Caicedo, G. [Electrical Engineering School, Industrial University of Santander (UIS), Cra 27-Cll 9, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2008-04-15

    Performance of 10 fault location methods for power distribution systems has been compared. The analyzed methods use only measurements of voltage and current at the substation. Fundamental component during pre-fault and fault are used in these methods to estimate the apparent impedance viewed from the measurement point. Deviation between pre-fault and fault impedance together with the system parameters are used to estimate the distance to the fault point. Fundamental aspects of each method have been considered in the analysis. Power system topology, line and load models and the necessity of additional information are relevant aspects that differentiate one method from another. The 10 selected methods have been implemented, tested and compared in a simulated network. The paper reports the results for several scenarios defined by significant values of the fault location and impedance. The estimated error has been used as a performance index in the comparison. (author)

  19. Wavefronts in time-delayed reaction-diffusion systems. Theory and comparison to experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de Girona, Girona (Spain)]. E-mail: joaquim.fort@udg.es; Mendez, Vicenc [Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Ssant Cugat del Valles (Spain)]. E-mail: vmendez@csc.unica.edu

    2002-06-01

    We review the recent theoretical progress in the formulation and solution of the front speed problem for time-delayed reaction-diffusion systems. Most of the review is focused on hyperbolic equations. They have been widely used in recent years, because they allow for analytical solutions and yield a realistic description of some relevant phenomena. The theoretical methods are applied to a range of applications, including population dynamics, forest fire models, bistable systems and combustion wavefronts. We also present a detailed account of successful predictions of the models, as assessed by comparison to experimental data for some biophysical systems, without making use of any free parameters. Areas where the work reviewed may contribute to future progress are discussed. (author)

  20. Effects of the Feedback Models on the Comparison Indicators for Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among the decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic network process (ANP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for power systems was developed only for the feedback effect, one of the interdependence phenomena (e.g., feedback effect, inner dependence, outer dependence, independence) among the decision elements. It is assumed in an independence model that there is no interdependence among the decision elements. In the present work, the main objective is to investigate effects of the assessment models on comparison indicators (e.g., weighting factors, overall scores) for several power generation systems. Moreover, the risk attitudes of the decision-makers towards a nuclear power plant are incorporated into the point of view for the decision makers (DMs)

  1. Very high resolution optical transition radiation imaging system: Comparison between simulation and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bolzon, B; Aumeyr, Thomas; Boogert, Stewart Takashi; Karataev, Pavel; Kruchinin, Konstantin; Lefevre, Thibaut; Mazzoni, Stefano; Nevay, Laurence James; Shevelev, M; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Welsch, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) has become a commonly used method for 2D beam imaging measurements. In the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) at KEK, beam sizes smaller than the OTR point spread function have been measured. Simulations of the OTR imaging system have been performed using the ZEMAX software to study the effects of optical errors such as aberrations, diffraction, and misalignments of optical components. This paper presents a comparison of simulations of the OTR point spread function with experimental data obtained at ATF2. It shows how the quantification and control of optical errors impacts on optimizing the resolution of the system. We also show that the OTR point spread function needs to be predicted accurately to optimize any optical system and to predict the error made on measurement.

  2. Pluri-energy analysis of livestock systems--a comparison of dairy systems in different territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-15

    This paper introduces a generic assessment method called pluri-energy analysis. It aims to assess the types of energy used in agricultural systems and their conversion efficiencies. Four types of energy are considered: fossil energy, gross energy contained in the biomass, energy from human and animal labor and solar energy. The method was applied to compare smallholder low-input dairy-production systems, which are common in developing countries, to the high-input systems encountered in OECD countries. The pluri-energy method is useful for analyzing the functioning of agricultural systems by highlighting their modes of energy management. Since most dairy systems in South Mali (SM) are low-input systems, they are primarily based on solar and labor energy types and do not require substantial fossil-energy inputs to produce milk. Farms in Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR) show intermediate values of fossil-energy use for milk production, similar to that found in the literature for typical European systems. However, fossil-energy use for milk production is higher on PC than BR farms because of a higher proportion of maize silage in the forage area; grazing pastures are more common on BR farms. Farms on Reunion Island (RI) require a relatively large amount of fossil energy to produce milk, mainly because the island context limits the amount of arable land. Consequently, milk production is based on large imports of concentrated feed with a high fossil-energy cost. The method also enables assessment of fossil-energy-use efficiency in order to increase the performance of biological processes in agricultural systems. Comparing the low-input systems represented by SM to the high-input systems represented by RI, PC and BR, an increase in solar-energy conversion, and thus land productivity, was observed due to intensification via increased fossil-energy use. Conversely, though fossil-energy use at the herd level increased milk productivity, its effect on gross

  3. A Comparison of the Ship System Acquisition Process of the Greek Navy and US Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    manufacturer HENRI FAYOL in 1916. These principles are: * Labor division * Authority and Responsibility * Discipline * Chain of Command * Unity of Command...its Limitations in- E ee-t -men---6T Dg-HZZ, NltioRUI D~ f ie it,- Z-Was TiY- D.U_ T977. 11. Management Update, Navy daaor S , stens Acuisition...and Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A Comparison of the Ship System Master’s Thesis; Acquisition Process of the Greek December 19-u

  4. Technical comparison of domestic hot water system which used in China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries, which have district heating infrastructure, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having a smart, energy efficient...... and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system, such as Denmark and China. Nevertheless, the development of DHW networks in these two countries differs significantly. This article detailed the comparisons in technical aspect: common preparation methods of DHW through district heating was introduced in China...

  5. Assessing the results of thrust plate prosthesis: a comparison of four different rating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi; Gunal, Izge

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate four rating systems designed to assess patients following provision of a thrust plate prosthesis. Sixty-one patients undergoing total hip replacement with thrust plate prosthesis. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and six months postoperatively by four different hip rating systems (Harris, Iowa, Charnley and Merle d'Aubigne), both on a categorical and on a numerical basis. Department of orthopaedics and traumatology in a university hospital. Patients were evaluated by four rating systems preoperatively and postoperatively either on a categorical or a numerical basis. All patients showed significant improvement after surgery in all rating systems. Although preoperative categorical evaluation revealed that the strongest correlation was between Charnley and Merle d'Aubigne scores (r = 0.876), numerical comparison of the rating systems showed strong correlation among all systems, both pre- and postoperatively. Responsiveness analysis revealed larger effect size for the Iowa and Harris hip scores. Our results suggest that hip rating systems should be compared numerically rather than by categorical evaluation and that the Iowa and Harris hip scores are more convenient in evaluating thrust plate prosthesis patients because they have larger effect sizes without floor and ceiling effects.

  6. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  7. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  8. A comparison of velocity measurements from the CUTLASS Finland radar and the EISCAT UHF system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    Full Text Available The CUTLASS Finland radar, which comprises an integral part of the SuperDARN system of HF coherent radars, provides near continuous observations of high-latitude plasma irregularities within a field-of-view which extends over some four million square kilometres. Within the Finland radar field-of-view lie both the EISCAT mainland and EISCAT Svalbard incoherent scatter radar facilities. Since the CUTLASS Finland radar commenced operation, in February 1995, the mainland EISCAT UHF radar has been run in common programme 1 and 2 modes for a total duration exceeding 1000 h. Simultaneous and spatially coincident returns from these two radars over this period provide the basis for a comparison of irregularity drift velocity and F-region ion velocity. Initial comparison is limited to velocities from four intervals of simultaneous radar returns; intervals are selected such that they exhibit a variety of velocity signatures including that characteristic of the convection reversal and a rapidly fluctuating velocity feature. Subsequent comparison is on a statistical basis. The velocities measured by the two systems demonstrate reasonable correspondence over the velocity regime encountered during the simultaneous occurrence of coherent and incoherent scatter; differences between the EISCAT UHF measurements of F-region ion drift and the irregularity drift velocities from the Finland radar are explained in terms of a number of contributing factors including contamination of the latter by E-region echoes, a factor which is investigated further, and the potentially deleterious effect of discrepant volume and time sampling intervals.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma convection

  9. Developing an efficient modelling and data presentation strategy for ATDEM system comparison and survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrinck, Magdel

    2015-10-01

    Forward modelling of airborne time-domain electromagnetic (ATDEM) responses is frequently used to compare systems and design surveys for optimum detection of expected mineral exploration targets. It is a challenging exercise to display and analyse the forward modelled responses due to the large amount of data generated for three dimensional models as well as the system dependent nature of the data. I propose simplifying the display of ATDEM responses through using the dimensionless quantity of signal-to-noise ratios (signal:noise) instead of respective system units. I also introduce the concept of a three-dimensional signal:noise nomo-volume as an efficient tool to visually present and analyse large amounts of data. The signal:noise nomo-volume is a logical extension of the two-dimensional conductance nomogram. It contains the signal:noise values of all system time channels and components for various target depths and conductances integrated into a single interactive three-dimensional image. Responses are calculated over a complete survey grid and therefore include effects of system and target geometries. The user can interactively select signal:noise cut-off values on the nomo-volume and is able to perform visual comparisons between various system and target responses. The process is easy to apply and geophysicists with access to forward modelling airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and three-dimensional imaging software already possess the tools required to produce and analyse signal:noise nomo-volumes.

  10. Comparison of two contemporary rotary systems in a pre-clinical student course setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marending, M; Biel, P; Attin, T; Zehnder, M

    2016-06-01

    To assess two contemporary rotary instrumenting systems subjectively and objectively in a pre-clinical student course setting. Undergraduate dental students (n = 44) prepared mesiolingual canals of 3D-printed mandibular molar replicas (RepliDens, Zurich, Switzerland). The HyFlex and BioRace rotary systems, both previously unknown to the students, were used according to the manufacturers' guidelines after a short theoretical introduction. For comparison, a first-generation rotary system (ProFile .04), which the students knew from their previous education, was then used in a third RepliDens. Questionnaires were issued to note subjective experiences immediately after instrumentation. Objectively, time to instrument to size 40, .04 taper and shaping outcomes were analysed. Categorical data were compared using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, numerical data according to goodness of fit to the normal distribution, P HyFlex counterpart, whilst they found better controllability with the HyFlex (P HyFlex (and the ProFile) systems compared to BioRace (P HyFlex and BioRace had perceived and quantifiable strengths and weaknesses. Both systems were equally liked by the students and preferred over the ProFile first-generation rotary system. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Catecholaminergic System of Invertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects in Comparison With the Octopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Accordi, Fiorenza; Chimenti, Claudio; Civinini, Annalena; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examined the catecholaminergic system of invertebrates, starting from protists and getting to chordates. Different techniques used by numerous researchers revealed, in most examined phyla, the presence of catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline or of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. The catecholamines are generally linked to the nervous system and they can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones; moreover they play a very important role as regards the response to a large number of stress situations. Nevertheless, in some invertebrate phyla belonging to Protostoma, the monoamine octopamine is the main biogenic amine. The presence of catecholamines in some protists suggests a role as intracellular or interorganismal signaling molecules and an ancient origin of their synthetic pathways. The catecholamines appear also involved in the regulation of bioluminescence and in the control of larval development and metamorphosis in some marine invertebrate phyla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systems biology: model based evaluation and comparison of potential explanations for given biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedersund, Gunnar; Roll, Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Systems biology and its usage of mathematical modeling to analyse biological data is rapidly becoming an established approach to biology. A crucial advantage of this approach is that more information can be extracted from observations of intricate dynamics, which allows nontrivial complex explanations to be evaluated and compared. In this minireview we explain this process, and review some of the most central available analysis tools. The focus is on the evaluation and comparison of given explanations for a given set of experimental data and prior knowledge. Three types of methods are discussed: (a) for evaluation of whether a given model is sufficiently able to describe the given data to be nonrejectable; (b) for evaluation of whether a slightly superior model is significantly better; and (c) for a general evaluation and comparison of the biologically interesting features in a model. The most central methods are reviewed, both in terms of underlying assumptions, including references to more advanced literature for the theoretically oriented reader, and in terms of practical guidelines and examples, for the practically oriented reader. Many of the methods are based upon analysis tools from statistics and engineering, and we emphasize that the systems biology focus on acceptable explanations puts these methods in a nonstandard setting. We highlight some associated future improvements that will be essential for future developments of model based data analysis in biology.

  13. Near-surface wind speed statistical distribution: comparison between ECMWF System 4 and ERA-Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Torralba, Verónica; Cortesi, Nicola; Young, Doo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of seasonal forecast verification, knowing whether the characteristics of the climatological wind speed distribution, simulated by the forecasting systems, are similar to the observed ones is essential to guide the subsequent process of bias adjustment. To bring some light about this topic, this work assesses the properties of the statistical distributions of 10m wind speed from both ERA-Interim reanalysis and seasonal forecasts of ECMWF system 4. The 10m wind speed distribution has been characterized in terms of the four main moments of the probability distribution (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) together with the coefficient of variation and goodness of fit Shapiro-Wilks test, allowing the identification of regions with higher wind variability and non-Gaussian behaviour at monthly time-scales. Also, the comparison of the predicted and observed 10m wind speed distributions has been measured considering both inter-annual and intra-seasonal variability. Such a comparison is important in both climate research and climate services communities because it provides useful climate information for decision-making processes and wind industry applications.

  14. Calculation methods for SPF for heat pump systems for comparison, system choice and dimensioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Andersson, Kajsa; Axell, Monica; Lindahl, Markus

    2010-09-15

    In this project, results from field measurements of heat pumps have been collected and summarised. Also existing calculation methods have been compared and summarised. Analyses have been made on how the field measurements compare to existing calculation models for heat pumps Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), and what deviations may depend on. Recommendations for new calculation models are proposed, which include combined systems (e.g. solar - HP), capacity controlled heat pumps and combined DHW and heating operation

  15. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  16. Comparison of encryption techniques between chaos theory and password for wireless power transfer system: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, N. H.; Azizan, M. M.; Ali, A.; Albreem, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the techniques used in Wireless power transfer (WPT). WPT is one of the most useful ways to transfer power. Based on power transfer distances, the WPT system can be divided into three categories, namely, near, medium, and far fields. Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling contactless techniques are used in the near-field WPT. Magnetic resonant coupling technique is used in the medium-field WPT. Electromagnetic radiation is used in the far-field WPT. In addition, energy encryption plays a major role in ensuring that power is transferred to the true receiver. Therefore, this paper reviews the energy encryption techniques in WPT system. A comparison between different technique shows that the distance, efficiency, and number of receivers are the main factors in selecting the suitable energy encryption technique.

  17. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Halevy, I. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel)

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  18. Comparison of vibration damping of standard and PDCPD housing of the electric power steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    A comparison of two different types of electric power steering system housing is presented. The first considered type of the housing was a standard one that is made of an aluminium alloy. The second one is made of polydicyclopentadiene polymer (PDCPD) and was produced using the RIM technology. Considered elements were analysed in order to verify their properties of vibrations damping. This property is very important taking into account noise generated by elements of a car’s power steering system. During the carried out tests vibrations of analysed power steering housings were measured using Marco Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric transducers. Results obtained for both considered power steering housings in case of the same parameters of vibrations excitations were measured and juxtaposed. Obtained results were analysed in order to verify if the housing made of PDCPD polymer has better properties of vibration damping than the standard one.

  19. A comparison between nailfold capillaroscopy patterns in adulthood in juvenile and adult-onset systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Boracchi, Patrizia; Gualtierotti, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus on capillar......OBJECTIVE: Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus...... in 61% of juvenile- and 55.5% of adult-onset SSc. The OR was 1.06 and 95% CI 0.34-3.56. CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study on the comparison of capillaroscopy between juvenile- and adult-onset SSc in adulthood. Juvenile-onset SSc had an increase prevalence of scleroderma pattern...

  20. Comparison between wire and wireless EEG acquisition systems based on SSVEP in an Independent-BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Richard M G; Müller, Sandra M T; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Ferreira, Andre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two different technologies of acquisition systems (BrainNet36 and Emotiv Epoc) for an Independent-BCI based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Two stimuli separated by a viewing angle <; 1° were used. Multivariate Synchronization Index (MSI) technique was used as feature extractor and five subjects participated in the experiments. The class is obtained through a criterion of maxima. The left and right flicker stimuli were modulated at frequencies of 8.0 and 13.0 Hz, respectively. Acquisition via BrainNet system showed better results, obtaining the highest value for accuracy (100%) and the highest ITR (35.18 bits/min). This Independent-BCI is based on covert attention.

  1. Neuronal Control of Swimming Behavior: Comparison of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Olivia J.; Hackett, John T.; Buchanan, James T.; Friesen, W. Otto

    2010-01-01

    Swimming movements in the leech and lamprey are highly analogous, and lack homology. Thus, similarities in mechanisms must arise from convergent evolution rather than from common ancestry. Despite over forty years of parallel investigations into this annelid and primitive vertebrate, a close comparison of the approaches and results of this research is lacking. The present review evaluates the neural mechanisms underlying swimming in these two animals and describes the many similarities that provide intriguing examples of convergent evolution. Specifically, we discuss swim initiation, maintenance and termination, isolated nervous system preparations, neural-circuitry, central oscillators, intersegmental coupling, phase lags, cycle periods and sensory feedback. Comparative studies between species highlight mechanisms that optimize behavior and allow us a broader understanding of nervous system function. PMID:21093529

  2. Comparison of a multispectral vision system and a colorimeter for the assessment of meat color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Jensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance...... properties, so several factors can influence the instrumental assessment of meat color. In order to assess whether two methods are equivalent, the variation due to these factors must be taken into account. A statistical analysis was conducted and showed that on a calibration sheet the two instruments...... are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods...

  3. A comparison of the accuracy of the smart sock system to force platform and optical system for measurement of temporal parameters of locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, A.; Katashev, A.; Bernans, E.; Abolins, V.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to present a new DAid®Pressure Sock System for feet locomotion monitoring and to verify it’s temporal characteristics by data comparison with the same obtained by two other widely used methods as reference. Designed system is based on sensors which can be knitted directly in the garment or hosiery items. DAid®Pressure Sock System was created for sport and medical applications. Comparison of temporal characteristics of different types of locomotion, obtained using designed system and reference devises, showed good agreement between data.

  4. Systematic Comparison of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Anatael [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Queen' s College

    2005-06-22

    The MINOS experiment is a neutrino oscillation baseline experiment intending to use high resolution L/E neutrinos to measure the atmospheric neutrino oscillations parameters to unprecedented precision. Two detectors have been built to realize the measurements, a Near detector, located about 1km downstream from the beam target at the Fermi Laboratory, and a Far detector, located at 736km, at the Soudan Laboratory. The technique relies on the Near detector to measure the un-oscillated neutrino spectrum, while the Far detector measures the neutrino spectrum once oscillated. The comparison between the two measurements is expected to allow MINOS to measure Δm2 beyond 10% precision level. The Near and Far detectors have been built similarly to minimize possible systematic effects. Both detectors have been endowed with different readout systems, as the beam event rates are very different. The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet), installed at CERN, was instrumented with both readout systems such that they can simultaneously measure and characterize the energy deposition (response and event topology) of incident known particle from test-beams. This thesis presents the investigations to quantify the impact of the performance of both readout systems on the MINOS results using the measurements obtained with CalDet. The relative comparison of the responses of both readout systems have been measured to be consistent with being identical within a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The event topologies have been found to be negligibly affected. In addition, the performance of the detector simulations have been thoroughly investigated and validated to be in agreement with data within similar level of uncertainties.

  5. Energy comparison between CO2 cascade systems and state of the art R404A systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Pachai, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    The focus on the global warming and the political determination to phase out the use of the HFC was clearly stated by minister for the environment Svend Auken at the IIR meeting in Aarhus September 1996 when he said: ¿It is therefore my sincere hope that in ten years time, not a single fridge...... fluid for both medium and low temperature applications. In 2002 two of these cascade systems with CO2 and R404A were installed. The displays cabinets and cooling/freezing rooms are cooled directly by CO2 in the low temperature part of the cascade plant, while the high temperature part of the cascade...

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of the Whole DNA Repair System: A Comparison of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihito Morita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA is subjected to many endogenous and exogenous damages. All organisms have developed a complex network of DNA repair mechanisms. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported: direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and recombination repair pathways. Recent studies of the fundamental mechanisms for DNA repair processes have revealed a complexity beyond that initially expected, with inter- and intrapathway complementation as well as functional interactions between proteins involved in repair pathways. In this paper we give a broad overview of the whole DNA repair system and focus on the molecular basis of the repair machineries, particularly in Thermus thermophilus HB8.

  7. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  8. System Accuracy Evaluation of Four Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Following ISO 15197 Using a Glucose Oxidase and a Hexokinase-Based Comparison Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Manuela; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2015-04-14

    The standard ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 is widely accepted for the accuracy evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Accuracy evaluation was performed for 4 SMBG systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoCheck XL, GlucoMen LX PLUS) with 3 test strip lots each. To investigate a possible impact of the comparison method on system accuracy data, 2 different established methods were used. The evaluation was performed in a standardized manner following test procedures described in ISO 15197:2003 (section 7.3). System accuracy was assessed by applying ISO 15197:2003 and in addition ISO 15197:2013 criteria (section 6.3.3). For each system, comparison measurements were performed with a glucose oxidase (YSI 2300 STAT Plus glucose analyzer) and a hexokinase (cobas c111) method. All 4 systems fulfilled the accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2003 with the tested lots. More stringent accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were fulfilled by 3 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoMen LX PLUS) when compared to the manufacturer's comparison method and by 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT) when compared to the alternative comparison method. All systems showed lot-to-lot variability to a certain degree; 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT), however, showed only minimal differences in relative bias between the 3 evaluated lots. In this study, all 4 systems complied with the evaluated test strip lots with accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003. Applying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limits, differences in the accuracy of the tested systems were observed, also demonstrating that the applied comparison method/system and the lot-to-lot variability can have a decisive influence on accuracy data obtained for a SMBG system. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Comparison of implant stability measurement devices for bone-anchored hearing aid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Lindsey; Faulkner, Gary; Hodgetts, William; Raboud, Don

    2018-01-01

    The success of implants for bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) relies on proper osseointegration at the bone-implant interface. Clinical evaluation of implant stability is important in prescribing loading, identifying the risk of failure, and monitoring the long-term health of the implant. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate 2 measurement systems for BAHA implant stability: the most commonly used, Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ), and a newly developed advance system for implant stability testing (ASIST). BAHA implants (Oticon Medical Ponto and Cochlear BAHA Connect systems) were installed in plastic materials with adhesive to simulate implants integrated in bone with varying levels of interface stiffness. Different lengths of BAHA abutments were used with each implant specimen, and stability measurements were obtained with both the Osstell ISQ and the ASIST systems. The measurement systems were evaluated in terms of sensitivity to differences in interface stiffness and the effect of abutment length on the stability measurement. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc t tests were used for the comparisons with a Bonferroni adjusted alpha value of .05/15 = .003 to control for potential type 1 errors. Changing the abutment length of a single implant installation had minimal effect on the ASIST stability coefficient, whereas large variations were observed in the Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ). The Osstell showed a clear relationship of decreasing ISQ with increasing abutment length for both the Oticon Medical and the Cochlear implant systems. Both the ASIST and the Osstell were found to be sensitive to changes in interface properties, with the ASIST being more sensitive to these changes. The ASIST system is more sensitive to changes in interface properties and shows smaller variation because of changes in abutment length than the Osstell ISQ system. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  10. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems)

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  12. Implementation of the new VIRTUO blood culture system: evaluation and comparison to the 3D system using simulated blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathalie; Brassinne, Laetitia; Allemeersch, Daniel

    2017-06-05

    To evaluate the performances of the newly approved BacT/ALERT VIRTUO blood culture system for the recovery of bloodstream pathogens and compare it to the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Simulated blood cultures of eight clinically relevant microorganisms were used: Bacteroides fragilis (ATCC 25285), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 49247), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) and Candida krusei (ATCC 6258). Criteria for comparison were culture positivity and time to detection (TTD). The effects of delayed entry on recovery and TTD were also evaluated. The VIRTUO exhibited around 3 h faster detection time compared to the 3D system. (p < 0.01) for aerobic and facultative microorganisms. The difference in TTD was greatest for the B. fragilis, with a median difference of 46.67 h. The anaerobic bottle of the VIRTUO (FN Plus) did not support the growth of obligate aerobes, whereas the 3D did so. Delayed entry (studied with an E. Coli isolate) had no effect on the recovery rate but proportionally reduced TTD. The VIRTUO performed better than the 3D in terms of TTD and hands-on-time. FN Plus vial appears to be more efficient than the SN bottle in the recovery of anaerobes.

  13. A head-to-head comparison of hydrogen peroxide vapor and aerosol room decontamination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmdahl, T; Lanbeck, P; Wullt, M; Walder, M H

    2011-09-01

    New technologies have emerged in recent years for the disinfection of hospital rooms and equipment that may not be disinfected adequately using conventional methods. There are several hydrogen peroxide-based area decontamination technologies on the market, but no head-to-head studies have been performed. We conducted a head-to-head in vitro comparison of a hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) system (Bioquell) and an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) system (Sterinis). The tests were conducted in a purpose-built 136-m(3) test room. One HPV generator and 2 aHP machines were used, following recommendations of the manufacturers. Three repeated tests were performed for each system. The microbiological efficacy of the 2 systems was tested using 6-log Tyvek-pouched Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs). The indicators were placed at 20 locations in the first test and 14 locations in the subsequent 2 tests for each system. All BIs were inactivated for the 3 HPV tests, compared with only 10% in the first aHP test and 79% in the other 2 aHP tests. The peak hydrogen peroxide concentration was 338 ppm for HPV and 160 ppm for aHP. The total cycle time (including aeration) was 3 and 3.5 hours for the 3 HPV tests and the 3 aHP tests, respectively. Monitoring around the perimeter of the enclosure with a handheld sensor during tests of both systems did not identify leakage. One HPV generator was more effective than 2 aHP machines for the inactivation of G. stearothermophilus BIs, and cycle times were faster for the HPV system.

  14. EU-ADR healthcare database network vs. spontaneous reporting system database: preliminary comparison of signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifirò, Gianluca; Patadia, Vaishali; Schuemie, Martijn J; Coloma, Preciosa M; Gini, Rosa; Herings, Ron; Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Giaquinto, Carlo; Scotti, Lorenza; Pedersen, Lars; Avillach, Paul; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; van der Lei, Johan; Eu-Adr Group

    2011-01-01

    The EU-ADR project aims to exploit different European electronic healthcare records (EHR) databases for drug safety signal detection. In this paper we report the preliminary results concerning the comparison of signal detection between EU-ADR network and two spontaneous reporting databases, the Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization databases. EU-ADR data sources consist of eight databases in four countries (Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) that are virtually linked through distributed data network. A custom-built software (Jerboa©) elaborates harmonized input data that are produced locally and generates aggregated data which are then stored in a central repository. Those data are subsequently analyzed through different statistics (i.e. Longitudinal Gamma Poisson Shrinker). As potential signals, all the drugs that are associated to six events of interest (bullous eruptions - BE, acute renal failure - ARF, acute myocardial infarction - AMI, anaphylactic shock - AS, rhabdomyolysis - RHABD, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding - UGIB) have been detected via different data mining techniques in the two systems. Subsequently a comparison concerning the number of drugs that could be investigated and the potential signals detected for each event in the spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and EU-ADR network was made. SRSs could explore, as potential signals, a larger number of drugs for the six events, in comparison to EU-ADR (range: 630-3,393 vs. 87-856), particularly for those events commonly thought to be potentially drug-induced (i.e. BE: 3,393 vs. 228). The highest proportion of signals detected in SRSs was found for BE, ARF and AS, while for ARF, and UGIB in EU-ADR. In conclusion, it seems that EU-ADR longitudinal database network may complement traditional spontaneous reporting system for signal detection, especially for those adverse events that are frequent in general population and are not commonly thought to be drug

  15. Compression CT urography: a comparison with IVU in the opacification of the collecting system and ureters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J P; Kim, D H; Leder, R A; DeLong, D; Nelson, R C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate opacification of the collecting system and ureters using compression computed tomography (CT) urography compared with conventional intravenous urography (IVU). Fifty consecutive patients underwent compression CT urography as part of a dedicated renal CT. A compression belt was applied prior to nephrographic phase imaging. Excretory phase scans were acquired through the kidneys 3 minutes post injection with the compression belt in place. The compression belt was then released, and scans were obtained through the ureters. Three independent readers then scored opacification of the collecting system and ureters on a scale of 0-2 (0 = no opacification, 1 = partial opacification, 2 = full opacification and distension). Fifty consecutive nonmatched IVUs were scored by segment by the same readers. Comparison of the two modalities was made using the Mann-Whitney U test. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Kappa coefficient. CT demonstrated significantly better opacification (p IVU. The Kappa coefficient was 0.53. Compression CT urography yields equal or better opacification of the collecting system and ureters when compared with IVU, and shows promise for the routine evaluation of the renal excretory system.

  16. An experimental comparison of fuzzy logic and analytic hierarchy process for medical decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoka, Faith-Michael Emeka; Obot, Okure; Barker, Ken; Osuji, J

    2011-07-01

    The task of medical diagnosis is a complex one, considering the level vagueness and uncertainty management, especially when the disease has multiple symptoms. A number of researchers have utilized the fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy-AHP) methodology in handling imprecise data in medical diagnosis and therapy. The fuzzy logic is able to handle vagueness and unstructuredness in decision making, while the AHP has the ability to carry out pairwise comparison of decision elements in order to determine their importance in the decision process. This study attempts to do a case comparison of the fuzzy and AHP methods in the development of medical diagnosis system, which involves basic symptoms elicitation and analysis. The results of the study indicate a non-statistically significant relative superiority of the fuzzy technology over the AHP technology. Data collected from 30 malaria patients were used to diagnose using AHP and fuzzy logic independent of one another. The results were compared and found to covary strongly. It was also discovered from the results of fuzzy logic diagnosis covary a little bit more strongly to the conventional diagnosis results than that of AHP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CoCoNUT: an efficient system for the comparison and analysis of genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. This area of research is driven by the large number of sequenced genomes and heavily relies on efficient algorithms and software to perform pairwise and multiple genome comparisons. Results Most of the software tools available are tailored for one specific task. In contrast, we have developed a novel system CoCoNUT (Computational Comparative geNomics Utility Toolkit that allows solving several different tasks in a unified framework: (1 finding regions of high similarity among multiple genomic sequences and aligning them, (2 comparing two draft or multi-chromosomal genomes, (3 locating large segmental duplications in large genomic sequences, and (4 mapping cDNA/EST to genomic sequences. Conclusion CoCoNUT is competitive with other software tools w.r.t. the quality of the results. The use of state of the art algorithms and data structures allows CoCoNUT to solve comparative genomics tasks more efficiently than previous tools. With the improved user interface (including an interactive visualization component, CoCoNUT provides a unified, versatile, and easy-to-use software tool for large scale studies in comparative genomics.

  18. Comparison of the Remineralizing Effects of Sodium Fluoride and Bioactive Glass Using Bioerodible Gel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiguppe Ramashetty Prabhakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A carious lesion is the accumulation of numerous episodes of de- and remineralization, rather than a unidirectional demineralization process. Tooth destruction can be arrested or reversed by the frequent delivery of fluoride or calcium/phosphorous ions to the tooth surface. The present study compared and evaluated the remineralization potential of sodium fluoride and bioactive glass delivered through a bioerodible gel system. Materials and methods. Longitudinal sections of artificial carious lesions, created at the gingivofacial surface of 64 primary maxillary incisors were photographed under a polarized light microscope and quantified for demineralization. The sections were repositioned into the tooth form and randomly mounted in sets of four that simulated an arch form. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1 sodium fluoride films, 2 bioactive glass films, 3 control films placed interproximally and 4 nontreatment group. Following exposure to artificial saliva for 30 days, the lesions were again photographed and quantified as above. The recorded values were statistically analyzed using Student’s paired t-test for intragroup comparison, one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey’s test for pairwise comparison. Results. The sodium fluoride and bioactive gel groups showed significant remineralization compared with the control groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Bioerodible gel films can be used to deliver remineralizing agents to enhance remineralization.

  19. Comparison of multimedia system and conventional method in patients’ selecting prosthetic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghai R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Selecting an appropriate treatment plan is one of the most critical aspects of dental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare multimedia system and conventional method in patients' selecting prosthetic treatment and the time consumed."nMaterials and Methods: Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group A, once were instructed using the conventional method of dental office and once multimedia system and time was measured in seconds from the beginning of the instruction till the patient had came to decision. The patients were asked about the satisfaction of the method used for them. In group B, patients were only instructed using the conventional method, whereas they were only exposed to soft ware in group C. The data were analyzed with Paired-T-test"n(in group A and T-test and Mann-Whitney test (in groups B and C."nResult: There was a significant difference between multimedia system and conventional method in group A and also between groups B and C (P<0.001. In group A and between groups B and C, patient's satisfaction about multimedia system was better. However, in comparison between groups B and C, multimedia system did not have a significant effect in treatment selection score (P=0.08."nConclusion: Using multimedia system is recommended due to its high ability in giving answers to a large number of patient's questions as well as in terms of marketing.

  20. Measurement of the optical density of packable composites: comparison between direct and indirect digital systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziottin Luiz Felipe Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the optical density of four packable composite resins with widths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm, by means of Digora® (direct and DentScan DentView® (indirect digital imaging systems, in order to compare both methods. Twenty acrylic plates, with the proposed thicknesses, were used, each one containing a sample of each resin. Each acrylic plate was radiographed three times, under a standardized technique. For the Digora® system, an optical plate was used under each resin sample, and, for the DentScan DentView® system, occlusal films were employed, totalizing 60 exposures for each system. Optical plates and films were scanned and three consecutive optical readouts were carried out, totalizing 1,440 readouts. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and revealed that the average optical density of the four resins always increased as thickness increased. Regarding the comparisons between the composite resins, in both analysis the resin with the greater optical density was SurefilTM followed by ProdigyTM Condensable, AlertTM and Solitaire®. The correlations between the results of Digora® and DentScan DentView® were significant for the different thicknesses and materials. The observed tendency is that as the values obtained with the Digora® system increase, so do the values obtained with DentScan DentView®. While thickness increased, the values of optical density in both Digora® and DentScan DentView® tended to approach each other. The Digora® system presented smaller amplitude between the results obtained in adjacent thicknesses.

  1. Does a Least-Preferred Candidate Win a Seat? A Comparison of Three Electoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hizen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the differences between two variations of proportional representation (PR, open-list PR and closed-list PR, are analyzed in terms of their ability to accurately reflect voter preference. The single nontransferable vote (SNTV is also included in the comparison as a benchmark. We construct a model of voting equilibria with a candidate who is least preferred by voters in the sense that replacing the least-preferred candidate in the set of winners with any loser is Pareto improving, and our focus is on whether the least-preferred candidate wins under each electoral system. We demonstrate that the least-preferred candidate never wins under the SNTV, but can win under open-list PR, although this is less likely than winning under closed-list PR.

  2. Comparison of colorimetric methods for the quantification of model proteins in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyk, Anna; Heinisch, Sandra L; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2015-05-15

    In the current study, the quantification of different model proteins in the presence of typical aqueous two-phase system components was investigated by using the Bradford and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays. Each phase-forming component above 1 and 5 wt% had considerable effects on the protein quantification in both assays, respectively, resulting in diminished protein recoveries/absorption values by increasing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/salt concentration and PEG molecular weight. Therefore, a convenient dilution of both components (up to 1 and 5 wt%) before protein quantification is recommended in both assays, respectively, where the BCA assay is favored in comparison with the Bradford assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiosonde Sensors Bias in Precipitable Water Vapor From Comparisons With Global Positioning System Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geun Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the precipitable water vapor (PWV data derived from the radiosonde observation data at Sokcho Observatory and the PWV data at Sokcho Global Positioning System (GPS Observatory provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, for the years of 2006, 2008, 2010, and analyzed the radiosonde seasonal, diurnal bias according to radiosonde sensor types. In the scatter diagram of the daytime and nighttime radiosonde PWV data and the GPS PWV data, dry bias was found in the daytime radiosonde observation as known in the previous study. Overall, the tendency that the wet bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV decreased and the dry bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV increased. The quantitative analysis of the bias and error of the radiosonde PWV data showed that the mean bias decreased in the nighttime except for 2006 winter, and in comparison for summer, RS92-SGP sensor showed the highest quality.

  4. A Robust Iris Identification System Based on Wavelet Packet Decomposition and Local Comparisons of the Extracted Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossant Florence

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a complete iris identification system including three main stages: iris segmentation, signature extraction, and signature comparison. An accurate and robust pupil and iris segmentation process, taking into account eyelid occlusions, is first detailed and evaluated. Then, an original wavelet-packet-based signature extraction method and a novel identification approach, based on the fusion of local distance measures, are proposed. Performance measurements validating the proposed iris signature and demonstrating the benefit of our local-based signature comparison are provided. Moreover, an exhaustive evaluation of robustness, with regards to the acquisition conditions, attests the high performances and the reliability of our system. Tests have been conducted on two different databases, the well-known CASIA database (V3 and our ISEP database. Finally, a comparison of the performances of our system with the published ones is given and discussed.

  5. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera custom abutments and three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Cunha, Tiago de Morais; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo; Barbosa da Rocha, Paulo Vicente; Pazos Amoedo, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera® (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Nobel Biocare) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and paired with (1) eight MK Iii RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare) - GNB group; (2) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group; and (3) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group. A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pairwise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52 and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera® custom abutments and three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Alves da Cunha, Tiago; de Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia; da Rocha, Paulo Vicente Barbosa; Amoedo, Rosa Maria Pazos

    2012-12-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera® abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Procera manufacturer) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture and paired with (a) eight MK III, RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) - GNB group (Nobel Biocare group); (b) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group (SIN experimental group) ; and (c) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão® Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group (Conexão experimental group). A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pair-wise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52, and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  8. Hot Water Distribution System Program Documentation and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Evelyn [GE Infrastructure Energy; Craddick, William G [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Wendt, Robert L [ORNL; Woodbury, Professor Keith A. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the California Energy Commission s (CEC s) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to create a computer program to analyze hot water distribution systems for single family residences, and to perform such analyses for a selection of houses. This effort and its results were documented in a report provided to CEC in March, 2004 [1]. The principal objective of effort was to compare the water and energy wasted between various possible hot water distribution systems for various different house designs. It was presumed that water being provided to a user would be considered suitably warm when it reached 105 F. Therefore, what was needed was a tool which could compute the time it takes for water reaching the draw point to reach 105 F, and the energy wasted during this wait. The computer program used to perform the analyses was a combination of a calculational core, produced by Dr. Keith A. Woodbury, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, University of Alabama, and a user interface based on LabVIEW, created by Dr. Roberto Lenarduzzi of ORNL. At that time, the computer program was in a relatively rough and undocumented form adequate to perform the contracted work but not in a condition where it could be readily used by those not involved in its generation. Subsequently, the CEC provided funding through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to improve the program s documentation and user interface to facilitate use by others, and to compare the program s results to experimental data generated by Dr. Carl Hiller. This report describes the program and provides user guidance. It also summarizes the comparisons made to experimental data, along with options built into the program specifically to allow these comparisons. These options were necessitated by the fact that some of the experimental data required options and features not originally included in the program

  9. Structural identifiability of systems biology models: a critical comparison of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Teodora Chis

    Full Text Available Analysing the properties of a biological system through in silico experimentation requires a satisfactory mathematical representation of the system including accurate values of the model parameters. Fortunately, modern experimental techniques allow obtaining time-series data of appropriate quality which may then be used to estimate unknown parameters. However, in many cases, a subset of those parameters may not be uniquely estimated, independently of the experimental data available or the numerical techniques used for estimation. This lack of identifiability is related to the structure of the model, i.e. the system dynamics plus the observation function. Despite the interest in knowing a priori whether there is any chance of uniquely estimating all model unknown parameters, the structural identifiability analysis for general non-linear dynamic models is still an open question. There is no method amenable to every model, thus at some point we have to face the selection of one of the possibilities. This work presents a critical comparison of the currently available techniques. To this end, we perform the structural identifiability analysis of a collection of biological models. The results reveal that the generating series approach, in combination with identifiability tableaus, offers the most advantageous compromise among range of applicability, computational complexity and information provided.

  10. International comparisons of health system performance among OECD countries: opportunities and data privacy protection challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderkirk, Jillian; Ronchi, Elettra; Klazinga, Niek

    2013-09-01

    Health data constitute a significant resource in most OECD countries that could be used to improve health system performance. Well-intended policies to allay concerns about breaches of confidentiality and to reduce potential misuse of personal health information may be limiting data use. A survey of 20 OECD countries explored the extent to which countries have developed and use personal health data and the reasons why data use may be problematic in some. Countries are divided, with one-half engaged regularly in national data linkage studies to monitor health care quality. Country variation is linked to risk management in granting an exemption to patient consent requirements; in sharing identifiable data among government authorities; and in project approvals and granting access to data. The resources required to comply with data protection requirements is a secondary problem. The sharing of person-level data across borders for international comparisons is rarely reported and there were few examples of studies of health system performance. Laws and policies enabling data sharing and data linkage are needed to strengthen national information infrastructure. To develop international studies comparing health care quality and health system performance, actions are needed to address heterogeneity in data protection practices. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of response times of a mobile-web EHRs system using PHP and JSP languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Antón-Rodríguez, Míriam; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; Perozo-Rondón, Freddy José

    2012-12-01

    Performance evaluation is highly important in the Electronic Health Records (EHRs) system implementation. Response time's measurement can be considered as one manner to make that evaluation. In the e-health field, after the creation of EHRs available through different platforms such as Web and/or mobile, a performance evaluation is necessary. The operation of the system in the right way is essential. In this paper, a comparison of the response times for the MEHRmobile system is presented. The first version uses PHP language with a MySQL database and the second one employs JSP with an eXist database. Both versions have got the same functionalities. In addition to the technological aspects, a significant difference is the way the information is stored. The main goal of this paper is choosing the version which offers better response times. We have created a new benchmark to calculate the response times. Better results have been obtained for the PHP version. Nowadays, this version is being used for specialists from Fundación Intras, Spain.

  12. Comparison of stereotactic plans for brain tumors with two different multileaf collimating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Livia; Zani, Margherita; Pallotta, Stefania; Greto, Daniela; Scoccianti, Silvia; Talamonti, Cinzia; Biti, Giampaolo; Bucciolini, Marta

    2014-01-06

    Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been widely used for treating small intracranial lesions. This technique allows conforming the dose distribution to the planning target volume (PTV), providing a steep dose gradient with the surrounding normal tissues. This is realized through dedicated collimation systems. The present study aims to compare SRS plans with two collimating systems: the beam modulator (BM) of the Elekta Synergy linac and the DirexGroup micromultileaf collimator (μMLC). Seventeen patients (25 PTVs) were planned both with BM and μMLC (mounted on an Elekta Precise linac) using the Odyssey (PerMedics) treatment planning system (TPS). Plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms (DVH), minimum dose to the PTV, conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI), as defined by the TPS, and doses to relevant organs at risk (OAR). The mean difference between the μMLC and the BM plans in minimum PTV dose was 5.7% ± 4.2% in favor of the μMLC plans. No statistically significant difference was found between the distributions of the CI values for the two planning modalities (p = 0.54), while the difference between the distributions of the HI values was statistically significant (p = 0.018). For both BM and μMLC plans, no differences were observed in CI and HI, depending on lesion size and shape. The PTV homogeneity achieved by BM plans was 15.1% ± 6.8% compared to 10.4% ± 6.6% with μMLC. Higher maximum and mean doses to OAR were observed in the BM plans; however, for both plans, dose constraints were respected. The comparison between the two collimating systems showed no substantial differences in terms of PTV coverage or OAR sparing. The improvements obtained by using μMLC are relatively small, and both systems turned out to be adequate for SRS treatments.

  13. Comparison between intermittent and continuous spectra optia leukapheresis systems for autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenko, Katharina; Pavel, Petra; Bruckner, Thomas; Puthenparambil, Joe; Hundemer, Michael; Schmitt, Anita; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Ho, Anthony D; Wuchter, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Terumo BCT recently introduced a new system for mononuclear cell (MNC) collection that uses a Spectra Optia apheresis machine equipped with a redesigned disposable kit and software program (version 11.2). It allows for the continuous collection of MNCs, unlike the original Spectra Optia system (version 7.2), which included a chamber for two-step cell separation. The aim of this study was to compare the two apheresis systems in regard to specific performance parameters. A retrospective data analysis of 150 patients who had undergone peripheral blood stem cell collection between March of 2014 and May of 2015 at our institution was performed. For the matched comparison, patients were divided into two groups by diagnosis and by previous forms of therapy received: a homogeneous group of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that had received first line therapy ("MM" group, n = 88) and a heterogeneous group that included all of the other patients ("other" group, n = 62). No significant differences in CD34+ collection yields between both collection regimens were found (pMM  = 0.19, pother  = 0.74) in either group. Moreover, similar performance ratios (collected/predicted CD34+ cell number in %) were observed (pMM  = 0.89, pother  = 0.1). No relevant variations in platelet or hemoglobin loss were found between the two systems. We conclude that the new continuous Spectra Optia MNC system is equally efficient in collecting CD34+ cells and can be used without sacrificing collection efficiency levels when treating a broad variety of autologous patients. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:27-34, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Comparison between Different Error Modeling of MEMS Applied to GPS/INS Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dovis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS and the inertial navigation system (INS integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV and the power spectral density (PSD techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency and long-term (low-frequency components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways.

  15. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (conventional small ones. However, these lower outputs were compensated by the major market value obtained from the organic products. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides reached about 60% of the total energy inputs in conventional farming; in the organic farms, however, this ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in

  16. Prospective Comparison of a Metal-Free Ceramic Total Knee Arthroplasty with an Identical Metal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, Klemens; Ullmann, David; Metzinger, Katharina; Kramar, Reinhard; Mauerer, Andreas; Hofstätter, Stefan; Fiala, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this open-label, prospective, short-term study was to carry out an initial comparison of a completely metal-free ceramic with a geometrically identical metallic arthroplasty over a 1-year follow-up period. This study investigates a completely metal-free system using a composite matrix material containing aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 , BPK-S Integration, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) or zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 , BPK-S Integration Ceramic, Biolox Delta-CeramTec GmbH, Plochingen, Germany). Eighty patients (40 in each group) received either a completely metal-free ceramic system (matrix of aluminum and zirconium oxide) or an anatomically identical metallic knee system made of a cobalt-chromium alloy. Clinical assessment was performed preoperatively, and during follow-up at 3 and 12 months, using the Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and EQ-5D-VAS. For radiological evaluation, standard preoperative and postoperative standardized radiographs were taken at the given follow-up visits. The postoperative clinical scores improved significantly at the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, but did not differ statistically between the two groups. The radiologically evaluated mean postoperative mechanical and anatomical axes showed proper alignment within both groups at all times. No revision surgery had to be performed, and no complications or loosening were recorded whatsoever. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing a total ceramic metal-free knee system with a geometrically identical metallic TKA (total knee arthroplasty). Longer follow-ups will be required to demonstrate the overall efficiency of this TKR and perhaps to expand its medical indication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Comparison of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism between Possible and Probable Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyum-Yil Kwon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the relationship between presenting clinical manifestations and imaging features of multisystem neuronal dysfunction in MSA patients, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET. Methods: We studied 50 consecutive MSA patients with characteristic brain MRI findings of MSA, including 34 patients with early MSA-parkinsonian (MSA-P and 16 with early MSA-cerebellar (MSA-C. The cerebral glucose metabolism of all MSA patients was evaluated in comparison with 25 age-matched controls. 18F-FDG PET results were assessed by the Statistic Parametric Mapping (SPM analysis and the regions of interest (ROI method. Results: The mean time from disease onset to 18F-FDG PET was 25.9±13.0 months in 34 MSA-P patients and 20.1±11.1 months in 16 MSA-C patients. Glucose metabolism of the putamen showed a greater decrease in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P (p=0.031. Although the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS score did not differ between possible MSA-P and probable MSA-P, the subscores of rigidity (p=0.04 and bradykinesia (p= 0.008 were significantly higher in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P. Possible MSA-C showed a greater decrease in glucose metabolism of the cerebellum than probable MSA-C (p=0.016. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that the early neuropathological pattern of possible MSA with a predilection for the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system differs from that of probable MSA, which has prominent involvement of the autonomic nervous system in addition to the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system.

  18. Comparison of Panasonic’s Dosimetric System with Gamma-31 Dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Urban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipment being used in medical or industrial institutions is often a source of ionizing radiation with different energies and types, which complicates the detection and assessment of doses. Up until now, for dosimetric measurements of ionizing radiation, Gamma-31 dosimeters have been used in the Central Mining Institute for many years. Now, this system will be expanded by a Panasonic system, for which measurement procedures were developed and comparisons with other dosimeters were held. The method is based on a four-element dosimeters UD-802 Panasonic equipped with CaSO and LiBO detectors additionally sheltered by filters of different surface mass. The use of UD-802 dosimeters, in contrast to Gamma-31 dosimeters, permits measuring radiation doses in a different range of photon energy. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a more accurate analysis of the hazards caused by gamma radiation in underground mines. The publication includes a description of the dosimetry system and presents the results of measurements conducted by means of both types of dosimeters. In order to verify the correctness of the indications of the new dosimetry system a series of measurements were carried out, which allowed examining the behaviour of the dosimeters under different environmental conditions. As a place of exposure, the selected laboratories in the Silesian Centre for Environmental Radiometry were chosen, where the work is connected with (TENORM and equipment producing ionizing radiation or containing sources of this type of radiation. Moreover, to observe the dosimeters behaviour in difficult environmental conditions, they were exposed in water treatment plants and an underground potassium salt mine.

  19. Public versus Private Healthcare Systems following Discharge from the ICU: A Propensity Score-Matched Comparison of Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The long-term outcomes of patients after discharge from tertiary ICUs as they relate to the public versus private healthcare systems in Brazil have not yet been evaluated. Materials and Methods. A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted to compare the all-cause mortality and the physical functional status (PFS 24 months after discharge from the ICU between adult patients treated in the public and private healthcare systems. A propensity score- (PS- matched comparison of all causes of mortality and PFS 24 months after discharge from the ICU was performed. Results. In total, 928 patients were discharged from the ICU including 172 (18.6% patients in the public and 756 (81.4% patients in the private healthcare system. The results of the PS-matched comparison of all-cause mortality revealed higher mortality rates among the patients of the public healthcare system compared to those of the private healthcare system (47.3% versus 27.6%, P=0.003. The comparison of the PS-matched Karnofsky performance and Lawton activities of daily living scores between the ICU survivors of the public and private healthcare systems revealed no significant differences. Conclusions. The patients of private healthcare system exhibited significantly greater survival rates than the patients of the public healthcare system with similar PFS following ICU discharge.

  20. Public versus Private Healthcare Systems following Discharge from the ICU: A Propensity Score-Matched Comparison of Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Duso, Bruno Achutti; Haas, Jaqueline Sanguiogo; Savi, Augusto; Cabral, Cláudia da Rocha; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Antônio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla de Souza; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The long-term outcomes of patients after discharge from tertiary ICUs as they relate to the public versus private healthcare systems in Brazil have not yet been evaluated. Materials and Methods. A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted to compare the all-cause mortality and the physical functional status (PFS) 24 months after discharge from the ICU between adult patients treated in the public and private healthcare systems. A propensity score- (PS-) matched comparison of all causes of mortality and PFS 24 months after discharge from the ICU was performed. Results. In total, 928 patients were discharged from the ICU including 172 (18.6%) patients in the public and 756 (81.4%) patients in the private healthcare system. The results of the PS-matched comparison of all-cause mortality revealed higher mortality rates among the patients of the public healthcare system compared to those of the private healthcare system (47.3% versus 27.6%, P = 0.003). The comparison of the PS-matched Karnofsky performance and Lawton activities of daily living scores between the ICU survivors of the public and private healthcare systems revealed no significant differences. Conclusions. The patients of private healthcare system exhibited significantly greater survival rates than the patients of the public healthcare system with similar PFS following ICU discharge. PMID:27123450

  1. Public versus Private Healthcare Systems following Discharge from the ICU: A Propensity Score-Matched Comparison of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Duso, Bruno Achutti; Haas, Jaqueline Sanguiogo; Savi, Augusto; Cabral, Cláudia da Rocha; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Antônio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla de Souza; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The long-term outcomes of patients after discharge from tertiary ICUs as they relate to the public versus private healthcare systems in Brazil have not yet been evaluated. Materials and Methods. A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted to compare the all-cause mortality and the physical functional status (PFS) 24 months after discharge from the ICU between adult patients treated in the public and private healthcare systems. A propensity score- (PS-) matched comparison of all causes of mortality and PFS 24 months after discharge from the ICU was performed. Results. In total, 928 patients were discharged from the ICU including 172 (18.6%) patients in the public and 756 (81.4%) patients in the private healthcare system. The results of the PS-matched comparison of all-cause mortality revealed higher mortality rates among the patients of the public healthcare system compared to those of the private healthcare system (47.3% versus 27.6%, P = 0.003). The comparison of the PS-matched Karnofsky performance and Lawton activities of daily living scores between the ICU survivors of the public and private healthcare systems revealed no significant differences. Conclusions. The patients of private healthcare system exhibited significantly greater survival rates than the patients of the public healthcare system with similar PFS following ICU discharge.

  2. Comparison of Geodetic and Late Pleistocene Slip Rates for the Southern Dead Sea Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, W. J.; Gomez, F.; Abu Rajab, J. S.; Al-Tarazi, E.

    2012-12-01

    Comparisons of short-term (geodetic) and Late Quaternary slip rates have been used to assess time-variable fault kinematics along various active faults, globally. Differences between such types slip rates may have implications for crustal rheology and/or temporal variations in plate motion. This research aims to compare the geodetically-derived slip rates with slip rates based on Late Pleistocene landforms along the southern Dead Sea fault system (DSFS). The DSFS is an active, left-lateral transform that accommodates differential movement between the Arabian and Sinai plates. A number of slip rates have been previously reported ranging from 2 to 6mm/yr. However, comparison of various slip rates requires ensuring that associated uncertainties are assessed using a standard. New GPS velocities from Jordan are combined with other available GPS data, and are used to model slip rates using elastic block models. Resulting slip rates are 4.3 to 5.3 mm/yr with fault locking depths of 8 - 15 km. Late Pleistocene rates are assessed from published observations, as well as new data. New mapping of offset alluvial fans in the southern Wadi Araba was facilitated by multi-spectral imagery and high-resolution digital elevation model. These fans correlate with regional aggradation events, with the resulting Late Pleistocene slip rates ranging from 4.2 to 5.1 mm/yr. Statistically, the geodetic and neotectonic slip rates are identical. Additionally, a 3-dimensional slip vector for the last earthquake in the northern Wadi Araba is constructed using close-range photogrammetry of a faulted Byzantine aqueduct that indicates both horizontal and vertical displacements. Previous studies suggested characteristic earthquake slip, so slip rates and this slip vector provide a means of assessing mean EQ recurrence interval, as well as the role of earthquakes in constructing the long-term topography along this part of the transform.

  3. Comparison of prognostic value of Roper Hall and Dua classification systems in acute ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Kalaivani, Mani; Tandon, Radhika

    2011-02-01

    To compare the predictive outcome of ocular burns using two different prognostic classification systems, that is, Dua and Roper Hall classification. In a prospective, randomised, controlled clinical trial, the extent of acute ocular burns in 100 patients was graded by Roper Hall and Dua classifications. Patients were randomised in two groups of 50 each to receive conventional medical therapy alone or additional amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT). Moderate burns were graded similarly (grade II and III) under both systems, while severe burns were classified differently and compared further. Baseline parameters (size of epithelial defect, corneal haze, limbal ischaemia, conjunctival involvement and visual acuity) and outcome variables (healing of epithelial defect, corneal clarity, corneal vascularisation, visual outcome and symblepharon) after 1 year were noted and compared. There was no difference in terms of time taken and rate of healing of epithelial defect, but there was a significant difference in extent of corneal vascularisation between grades IV, V and VI (pburns than either grade V (p=0.045) or grade VI (p=0.024) burns, and final visual acuity was significantly better in these patients (p=0.043). On comparison of patients with grade IV burns (with and without AMT), the outcome in terms of extent of corneal vascularisation was significantly better (p=0.0124) in patients who received AMT. Dua classification by providing further subclassification of grade IV ocular burns by Roper Hall into three separate grades has a superior prognostic predictive value in severe ocular burns.

  4. A Comparison of ETKF and Downscaling in a Regional Ensemble Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the operational regional ensemble prediction system (REPS in China Meteorological Administration (CMA, this paper carried out comparison of two initial condition perturbation methods: an ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF and a dynamical downscaling of global ensemble perturbations. One month consecutive tests are implemented to evaluate the performance of both methods in the operational REPS environment. The perturbation characteristics are analyzed and ensemble forecast verifications are conducted; furthermore, a TC case is investigated. The main conclusions are as follows: the ETKF perturbations contain more power at small scales while the ones derived from downscaling contain more power at large scales, and the relative difference of the two types of perturbations on scales become smaller with forecast lead time. The growth of downscaling perturbations is more remarkable, and the downscaling perturbations have larger magnitude than ETKF perturbations at all forecast lead times. However, the ETKF perturbation variance can represent the forecast error variance better than downscaling. Ensemble forecast verification shows slightly higher skill of downscaling ensemble over ETKF ensemble. A TC case study indicates that the overall performance of the two systems are quite similar despite the slightly smaller error of DOWN ensemble than ETKF ensemble at long range forecast lead times.

  5. A Study on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Management Systems Adoption: Models Comparison Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chun Yeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Linear Structural Relation model (LISREL model as analysis method and technology acceptance model and decomposed theory of planned behavior as research foundation, this study approachesmainly from the angle of behavioral intention to examine the influential factors of 421 employees adopting knowledge management systems and in the meantime to compare the two method models mentioned on the top. According to the research, there is no, in comparison with technology acceptance model anddecomposed theory of planned behavior, apparent increase on the explanatory power with the posterior. On the aspect of influential factors of users toward knowledge management systems, behavioral intention can efficiently predict the usage behavior, while attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control the behavioral intention. Perceived usefulness can only predict the behavioral intention indirectly, while perceived ease of use can efficiently predict perceived usefulness. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use can predict attitude effectively. Both peer influence and superior’s influence can operatively predict the subjective norm. Self efficacy and resource facilitating can predict perceived behavioral control. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Comparison of analysis and vibration test results for a multiple supported piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of a nuclear power plant piping system subjected to high level vibrational excitation is investigated experimentally and analytically. The objective is to evaluate the piping analysis method employed in the SMACS computer code. Experimental data are obtained from the Large Shaker Experiments (SHAG) conducted at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, in which the dynamic behavior of an in-plant piping system with various support configurations was investigated. Comparisons of calculational results with measured data indicate that the adequacy of the prediction depends primarily on the modeling of boundary conditions and dynamic supports. Treating the latter as rigid and using building motion as input, in general, results in under prediction of piping response. On the other hand when accelerations on the pipe side of the dynamic support attachment are used as input, piping response is highly overpredicted. Also modeling wall/floor component attachments as fixed usually leads to underprediction of amplitude as well as differences in the frequency content of response. 9 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Development of Optical Fiber-Based Daylighting System and Its Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic daylighting systems have been shown to be a promising and effective way to transmit sunlight in the interior space whilst reducing electric lighting energy consumption. To increase efficiency in terms of providing uniform illumination in the interior, the current need is to illuminate optical fiber-bundle with uniform light flux. To this end, we propose a method for achieving collimated light, which illuminates the fiber-bundle uniformly. Light is collected through a parabolic concentrator and focused toward a collimating lens, which distributes the light over each optical fiber. An optics diffusing structure is utilized at the end side of the fiber bundle to spread light in the interior. The results clearly reveal that the efficiency in terms of uniform illumination, which also reduces the heat problem for optical fibers, is improved. Furthermore, a comparison study is conducted between current and previous approaches. As a result, the proposed daylighting system turns out convenient in terms of energy saving and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity and the medial efferent system: II. Comparison of acute effects of different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima da Costa, D; Erre, J P; Pehourq, F; Aran, J M

    1998-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) has been shown to reversibly reduce the ability of contralateral noise to suppress ipsilateral cochlear activity, in a dose-dependent manner. However, during chronic administration of lower doses (60 mg/kg) the involvement of medial efferents could not be demonstrated. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether other aminoglycosides would display the same acute effects as GM and whether there was any correlation between their specificity and degree of cochlear and vestibular toxicity and their potency of blockade of the medial efferent system. Thus, we observed changes in ipsilateral ensemble background activity (EBA) of the VIIIth nerve without and with contralateral low level (55 dB SPL) broadband noise stimulation, in awake guinea pigs (GPs), before and after one single high-dose intramuscular injection of different aminoglycoside antibiotics (AAs) (gentamicin, amikacin, neomycin, netilmicin, streptomycin, tobramycin). For comparison, the effects of strychnine, a known antagonist of the efferent transmission and of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent with cochleotoxic properties were also studied. Netilmicin displayed blocking properties similar to GM, although less pronounced, while amikacin and neomycin had no effect on medial efferent function. With tobramycin and streptomycin a decrease in suppression was usually associated with a reduction of the EBA measured without acoustic stimulation. However, with cisplatin, suppression was still effective when EBA was severely decreased. We could not observe specific effects of strychnine on medial efferent function. In conclusion, no correlation was found between specificity and degree of AA ototoxicity and their action on the medial efferent system.

  9. Application of Homotopy Perturbation Method for Fuzzy Linear Systems and Comparison with Adomian’s Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saberi Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient numerical algorithm for solution of the fuzzy linear systems (FLS based on He’s homotopy perturbation method (HPM. Moreover, the convergence properties of the proposed method have been analyzed and also comparisons are made between Adomian’s decomposition method (ADM and the proposed method. The results reveal that our method is effective and simple.

  10. Oral iloprost in Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis : A multicentre, placebo-controlled, dose-comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, CM; Halkier-Sorensen, L; Belch, JJF; Ullman, S; Madhok, R; Smit, AJ; Banga, JD; Watson, HR

    Objective. To identify the optimal dose of oral iloprost bn the basis of efficacy and tolerability in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. Design. Multicentre, randomized, parallel-group comparison of two different doses of oral iloprost and placebo. Setting. European

  11. Considerations for developing chronic care system for traumatic brain injury based on comparisons of cancer survivorship and diabetes management care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Siobhan M; Caldwell, Barrett S

    2018-01-01

    Experts in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation recently proposed the framing of TBI as a chronic disease rather than a discrete event. Within the framework of the Chronic Care Model (CCM), a systematic comparison of three diseases - cancer survivorship, diabetes management and TBI chronic care - was conducted regarding chronic needs and the management of those needs. In addition, comparisons of these conditions require comparative evaluations of disease management characteristics and the survivor concept. The analysis found diabetes is more established within the CCM, where care is integrated across specialists and primary care providers. No single comparison provides a full analogue for understanding the chronic care health delivery system for TBI, indicating the need for a separate model to address needs and resources for TBI survivors. The findings from this research can provide practitioners with a context to develop a robust continued care health system for TBI. Practitioner Summary: We examine development of a chronic care system for traumatic brain injury. We conducted a systematic comparison of Chronic Care Model elements of decision and information support. Development of capabilities using a benchmark of diabetes care, with additional insights from cancer care, provides insights for implementing TBI chronic care systems.

  12. Candida albicans identification: comparison among nine phenotypic systems and a multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, G; Di Onofrio, V; Gallé, F; Lucariello, A; Albano, L; Catania, M R; Guida, M

    2010-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen isolated from clinical samples and is also the most common yeast species carried as a commensal by healthy individuals although some non-C. albicans species account for an important number of infections. To compare nine phenotypic systems for C. albicans identification [API 20C AUX; RapID Yeast Identification panel (RYIP); Vitek2 ID-YST system; chromogenic media, CHRO-Magar, Oxoid Chromogenic Candida Agar (OCCA), Candida ID2, Candida Identification Agar, CandiSelect 4, and Chromalbicans Agar] with multiplex PCR. A collection of 390 yeast strains was obtained by routine isolation from oral and vaginal swabs. All of the yeasts isolated were tested for germ tube formation, and then submitted to a multiplex PCR protocol tested in previous studies, and to nine phenotypical commercial methods, together with the reference ATCC strains. Comparison was limited to the ability of the tests to identify C. albicans. 253 isolates were provisionally identified as C. albicans by germ tube, and their identities were further confirmed with the multiplex PCR. Sensitivity of phenotypical systems ranged from 81.9% (Vitek2) to 87.7% (Candida ID2 e CHROMagar). For specificity, the highest value was 96.8% for Candida ID2, and the lowest value (75.1%) was for Chromalbicans Agar. Although with differences in discriminatory power, the methods tested showed overall acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity respect to the multiplex PCR; therefore, all could be useful for C. albicans identification where molecular differentiation is not available.

  13. A Clinical and Experimental Comparison of Time of Flight PET/MRI and PET/CT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea-Lager, Daniela E.; Yaqub, Maqsood; Pieters, Indra C; Reinhard, Rinze; van Moorselaar, Reindert J. A.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Hoekstra, Otto S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to compare image quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) systems with time of flight PET gantries, using phantom and clinical studies. Procedures Identical phantom experiments were performed on both systems. Calibration, uniformity, and standardized uptake value (SUV) recovery were measured. A clinical PET/CT versus PET/MRI comparison was performed using [18...

  14. Comparison of soft computing systems for the post-calibration of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessami Kermani, Masoud Reza

    The most usual tools to monitor rainfall events are raingauges and weather radar. Networks of raingauges provide accurate point estimates of rainfall, when appropriately set, but their usual low density restricts considerably the spatial resolution of the gathered information. Such networks, with rain gauges at distinct points, do not reflect the spatial distribution of rainfall. The quality of raingauge observations is also susceptible to some error sources, for example wind effects around the raingauges and poor raingauge reports due to hardware problems. Radar systems offer high spatial and temporal resolution observation which is much more efficient at providing the space-time evolution of a rainfall event in comparison with raingauge networks. However the radar measurements are not free of errors due to a variety of factors including ground clutter, bright bands, anomalous propagation, beam blockages, and attenuation. The effectiveness of weather radar operation is strongly linked to rigorous calibration. Various methods have been proposed to calibrate radar data. They can be classified into two main categories: deterministic and statistical. The deterministic approach involves the calibration of radar rainfall estimations against raingauge observations. The statistical approach includes multivariate analysis and cokriging. Geostatistical approaches are known as the best methods for radar-raingauge data integration but they are usually inefficient in real time, especially when dealing with the sampling rates of one hour or less necessary for urban and small watershed applications. Such methods also rely on a strong human expertise which can lead to user-dependent results. The objectives of this research are to introduce and to investigate the feasibility of soft computing systems for the post-calibration of weather radar in comparison with the best existing method based on geostatistics. In this work, the soft computing systems include artificial neural

  15. A direct comparison of a 10 V Josephson voltage standard between a refrigerator-based multi-chip programmable system and a conventional system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Yamamori, Hirotake; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shoji, Akira [Nanoelectronics Research Institute/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Urano, Chiharu; Nishinaka, Hidefumi; Murayama, Yasushi; Iwasa, Akio; Nakamura, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yamada-takahiro@aist.go.j [National Metrology Institute of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8563 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    A multi-chip 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) system was demonstrated using a closed-cycle refrigerator. We precisely measured the PJVS by a direct comparison measurement with a conventional Josephson voltage standard. The result agreed within a combined standard uncertainty of 3.9 x 10{sup -10} at 10 V.

  16. Thermo economic comparison of conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems for small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batens, Ellen; Cuellar, Rafael; Marissal, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    out a thermo economic comparison of a conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems. A model to estimate the savings and cost targets for solid oxide fuel cell systems is presented. A comparison between fuel cell technologies in the danish market with “state...... of the art” traditional heat and power generation technologies currently used in Denmark is considered. The conventional method of covering electrical, heating (e.g. hot water) and cooling (e.g. space cooling) load demands is by purchasing electricity from the electricity network grid and with a fossil fuel......-fired boiler. The household heat and power demand is evaluated. The lifetime, capital cost is also considered when estimating the resulting target cost. The electrical and thermal efficiency of fuel cell systems is estimated and compared with alternative technologies (i.e. Steriling Engine, Internal combustion...

  17. Thermo economic comparison of conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems for small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batens, Ellen; Cuellar, Rafael; Marissal, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and electricity at the point of use. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently competitive to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. The goal of this paper is to carry...... out a thermo economic comparison of a conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems. A model to estimate the savings and cost targets for solid oxide fuel cell systems is presented. A comparison between fuel cell technologies in the danish market with “state......-fired boiler. The household heat and power demand is evaluated. The lifetime, capital cost is also considered when estimating the resulting target cost. The electrical and thermal efficiency of fuel cell systems is estimated and compared with alternative technologies (i.e. Steriling Engine, Internal combustion...

  18. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effects of the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group (10 females and 5 males, mean age 14.74 years at T1) received buccal segment distalization with ZAS and the second group (8 females and 7 males, mean age 15.26 years at T1) with CH. The skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes were measured on cephalograms obtained before (T1) and after (T2) distalization, and these changes were statistically evaluated using a repeated measures analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon test. The Class II buccal segment relationship was corrected to a Class I in an average period of 9.03 +/- 0.62 months in the ZAS group and 9.00 +/- 0.76 months in the CH group. Significant distalization was observed for the posterior teeth in both groups (P Class II malocclusions.

  19. Comparison of manual and automated documentation of adverse events with an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, M; Junger, A; Michel, A; Sciuk, G; Quinzio, L; Marquardt, K; Hempelmann, G

    2000-01-01

    In this study, an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS) is used for the comparison of manually recorded adverse events with automatically detected events from anesthesiological procedures. In 1998, data from all anesthesia procedures, including the data set for quality assurance defined by the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), were recorded online with the documentation software NarkoData 4 (IMESO GmbH, Hüttenberg, Germany) followed by storage into a relational database (Oracle Corporation). The occurrence of manually recorded adverse events, as defined by the DGAI, is compared with automatically detected events. Automated detection was done with SQL-statements. The following adverse events were selected: hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia and hypovolemia. Data obtained from 16,019 electronic anesthesia records show that in 911 patients (5.7%), one of the selected adverse events was documented manually whereas in 2,996 patients (18.7%) a adverse event was detected automatically. The incidence of automatically detected events is obviously higher compared to manually recorded events. With the help of an AIMS, automatic detection proved significant deficiencies in the manual documentation of adverse events.

  20. Comparison of ozone retrievals from the Pandora spectrometer system and Dobson spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCOcorr = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, TE, derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(TE) are CPandora = 0.00333(TE-225) and CDobson = -0.0013(TE-226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1 % for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r2 = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 ± 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3 % annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1 % annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  1. Multi-pattern string matching algorithms comparison for intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Awsan A.; Rashid, Nur'Aini Abdul; Abdulrazzaq, Atheer A.

    2014-12-01

    Computer networks are developing exponentially and running at high speeds. With the increasing number of Internet users, computers have become the preferred target for complex attacks that require complex analyses to be detected. The Intrusion detection system (IDS) is created and turned into an important part of any modern network to protect the network from attacks. The IDS relies on string matching algorithms to identify network attacks, but these string matching algorithms consume a considerable amount of IDS processing time, thereby slows down the IDS performance. A new algorithm that can overcome the weakness of the IDS needs to be developed. Improving the multi-pattern matching algorithm ensure that an IDS can work properly and the limitations can be overcome. In this paper, we perform a comparison between our three multi-pattern matching algorithms; MP-KR, MPHQS and MPH-BMH with their corresponding original algorithms Kr, QS and BMH respectively. The experiments show that MPH-QS performs best among the proposed algorithms, followed by MPH-BMH, and MP-KR is the slowest. MPH-QS detects a large number of signature patterns in short time compared to other two algorithms. This finding can prove that the multi-pattern matching algorithms are more efficient in high-speed networks.

  2. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140, stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  3. Comparison of Low-Complexity Diversity Schemes for Dual-Hop AF Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-02-13

    This paper investigates the performance of two low-complexity combining schemes, which are based on one- or two-phase observation, to mitigate multipath fading in dual-hop amplify-and-forward relaying systems. For the one-phase-based combining, a single-antenna station is assumed to relay information from a multiple-antenna transmitter to a multiple-antenna receiver, and the activation of the receive antennas is adaptively performed based on the second-hop statistics, regardless of the first-hop conditions. On the other hand, the two-phase-based combining suggests using multiple single-antenna stations between the multiple-antenna transmitter and the single-antenna receiver, where the suitable set of active relays is identified according to the precombining end-to-end fading conditions. To facilitate comparisons between the two schemes, formulations for the statistics of the combined signal-to-noise ratio and some performance measures are presented. Numerical and simulation results are shown to clarify the tradeoff between the achieved diversity-array gain, the processing complexity, and the power consumption.

  4. Preliminary interlaboratory comparison of the ex vivo dual human placental perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllynen, Päivi; Mathiesen, Line; Weimer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    As a part of EU-project ReProTect, a comparison of the dual re-circulating human placental perfusion system was carried out, by two independent research groups. The detailed placental transfer data of model compounds [antipyrine, benzo(a)pyrene, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b......)pyridine) and IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline] has been/will be published separately. For this project, a comparative re-analysis was done, by curve fitting the data and calculating two endpoints: AUC(120), defined as the area under the curve between time 0 and time 120min and as t(0.5), defined...... as the time when the fetal to maternal concentration ratio is expected to be 0.5. The transport of the compounds from maternal to fetal circulation across the perfused placenta could be ranked in the order of antipyrine>IQ>PhIP in terms of both t(0.5) and AUC(120) by both partners. For benzo...

  5. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Namiecińska, Olga; Czerwińska, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140), stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers) or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  6. Comparison of Standard Wind Turbine Models with Vendor Models for Power System Stability Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gomez Lazaro, E.; Jimenez-Buendia, F.; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 61400-27-1 was published in February 2015. This standard deals with the development of generic terms and parameters to specify the electrical characteristics of wind turbines. Generic models of very complex technological systems, such as wind turbines, are thus defined based on the four common configurations available in the market. Due to its recent publication, the comparison of the response of generic models with specific vendor models plays a key role in ensuring the widespread use of this standard. This paper compares the response of a specific Gamesa dynamic wind turbine model to the corresponding generic IEC Type III wind turbine model response when the wind turbine is subjected to a three-phase voltage dip. This Type III model represents the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine, which is not only one of the most commonly sold and installed technologies in the current market but also a complex variable-speed operation implementation. In fact, active and reactive power transients are observed due to the voltage reduction. Special attention is given to the reactive power injection provided by the wind turbine models because it is a requirement of current grid codes. Further, the boundaries of the generic models associated with transient events that cannot be represented exactly are included in the paper.

  7. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W. [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  8. Allogeneic donor peripheral blood "stem cell" apheresis: prospective comparison of two apheresis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauninger, Susanne; Bialleck, Heike; Thorausch, Kristin; Felt, Tom; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2012-05-01

    Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, collected by white blood cell apheresis, are used for more than 80% of allogeneic and most autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. Optimal donor and recipient outcomes require maximized stem cell collection efficiency and minimized non-target cell contamination. Therefore, improved apheresis technology is desirable. The safety and feasibility of apheresis collections with the novel, electronics-assisted apheresis system Spectra Optia v.5.0 (CaridianBCT) were recently demonstrated. An unpublished optimization trial had furthermore determined that different settings than manufacturer-installed default might result in improved apheresis yields. The first prospective comparison of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell apheresis with the Spectra Optia versus the COBE Spectra (CaridianBCT) mononuclear cell (MNC) in a routine clinical setting is reported here; "optimized" machine settings were used. Assessed variables included collection efficiency, product characteristics, donor outcomes, and frequency of operator interventions. Outcomes were additionally compared with historical data from the Spectra Optia in default mode. The mean CD34+ cell collection efficiency CE1 was 7.9% greater with the Spectra Optia than with the COBE Spectra MNC. Variability of outcomes was equally great. Reduced platelet (PLT) attrition necessitated 90% fewer autologous PLT reinfusions. Spectra Optia products contained 50% fewer red blood cells, but 50% more granulocytic lineage cells. Less operator input was required, although 26% of Spectra Optia apheresis procedures required triggering of the first chamber flush. Apheresis yield and collection efficiency were also markedly greater than in default-mode Spectra Optia collections. Using optimized machine settings, peripheral blood stem cell apheresis outcomes with the automated apheresis system Spectra Optia exceed results with the COBE Spectra MNC or the

  9. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  10. Bayesian network reconstruction using systems genetics data: comparison of MCMC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Shinya; Sauerwine, Ben; Hoff, Bruce; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Gaiteri, Chris; Chaibub Neto, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing biological networks using high-throughput technologies has the potential to produce condition-specific interactomes. But are these reconstructed networks a reliable source of biological interactions? Do some network inference methods offer dramatically improved performance on certain types of networks? To facilitate the use of network inference methods in systems biology, we report a large-scale simulation study comparing the ability of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers to reverse engineer Bayesian networks. The MCMC samplers we investigated included foundational and state-of-the-art Metropolis-Hastings and Gibbs sampling approaches, as well as novel samplers we have designed. To enable a comprehensive comparison, we simulated gene expression and genetics data from known network structures under a range of biologically plausible scenarios. We examine the overall quality of network inference via different methods, as well as how their performance is affected by network characteristics. Our simulations reveal that network size, edge density, and strength of gene-to-gene signaling are major parameters that differentiate the performance of various samplers. Specifically, more recent samplers including our novel methods outperform traditional samplers for highly interconnected large networks with strong gene-to-gene signaling. Our newly developed samplers show comparable or superior performance to the top existing methods. Moreover, this performance gain is strongest in networks with biologically oriented topology, which indicates that our novel samplers are suitable for inferring biological networks. The performance of MCMC samplers in this simulation framework can guide the choice of methods for network reconstruction using systems genetics data. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Model based control for run-of-river system. Part 2: Comparison of control structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubomyr Vytvytskyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and control of a run-of-river hydro power plant depend on good knowledge of the elements of the plant in the form of models. Both the control architecture of the system, i.e. the choice of inputs and outputs, and to what degree a model is used, will affect the achievable control performance. Here, a model of a river reach based on the Saint Venant equations for open channel flow illustrates the dynamics of the run-of-river system. The hyperbolic partial differential equations are discretized using the Kurganov-Petrova central upwind scheme - see Part I for details. A comparison is given of achievable control performance using two alternative control signals: the inlet or the outlet volumetric flow rates to the system, in combination with a number of different control structures such as PI control, PI control with Smith predictor, and predictive control. The control objective is to keep the level just in front of the dam as high as possible, and with little variation in the level to avoid overflow over the dam. With a step change in the volumetric inflow to the river reach (disturbance and using the volumetric outflow as the control signal, PI control gives quite good performance. Model predictive control (MPC gives superior control in the sense of constraining the variation in the water level, at a cost of longer computational time and thus constraints on possible sample time. Details on controller tuning are given. With volumetric inflow to the river reach as control signal and outflow (production as disturbance, this introduces a considerable time delay in the control signal. Because of nonlinearity in the system (varying time delay, etc., it is difficult to achieve stable closed loop performance using a simple PI controller. However, by combining a PI controller with a Smith predictor based on a simple integrator + fixed time delay model, stable closed loop operation is possible with decent control performance. Still, an MPC

  12. PIACS: A System for the Automatic Detection, Categorization and Comparison of Scratch-Related Skin Lesions in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruland, Philipp; Hänse, Waldemar; Schedel, Fiona; Ständer, Sonja; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic pruritus-related, scratch-induced skin lesions the categorization, counting and temporal comparison are common methodologies. The observation requires a good memory and expertise in this field to gain comparable findings for this time-consuming process. Digital image processing aims at supporting such manual detections. The objective is to develop a software tool for automatic image detection and comparison. The new photographic setting implies the usage of markers to derive the brightness and size of lesions. MATLAB has been used for the software development. The newly defined setting allows taking standardized images of pruritus-associated cutaneous lesions for detection and comparison. The tool named PIACS (Prurigo Image Analyzing and Comparing System) allows automatically detecting, categorizing and comparing lesions based on digital images.

  13. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was

  14. Comparison of Some Rural Wastewater Refining Systems Considering Chemical Properties and Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Yazdanpanah

    2016-02-01

    compared to the value of the same variable at the inlet. Also, the percentage change of wastewater properties at the outlet ratio to the inlet values in the refining systems was calculated. Meanwhile, the efficiency was evaluated using permissible values reported by the Environmental Protection Organization of Iran. Results and Discussion: The results showed that after purification, the amounts of DO, Cd and Mo were not significantly different among the studied systems, while, the other parameters were found to be similar. In almost all the cases, the amounts of pollutants decreased at the outlets, nevertheless considering the permissible standards, just in few cases the pollution was reduced. Moreover, in comparison to the standard values, the amount of TP increased, while Turbidity decreased. Additionally, the amount of DO was higher than the threshold values. As a result of purification in all the studied systems, the concentrations of Cd and Pb were reduced, whereas the concentration of Ni increased. Also, the concentrations of heavy metals, except Mo were less than the standard values. Conclusion: It was concluded that the selected refining systems had limited performance in the purification of wastewater in the studied rural areas. However, the amounts of pollutants showed some reductions at the outlets, based on the permissible standards reported by the Environmental Protection Organization of Iran. In just a few cases the pollution indices were reduced. In fact, the septic tank systems could not remove the chemical pollutants from wastewaters, although the best performance was observed for TSS and Turbidity, which were reduced with respect to permissible levels. The amounts of BOD and COD were higher than the standard values, indicating low efficiency of the refining systems in removal of chemical and biological agents. Also, the concentration of TP was found to be higher than the permissible level. The entrance of phosphorous into the surface runoff and water

  15. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Comparison of two different systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Wei; Li, Xiao-Long; He, Ya-Ping; Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Liu, Bo-Ji; Yue, Wen-Wen; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two different shear wave elastography (SWE) techniques in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign ones. From March 2016 to May 2016, a total of 153 breast lesions (mean diameter, 16.8 mm±10.5; range 4.1-90.0 mm) in 153 patients (mean age, 46.4 years±15.1; age range 20-86 years) were separately performed by two different SWE techniques (i.e. T-SWE, Aplio500, Toshiba Medical System, Tochigi, Japan; and S-SWE, the Aixplorer US system, SuperSonic Imagine, Provence, France). The maximum (Emax), mean (Emean) and standard deviation (ESD) of elasticity modulus values in T-SWE and S-SWE were analyzed. All the lesions were confirmed by ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (n = 26), surgery (n = 122), or both (n = 5), with pathological results as the gold standard. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the diagnostic performance between T-SWE and S-SWE. Operator consistency was also evaluated. Among the 153 lesions, 41 (26.8%) were malignant and 112 (73.2%) were benign. Emax (T-SWE: 40.10±37.14 kPa vs. 118.78±34.41 kPa; S-SWE: 41.22±22.54 kPa vs. 134.77±60.51 kPa), Emean (T-SWE: 19.75±16.31 kPa vs. 52.93±25.75 kPa; S-SWE: 20.95±10.98 kPa vs. 55.95±22.42 kPa) and ESD (T-SWE: 9.00±8.55 kPa vs. 38.44±12.30 kPa; S-SWE: 8.17±6.14 kPa vs. 29.34±13.88 kPa) showed statistical differences in distinguishing malignant lesions from benign ones both in T-SWE and S-SWE (all p  0.05 in comparison with Emax) and Emean (AUROC = 0.930, p = 0.034 in comparison with Emax). AUROC-max (T-SWE: 0.909 vs. 0.967), AUROC-mean (T-SWE: 0.892 vs. 0.930) and AUROC-SD (T-SWE: 0.958 vs. 0.962) showed no significant difference between T-SWE and S-SWE (all p > 0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients

  16. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yaz c, Ay e Canan

    2009-01-01

    ...) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group...

  17. The feasibility of using Pareto fronts for comparison of treatment planning systems and delivery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Engstrom, Per E; Sjöström, David; Behrens, Claus F; Karlsson, Anna; Knöös, Tommy; Ceberg, Crister

    2009-01-01

    Pareto optimality is a concept that formalises the trade-off between a given set of mutually contradicting objectives. A solution is said to be Pareto optimal when it is not possible to improve one objective without deteriorating at least one of the other. A set of Pareto optimal solutions constitute the Pareto front. The Pareto concept applies well to the inverse planning process, which involves inherently contradictory objectives, high and uniform target dose on one hand, and sparing of surrounding tissue and nearby organs at risk (OAR) on the other. Due to the specific characteristics of a treatment planning system (TPS), treatment strategy or delivery technique, Pareto fronts for a given case are likely to differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Pareto fronts as a comparative tool for TPSs, treatment strategies and delivery techniques. In order to sample Pareto fronts, multiple treatment plans with varying target conformity and dose sparing of OAR were created for a number of prostate and head & neck IMRT cases. The DVHs of each plan were evaluated with respect to target coverage and dose to relevant OAR. Pareto fronts were successfully created for all studied cases. The results did indeed follow the definition of the Pareto concept, i.e. dose sparing of the OAR could not be improved without target coverage being impaired or vice versa. Furthermore, various treatment techniques resulted in distinguished and well separated Pareto fronts. Pareto fronts may be used to evaluate a number of parameters within radiotherapy. Examples are TPS optimization algorithms, the variation between accelerators or delivery techniques and the degradation of a plan during the treatment planning process. The issue of designing a model for unbiased comparison of parameters with such large inherent discrepancies, e.g. different TPSs, is problematic and should be carefully considered.

  18. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  19. Comparison of local and systemic ciprofloxacin ototoxicity in the treatment of chronic media otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarei, R

    2014-09-18

    Chronic media otitis is a common cause of reference to ear, nose and throat clinics and the treatment is one of the health problems among ENT specialists. Ciprofloxacin drop that is of fluoroquinolone drug class due to good treatment effect is now widely used in the treatment of chronic media otitis. Due to the widespread use, it seems proper research on the human population has not been taken to ensure its non-toxicity in the inner ear, therefore comparison of local ciprofloxacin ototoxicity with systemic in chronic media otitis is investigated in this study. This study was conducted as a randomized clinical trial. Prospective methods were considered and the number of samples in the study group was 40 patients that were treated with ciprofloxacin drops. And in the control group 32 patients with chronic media otitis who were treated with ciprofloxacin tablets. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical indicators of different frequencies in air conduction (AC) in both groups showed, there was significant improvement in hearing thresholds at frequencies of 250, 8000, 1000 in air conduction for the group receiving drops compared to the group receiving tablet. Based on statistical indicators in different frequencies of bone conduction in the two treated groups, there was significant difference in the two groups receiving tablets and drops only at a frequency of 4000 Hz that drop impact improves hearing threshold and in contrast in the group receiving tablet hearing loss was seen in the frequency of 4000. Topical ciprofloxacin is a safe and uncomplicated ototoxic drug that is an effective antibiotic used in the treatment of refractory chronic otitis those dregs such as pseudomonas aerogenusa and staphylococci resistant to methicillin are responsible for it, which in the usual doses has not harmful effects on hearing hairy cells.

  20. Biomarkers in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A comparison with biomarkers in Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Nanguneri; Grom, Alexei; Gram, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes biomarkers in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA). Broadly, the markers are classified under protein, cellular, gene expression and genetic markers. We also compare the biomarkers in sJIA to biomarkers in cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Recent findings Recent publications showing the similarity of clinical response of sJIA and CAPS to anti IL1 therapies prompted a comparison at the biomarker level. Summary sJIA traditionally is classified under the umbrella of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. At the clinical phenotypic level, sJIA has several features that are more similar to those seen in Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS). In this review, we summarize biomarkers in sJIA and CAPS and draw upon the various similarities and differences between the two families of diseases. The main difference between sJIA and CAPS biomarkers are genetic markers with CAPS being a family of monogenic diseases with mutations in NLRP3. There have been a small number of publications describing cellular biomarkers in sJIA with no such studies described for CAPS. Many of the protein markers characteristic of sJIA are also seen to characterize CAPS. The gene expression data in both sJIA and CAPS show a strong upregulation of innate immunity pathways. In addition, we describe a strong similarity between sJIA and CAPS at the gene expression level where several genes that form a part of the erythropoiesis signature are upregulated in both sJIA and CAPS. PMID:25050926

  1. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO: cross-sexual comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata eWierzba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples. The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50, male couple (50, female couple (50, male (25 and female (25. Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  2. System accuracy evaluation of systems for point-of-care testing of blood glucose: a comparison of a patient-use system with six professional-use systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Link, Manuela; Stolberg, Erhard; Haug, Cornelia; Sieber, Jochen

    2014-07-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) of blood glucose (BG) is performed by medical personnel in clinical settings as well as by patients themselves for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at home. We investigated if a system mainly intended for SMBG by people with diabetes, but also suitable for BG measurements by medical personnel, can achieve measurement accuracy on capillary blood samples comparable with professional-use POCT systems. System accuracy was evaluated under standardised conditions, following the ISO standard 15197:2003. For each system (one SMBG system with three test strip lots and six professional-use systems), measurement results from capillary blood samples of 100 subjects were compared with a standardised laboratory glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 glucose analyser). The seven evaluated systems showed 99.5% or 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits of ISO 15197:2003 (±0.83 mmol/L at BG concentrations standardised and controlled setting.

  3. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines....... The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software, WAMIT. The model also includes models for the dynamic mooring lines as well...

  4. Comparison of Knee and Ankle Dynamometry between NASA's X1 Exoskeleton and Biodex System 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Newby, N. J.; Hackney, K. J.; DeWitt, J. K.; Beck, C. E.; Rovekamp, R. N.; Rea, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Pre- and post-flight dynamometry is performed on International Space Station crewmembers to characterize microgravity-induced strength changes. Strength is not assessed in flight due to hardware limitations and there is poor understanding of the time course of in-flight changes. PURPOSE: To assess the reliability of a prototype dynamometer, the X1 Exoskeleton (EXO) and its agreement with a Biodex System 4 (BIO). METHODS: Eight subjects (4 M/4 F) completed 2 counterbalanced testing sessions of knee extension/flexion (KE/KF), 1 with BIO and 1 with EXO, with repeated measures within each session in normal gravity. Test-retest reliability (test 1 and 2) and device agreement (BIO vs. EXO) were evaluated. Later, to assess device agreement for ankle plantarflexion (PF), 10 subjects (4 M/6 F) completed 3 test conditions (BIO, EXO, and BIOEXO); BIOEXO was a hybrid condition comprised of the Biodex dynamometer motor and the X1 footplate and ankle frame. Ankle comparisons were: BIO vs. BIOEXO (footplate differences), BIOEXO vs. EXO (motor differences), and BIO vs. EXO (all differences). Reliability for KE/KF was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Device agreement was assessed with: 1) repeated measures ANOVA, 2) a measure of concordance (rho), and 3) average difference. RESULTS: ICCs for KE/KF were 0.99 for BIO and 0.96 to 0.99 for EXO. Agreement was high for KE (concordance: 0.86 to 0.95; average differences: -7 to +9 Nm) and low to moderate for KF (concordance: 0.64 to 0.78; average differences: -4 to -29 Nm, P<0.05). BIO vs. BIOEXO PF concordance ranged from 0.89 to 0.92 and mean differences ranged from -9 to +3 Nm (BIO < BIOEXO). BIOEXO vs. EXO PF concordance ranged from 0.73 to 0.80 while mean differences were -18 to -36 Nm (BIOEXO < EXO, P<0.05). PF concordance for BIO vs. EXO was slightly lower (0.61 to 0.84) and mean differences were greater (-27 to -33 Nm; BIO < EXO, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: BIO and EXO were similarly reliable for KE and KF. KE measures produced

  5. International comparison of systems to determine entitlements to medical specialist care: performance and organizational issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Stolk (Elly); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Jerak (Sonja); M. Stroet (Mary); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary Objective: CVZ has asked us to provide a comparison of criteria and procedures that different countries use to determine entitlements to medical specialist care. This question was asked within the context of the recent introduction of the DBC (diagnosis treatment combinations)

  6. Comparison of solar heat pump systems to conventional methods for residential heating, cooling, and water heating. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-04-01

    Since the purpose of space conditioning equipment is to provide thermal comfort, models were formulated to force this requirement on all systems. The thermal performance maps (fraction of the load met with free energy versus collector area) presented include the effects of the comfort requirement and of parasitic energy consumption for blower and pump operation. Economic comparisons were made after sizing collectors and storage for the combined solar heat pump systems in a manner which was sensitive to climate as well as to the thermal and economic characteristics of each particular system. This, combined with life cycle cost analysis, allows collector cost goals to be established which, if met, will allow combined solar heat pump systems to compete with conventional alternatives.

  7. Evaluation of degree of readsorption of radionuclides during sequential extraction in soil: comparison between batch and dynamic extraction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald; Hou, Xiaolin

    . In this study, a method of standard addition into extractants was used to evaluate readsorption phenomena in the modified standard, measurement and testing programme's (SM&T) sequential extraction scheme. The result showed that the dynamic extraction system gave similar degree of readsorption for both Pu and Am....... However, the techniques have an important problem with redistribution as a result of readsorption of dissolved analytes onto the remaining solids phases during extraction. Many authors have demonstrated the readsorption problem and inaccuracy from it. In our previous work, a dynamic extraction system...... developed in our laboratory for heavy metal fractionation has shown the reduction of readsorption problem in comparison with the batch techniques. Moreover, the system shows many advantages over the batch system such as speed of extraction, simple procedure, fully automatic, less risk of contamination...

  8. Optimal Controller and Controller Based on Differential Flatness in a Linear Guide System: A Performance Comparison of Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abel Gómez Becerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of linear slide system has been augmented in recent times due to features granted to supplement electromechanical systems; new technologies have allowed the manufacture of these systems with low coefficients of friction and offer a variety of types of sliding. In this paper, we present a comparison between the performance indexes of two techniques of control applying optimal control LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator acronym for STIs in English and the technique of differential flatness controller. The use of linear slide bolt of potency takes into account the dynamics of the DC motor; the Euler-Lagrange formalism was used to establish the mathematical model of the slide. Cosimulation via the MATLAB/Simulink-ADAMS virtual prototype package, including realistic measurement disturbances, is used to compare the performance indexes between the LQR controller versus differential flatness controller for the position tracking of linear guide system.

  9. Comparison of the effects of different crop rotation systems on winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... sunflower-wheat-fodder pea + sunflower crop rotation system both in the first and second three year ... that binary cropping system consisting of wheat- ... The first 3 year (1995-1998) application plan for the crop rotation trials in which wheat was used as main crop. Year 1.System 2.System 3.System. 4.

  10. Comparison of Failure Modes in 2-D and 3-D Woven Carbon Phenolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Grant A.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Braun, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is developing Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) materials as a new class of heatshields for entry vehicles (Stackpoole). Currently, there are few options for ablative entry heatshield materials, none of which is ideally suited to the planetary probe missions currently of interest to NASA. While carbon phenolic was successfully used for the missions Pioneer Venus and Galileo (to Jupiter), the heritage constituents are no longer available. An alternate carbon phenolic would need to be qualified for probe missions, which is most efficient at heat fluxes greater than those currently of interest. Additional TPS materials such as Avcoat and PICA are not sufficiently robust for the heat fluxes required. As a result, there is a large TPS gap between the materials efficient at very high conditions (carbon phenolic) and those that are effective at low-moderate conditions (all others). Development of 3D Woven TPS is intended to fill this gap, targeting mid-density weaves that could with withstand mid-range heat fluxes between 1100 W/sq cm and 8000 W/sq cm (Venkatapathy (2012). Preliminary experimental studies have been performed to show the feasibility of WTPS as a future mid-range TPS material. One study performed in the mARC Jet Facility at NASA Ames Research Center characterized the performance of a 3D Woven TPS sample and compared it to 2D carbon phenolic samples at ply angles of 0deg, 23.5deg, and 90deg. Each sample contained similar compositions of phenolic and carbon fiber volume fractions for experimental consistency. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the TPS materials by evaluating resulting recession and failure modes. After exposing both samples to similar heat flux and pressure conditions, the 2D carbon phenolic laminate was shown to experience significant delamination between layers and further pocketing underneath separated layers. The 3D Woven TPS sample did not experience the delamination or pocketing

  11. Comparison of Discrete Klystron Produced RF to Two-Beam Produced RF for Large Accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitthan, Rainer

    2000-08-22

    The authors compare here some technical aspects, and with it the cost, of constructing a 500 GeV center of mass Linear Collider with either Discrete Klystron or with Two-Beam (relativistic Klystron) technology using X-band for the main linac. A comparison concept is applied to CLIC and NLC technologies, but not to a particular CLIC or NLC design. The methodology created can be extended to higher c.m.s. energies, if the reader so desires.

  12. A Performance Comparison of Tree and Ring Topologies in Distributed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    A distributed system is a collection of computers that are connected via a communication network. Distributed systems have become commonplace due to the wide availability of low-cost, high performance computers and network devices. However, the management infrastructure often does not scale well when distributed systems get very large. Some of the considerations in building a distributed system are the choice of the network topology and the method used to construct the distributed system so as to optimize the scalability and reliability of the system, lower the cost of linking nodes together and minimize the message delay in transmission, and simplify system resource management. We have developed a new distributed management system that is able to handle the dynamic increase of system size, detect and recover the unexpected failure of system services, and manage system resources. The topologies used in the system are the tree-structured network and the ring-structured network. This thesis presents the research background, system components, design, implementation, experiment results and the conclusions of our work. The thesis is organized as follows: the research background is presented in chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the system components, including the different node types and different connection types used in the system. In chapter 3, we describe the message types and message formats in the system. We discuss the system design and implementation in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we present the test environment and results, Finally, we conclude with a summary and describe our future work in chapter 6.

  13. Evaluation of a new histologic staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis in comparison with classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Yuko; Harada, Kenichi; Sawada-Kitamura, Seiko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Okafuji, Hirofumi; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Terasaki, Shuichi; Ohta, Hajime; Kasashima, Satomi; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Kaizaki, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-06-01

    Recently, our research team proposed a new histologic staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) that takes into account necroinflammatory activity and histologic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to confirm the usefulness of the new evaluation system. A total of 152 liver biopsy specimens and clinical data (including outcomes in patients with PBC before treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid) were analyzed with respect to the new system. Staging was evaluated on the basis of 3 histologic components (fibrosis, bile duct loss, and deposition of orcein-positive granules), and grading was assessed on the basis of chronic cholangitis activity and hepatitis activity. Concurrently, the classical systems, that is, the Scheuer and Ludwig staging systems, were also assessed and compared with our new system. PBC cases showed different distributions in each stage of the 3 systems. The new staging and grading system reflected liver dysfunctions before specific treatment. This was on a par with the results obtained using the classical systems. Development of cirrhosis-related conditions correlated well with the new staging system compared with the 2 classical staging systems, and in particular, the amount of deposition of orcein-positive granules could reflect development of cirrhosis-related conditions (scores 0-1 versus scores 2-3 groups, P new PBC staging system was demonstrated to reflect clinicolaboratory features, and its progression was associated with the development of cirrhosis-related conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of solar photovoltaic and nuclear reactor power systems for a human-tended lunar observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic and nuclear surface power systems were examined at the 20 to 100 kW power level range for use at a human-tended lunar astronomical observatory, and estimates of the power system masses were made. One system, consisting of an SP-100 thermoelectric nuclear power supply integrated with a lunar lander, is recommended for further study due to its low system mass, potential for modular growth, and applicability to other surface power missions, particularly in the Martian system.

  15. Comparison of risk in organic, integrated and conventional cropping systems in eastern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    G., Lien; O., Flaten; A., Korsaeth; K.D., Schumann; J.W., Richardson; R., Eltun; J.B., Hardaker

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare risk of organic, integrated and conventional cropping systems. Experimental cropping system data (1991-1999) from eastern Norway were combined with farm budget data. Empirical distributions of net farm income for different cropping systems were estimated with a simulation model. The results show that the organic system had the greatest net farm income variability, but both the existing payment system and organic price premiums make it the most economically...

  16. Comparison of solar photovoltaic and nuclear reactor power systems for a human-tended lunar observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic and nuclear surface power systems were examined at the 20 to 100 kW power level range for use at a human-tended lunar astronomical observatory, andestimates of the power system masses were made. One system, consisting of an SP-100 thermoelectric nuclear power supply integrated with a lunar lander, is recommended for further study due to its low system mass, potential for modular growth, and applicability to other surface power missions, particularly in the Martian system.

  17. Physical and Clinical Comparison between a Screen-Film System and a Dual-Side Reading Mammography-Dedicated Computed Radiography System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, S. (Dept. of Health Physics, AUSL Modena, Modena (Italy)). e-mail: nico.lanconelli@unibo.it; Canossi, B.; Battista, R.; Vetruccio, E.; Torricelli, P. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)); Lanconelli, N. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)); Danielli, C. (Dept. of Health Physics, Policlinico di Modena, Modena (Italy)); Borasi, G. (Dept. of Health Physics, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy))

    2009-12-15

    Background: Digital mammography systems, thanks to a physical performance better than conventional screen-film units, have the potential of reducing the dose to patients, without decreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To achieve a physical and clinical comparison between two systems: a screen-film plate and a dual-side computed radiography system (CRM; FUJIFILM FCR 5000 MA). Material and Methods: A unique feature of the FCR 5000 MA system is that it has a clear support medium, allowing light emitted during the scanning process to be detected on the 'back' of the storage phosphor plate, considerably improving the system's efficiency. The system's physical performance was tested by means of a quantitative analysis, with calculation of the modulation transfer function, detective quantum efficiency, and contrast-detail analysis; subsequently, the results were compared with those achieved using a screen-film system (SFM; Eastmann Kodak MinR-MinR 2000). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then performed on 120 paired clinical images obtained in a craniocaudal projection with the conventional SFM system under standard exposure conditions and also with the CRM system working with a dose reduced by 35% (average breast thickness: 4.3 cm; mean glandular dose: 1.45 mGy). CRM clinical images were interpreted both in hard copy and in soft copy. Results: The ROC analysis revealed that the performances of the two systems (SFM and CRM with reduced dose) were similar (P>0.05): the diagnostic accuracy of the two systems, when valued in terms of the area underneath the ROC curve, was found to be 0.74 for the SFM, 0.78 for the CRM (hard copy), and 0.79 for the CRM (soft copy). Conclusion: The outcome obtained from our experiments shows that the use of the dual-side CRM system is a very good alternative to the screen-film system

  18. [Comparison of the systems used for providing local anesthesia in dentistry--the Wand (Milestone Scientific) and Injex (Rosch)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzecka, Joanna; Gończowski, Krzysztof; Kesek, Barbara; Darczuk, Dagmara; Zapała, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Local anesthesia is one of the basic and the most often executed interventions in dentistry. This procedure is very stressful for the patients because it is combined with pain. The new systems for delivering local anesthesia in dentistry have revolutionized the technique considerably by its simplify as well as reduction in pain. this study presents the comparison between the local anesthesia delivery systems used in dentistry--The Wand and Injex, taking into consideration pain intensity during performing anesthesia and the intensification of fear before executed anesthesia with the given system. the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), verbal scale and questionnaires were used to evaluate pain and fear. On the basis of our investigations it can be concluded that there were statistically important differences between men and women in fear intensity combined with the anesthesia procedure--men were less afraid than women. The patients who were anaesthetized with system The WAND declared less fear before similar anesthesia in future. The average value of intensity of pain analyzed with both verbal and visual scales during anaesthetizing with the system Injex (independently from sex) was statistically significantly higher than for system The WAND--respectively 0.57 and 8.55 for The WAND, 2.02 and 32.18 for Injex (p = 0.001). on the basis of the results of this study it can be concluded that the less stressful and painful local anesthesia delivery system is the WAND.

  19. Outdoor Performance Comparison of Concentrator Photovoltaic and Flat Plate Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidaka Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Output characteristics of tracking type concentrator photovoltaic (CPV system, multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si PV system, CIGS PV system, and amorphous silicon (a-Si PV system were analyzed in the data period of a year from August 2013 to July 2014. In this study, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors using average photon energy (APE and temperature of solar cell (Tcell. The characteristics of 14 kW CPV system, 50 kW mc-Si PV system, 60 kW CIGS PV system, 1.35 kW a-Si PV system were evaluated and compared. As a result, the output performance of CPV was highest between the four systems at the most frequent conditions in the outdoor environment.

  20. Comparison of an automated nucleic acid extraction system with the column-based procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Frickmann, Hagen; Hinz, Rebecca; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Here, we assessed the extraction efficiency of a deployable bench-top nucleic acid extractor EZ1 in comparison to the column-based approach with complex sample matrices. A total of 48 EDTA blood samples and 81 stool samples were extracted by EZ1 automated extraction and the column-based QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Blood sample extractions were assessed by two real-time malaria PCRs, while stool samples were analyzed by six multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting bacterial, viral, ...

  1. Comparison of bacterial communities of conventional and A-stage activated sludge systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Lotti, T.; Garcia-Ruiz, M.J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of 10 different wastewater treatment systems and their influents has been investigated through pyrosequencing, yielding a total of 283486 reads. These bioreactors had different technological configurations: conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and very highly

  2. Wildland firefighter deaths in the United States: A comparison of existing surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corey; Marsh, Suzanne; Domitrovich, Joseph W; Helmkamp, Jim

    2017-04-01

    Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland firefighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities. Data within each of the five surveillance systems were examined to better understand the types of wildland firefighter data collected, to assess each system's utility in characterizing wildland firefighter fatalities, and to determine each system's potential to inform prevention strategies. To describe similarities and differences in how data were recorded and characterized, wildland fire deaths for three of the population-based systems were matched and individual fatalities across systems were compared. Between 2001 and 2012, 247 unique deaths were captured among the systems; 73% of these were captured in all three systems. Most common causes of death in all systems were associated with aviation, vehicles, medical events, and entrapments/burnovers. The data show that, although the three systems often report similar annual summary statistics, events captured in each system vary each year depending on the types of events that the system is designed to track, such as inclusion/exclusion of fatalities associated with the Hometown Heroes Survivor Benefits Act of 2003. The overarching and central goal of each system is to collect accurate and timely information to improve wildland firefighter safety and health. Each system is unique and has varying inclusion and exclusion criteria for capturing and tracking different subsets of wildland firefighter tasks and duties. Use of a common case definition and better descriptions and interpretations of the data and the results would help to more

  3. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Krajcsi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  4. Comparison of mechanized systems for thinning Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Joseph F. McNeel; Thomas A. Durston; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    We studied three systems for thinning pine plantations and naturally-regenerated stands on the Stanislaus National Forest, California. All three produced small sawlogs and fuel chips. The whole tree system consisted of a feller buncher, skidder, stroke processor, loader and chipper. The cut-to-length system included a harvester, forwarder, loader and chipper. A hybrid...

  5. Comparison of tillage systems for paddy rice in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.L.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta of Vietnam, wetland rice is the main crop. The traditional rice cropping system with one crop per year changed to a system with two or three crops per year, and mechanised tillage replaced traditional tillage by water buffaloes. Currently, three tillage systems can be

  6. Smallholder dairy production and markets: a comparison of production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.; Staal, S.J.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Three smallholder dairy production systems in Zambia, Sri Lanka and Kenya are analysed and compared. The focus is on the relationships between the animal production system, the farm household system, and the institutional environment. Attention is given to the valuation of marketed and non-marketed

  7. A Preliminary Comparison of Student and Professional Motivations for Choosing Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nita; Korzaan, Melinda; Ceccucci, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Demand for qualified information systems professionals continues to rise. Additionally, over the past decade, enrollment in information systems-related educational programs has declined. In order to understand why and to better understand how to position information systems undergraduate programs to recruit and retain students, this study provides…

  8. A comparison of the Web of Science with publication-level classification systems of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ruiz-Castillo, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new criterion for choosing between a pair of classification systems of science that assign publications (or journals) to a set of scientific fields. Consider the standard normalization procedure in which field mean citations are used as normalization factors. We recommend system A over system B whenever the standard normalization procedure based on A performs better than the when it is based on B. Since the evaluation can be made in terms of either system, the performance assessment requires a double test. In addition, since the assessment of two normalization procedures would be generally biased in favor of the one based on the classification system used for evaluation purposes, ideally a pair of classification systems must be compared using a third, independent classification system for evaluation purposes. We illustrate this strategy by comparing a Web of Science journal-level classification system, consisting of 236 journal subject categories, with two publication-level algorithmically constructed classification systems consisting of 1,363 (G6) and 5,119 (G8) clusters. There are two main findings. (1) The G8 system is found to dominate the G6 system. Therefore, when we have a choice between two classification systems at different granularity levels, we should use the system at the higher level because it typically exhibits a better standard normalization performance. (2) The G8 system and the Web of Science (WoS) journal-level system are found to be non-comparable. Nevertheless, the G8-normalization procedure performs better using the WoS system for evaluation purposes than the WoS-normalization procedure using the G8 system for evaluation purposes. Furthermore, when we use the G6 system for evaluation purposes, the G8-normalization procedure performs better than the WoS-normalization procedure. We conclude that algorithmically constructed classification systems constitute a credible alternative to the WoS system and, by extension, to

  9. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-01

    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  11. Comparison of indoor air distribution and thermal environment for different combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    air distribution and the thermal environment for all combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems. Therefore, in this article, the indoor air distribution and the thermal environment were comparatively analyzed in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH...

  12. Robotic laparoscopic surgery: a comparison of the DA Vinci and Zeus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, G T; Gill, I S

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate two currently available robotic surgical systems in performing various urologic laparoscopic procedures in an acute porcine model. Robotic laparoscopic surgery was performed in 14 swine. Data were compared between the da Vinci Robotic System and the Zeus Robotic System. During laparoscopic nephrectomy, the da Vinci System (n = 6) had a significantly shorter total operating room time (51.3 versus 71.6 minutes; P = 0.02) and actual surgical time (42.1 versus 61.4 minutes; P = 0.03) compared with the Zeus System (n = 5). However, the blood loss and adequacy of surgical dissection were comparable between the two groups. For laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the da Vinci System (n = 5) had a shorter actual surgical time (12.2 versus 26.0 minutes; P = 0.006) than did the Zeus System (n = 5). For laparoscopic pyeloplasty, the da Vinci System had a shorter total operating room time (61.4 versus 83.4 minutes; P = 0.10) and anastomotic time (44.7 versus 66.4 minutes; P = 0.11). During pyeloplasty anastomosis, the total number of suture bites per ureter was 13.0 for the da Vinci System (n = 6) and 10.8 for the Zeus System (n = 6). The complications included an adrenal parenchymal tear each during a da Vinci System-based left adrenalectomy and a Zeus System-based right adrenalectomy. An inferior vena caval tear during a Zeus System-based right adrenalectomy occurred in 1 case, which was suture-repaired telerobotically. Robotic laparoscopic procedures can be performed effectively using either the da Vinci or Zeus System. In this limited study, the learning curve and operative times were shorter and the intraoperative technical movements appeared inherently more intuitive with the da Vinci System. Additional clinical experience is necessary.

  13. A comparison of mammographic systems for different breast thicknesses using model observer detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Peteghem, Nelis; Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas W.

    2015-03-01

    This work investigated image quality as a function of PMMA thickness on a variety of mammography systems. Image quality was quantified by calculating detectability (d') using a non-prewhitening with eye filter model observer (NPWE) from routinely acquired quality control (QC) data of twelve digital radiography (DR) systems. The sample of systems included two mammography devices equipped with the Siemens PRIME upgrade and one system with the Claymount SmartBucky detector. The d' data were calculated for a 0.1 and 0.25 mm diameter gold discs using images of homogeneous PMMA (thickness from 2 to 7 cm), all from the routinely performed AEC test. The GE Essential systems had the highest d' values for low thicknesses and the lowest d' values for high thicknesses. The Hologic Selenia Dimension systems had the most constant detectability curve, ensuring high d' values at high thicknesses. This was achieved by increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD) at higher thicknesses compared to the other systems. The Siemens PRIME and the Claymount system detectability results were comparable to the standard FFDM systems. Mean glandular dose at 5, 6 and 7 cm PMMA and gold threshold thickness at 5 cm PMMA were also evaluated. The Claymount system had a high (but acceptable) threshold gold thickness (T) compared to the other systems. This was probably caused by the low dose at which this DR detector operates. Results of NPWE d' and CDMAM analysis showed the same trends.

  14. Data-Driven Machine-Learning Model in District Heating System for Heat Load Prediction: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisnik Dalipi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our data-driven supervised machine-learning (ML model to predict heat load for buildings in a district heating system (DHS. Even though ML has been used as an approach to heat load prediction in literature, it is hard to select an approach that will qualify as a solution for our case as existing solutions are quite problem specific. For that reason, we compared and evaluated three ML algorithms within a framework on operational data from a DH system in order to generate the required prediction model. The algorithms examined are Support Vector Regression (SVR, Partial Least Square (PLS, and random forest (RF. We use the data collected from buildings at several locations for a period of 29 weeks. Concerning the accuracy of predicting the heat load, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms using mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and correlation coefficient. In order to determine which algorithm had the best accuracy, we conducted performance comparison among these ML algorithms. The comparison of the algorithms indicates that, for DH heat load prediction, SVR method presented in this paper is the most efficient one out of the three also compared to other methods found in the literature.

  15. Comparison of particle-in-cell simulation with experiment for thetransport system of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ionsource VENUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, DamonS.; Leitner, Daniela; Leitner, Matthaeus; Lyneis,Claude M.; Qiang, Ji; Grote, Dave P.

    2005-09-19

    The three-dimensional, particle-in-cell code WARP has been enhanced to allow end-to-end beam dynamics simulations of the VENUS beam transport system from the extraction region, through a mass-analyzing magnet, and up to a two-axis emittance scanner. This paper presents first results of comparisons between simulation and experimental data. A helium beam (He+, He2+) is chosen as an initial comparison beam due to its simple mass spectrum. Although a number of simplifications are made for the initial extracted beam, aberration characteristics appear in simulations that are also present in experimental phase space current density measurements. Further, measurements of phase space tilt indicate that simulations must have little or no space charge neutralization along the transport system to best agree with experiment. In addition, recent measurements of triangular beam structure immediately after the source are presented. This beam structure is related to the source magnetic confinement fields and will need to be taken into account as the initial beam approximations are lifted.

  16. High energy ballistic and fracture comparison between multilayered armor systems using non-woven curaua fabric composites and aramid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For personal protection against high kinetic energy projectiles, multilayered armor systems (MAS are usually the best option. They combine synergistically the properties of different materials such as ceramics, composites and metals. In the present work, ballistic tests were performed to evaluate multilayered armor systems (MAS using curaua non-woven fabric epoxy composites as second layer. A comparison to a MAS using aramid (Kevlar™ fabric laminates was made. The results showed that the curaua non-woven fabric composites are suitable to the high ballistic applications, and are promising substitutes for aramid fabric laminates. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Non-woven fabric, Aramid laminate, Ballistic test

  17. A comparison of a conventional launch system vs. externally supplied vehicles for installation and maintenance of solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetzerich, Klaus

    The paper analyzes two principal approaches for the transportation system to support the operational phase of a solar power satellite (SPS) scenario that foresees the continued installation of two 10 GW stations per year equivalent to 150,000 Mg payload per year. One concept consists of conventional single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, the structure of which is left in orbit and used as part of the structure of an SPS. As an alternative concept an externally supplied vehicle is being considered, the required power being supplied by a laser from the ground. A comparison of these two approaches showed, that the conventional launch system is preferable, because it is technically feasible, simpler to development, and no significant inpact to atmosphere is foreseen.

  18. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  19. Comparison of the VersaTREK blood culture system against the Bactec9240 system in patients with suspected bloodstream infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zyl Danie G

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the VersaTREK (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, Ohio blood culture system against the Bactec9240 (BD Microbiology, Cockeysville, MD, for the recovery of bloodstream pathogens. Methods Venous blood from patients with suspected bacterial sepsis was evenly distributed into bottles of each system. Positive signals were recorded and bottles processed onto standard media for organism recovery. False positive signals were regarded if no organisms were seen on Gram stain and no growth was observed. Results 177 bottles were available for analysis; the Bactec9240 system yielded 43 positive, 134 negative results and no false positive signals. The VersaTREK system had 58 positive signals with 14 being false positives. Conclusions In our setting with high background burden of immuno-compromised patients, the VersaTREK system compared favourably with the Bactec9240 in recovering blood stream aerobic and facultative anaerobic pathogens from patients with suspected bacterial sepsis. A concern is the high false positivity rate. Due to its versatility to accommodate small and large workloads as well as using smaller volumes of blood, this system may establish itself as a useful alternative for the recovery of bloodstream pathogens.

  20. [Complex evaluation of film mammographic imaging systems. 2. Comparison of 18 systems using a signal-noise matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M; Weskamp, P

    1984-06-01

    The concept of the signal-noise matrix with physiological optical noise measurements for defining visibility thresholds provides a quantitative means for comparing film mammographic systems (9). Eighteen such systems were compared. A graded list can be produced relating the integrated signal-noise ratio to area and detail contrast (image quality) and to the required radiation dose (dose efficiency). For this, maximal dose (industrial film) and minimal image quality can be taken into consideration. In this list, in agreement with other publications (12) high resolution film-screen combinations, using industrial film (eg. Cronex 70/screen) come top. In combination with a grid technique, this system achieves a greatly superior image quality. Amongst commercial film-screen systems, only the Trimax mammography system with high resolution screens is comparable. All other commercial systems (single or double coated films) are unsatisfactory with respect to their dose efficiency and image quality. Some industrial films without screens (Mamoray M4) are intermediate between high definition and other commercial systems. Ninety-second, screenless films offered for mammography appear unsuitable for this purpose, both in view of their dose efficiency and image quality.

  1. Biomechanical comparison of the pull-down strength between TARP system and posterior atlantoaxial screw fixation system on the axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong XIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the pull-down strength on axis between anterior transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP system and posterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation (ATSF system so as to provide a biomechanical basis for clinical application. Methods Six fresh human cadaveric atlantoaxial specimens (C0-C3 with intact ligaments were instrumented with TARP system and ATSF system respectively to simulate the reduction procedure of operation, the same stretch strength were loaded on anterior and posterior parts of the atlas and axis (60, 80 and 100N. The pull-down strength on the axis and the degree of displacement of atlantoaxial detachment were measured respectively and then analyzed statistically. Results When loaded with the stretch strength of 60, 80 and 100N, the pull-down strength on the axis generated by TARP system were 26.11±2.08, 36.08±2.40 and 45.01±2.26N, and those generated by ATSF system were 22.09±1.45, 29.77±2.36 and 40.80±3.41N, respectively; the atlantoaxial detaching displacement generated by TARP system was 0.87±0.07, 1.07±0.07 and 1.14±0.06mm respectively, and those generated by ATSF system were 0.82±0.07, 1.01±0.08 and 1.06±0.08mm respectively. The pull-down strength on both the axis and atlantoaxial detaching displacement showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion The pull-down strength on the axis and atlantoaxial detaching displacement generated by TARP system was significantly superior to those generated by ATSF system, suggesting that the TARP system could be a better fixation system for basilar invagination combined with atlantoaxial dislocation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.04

  2. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative comparison of Zeiss-Humphrey model 840 and Rion UX-02 systems of ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, K

    1999-05-01

    Our objective was to estimate the agreement between two different ultrasound biomicroscopes (UBMs) and to evaluate the clinical implications of the measurements obtained. We measured the anterior chamber depth, trabecular-iris angle, angle opening distance at 250 and 500 microm from the scleral spur, iris thickness and scleral-iris angle using the Humphrey UBM model 840 and Rion UBM UX-02 in 25 eyes of 25 normal volunteers. No significant difference was found in the mean values of any parameters measured by the Humphrey and Rion systems. Correlation coefficients of greater than 90% were observed for the parameters studied. Each system showed high reproducibility for all measured parameters. There were significant differences between the two systems in coefficients of variation for all parameters measured except the anterior chamber depth. The parameters measured with the Humphrey and Rion systems showed correlation coefficients of greater than 90%. The Humphrey system showed better reproducibility than the Rion system.

  4. Terminology-based documentation systems: a systemantic comparison of four different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouongo, Sylvie M N; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The supplementation of documentation systems with controlled vocabularies is a prerequisite for improved and consistent communication, high data quality and efficient data exchange. To outline the requirements of an application system which supports the terminology-based development of documentation systems, existing documentation systems offering a terminological support in the definition of item collections were retrieved in the literature and analyzed. The analysis of four selected documentation systems caused us to define four main criteria for a terminology-based documentation system, which are: use of a controlled vocabulary, definition of a characteristic level, the definition of a value domain level and definition of roles and entities to combine vocabulary, characteristic and value domain levels together.

  5. Visibility of simulated microcalcifications--a hardcopy-based comparison of three mammographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C; Whitman, Gary J; Johnston, Dennis A; Yang, Wei T; Selinko, Veronica; Arribas, Elsa; Dogan, Basak; Kappadath, S Cheenu

    2005-01-01

    Full-field digital mammography systems are currently available for clinical use. These digital systems offer improved image quality, flexible image processing, display, storage, retrieval, and transmission. These systems employ a variety of different x-ray detectors based on storage phosphors (in computed radiography), charge-coupled devices (CCDs), or amorphous silicon flat panels (FPs). The objective of this study is to compare three different types of mammographic detectors: screenfilm (SF) combination, a CsI-based FP detector, a CCD and x-ray phosphor-based detector for their performance in detection of simulated microcalcifications. Microcalcifications (MCs) were simulated with calcium carbonate grains of various sizes (90-355 microm). They were overlapped with a slab of simulated 50% adipose/50% glandular breast tissue for a uniform background or an anthropomorphic breast phantom for a tissue structure background. Images of the phantoms, acquired with and without magnification, were reviewed by mammographers, physicists, and students. A five-point confidence level rating was given for each MC reviewed. Average ratings from the mammographers were used to compare the performances of the three imaging systems, various MC size groups, and two magnification modes. The results indicate that with uniform background and no magnification, the FP system performed the best while the SF system did slightly better than the CCD system. With magnification added, all detection tasks were improved except for the smallest and largest one or two size groups. In particular, detection in the SF and CCD images was significantly improved over that in the FP images. With tissue structure background and no magnification, the FP system was outperformed by the SF and the CCD systems. With magnification added, the performance of the FP and the CCD systems was improved significantly. With this improvement, the SF and FP systems were outperformed by the CCD system.

  6. Digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I&C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. A First Comparison of Kepler Planet Candidates in Single and Multiple Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, David W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M; Bryson, Stephen T.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Joshua A. Carter; Christiansen, Jesse L.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we present an overview of the rich population of systems with multiple candidate transiting planets found in the first four months of Kepler data. The census of multiples includes 115 targets that show 2 candidate planets, 45 with 3, 8 with 4, and 1 each with 5 and 6, for a total of 170 systems with 408 candidates. When compared to the 827 systems with only one candidate, the multiples account for 17 percent of the total number of systems, and a third of all the planet candidat...

  8. A First Comparison of Kepler Planet Candidates in Single and Multiple Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, David W.; Ciardi, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we present an overview of the rich population of systems with multiple candidate transiting planets found in the first four months of Kepler data. The census of multiples includes 115 targets that show two candidate planets, 45 with three, eight with four, and one each with five and six, for a total of 170 systems with 408 candidates. When compared to the 827 systems with only one candidate, the multiples account for 17% of the total number of systems, and one-third of all the...

  9. A comparison of the consequences of different waste handling systems in two Danish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    Results from a study conducted in two Danish communities with different waste handling systems are reported: Whereas one community introduced in the beginning of 1993 a system of combining economic incentives with structural improvements to promot separation, the other started in spring 1994...... a system based solely on non-economic incentives. The main objective was to compare citizen`s beliefs and attitudes towards waste handling systems and their consequence for motivations to co-operate. Th groups of hypotheses concerning the beliefs-attitude relationship, differences in attitudes between...

  10. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  11. A Comparison of the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Vacuum Tube and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bielskus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents simulation based exergy analysis used for comparing solar thermal systems applied for preparing domestic hot water. The simulation of flat and vacuum tube solar collector systems was performed in TRNSYS simulation environment. A period of one year under Lithuanian climate conditions was chosen. Simulation was performed on 6 min time step resolution by calculating energy and exergy flows and creating balance calculation. Assessment results at system and element levels have been presented as monthly variation in efficiency. The conducted analysis has revealed that the systems designed to cover equal heat energy demand operates in different exergetic efficiencies.Article in Lithuanian

  12. A comparison of ISO 14001 to other related environmental management systems and tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.E.; Byron, D.F.; Livingston, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Efficient environmental management is of increasing priority for the industrial sector. The achievement of ISO 14001 certification will demonstrate that the environmental management system meets or exceeds industry standards since this standard will be the accepted international measure of environmental management. A review of published environmental management systems and tools was conducted to ensure all aspects of environmental management are covered in the establishment or formalization of an environmental management system. The objective of this effort is to compare the ISO 14001 standard with other environmental management systems and tools.

  13. Analysis and Comparison of High Frequency Resonance in Small and Large Scale DFIG System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    When connected to a parallel compensated weak grid network, both the small and large power scale Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system may suffer high frequency resonance (HFR) due to the impedance interaction between the DFIG system and the parallel compensated weak network. Since...... the parameters of the small and large scale DFIG systems, including DFIG machine parameters and the LCL filter parameters, may vary between 10 to 100 times, the impedance modeling results of small and large scale DFIG system are quite different. Based on the built impedance modeling results, the HFR in small...

  14. Comparison of Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm Based Admission Control Strategies for UMTS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kejík

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CDMA systems have so-called soft capacity, so the total number of possible sessions has not an exact value. The capacity of CDMA system depends on the interference level in the system. There are therefore RRM (Radio Resources Management functions, which are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper presents and compares several algorithms that are used for admission control purposes in UMTS system. Several versions of fuzzy logic based algorithms, load factor based algorithm and genetic based algorithm are mutually compared via simulations.

  15. Comparison of simulated and experimental results of temperature distribution in a closed two-phase thermosyphon cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanika, E.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miki, M.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Murase, Y.; Oryu, T.; Yanamoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting generators offer numerous advantages over conventional generators of the same rating. They are lighter, smaller and more efficient. Amongst a host of methods for cooling HTS machinery, thermosyphon-based cooling systems have been employed due to their high heat transfer rate and near-isothermal operating characteristics associated with them. To use them optimally, it is essential to study thermal characteristics of these cryogenic thermosyphons. To this end, a stand-alone neon thermosyphon cooling system with a topology resembling an HTS rotating machine was studied. Heat load tests were conducted on the neon thermosyphon cooling system by applying a series of heat loads to the evaporator at different filling ratios. The temperature at selected points of evaporator, adiabatic tube and condenser as well as total heat leak were measured. A further study involving a computer thermal model was conducted to gain further insight into the estimated temperature distribution of thermosyphon components and heat leak of the cooling system. The model employed boundary conditions from data of heat load tests. This work presents a comparison between estimated (by model) and experimental (measured) temperature distribution in a two-phase cryogenic thermosyphon cooling system. The simulation results of temperature distribution and heat leak compared generally well with experimental data.

  16. Validation and comparison of currently available stratification systems for patients with diabetes by risk of foot ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Soares, M; Vaz-Carneiro, A; Sampaio, S; Dinis-Ribeiro, M

    2012-09-01

    There are five systems to stratify the risk for the development of a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This study aimed to prospectively validate all of them in the same cohort of participants to allow their direct comparison. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients with diabetes but without an active DFU attending our podiatry section (n=364) from January 2008 to December 2010. Participants' characteristics and all variables composing the stratification systems were assessed at baseline. Follow-up was performed for 1 year or until DFU occurred. Participants had a mean age of 64 years; 99.7% had type 2 diabetes and 48.6% were male. Median follow-up was 12 months (1-12) during which 33 subjects (9.1%) developed a DFU. Age, diabetes duration, foot deformity, peripheral vascular disease, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, previous DFU, and previous lower extremity amputation were associated with DFU occurrence. All systems presented greater DFU occurrence frequency as the risk group was higher (χ(2), Pdiabetic foot screening and resource allocation, it would be desirable to have a single unified system, combining the available systems, prospectively validated in a multicenter context and testing the inclusion of novel predictive variables' pertinence.

  17. Investigation of Industrialised Building System Performance in Comparison to Conventional Construction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional construction methods are still widely practised, although many researches have indicated that this method is less effective compared to the IBS construction method. The existence of the IBS has added to the many techniques within the construction industry. This study is aimed at making comparisons between the two construction approaches. Case studies were conducted at four sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Two projects were IBS-based while the remaining two deployed the conventional method of construction. Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the IBS approach has more to offer compared to the conventional method. Among these advantages are shorter construction periods, reduced overall costs, less labour needs, better site conditions and the production of higher quality components.

  18. Comparison of three digital radiographic imaging systems for the visibility of endodontic files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Won; Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To compare three digital radiographic imaging sensors by evaluating the visibility of endodontic file tips with interobserver reproducibility and assessing subjectively the clarity of images in comparison with the x-ray film images. Forty-five extracted sound premolars were used for this study. Fifteen plaster blocks were made with three premolars each and 8, 10, 15 K-flexofiles were inserted into the root canal of premolars. They were radiographically exposed using periapical x-ray films (Kodak Insight Dental film, Eastmann Kodak company, Rochester, USA), Digora imaging plates (Soredex-Orion Co., Helsinki, Finland), CDX 2000HQ sensors (Biomedisys Co., Seoul, Korea), and CDR sensors (Schick Inc., Long Island, USA). The visibility of endodontic files was evaluated with interobserver reproducibility, which was calculated as the standard deviations of X, Y coordinated of endodontic file tips measured on digital images by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The clarity of images was assessed subjectively using 3 grades, i.e, plus, equal, and minus in comparison with the conventional x-ray film images. Interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tips was the highest in CDR sensor (p<0.05) only except at Y coordinates of 15 file. In the subjective assessment of the image clarity, the plus grade was the most frequent in CDR sensor at all size of endodontic file (p<0.05). CDR sensor was the most superior to the other sensors, CDX 2000HQ sensor and Digora imaging plate in the evaluation of interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tip and subjective assessment of image clarity.

  19. Comparison of chromatography systems for radiochemical purity determination of lyophilized reagents labeled with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Elisiane G.; Almeida, Erika V.; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Alves, Edson V.; Benedetti, Stella; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: elisianegodoy@terra.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A variety of lyophilized reagents (LR) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc has been developed for determining organ function or assessing disease status by imaging methods. Usually, the quality of the radiopharmaceutical preparations is evaluated by paper chromatography (PC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), instant thin layer chromatography silica gel (ITLC-SG), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reverse-phase columns and capillary electrophoresis (CE). PC and TLC have been applied due to the low cost and short time in the determination of pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}-) and technetium dioxide ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}). The present study reports the comparison between PC and TLC chromatographic methods for determination of the radiochemical purity of LR labeled with {sup 99m}Tc from IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil). PC was performed with Whatman 3MM/1MM paper chromatography strips and TLC with ITLC-SG sheets or reversed phase (RP). RP was used only for ECD. Although the radioactivity profile of the separation of the species on both stationary phases was satisfactory, the difference in results for % {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}- and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} was up to 4.2 % using PC for ECD and PYP. ITLC supports gave better resolution than conventional PC supports for these products. In ECD analysis, the comparison was performed between RP and ITLC-SG stationary phases for determination of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}-, {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} and other impurities. It was observed that the sheet length as described in the United States Pharmacopoeia was not sufficient for a good separation of the product and the impurities. The results showed that there were not significant differences between PC and TLC chromatographic stationary phases are going to be accomplished. (author)

  20. Comparison of performance characteristics between first- and third-generation hematology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P W

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, Barnes-Jewish Hospital introduced the first fully robotic hematology system in North America. This first-generation Coulter/IDS robotic automated system consisted of a series of transport lanes, inlet and outlet stations, 2 robotic arms, and an on-line slide maker/strainer. The success of the system and its exceptional performance was detailed in an article published in 1998. In 2004, our laboratory replaced this system with a new third-generation robotics system, the LH 1502 from Beckman Coulter, Inc. The new system consists of 2 LH 755 workcells (LH 750 plus slide maker/stainer), an inlet/outlet unit, and a stock-yard. The system has been interfaced to our laboratory computer system (Cerner Millieum) by customized software that allows auto-verification and testing rules to be applied to individual samples. Since its implementation in January 2005, we have monitored its performance characteristics relative to the previous first generation system. We report here on our findings through June 2005. We compared and contrasted the two systems with respects to the following parameters: (1) sample handling; (2) reduction in staff exposure to hazardous materials; (3) stat and routine turnaround times; (4) productivity; (5) reduction in backup testing; (6) operating costs; (7) payback; and (8) reduction in FTEs. We found that manual sample handling was virtually identical between the two systems. The LH 1502 holds a slight edge over our older system with respect to staff exposure mainly due to further reduction in manual backup testing. Stat TAT after introduction of the LH 1502 showed an additional 44% drop from 50 to 28 minutes, while the routine TAT was reduced by 23%, down from 61 to 47 minutes. Gains achieved in productivity after installation of the first-generation system were maintained with the LH 1502, with significant extra volume capacity yet to be utilized. The space required for operating the system was also reduced by nearly 49%. There was a 20

  1. A comparison of two systems of patient immobilization for prostate radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Reproducibility of different immobilization systems, which may affect set-up errors, remains uncertain. Immobilization systems and their corresponding set-up errors influence the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-PTV) margins and thus may result in undesirable treatment outcomes. This study compared the reproducibility of patient positioning with Hipfix system and whole body alpha cradle with respect to localized prostate cancer and investigated the existing CTV-PTV margins in the clinical oncology departments of two hospitals. Methods Forty sets of data of patients with localized T1-T3 prostate cancer were randomly selected from two regional hospitals, with 20 patients immobilized by a whole-body alpha cradle system and 20 by a thermoplastic Hipfix system. Seven sets of the anterior-posterior (AP), cranial-caudal (CC) and medial-lateral (ML) deviations were collected from each patient. The reproducibility of patient positioning within the two hospitals was compared using a total vector error (TVE) parameter. In addition, CTV-PTV margins were computed using van Herk’s formula. The resulting values were compared to the current CTV-PTV margins in both hospitals. Results The TVE values were 5.1 and 2.8 mm for the Hipfix and the whole-body alpha cradle systems respectively. TVE associated with the whole-body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly less than the Hipfix system (p < 0.05). The CC axis in the Hipfix system attained the highest frequency of large (23.6%) and serious (7.9%) set-up errors. The calculated CTV to PTV margin was 8.3, 1.9 and 2.3 mm for the Hipfix system, and 2.1, 3.4 and 1.8 mm for the whole body alpha cradle in CC, ML and AP axes respectively. All but one (CC axis using Hipfix) margin calculated did not exceed the corresponding hospital protocol. The whole body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly better than the Hipfix system in terms of reproducibility (p < 0.05), especially

  2. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Computer Engineering. Computing Systems Engineering Lab.], e-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.com; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Walter Cantidio University Hospital

    2009-09-15

    Objective: to present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Deteccao e a quantificacao de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a free ware system tool. Methods: thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm{sup 2}, mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 Hounsfield units (RA -950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyper inflated areas using a color mask. Results: although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r{sup 2} = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyper inflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. Conclusions: the SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyper inflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients. (author)

  3. Comparison of the initial orthodontic force systems produced by a new lingual bracket system and a straight-wire appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Wiechmann, Dirk; Drescher, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces and moments produced by a new lingual bracket system during the leveling phase of orthodontic treatment and to compare those with the corresponding force system of a labial straight-wire appliance. The intra-oral situation of ten patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was replicated in measurement casts fitted with lingual and labial brackets. Special care was taken to precisely reproduce each patient's interbracket geometry. We measured each tooth's force systems as generated by a leveling arch inserted into the lingual and labial brackets. The resulting force systems of both appliances were found to be quite similar with regard to the magnitude of most force and moment components. Only the first molars were subjected to considerably greater single forces with the lingual appliance. Tipping moments were found to be significantly smaller with the lingual technique, whereas the rotational moments were significantly smaller with the labial appliance. All in all we noted significant differences between the two techniques only in certain areas which upon closer examination were distributed over only a few tooth types. The initial force systems produced by the new lingual bracket system proved to be comparable with those delivered by a conventional straight-wire appliance. The actual levels of forces and moments, however, were found in certain cases to be too heavy with both techniques. We therefore recommend the development of leveling wires producing considerably lighter forces and moments.

  4. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo César; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2009-09-01

    To present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a freeware system tool. Thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm(2), mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 hounsfield units (RA -950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyperinflated areas using a color mask. Although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r(2) = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyperinflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. The SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyperinflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients.

  5. Treatment plan quality of tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system in comparison with that of VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae; Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The ViewRay{sup TM} system combines a 0.35-T MR imaging system and a radiation therapy system using a total of three Co-60 sources. It can perform static intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with leaf widths of 1.05 cm at the plane of isocenter, at source to axis distance (SAD) of 105 cm. Since the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system can acquire near-real-time cine sagittal MR images during treatment, automated respiratory gating can be performed based on these cine images, thus, the target margins for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) could be reduced considerably by comparison with the internal tarvet volume (ITV) approach. we compared lung SABR treatment plans of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system with gross tumor volume (GTV) to those of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using TrueBeam STx™ (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with ITV in this study. The plan quality of the target volume of the VMAT with ITV was better than that of the GTV-based tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT for lung SABR. No significant differences for OARs were observed between the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT and VMAT. However, the plan quality of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system was clinically acceptable. Despite the relatively poor plan quality of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system, it still has the advantage of real-time monitoring of tumor motion during treatment.

  6. Power consumption comparison between point-to-point WDM and OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    an energy efficiency point of view. Our analysis shows that in order to be comparable to WDM systems in power consumption aspect, the topology of the demultiplexing unit in OTDM systems must be carefully chosen and optimized and trade-offs have to be made between speed and power consumption using state...

  7. Comparison and sensitivity investigations of a CALM and SALM type mooring system for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Foglia, Aligi; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM) and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM)—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system size...

  8. Latest insights in therapeutic options for systemic right ventricular failure: a comparison with left ventricular failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Groenink, M.; Konings, T.C.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The number of adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) is steadily increasing. Survival is relatively good in these patients, but deterioration of the systemic RV seems inevitable. Although therapeutic options for patients with LV failure are well established, their role in patients with

  9. Comparison of CDMA and FDMA for the MobileStar(sm) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, I. M.; Gilhousen, K. S.; Weaver, L. A.; Renshaw, K.; Murphy, T.

    1988-01-01

    Spread-spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) and single channel per carrier frequency division multiple access (FDMA) systems are compared for spectrum efficiency. CDMA is shown to have greater maximum throughput than FDMA for the MobileStar(sm) system which uses digital voice activated carriers and directive circularly polarized satellite antennas.

  10. Vertical or Horizontal Transport? - Comparison of robotic storage and retrieval systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Azadeh (Kaveh); D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAutonomous vehicle-based storage and retrieval systems are commonly used in e-commerce fulfillment as they allow a high and flexible throughput capacity. In these systems, roaming robots transport loads between a storage location and a workstation. Two main variants exist: Horizontal,

  11. Satellite guidance systems in agriculture: experimental comparison between EZ-Steer/RTK and AUTOPILOT/EGNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D’Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research has been conducted using two different satellite-guidance devices and two different correction systems of the GPS signal: the EZ-Steer/RTK and Autopilot/EGNOS. The machines used in the tests were the tractor New Holland T7060, the rotary harrow Alpego DG-400 and the burier Forigo DG-45, in order to determine which of the two systems ensured the best quality of work. On the basis of the results obtained it is clear that the EZ-Steer/RTK system, guarantees a lower stability of the theoretical trajectory compared to the Autopilot/EGNOS system, above 1,77%. From the elaboration of data of the two guidance systems behavior to manage the only width of transposition, it is observed that the EZ-Steer/RTK system is able to guarantee a better hold of the line compared to the Autopilot/EGNOS system, which provides a mistake of 164 cm on the total width of transposition and 2 cm on the mean value. In the matter of the normalized transposition surfaces, the Autopilot/EGNOS system ensures a better work quality.

  12. Comparison of Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker Adaptive Feedback/Echo Cancellation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Elmedyb, Thomas Bo; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    -microphone and single-loudspeaker system. In this work, we extend the theoretical analysis to the normalized least mean square and recursive least squares algorithms. Furthermore, we compare and discuss the system behaviors in terms of the power transfer function for all three adaptive algorithms....

  13. Fuzzy multi attributive comparison of tillage crop and manure management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to differences between years as a result of seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further complicates the determination of best alternative for sustainable c...

  14. Design Comparison of Autonomous High Voltage Driving System for DEAP Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, the Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) is introduced in terms of configuration, working principle and potential applications. The design of an autonomous high voltage driving system for DEAP actuator is investigated. The system configuration and the design...

  15. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal...

  16. Institutional and Organizational Factors for the Successful Deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS): International Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Pat; Ygnace, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares European and US experiences to explore critical institutional and organizational factors contributing to successful deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). ITS deployment has three primary aspects not found in traditional transportation solutions: 1) advanced technology insertion, interoperability and maintenance; 2) system approaches at the planning, operational, and service connectivity levels; and 3) private industry products and services linked to publi...

  17. Institutional and Organizational Factors for the Successful Deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS): International Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    YGNACE, JL

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares European and US experiences to explore critical institutional and organizational factors contributing to successful deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). ITS deployment has three primary aspects not found in traditional transportation solutions: 1) advanced technology insertion, interoperability and maintenance; 2) system approaches at the planning, operational and service connectivity levels; and 3) private industry products and services linked to public...

  18. Comparisons of Managerial and Employee Satisfaction with a Performance Appraisal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed managers and employees to assess satisfaction with a performance appraisal system. Factor analyses indicated that employees perceive certain aspects of the appraisal system in a global way, whereas managers differentiate among various components and see them as distinct entities. The relative importance of the factors differs. (Author/JAC)

  19. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  20. Differences and similarities of energy innovation systemscomparison of five technology areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy innovation systems concerning five technology areas in Denmark: biomass energy, wind power, solar cells, fuel cells & hydrogen and energy efficiency technology. The study shows that the characteristics of the innovation systems differ significantly betwee...

  1. A quantitative comparison of cytosolic delivery via different protein uptake systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, W.P.R.; Mazlami, M.; Pluckthun, A.

    2017-01-01

    Over many years, a variety of delivery systems have been investigated that have the capacity to shuttle macromolecular cargoes, especially proteins, into the cytosol. Due to the lack of an objective way to quantify cytosolic delivery, relative delivery efficiencies of the various transport systems

  2. Robotic laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: a comparison of the da Vinci and Zeus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeji, Y; Konishi, K; Ieiri, S; Yasunaga, T; Nakamoto, M; Tanoue, K; Baba, H; Maehara, Y; Hashizume, M

    2006-12-01

    The robotic surgical systems working on a master-slave principle have been developed and used in the worldwide in cardiac, urologic, and general surgery. The two robotic systems, the da Vinci and the Zeus Robotic Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Calif., USA), were compared with the aim of evaluating operative feasibility and technical efficacy in distal gastrectomy. During laparoscopic gastrectomy, the da Vinci System (n = 2) had a shorter total operative time (445 versus 656 minutes; p = 0.09) and less blood loss (65 versus 277 mL; p = 0.08) compared with the Zeus System (n = 3). The articulated instruments of both systems were useful in lymph node dissection, isolation of vessels in fat tissue, ligation of vessels, and intraabdominal anastomosis of the gastrointestinal tract. Robotic laparoscopic procedures can be performed effectively using either the da Vinci or Zeus System. In this limited study, the robotic instruments, especially those of da Vinci system, made it easier to complete tissue dissection including lymph nodes, complicated endoscopic anastomoses, and ligatures in a closed cavity. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hospital Readmissions Following Physician Call System Change: A Comparison of Concentrated and Distributed Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Christopher J; Shadowitz, Steven; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2016-07-01

    Physician call schedules are a critical element for medical practice and hospital efficiency. We compared readmission rates prior to and after a change in physician call system at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. We studied patients discharged over a decade (2004 through 2013) and identified whether or not each patient was readmitted within the subsequent 28 days. We excluded patients discharged for a surgical, obstetrical, or psychiatric diagnosis. We used time-to-event analysis and time-series analysis to compare rates of readmission prior to and after the physician call system change (January 1, 2009). A total of 89,697 patients were discharged, of whom 10,001 (11%) were subsequently readmitted and 4280 died. The risk of readmission was increased by about 26% following physician call system change (9.7% vs 12.2%, P system change (95% confidence interval, 22%-31%; P system change persisted across patients with diverse ages, estimated readmission risks, and medical diagnoses. The net effect was equal to 7240 additional patient days in the hospital following call system change. A modest increase was observed at a nearby acute care hospital that did not change physician call system, and no increase in risk of death was observed with increased hospital readmissions. We suggest that changes in physician call systems sometimes increase subsequent hospital readmission rates. Further reductions in readmissions may instead require additional resources or ingenuity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation systems in predicting virological outcomes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Frentz (Dineke); C.A. Boucher (Charles); M. Assel (Matthias); A. de Luca (Andrea); M. Fabbiani (Massimiliano); F. Incardona (Francesca); P. Libin (Pieter); N. Manca (Nino); V. Müller (Viktor); B.O. Nualláin (Breanndán); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Prosperi (Mattia); E. Quiros-Roldan (Eugenia); L. Ruiz (Lidia); P.M.A. Sloot (Peter); C. Torti (Carlo); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); K. Laethem (Kristel); M. Zazzi (Maurizio); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanford's HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks.

  5. Comparison of digital intraoral scanners by single-image capture system and full-color movie system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Meguru; Kataoka, Yu; Manabe, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    The use of dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restoration is rapidly increasing. This study was performed to evaluate the marginal and internal cement thickness and the adhesive gap of internal cavities comprising CAD/CAM materials using two digital impression acquisition methods and micro-computed tomography. Images obtained by a single-image acquisition system (Bluecam Ver. 4.0) and a full-color video acquisition system (Omnicam Ver. 4.2) were divided into the BL and OM groups, respectively. Silicone impressions were prepared from an ISO-standard metal mold, and CEREC Stone BC and New Fuji Rock IMP were used to create working models (n=20) in the BL and OM groups (n=10 per group), respectively. Individual inlays were designed in a conventional manner using designated software, and all restorations were prepared using CEREC inLab MC XL. These were assembled with the corresponding working models used for measurement, and the level of fit was examined by three-dimensional analysis based on micro-computed tomography. Significant differences in the marginal and internal cement thickness and adhesive gap spacing were found between the OM and BL groups. The full-color movie capture system appears to be a more optimal restoration system than the single-image capture system.

  6. Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Dysphonia: A Comparison Between Narrow and Broad Terminology Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    of the terminology used in the multiparameter Danish Dysphonia Assessment (DDA) approach into the five-parameter GRBAS system. Methods. Voice samples illustrating type and grade of the voice qualities included in DDA were rated by five speech language pathologists using the GRBAS system with the aim of estimating...... associations were found between the DDA and GRBAS rating for grade, rough, breathy, and strained, whereas the relation between DDA ratings and asthenic was weaker and less clear. Conclusion. The data strongly support that the DDA system can be translated into the GRBAS system for auditoryperceptual voice...... analysis. The consensus discussion prior to the listening test is believed to have contributed to the high degree of inter- and intrarater reliability.We suggest for future use of the GRBAS system that rater reliability for asthenic and strained can increase, if these parameters are defined as behavioral...

  7. A comparison of the efficiency of health systems in providing life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Zarulli, Virginia

    The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure their effic......The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure...... their efficiency in absolute terms, the countries can be compared with each other. The relative efficiency of health systems can be measured by the life expectancy that they provide by taking education level and their funding structure into account. Based on data coming from the HMD, GGS, OECD and WHO, data...

  8. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  9. The comparison of solar water heating system operation parameters calculated using traditional method and dynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper design of renewable energy based systems is really important to provide their efficient and safe operation. The aim of this paper is to compare the results obtained during traditional static calculations, with the results of dynamic simulations. For this reason, simulations of solar water heating (SWH system, designed for a typical residential building, were conducted in the TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool. Carried out calculations allowed to determine the heat generation in the discussed system as well as to estimate the efficiency of considered installation. Obtained results were compared with the results from other available tool based on the static calculations. It may be concluded, that using dynamic simulations at the designing stage of renewable energy based systems may help to avoid many exploitation problems (including low efficiency, overheating etc. and allows to provide safe exploitation of such installations.

  10. Comparison between Bilistick System and transcutaneous bilirubin in assessing total bilirubin serum concentration in jaundiced newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, C; Iskander, I F; Akmal, D M; El Houchi, S Z; Khairy, D A; Bedogni, G; Wennberg, R P; Tiribelli, C; Coda Zabetta, C D

    2017-09-01

    To compare the performance and accuracy of the JM-103 transcutaneous bilirubinometer and Bilistick System in measuring total serum bilirubin for the early identification of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The study was performed on 126 consecutive term and near-term (⩾36 weeks' gestational age) jaundiced newborns in Cairo University Children Hospital NICU, Egypt. Total serum bilirubin was assayed concurrently by the clinical laboratory and Bilistick System and estimated using the JM-103 transcutaneous bilirubin instrument. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the agreement between determinations. The limits of agreement of the Bilistick System (-5.8 to 3.3 mg dl-1) and JM-103 system (-5.4 to 6.0 mg dl-1) versus the clinical laboratory results were similar. The Bilistick System is an accurate alternative to transcutaneous (TcB) determination for early diagnosis and proper management of the neonatal jaundice.

  11. Comparison of two monooxygenase systems with cytochrome P450 in filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunic, B; Makovec, T; Breskvar, K

    2000-01-01

    Besides the progesterone inducible steroid hydroxylase which catalyses the transformation of progesterone to 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone the presence of another monooxygenase system in filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans)--lanosterol demethylase was confirmed. Lanosterol demethylase was not inducible with progesterone. After subcellular fractionation both monooxygenase systems were found in microsomal fraction of fungus R. nigricans. To find out how to differentiate between the hydroxylase and demethylase systems the influence of inhibitors ketoconazole and metyrapone on both monooxygenase systems was studied. Both substances efficiently inhibited fungal steroid hydroxylase. Spectral studies used to characterize the interaction of inhibitors with cytochromes P450 showed that both inhibitors bind to induced fungal preparations whereas in noninduced fungal preparations interaction with P450 was found only with ketoconazole. This indicated the difference in interaction of the two inhibitors on both monooxygenase systems present in fungus R. nigricans.

  12. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  13. Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-05-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

  14. Comparison of emergency medical services systems across Pan-Asian countries: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Do; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Alsakaf, Omer; Karim, Sarah Abdul; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Lin, Chih-Hao; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Tham, Lai Peng; Cone, David C

    2012-01-01

    There are great variations in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival outcomes among different countries and different emergency medical services (EMS) systems. The impact of different systems and their contribution to enhanced survival are poorly understood. This paper compares the EMS systems of several Asian sites making up the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) network. Some preliminary cardiac arrest outcomes are also reported. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey study addressing population demographics, service levels, provider characteristics, system operations, budget and finance, medical direction (leadership), and oversight. Most of the systems are single-tiered. Fire-based EMS systems are predominant. Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur have hospital-based systems. Service level is relatively low, from basic to intermediate in most of the communities. Korea, Japan, Singapore, and Bangkok have intermediate emergency medical technician (EMT) service levels, while Taiwan and Dubai have paramedic service levels. Medical direction and oversight have not been systemically established, except in some communities. Systems are mostly dependent on public funding. We found variations in available resources in terms of ambulances and providers. The number of ambulances is 0.3 to 3.2 per 100,000 population, and most ambulances are basic life support (BLS) vehicles. The number of human resources ranges from 4.0 per 100,000 population in Singapore to 55.7 per 100,000 population in Taipei. Average response times vary between 5.1 minutes (Tainan) and 22.5 minutes (Kuala Lumpur). We found substantial variation in 11 communities across the PAROS EMS systems. This study will provide the foundation for understanding subsequent studies arising from the PAROS effort.

  15. Comparison of Near-Infrared Imaging Camera Systems for Intracranial Tumor Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Steve S; Zeh, Ryan; Pierce, John T; Salinas, Ryan; Singhal, Sunil; Lee, John Y K

    2017-07-24

    Distinguishing neoplasm from normal brain parenchyma intraoperatively is critical for the neurosurgeon. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been shown to improve gross total resection and progression-free survival but has limited availability in the USA. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has advantages over visible light fluorescence with greater tissue penetration and reduced background fluorescence. In order to prepare for the increasing number of NIR fluorophores that may be used in molecular imaging trials, we chose to compare a state-of-the-art, neurosurgical microscope (System 1) to one of the commercially available NIR visualization platforms (System 2). Serial dilutions of indocyanine green (ICG) were imaged with both systems in the same environment. Each system's sensitivity and dynamic range for NIR fluorescence were documented and analyzed. In addition, brain tumors from six patients were imaged with both systems and analyzed. In vitro, System 2 demonstrated greater ICG sensitivity and detection range (System 1 1.5-251 μg/l versus System 2 0.99-503 μg/l). Similarly, in vivo, System 2 demonstrated signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of 2.6 ± 0.63 before dura opening, 5.0 ± 1.7 after dura opening, and 6.1 ± 1.9 after tumor exposure. In contrast, System 1 could not easily detect ICG fluorescence prior to dura opening with SBR of 1.2 ± 0.15. After the dura was reflected, SBR increased to 1.4 ± 0.19 and upon exposure of the tumor SBR increased to 1.8 ± 0.26. Dedicated NIR imaging platforms can outperform conventional microscopes in intraoperative NIR detection. Future microscopes with improved NIR detection capabilities could enhance the use of NIR fluorescence to detect neoplasm and improve patient outcome.

  16. Comparison of medication error rates and clinical effects in three medication prescription-dispensation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Muñoz, Ana Belén; Muiño Miguez, Antonio; Rodriguez Pérez, María Paz; Durán Garcia, María Esther; Sanjurjo Saez, María

    2011-01-01

    Medication errors (MEs) are important in terms of their magnitude and severity, and there are numerous systems in place to reduce their occurrence. However, the ideal system has not yet been identified. The authors' institution uses three different medication prescription-dispensation systems which operate simultaneously. ME rates were compared, overall and by phase (prescription, transcription and administration) and their overall and specific clinical impact. The administration of medicinal products was observed directly and compared with medical and nursing prescriptions. Errors and adverse events were classified by a consensus of experts. In the traditional system the error prevalence rate was 13.59 per cent, (99 per cent CI, 12.15-14.61 per cent), in the single dose system it was 6.43 per cent (99 per cent CI, 5.53-7.32) and in the electronic prescription system it was 8.86 per cent (99 per cent CI, 7.33-10.17). The highest error rates in all phases were found in the traditional system. The phase affected by most errors in all three models was transcription, and the least affected was administration, except for the single dose system, in which prescription was the worst. The effects of errors in the administration phase are greater, although less so than with the automated system. The dispensation phase was not analyzed. A study of errors will enable us to reduce their occurrence if we know the most frequent types and in which phase they are produced, we will be able to prioritise the areas in which to work and select the necessary preventive measures. It is possible that automated medication dispensation systems reduce error rates and the severity of their effects.

  17. Analytical and experimental comparisons between the frequency-modulated–frequency-shift measurement and the pulsed-wave–time-shift measurement Doppler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Pedersen, P. C.

    1996-01-01

    is in this paper compared with its PW counterpart, the Pulsed Wave - time shift measurement (PW-tsm) Doppler system. When using transmitted PW and FM signals with a Gaussian envelope, the parallelism between the two systems can be stated explicitly, and comparison be made between the main performance indices...

  18. Comparison of Environment Impact between Conventional and Cold Chain Management System in Paprika Distribution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidelweijs A Putri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasir Langu village in Cisarua, West Java, is the largest central production area of paprika in Indonesia. On average, for every 200 kilograms of paprika produced, there is rejection amounting to 3 kilograms. This resulted in money loss for wholesalers and wastes. In one year, this amount can be approximately 11.7 million Indonesian rupiahs. Recently, paprika wholesalers in Pasir Langu village recently are developing cold chain management system to maintain quality of paprika so that number of rejection can be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare environmental impacts between conventional and cold chain management system in paprika distribution process using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology and propose Photovoltaic (PV system in paprika distribution process. The result implies that the cold chain system produces more CO2 emission compared to conventional system. However, due to the promotion of PV system, the emission would be reduced. For future research, it is necessary to reduce CO2 emission from transportation process since this process is biggest contributor of CO2 emission at whole distribution process. Keywords: LCA, environmentally friendly distribution, paprika,cold chain, PV system

  19. Comparison of physical performances of the ventilation systems in low-energy residential houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, T. [Buero V. Maier, Hoechstadt, Erlangen (Germany); Krzaczek, M.; Tejchman, J. [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 80-952 Gdansk-Wrzeszcz, Narutowicza 11/12 (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The paper presents experimental results of the effect of ventilation systems in modern residential low-energy houses on thermal and humid conditions, heat consumption and perception of thermal comfort and air quality by their residents. Practical projects of modern residential houses with various ventilation systems which realize thermal, humid and psycho-physical comfort were worked out. To analyze the influence of ventilation systems on human comfort, results of questionnaires and comprehensive experimental measurements were taken into account. For measurements, 22 identical residential houses in Germany were chosen where 4 various ventilation systems were installed: gravitational (natural) ventilation, air heating system, mechanical ventilation with in- and out-leading air elements and a function of heat recovery and mechanical ventilation with single ventilators. The following parameters were measured in test units: relative air humidity, concentration of CO{sub 2} in the air, air temperature, consumption of electricity, gas and heat, working time of the window opening, working time of the mechanical ventilation and number of residents. Advantages and disadvantages of ventilation systems were outlined. Experimental results were evaluated. Relationships between ventilation systems and thermal comfort were discussed by taking into account opinions of house residents. (author)

  20. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  1. Exergetic Analysis, Optimization and Comparison of LNG Cold Exergy Recovery Systems for Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dorosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shares in the global energy market is steadily increasing. One possible application of LNG is as a fuel for transportation. Stricter air pollution regulations and emission controls have made the natural gas a promising alternative to liquid petroleum fuels, especially in the case of heavy transport. However, in most LNG-fueled vehicles, the physical exergy of LNG is destroyed in the regasification process. This paper investigates possible LNG exergy recovery systems for transportation. The analyses focus on “cold energy” recovery systems as the enthalpy of LNG, which may be used as cooling power in air conditioning or refrigeration. Moreover, four exergy recovery systems that use LNG as a low temperature heat sink to produce electric power are analyzed. This includes single-stage and two-stage direct expansion systems, an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle system, and a combined system (ORC + direct expansion. The optimization of the above-mentioned LNG power cycles and exergy analyses are also discussed, with the identification of exergy loss in all components. The analyzed systems achieved exergetic efficiencies in the range of 20 % to 36 % , which corresponds to a net work in the range of 214 to 380 kJ/kg L N G .

  2. COMPARISON OF COMPOST MATURITY, MICROBIAL SURVIVAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS IN TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N.K. Rockson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collected on germination index, temperature, moisture content, pH, total viable count, total coliform count and total fungi count were determined during composting in HV and FA systems at VREL Farms for a period of thirteen weeks and analysed to ascertain the effects of temperature, moisture and pH on compost maturity and microbial survival. There were no significant differences in germination index, pH and moisture content values for both systems as ANOVA results at α = 5% yielded p-values of 0.17, 0.98 and 0.13 respectively. Moisture content and pH values ranged between 40%-70% and 7.20 - 8.30 respectively. Temperature values recorded however were significantly different (p-value = 1.2 x 10-5, α = 5% in both systems and affected the microbial distribution during the process. The temperature recorded in HV and FA systems ranged between 45.19 ºC – 65.44 ºC and 29.00 ºC – 50.83ºC respectively. Germination Index values were >150% in different systems at the end of week 12. Listeria spp., known to be zoonotic, and Staphylococcus spp. survived in compost processed in FA system; and Penicillium spp. in both systems.

  3. A First Comparison of Kepler Planet Candidates in Single and Multiple Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, David W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Welsh, William F.; Wohler, Bill

    2011-05-01

    In this Letter, we present an overview of the rich population of systems with multiple candidate transiting planets found in the first four months of Kepler data. The census of multiples includes 115 targets that show two candidate planets, 45 with three, eight with four, and one each with five and six, for a total of 170 systems with 408 candidates. When compared to the 827 systems with only one candidate, the multiples account for 17% of the total number of systems, and one-third of all the planet candidates. We compare the characteristics of candidates found in multiples with those found in singles. False positives due to eclipsing binaries are much less common for the multiples, as expected. Singles and multiples are both dominated by planets smaller than Neptune; 69+2 - 3% for singles and 86+2 - 5% for multiples. This result, that systems with multiple transiting planets are less likely to include a transiting giant planet, suggests that close-in giant planets tend to disrupt the orbital inclinations of small planets in flat systems, or maybe even prevent the formation of such systems in the first place.

  4. Social organization of self-management support of persons with diabetes: a health systems comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtz, Michaela; Frølich, Anne; Krasnik, Allan; Taylor, Warren; Hsu, John

    2012-09-01

    Identify important organizational elements for providing self-management support (SMS). Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in two healthcare systems. Kaiser Permanente Northern California and the Danish Health Care System. 36 managers and healthcare professionals in the two healthcare systems. Elements important to providing self-management support to persons with diabetes. Healthcare professionals' provision of SMS was influenced by healthcare system organization and their perceptions of SMS, the capability and responsibility of healthcare systems, and their roles in the healthcare organization. Enabling factors for providing SMS included: strong leadership; aligned incentives; use of an integrated health information technology (HIT) system; multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams; ongoing training for healthcare professionals; outreach; and quality goals. Barriers to providing SMS included lack of collaboration between providers and skeptical attitudes towards prevention and outreach. Implementation of SMS can be improved by an understanding of the elements that enhance its provision: (1) initiatives seeking to improve collaboration and integration between providers; (2) implementation of an integrated HIT system; and (3) ongoing training of healthcare professionals.

  5. Comparison between NuGEN's WT-Ovation Pico and one-direct amplification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Alison M; Carballo, Valentina; Baldwin, Donald A; Taylor, Christopher G; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2010-09-01

    Differential gene expression between groups of homogenous cell types is a biological question whose time has come. RNA can be extracted from small numbers of cells, such as those isolated by laser-capture microdissection, but the small amounts obtained often require amplification to enable whole genome transcriptome profiling by technologies such as microarray analysis and RNA-seq. Recently, advances in amplification procedures make amplification directly from whole cell lysates possible. The aim of this study was to compare two amplification systems for variations in observed RNA abundance attributable to the amplification procedure for use with small quantities of cells isolated by laser-capture microdissection. Arabidopsis root cells undergoing giant cell formation as a result of nematode infestation and uninfested control root cells were laser-captured and used to evaluate two amplification systems. One, NuGEN's WT-Ovation Pico (Pico) amplification system, uses total RNA as starting material, and the other, NuGEN's WT-One-Direct (One-Direct) amplification system, uses lysate containing the captured cells. The reproducibility of whole genome transcript profiling and correlations of both systems were investigated after microarray analysis. The One-Direct system was less reproducible and more variable than the Pico system. The Pico amplification kit resulted in the detection of thousands of differentially expressed genes between giant cells and control cells. This is in marked contrast to the relatively few genes detected after amplification with the One-Direct amplification kit.

  6. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  7. Comparison of the SALT and Smart triage systems using a virtual reality simulator with paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, David C; Serra, John; Kurland, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Virtual reality systems may allow for organized study of mass casualty triage systems by allowing investigators to replicate the same mass casualty incident, with the same victims, for a large number of rescuers. The study objectives were to develop such a virtual reality system, and use it to assess the ability of trained paramedic students to triage simulated victims using two triage systems. Investigators created 25 patient scenarios for a highway bus crash in a virtual reality simulation system. Paramedic students were trained to proficiency on the new 'Sort, Assess, Life saving interventions, Treat and Transport (SALT)' triage system, and 22 students ran the simulation, applying the SALT algorithm to each victim. After a 3-month washout period, the students were retrained on the 'Smart' triage system, and each student ran the same crash simulation using the Smart system. Data inputs were recorded by the simulation software and analyzed with the paired t-tests. The students had a mean triage accuracy of 70.0% with SALT versus 93.0% with Smart (P=0.0001). Mean overtriage was 6.8% with SALT versus 1.8% with Smart (P=0.0015), and mean undertriage was 23.2% with SALT versus 5.1% with Smart (P=0.0001). The average time for a student to triage the scene was 21 min 3 s for SALT versus 11 min 59 s for Smart (P=0.0001). The virtual reality platform seems to be a viable research tool for examining mass casualty triage. A small sample of trained paramedic students using the virtual reality system was able to triage simulated patients faster and with greater accuracy with 'Smart' triage than with 'SALT' triage.

  8. Comparison of cost accounting methods from different DRG systems and their effect on health care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leister, Jan Eric; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2005-09-28

    Diagnosis related groups (DRGs) are a well-established provider payment system. Because of their imminent potential of cost reduction, they have been widely introduced. In addition to cost cutting, several social objectives - e.g., improving overall health care quality - feed into the DRG system. The WHO compared different provider payment systems with regard to the following objectives: prevention of further health problems, providing services and solving health problems, and responsiveness to people's legitimate expectations. However, no study has been published which takes the impact of different cost accounting systems across the DRG systems into account. We compared the impact of different cost accounting methods within DRG-like systems by developing six criteria: integration of patients' health risk into pricing practice, incentives for quality improvement and innovation, availability of high class evidence based therapy, prohibition of economically founded exclusions, reduction of fragmentation incentives, and improvement of patient oriented treatment. We set up a first overview of potential and actual impacts of the pricing practices within Yale-DRGs, AR-DRGs, G-DRGs, Swiss AP-DRGs adoption and Swiss MIPP. It could be demonstrated that DRGs are not only a 'homogenous' group of similar provider payment systems but quite different by fulfilling major health care objectives connected with the used cost accounting methods. If not only the possible cost reduction is used to put in a good word for DRG-based provider payment systems, maximum accurateness concerning the method of cost accounting should prevail when implementing a new DRG-based provider payment system.

  9. DESIGN COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL STORM WATER DETENTION SYSTEMS TREATING CONCENTRATED ROAD RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nanbakhsh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems are vital infrastructure assets, which protect our cities from flooding and transmission of waterborne diseases. The objective of this research was to assess the treatment efficiencies of experimental stormwater detention (extended storage systems receiving concentrated runoff that had been primary treated by filtration with different aggregates. Five detention systems with different packing order arrangements of aggregates and plant roots were used in the system to test the effects of gravel, sand, ecosoil, block paving and turf on the water treatment performance. Inflow water, polluted by road runoff, was collected by manual abstraction with a 2 litter beaker from randomly selected gully pots the near by main roads. Several parameters such as BOD5, NO3, PO4, NH4, SS, TS, DO, pH, EC, NTU and temperature were examined based on standard method book. Results showed that concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 in contrast to suspended solids (SS were frequently reduced to below international secondary wastewater treatment standards. The BOD and SS concentrations within the outflow from the planted system compared to the unplanted gravel and sand systems were similar. However, BOD in the outflow of system 5 was lower than other systems. The denitrification process was not completed. This resulted in higher outflow than inflow nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. An analysis of variance indicated that some systems were similar in terms of most of their treatment performance variables including BOD and SS. It follows that there is no need to use additional aggregates with high adsorption capacities in the primary treatment stage from the water quality point of view.

  10. System level comparison of FDMA vs. CDMA (under conference guideline constraint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Ken

    1989-01-01

    The margin that is required to mitigate the near-far problem in a Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile satellite system is determined by the radio-propagation model selected, the distribution of the users in clear and shadowed environments, and implementation techniques. The use of revenue potential as a means of evaluating the relative merits of CDMA and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) systems is a convenient way to rationalize the performance of systems using high-gain and low-gain antennas. The revenue potential of CDMA is much greater than the revenue potential for FDMA for a particular satellite design considered.

  11. Comparison Study of Power System Small Signal Stability Improvement Using SSSC and STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    A static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) has the ability to emulate a reactance in series with the connected transmission line. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is able to provide the reactive power to an electricity network. When fed with some supplementary signals from...... the connected power system, both SSSC and STATCOM are able to participate in the power system inter-area oscillation damping by changing the compensated reactance or the provided reactive power. This paper analyses the influence of SSSC and STATCOM on power system small signal stability. The damping controller...

  12. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    micrographs, and simulations and analytical models of bead trajectories, capture efficiencies, and capture distributions. We show that the efficiencies of both systems compare favorably to those in the literature. For the studied geometries, the mixer is demonstrated to increase the bead capture......-and-release efficiency for a fixed flow rate by up to a factor of two. Moreover, high capture efficiencies can be achieved in the system with mixer at up to ten times higher flow rates than in the system without mixer....

  13. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  14. Carbon Sequestration and Peat Accretion Processes in Peatland Systems: A North-South Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. J.; Wang, H.; Bridgham, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Millions of hectares of peatlands exist in the U.S. and Canada but few comparisons have been made on the process controlling peat accretion, carbon sequestration and GHG losses across latitudinal gradients. Historic threats to carbon sequestration for these areas have been drainage and conversion to agriculture and forestry, which promotes the decomposition of the organic matter in the soil, leading to accelerated soil subsidence, severe carbon losses, and accelerated transport of C and nutrients to adjoining ecosystems. A more recent and insidious threat to the survival of peatlands worldwide is the increased temperature and drought conditions projected for many areas of global peatlands (IPCC 2007). A comparison of carbon sequestration rates and controlling processes for southeastern shrub bogs, the Florida Everglades and selected peatlands of the northern US and Canada under current climatic conditions reveals several major differences in controlling factors and rates of sequestration and carbon flux. Numerous studies have shown that drought or drainage can unlock historically stored carbon, thus releasing more CO2 ¬ and dissolved organic carbon (Blodau et al. 2004; Furukawa et al. 2005; Von Arnold et al. 2005; Hirano et al. 2007), and such effects might last for decades (Fenner & Freeman 2011). The main driver of this process is the O2 introduced by drought or drainage, which will increase the activity of phenol oxidase, then accelerate the decomposition of phenol compounds, which is generally considered the "enzymatic latch" for carbon storage in peatlands (Freeman et al. 2001). However, our recent studies in southeastern peatlands along the coast of North Carolina have found that drought or drainage does not affect CO2 emission in some southern peatlands where the initial water level is below the ground surface (unsaturated peats), as polyphenol increases rather than decreases. Our results suggest that additional controlling factors, rather than anoxia exist

  15. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A comparison of anaerobic 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid degradation in single-fed and sequencing batch reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefsiniotis, P.; Wareham, D. G.; Fongsatitukul, P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper compares the practical limits of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) degradation that can be obtained in two laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion systems; namely, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a single-fed batch reactor (SFBR) system. The comparison involved synthesizing a decade of research conducted by the lead author and drawing summative conclusions about the ability of each system to accommodate industrial-strength concentrations of 2,4-D. In the main, 2 L liquid volume anaerobic SBRs were used with glucose as a supplemental carbon source for both acid-phase and two-phase conditions. Volatile fatty acids however were used as a supplemental carbon source for the methanogenic SBRs. The anaerobic SBRs were operated at an hydraulic retention time of 48 hours, while being subjected to increasing concentrations of 2,4-D. The SBRs were able to degrade between 130 and 180 mg/L of 2,4-D depending upon whether they were operated in the acid-phase or two-phase regime. The methanogenic-only phase did not achieve 2,4-D degradation however this was primarily attributed to difficulties with obtaining a sufficiently long SRT. For the two-phase SFBR system, 3.5 L liquid-volume digesters were used and no difficulty was experienced with degrading 100 % of the 2,4-D concentration applied (300 mg/L).

  17. A Clinical and Experimental Comparison of Time of Flight PET/MRI and PET/CT Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea-Lager, Daniela E; Yaqub, Maqsood; Pieters, Indra C; Reinhard, Rinze; van Moorselaar, Reindert J A; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Otto S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare image quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) systems with time of flight PET gantries, using phantom and clinical studies. Identical phantom experiments were performed on both systems. Calibration, uniformity, and standardized uptake value (SUV) recovery were measured. A clinical PET/CT versus PET/MRI comparison was performed using [(18)F]fluoromethylcholine ([(18)F]FCH). Calibration accuracy and image uniformity were comparable between systems. SUV recovery met EANM/EARL requirements on both scanners. Thirty-four lesions with comparable PET image quality were identified. Lesional SUVmax differences of 4 ± 26% between PET/MRI and PET/CT data were observed (R (2) = 0.79, slope = 1.02). In healthy tissues, PET/MRI-derived SUVs were 16 ± 11% lower than on PET/CT (R (2) = 0.98, slope = 0.86). PET/MRI and PET/CT showed comparable performance with respect to calibration accuracy, image uniformity, and SUV recovery. [(18)F]FCH uptake values for both healthy tissues and lesions corresponded reasonably well between MR- and CT-based systems, but only in regions free of MR-based attenuation artifacts.

  18. Comparison of two cut-to-length harvesting systems operating in eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Niel K. Huyler

    2001-01-01

    We compared production rates, operating costs, and break-even points (BEP) for small and large cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems operating at several machine utilization rates (MUR) in mixed hardwood and softwood stands in Vermont.

  19. Comparison of discrimination and prognostic value of two US Doppler scoring systems in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Karen; Terslev, Lene; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to investigate sensitivity to change (SRM), predictive validity and discriminative ability of a quantitative (QS) and a semi-quantitative (SQS) Doppler ultrasound scoring systems in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS......: RA patients with wrist joint affection treated with TNF-α inhibitor were followed for one year. The wrist was examined with Doppler before initiating therapy and after one year. DAS28 was determined at both visits. One person trained in the SQS system and one in the QS system evaluated the anonymised...... images. The SRM, predictive validity and discriminative ability for both systems were calculated using DAS28 as the measure of disease improvement. RESULTS: Fourty-six patients with RA (80% females) were included. The mean Doppler activity at baseline was QS:24.4% (SD=17.7%) and SQS:2.0 (SD=0...

  20. Comparison of Two Impact Simulation Methods Used for Nonlinear Vibroimpact Systems with Rigid and Soft Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bazhenov

    2013-01-01

    shown that both methods are applied and give the coinciding results for system with elastic rigid impact under periodic external loading. Loading curves built by parameter continuation method are confirming this result. Impact simulation by the second method is also fulfilled for vibroimpact system with rigid impact under random external loading. For vibroimpact system with soft impact, the simulation of impact by the second method gives a better result. The application of linear elastic force as contact one is possible too but the use of Hertz's contact force is more preferable. The authors consider that the impact simulation by Hertz contact interaction force gives good results for nonlinear vibroimpact systems with impacts of any kind if all limitations with Hertz's law used are observed.

  1. A critical comparison of analytical flow systems exploiting streamlined and pulsed flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana C B; Santos, Joâo L M; Lima, José L F C; Quintella, Cristina M; Lima, Angelo M V; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2007-07-01

    Multipumping (MPFS) and multicommuted (MCFS) flow systems relying on pulsed and laminar flows were critically compared. The mixing conditions and dispersion associated with both systems were evaluated by simulating the sample with bromocresol green. The molybdenum blue method for phosphate determination in soil extracts was also implemented in both flow systems. Furthermore, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to visualize the dispersing sample; rhodamine B was used as the fluorescent species. The pulsed flow enhanced the mixing of the solutions involved, thus reducing reagent consumption (48 and 96 microl for MPFS and MCFS), and improving sampling rate (67 and 144 h(-1) for MCFS and MPFS). For phosphate determination, results obtained with both systems were precise (r.s.d. < 0.5%; n = 10) and accurate. Analyses of the absorbance vs time/space LIF plots revealed that exploitation of pulsed flow led to a pronounced radial dispersion and to a limited axial dispersion, typical aspects of turbulent flows.

  2. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. DESIGN: International multicentre prospective study. SETTING: Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania...

  3. Biomechanical comparison of orthogonal versus parallel double plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata C. Atalar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that both plating systems had similar biomechanical stabilities when anatomic plates with distal locking screws were used in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models.

  4. Angular configuration of the knee. Comparison of conventional measurements and the QUESTOR precision radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfridsson, J. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ryd, L. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Eklund, K. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Kouvaras, Y. [Asklepeion Voulas Hospital, Athens (Greece). First Orthopaedic Dept.; Jonsson, K. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1996-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system (QPR) and to compare it with the routine hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle measurements. The main was also to evaluate the robustness of the QPR system against the osseous changes of arthrotic disease. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, operated on with a high tibial osteotomy for medial gonarthrosis, were examined. The alignment of the leg was measured by the conventional technique and by the QPR method. Results and Conclusion: The 2 methods correlated well. The intraobserver variation in the QPR measurements was, with the exception of the capito-midcondylar-femoral shaft angle and the tibial plateau width, not affected by the osseous changes inflicted by the arthrotic process. The patients tolerated both systems well while the staff preferred the QPR system. (orig.).

  5. Comparison of the semen analysis results obtained from two branded computer-aided sperm analysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y A; Lu, J C; Shao, Y; Huang, Y F; Lü, N Q

    2013-10-01

    The study evaluated the comparability of two branded computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) systems commonly used in andrology laboratories in China. The same semen sample was analysed using two branded CASA systems (WLJY-9000 and CFT-9200) by one well-trained technician. Results of semen analysis obtained from two branded CASA systems were then compared. The accuracy of counting results of CASA systems was evaluated using latex bead solutions with known concentrations of (35 ± 5) × 10⁶ ml⁻¹ and (18 ± 2.5) × 10⁶ ml⁻¹. There were significant differences in all parameters (P semen analysis with CASA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Comparison and Sensitivity Investigations of a CALM and SALM Type Mooring System for Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Pecher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system size and stiffness. The two mooring systems were designed for the same reference load case, corresponding to a horizontal design load at the wave energy converter (WEC of 2000 kN and a water depth of 30 m. This reference scenario seems to be representative for large WECs operating in intermediate water depths, such as Weptos, Wave Dragon and many others, including reasonable design safety factors. Around this reference scenario, the main influential parameters were modified in order to investigate their impact on the specifications of the mooring system, e.g. the water depth, the horizontal design load, and a mooring design parameter.

  7. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs. Materials and methods. This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent. The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test. Results. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively. Conclusion. The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images.

  8. Comparison of Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection Systems and Solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Reanne; Kilvington, Simon

    2001-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba causing a potentially blinding infection of the cornea. Contact lens wearers are most at risk and account for some 95% of cases. Hydrogen peroxide is used for contact lens disinfection due to its broad antimicrobial activity. Lenses must be neutralized before use to avoid pronounced stinging and possible corneal damage. Neutralization is achieved by adding a catalyst during the disinfection process (one-step) or afterwards (two-step). Here, the activities of commercial peroxide systems and individual solutions against trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga were compared. All disinfection systems were active against trophozoites, giving a ≥3-log (99.9%) kill within 1 h. Of the four one-step systems, only one showed some cysticidal activity, giving a 1.28 ± 0.41-log reduction. Both two-step systems were cysticidal, giving a ≥3-log kill at 4 h. All system peroxide solutions were cysticidal, giving a ≥3-log kill by 4 to 6 h. Variation in the cysticidal rate was observed with two solutions that gave a 1.8- to 2.1-log kill at 4 h compared with 3.0 to 4.0 for the rest (P sodium perborate or the contact lens protein remover subtilisin A. Two-step systems are cysticidal providing contact times of at least 4 h are employed. Variation in cyst killing occurs between peroxide solutions, possibly due to formulation differences. One-step systems are less effective against Acanthamoeba cysts due to rapid peroxide neutralization. The cysticidal activity of one-step systems could be improved if neutralization rates were retarded. PMID:11408220

  9. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  10. Comparison of crown fire modeling systems used in three fire management applications

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The relative behavior of surface-crown fire spread rate modeling systems used in three fire management applications—CFIS (Crown Fire Initiation and Spread), FlamMap and NEXUS— is compared using fire environment characteristics derived from a dataset of destructively measured canopy fuel and associated stand characteristics. Although the surface-crown modeling systems predict the same basic fire behavior characteristics (type of fire, spread rate) using the same basic fire environment characte...

  11. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  12. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  13. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moret Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation and Comparison of the Translucency of Two Different All-Ceramic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Sanja; Jurišić, Gordan; Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of two different all-ceramic systems using Vita Easyshade digital shade matching device in an in vitro model. Translucency of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and zirconia all-ceramic system (Ceramill ZI) were evaluated and compared. A total of 5 square-shaped specimens with 0.5 mm thickness were fabricated from each ceramic system in A1 shade according to Vitapan Classical shade tab. Specimens were then veneered and glazed with corresponding veneer ceramics recommended by each system manufacturer and the total thickness was set to 1.5 mm. Translucency was evaluated using VITA Easyshade in two stages: before and after veneering and glazing on black and white background. Translucency parameter (TP) was calculated. A one-way ANOVA and Bonferonni tests were used when appropriate (α=0.05). Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic was significantly more translucent than the zirconia system in both stages (PTranslucency of all specimens was significantly decreased after veneering and glazing in both all-ceramic systems (Ptranslucency of two different dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and stages of preparation. Within the limitations of the experiment, these results can be valuable and help the clinician to make appropriate esthetic decisions.

  15. Comparison of Three Total Ankle Replacement Systems Done at a Single Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, J Chris; Petersen, Daryle; Stone, Rebecca M

    2017-02-01

    Ankle replacement surgery is an established and accepted way to treat end stage ankle arthritis. Though there are multiple publications looking at results with various ankle replacement systems, most of them are single implant longitudinal studies from a single institution. There are, however, no prospective randomized studies evaluating the outcomes of different total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) systems; in fact, there are no comparative studies at all. The comparative results of 3 different total ankle systems (INBONE, STAR, and Salto Talaris) were evaluated. All the TAA system implants were performed at a single institution from 2007 to 2011. The data were evaluated by authors completely independent from the study institution. The goal was to look at the results in an objective, noninstitution perspective. At minimum 2-year follow-up there is no statistical difference in outcomes scores or functional tests between the INBONE, STAR, or Salto Talaris, with all 3 TAA systems resulting in statistically significant improvement of all parameters since baseline. This is the first study that compares the results of 3 different total ankle replacement systems done at a single institution over the same period of time. Even though it is not a randomized study, it gives a valuable perspective of the short-term results. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series.

  16. Comparison of measurement accuracy between two types of wrist goniometer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, P; Johnson, P W

    2001-12-01

    Studies have shown that wrist goniometers are prone to measurement errors, particularly due to crosstalk. This study compared two wrist goniometer systems: a commonly used biaxial, single transducer (System A) and a biaxial, two-transducer (System B). Wrist angles, range of movement and crosstalk results were compared. With the wrist in 90 degrees of pronation, eight subjects were placed in 20 different wrist postures between -40 degrees and 40 degrees of flexion/extension and between -10 degrees and 20 degrees of deviation. Relative to System B, System A had larger measurement errors and was more prone to crosstalk. There may be two sources of crosstalk: (1) intrinsic crosstalk associated with the design, application and twisting of the goniometer transducer when on the wrist, and (2) extrinsic crosstalk associated with the anatomy and complex movement of the wrist joint. It appears that the majority of the radial/ulnar crosstalk measured with System A was intrinsic crosstalk due to the twisting of the goniometer transducer.

  17. Improved performance comparisons of radioxenon systems for low level releases in nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Derek A; Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Theodore W; Cameron, Ian M; Hayes, James C; Lowrey, Justin D; Miley, Harry S

    2017-11-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear tests and mandates development of verification measures to detect treaty violations. One verification measure is detection of radioactive xenon isotopes produced in the fission of actinides. The International Monitoring System (IMS) currently deploys automated radioxenon systems that can detect four radioxenon isotopes. Radioxenon systems with lower detection limits are currently in development. Historically, the sensitivity of radioxenon systems was measured by the minimum detectable concentration for each isotope. In this paper we analyze the response of radioxenon systems using rigorous metrics in conjunction with hypothetical representative releases indicative of an underground nuclear explosion instead of using only minimum detectable concentrations. Our analyses incorporate the impact of potential spectral interferences on detection limits and the importance of measuring isotopic ratios of the relevant radioxenon isotopes in order to improve discrimination from background sources particularly for low-level releases. To provide a sufficient data set for analysis, hypothetical representative releases are simulated every day from the same location for an entire year. The performance of three types of samplers are evaluated assuming they are located at 15 IMS radionuclide stations in the region of the release point. The performance of two IMS-deployed samplers and a next-generation system is compared with proposed metrics for detection and discrimination using representative releases from the nuclear test site used by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance Comparison of Wavefront-Sensorless Adaptive Optics Systems by Using of the Focal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction capability and the convergence speed of the wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics (AO system are compared based on two different system control algorithms, which both use the information of focal plane. The first algorithm is designed through the linear relationship between the second moment of the aberration gradients and the masked far-field intensity distribution and the second is stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD, which is the most commonly used algorithm in wavefront-sensorless AO systems. A wavefront-sensorless AO model is established with a 61-element deformable mirror (DM and a CCD. Performance of the two control algorithms is investigated and compared through correcting different wavefront aberrations. Results show that the correction ability of AO system based on the proposed control algorithm is obviously better than that of AO system based on SPGD algorithm when the wavefront aberrations increase. The time needed by the proposed control algorithm is much less than that of SPGD when the AO system achieves similar correction results. Additionally, the convergence speed of the proposed control algorithm is independent of the turbulence strength while the number of intensity measurements needed by SPGD increases as the turbulence strength magnifies.

  19. Reactions to group devaluation and social inequality: A comparison of social identity and system justification predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System justification theory (SJT proposes that support for social inequality should be stronger among members of devalued groups than among members of higher status groups; that embracing the system in this way soothes anger and leads to a withdrawal of support for social change; and that these effects should occur when group interest is weak. We compared these SJT predictions with identity management and hope for group advancement accounts that we deduced from social identity theory (SIT and that suggest that both system justification and support for social change will be significant when group interest is strong. Consistent with the SIT-based accounts, Study 1 (N = 116, Malaysia, Mage =19.09 years showed that strong identifiers were more concerned about their ingroup’s reputation than weak identifiers, and that this concern increased system justification but only before an outgroup audience to whom a need to present one’s group in good light is normally strong. Study 2 (N = 375, Australia, Mage = 23.59 years conceptually replicated Study 1’s results and further revealed that strong identifiers justified the system due to the hope that their ingroup status would improve in the future. Finally, Study 3 (N = 132, Germany, Mage = 20.34 years revealed that system justification soothed anger and reduced support for social protest but only when group interest was strong (not weak. We did not find evidence in support of SJT predictions.

  20. COMPARISON OF PI CONTROLLER PERFORMANCE FOR FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS WITH TIME DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMAKOTESWARA RAO ALLA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Delays appear often in all real world engineering systems. Delay systems have the property that the rate of variation in the system state depends on the previous states also. They are frequently a source of instability and poor system performance. In order to get the required performance from the delay system controller design plays a vital role. Because of the robust nature, easy structure Proportional Integral Derivative (PID controllers are extensively used in many industrial loops. Parameter tuning of the PID controller is an essential task. Numerous industrial processes, whose transfer function is of first order, can be easily controlled with PI controllers. This paper presents the comparative analysis of an approach based on Lambert W function for PI controller design for first order systems with time delay among Smith predictor (SP and ZeiglerNichols (ZN methods of design. Performance of the considered methods in terms of various performance specifications through simulation results has been illustrated. Results demonstrate that the Lambert W function based PI tuning results in adequate performance compared to other methods with respect to parameters settling time, overshoot, errors, etc.

  1. Comparison of finishing and polishing systems for residual resin removal after debonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çaöry Ulusoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to evaluate (1 the effectiveness of one-step polishers on the surface morphology of enamel using scanning electron microscope (SEM and compare their effects with conventional systems for residual adhesive removal; and (2 the time spent to remove resin remnants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of 80 freshly extracted human premolar teeth and received the same resin-removal methods to evaluate the time spent to remove resin remnants (n=10. The brackets were debonded and residual adhesive was removed using different systems. Fourty-five premolars, including the control group with intact enamel (n=5, were examined by SEM. RESULTS: 30-blade tungsten carbide burs were the least time-consuming procedure. The best system in SEM study was the PoGo micro-polishers followed by Super-Snap Rainbow system. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of polishing systems on residual resin removal was dependent on the characteristics of the instruments in each system.

  2. A comparison of the performance of modern screen-film and digital mammography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnin, P [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gutierrez, D [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bulling, S [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Lepori, D [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV), CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Valley, J-F [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, F R [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-06-07

    This work compares the detector performance and image quality of the new Kodak Min-R EV mammography screen-film system with the Fuji CR Profect detector and with other current mammography screen-film systems from Agfa, Fuji and Kodak. Basic image quality parameters (MTF, NPS, NEQ and DQE) were evaluated for a 28 kV Mo/Mo (HVL = 0.646 mm Al) beam using different mAs exposure settings. Compared with other screen-film systems, the new Kodak Min-R EV detector has the highest contrast and a low intrinsic noise level, giving better NEQ and DQE results, especially at high optical density. Thus, the properties of the new mammography film approach those of a fine mammography detector, especially at low frequency range. Screen-film systems provide the best resolution. The presampling MTF of the digital detector has a value of 15% at the Nyquist frequency and, due to the spread size of the laser beam, the use of a smaller pixel size would not permit a significant improvement of the detector resolution. The dual collection reading technology increases significantly the low frequency DQE of the Fuji CR system that can at present compete with the most efficient mammography screen-film systems.

  3. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Soo [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Pyung [Korea Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Eun [Chungbuk Nat. Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices.

  4. Comparison of Expected Crash and Injury Reduction from Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) now tests for forward collision warning (FCW) and lane departure warning (LDW). The design of these warnings differs greatly between vehicles and can result in different real-world field performance in preventing or mitigating the effects of collisions. The objective of this study was to compare the expected number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the fleet were equipped with the FCW and LDW systems tested under the U.S. NCAP. To predict the potential crashes and serious injury that could be prevented, our approach was to computationally model the U.S. crash population. The models simulated all rear-end and single-vehicle road departure collisions that occurred in a nationally representative crash database (NASS-CDS). A sample of 478 single-vehicle crashes from NASS-CDS 2012 was the basis for 24,822 simulations for LDW. A sample of 1,042 rear-end collisions from NASS-CDS years 1997-2013 was the basis for 7,616 simulations for FCW. For each crash, 2 simulations were performed: (1) without the system present and (2) with the system present. Models of each production safety system were based on 54 model year 2010-2014 vehicles that were evaluated under the NCAP confirmation procedure for LDW and/or FCW. NCAP performed 40 LDW and 45 FCW tests of these vehicles. The design of the FCW systems had a dramatic impact on their potential to prevent crashes and injuries. Between 0 and 67% of crashes and 2 and 69% of moderately to fatally injured drivers in rear-end impacts could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with the FCW systems. Earlier warning times resulted in increased benefits. The largest effect on benefits, however, was the lower operating speed threshold of the systems. Systems that only operated at speeds above 20 mph were less than half as effective as those that operated above 5 mph with similar warning times. The production LDW systems could have prevented

  5. Propylene glycol liposomes as a topical delivery system for miconazole nitrate: comparison with conventional liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, Riham M; Abdallah, Ossama Y; El-Khordagui, Labiba K; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2012-06-01

    Propylene glycol (PG)-phospholipid vesicles have been advocated as flexible lipid vesicles for enhanced skin delivery of drugs. To further characterize the performance of these vesicles and to address some relevant pharmaceutical issues, miconazole nitrate(MN)-loaded PG nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and vesicle stability. An issue of pharmaceutical importance is the time-dependent, dilution-driven diffusion of propylene glycol out of the vesicles. This was addressed by assessing propylene glycol using gas chromatography in the separated vesicles and monitoring its buildup in the medium after repeated dispersion of separated vesicles in fresh medium. Further, the antifungal activity of liposomal formulations under study was assessed using Candida albicans, and their in vitro skin permeation and retention were studied using human skin. At all instances, blank and drug-loaded conventional liposomes were included for comparison. The results provided evidence of controlled MN delivery, constant percent PG uptake in the vesicles (≈45.5%) in the PG concentration range 2.5 to 10%, improved vesicle stability, and enhanced skin deposition of MN with minimum skin permeation. These are key issues for different formulation and performance aspects of propylene glycol-phospholipid vesicles.

  6. Evaluating potentials and corresponding risks of deficit irrigation systems: comparison of two stochastic optimization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, S.; Schütze, N.; de Paly, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this contribution, we introduce a stochastic framework for decision support for optimal planning and operation of water supply in irrigation. This consists of (i) a weather generator for simulating regional impacts of climate change on the basis of IPCC scenarios; (ii) a tailor-made evolutionary optimization algorithm for optimal irrigation scheduling with limited water supply; (iii) a mechanistic model for simulating water transport and crop growth in a sound manner; and (iv) a kernel density estimator for estimating stochastic productivity, profit and demand functions by a nonparametric method. As a result of several Monte Carlo simulation-optimization runs within the framework, we present stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPF) for different crops which can be used as a basic tool for assessing the impact of climate variability on the risk for the potential yield or, furthermore for generating maps of uncertainty of yield for specific crops and specific agricultural areas. In addition, we applied a stack-ordering technique instead of the comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation for generating SCWPFs, which are based on a statistically appropriate sample size and a reliable optimal management. In comparison to an always exhaustive evaluation of the realizations in the case of the Monte Carlo set the stack-ordering procedure yields considerable computational savings by identifying critical solutions which define the user chosen reliability quantile in the course of the overlying optimization process.

  7. Testing the IONORT-ISP system: A comparison between synthesized and measured oblique ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, A.; Pezzopane, M.; Pietrella, M.; Bianchi, C.; Scotto, C.; Zuccheretti, E.; Makris, J.

    2013-03-01

    three-dimensional (3-D) electron density representation of the ionosphere computed by the assimilative IRI-SIRMUP-P (ISP) model was tested using IONORT (IONOspheric Ray-Tracing), a software tool for calculating a 3-D ray-tracing for high-frequency waves in the ionospheric medium. A radio link was established between Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E) in Italy, and Chania (35.7°N, 24.0°E) in Greece, within the ISP validity area, and for which oblique soundings are conducted. The ionospheric reference stations, from which the autoscaled foF2 and M(3000)F2 data and real-time vertical electron density profiles were assimilated by the ISP model, were Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E) and Gibilmanna (37.9°N, 14.0°E) in Italy, and Athens (38.0°N, 23.5°E) in Greece. IONORT was used, in conjunction with the ISP and the International Reference Ionosphere 3-D electron density grids, to synthesize oblique ionograms. The comparison between synthesized and measured oblique ionograms, both in terms of the ionogram shape and the maximum usable frequency characterizing the radio path, demonstrates both that the ISP model can more accurately represent real conditions in the ionosphere than the IRI, and that the ray-tracing results computed by IONORT are reasonably reliable.

  8. Comparisons of spectrally-enhanced asymmetrically-clipped optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2016-02-22

    Asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) is a technique that sacrifices spectral efficiency in order to transmit an orthogonally frequency-division multiplexed signal over a unipolar channel, such as a directly modulated direct-detection fiber or free-space channel. Several methods have been proposed to regain this spectral efficiency, including: asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM), enhanced U-OFDM (EU-OFDM), spectral and energy efficient OFDM (SEE-OFDM), Hybrid-ACO-OFDM and Layered-ACO-OFDM. This paper presents simulations up to high-order constellation sizes to show that Layered-ACO-OFDM offers the highest receiver sensitivity for a given optical power at spectral efficiencies above 3 bit/s/Hz. For comparison purposes, white Gaussian noise is added at the receiver, component nonlinearities are not considered, and the fiber is considered to be linear and dispersion-less. The simulations show that LACO-OFDM has a 7-dB sensitivity advantage over DC-biased OFDM (DCO-OFDM) for 1024-QAM at 87.5% of DCO-OFDM's spectral efficiency, at the same bit rate and optical power. This is approximately equivalent to a 4.4-dB advantage at the same spectral efficiency of 87.7% if 896-QAM were to be used for DCO-OFDM.

  9. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  10. [Efficacy of preoxygenation using tidal volume breathing: a comparison of Mapleson A, Bain's and Circle system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Suman; Gupta, Priyanka; Arya, Virender Kumar; Bhatia, Nidhi

    Efficacy of preoxygenation depends upon inspired oxygen concentration, its flow rate, breathing system configuration and patient characteristics. We hypothesized that in actual clinical scenario, where breathing circuit is not primed with 100% oxygen, patients may need more time to achieve EtO 2 ≥90%, and this duration may be different among various breathing systems. We thus studied the efficacy of preoxygenation using unprimed Mapleson A, Bain's and Circle system with tidal volume breathing at oxygen flow rates of 5L.min -1 and 10L.min -1 . Patients were randomly allocated into one of the six groups, wherein they were preoxygenated using either Mapleson A, Bain's or Circle system at O 2 flow rate of either 5L.min -1 or 10L.min -1 . The primary outcome measure of our study was the time taken to achieve EtO 2 ≥90% at 5 and 10L.min -1 flow rates. At oxygen flow rate of 5L.min -1 , time to reach EtO 2 ≥90% was significantly longer with Bain's system (3.7±0.67min) than Mapleson A and Circle system (2.9±0.6, 3.3±0.97min, respectively). However at oxygen flow rate of 10L.min -1 this time was significantly shorter and comparable among all the three breathing systems (2.33±0.38min with Mapleson, 2.59±0.50min with Bain's and 2.60±0.47min with Circle system). With spontaneous normal tidal volume breathing at oxygen flow rate of 5L.min -1 , Mapleson A can optimally preoxygenate patients within 3min while Bain's and Circle system require more time. However at O 2 flow rate of 10L.min -1 all the three breathing systems are capable of optimally preoxygenating the patients in less than 3min. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of growth factor and platelet concentration from commercial platelet-rich plasma separation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Tiffany N; Pouliot, Michael A; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Dragoo, Jason L

    2011-02-01

    Clinical studies claim that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) shortens recovery times because of its high concentration of growth factors that may enhance the tissue repair process. Most of these studies obtained PRP using different separation systems, and few analyzed the content of the PRP used as treatment. This study characterized the composition of single-donor PRP produced by 3 commercially available PRP separation systems. Controlled laboratory study. Five healthy humans donated 100 mL of blood, which was processed to produce PRP using 3 PRP concentration systems (MTF Cascade, Arteriocyte Magellan, Biomet GPS III). Platelet, white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell, and fibrinogen concentrations were analyzed by automated systems in a clinical laboratory, whereas ELISA determined the concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor αβ and ββ (PDGF-αβ, PDGF-ββ), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). There was no significant difference in mean PRP platelet, red blood cell, active TGF-β1, or fibrinogen concentrations among PRP separation systems. There was a significant difference in platelet capture efficiency. The highest platelet capture efficiency was obtained with Cascade, which was comparable with Magellan but significantly higher than GPS III. There was a significant difference among all systems in the concentrations of WBC, PDGF-αβ, PDGF-ββ, and VEGF. The Cascade system concentrated leukocyte-poor PRP, compared with leukocyte-rich PRP from the GPS III and Magellan systems. The GPS III and Magellan concentrate leukocyte-rich PRP, which results in increased concentrations of WBCs, PDGF-αβ, PDGF-ββ, and VEGF as compared with the leukocyte-poor PRP from Cascade. Overall, there was no significant difference among systems in the platelet concentration, red blood cell, active TGF-β1, or fibrinogen levels. Products from commercially available PRP separation systems produce differing concentrations of

  12. Nitrogen removal during leachate treatment: comparison of simple and sophisticated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel, J L; Jupsin, H; Annachhatre, A P

    2004-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) have become common in treating municipal wastewaters. Applied to leachates treatment MBR were also successful with pilot scale experiments and full-scale facilities as well. We succeeded previously in designing an efficient nitrification-denitrification process with an ethylene glycol byproduct as carbon source for denitrification. Moreover, an unexpectedly high inert COD removal efficiency was also observed in the full-scale MBR facility thereby making it possible to increase the operating time of the final GAC (Granulated Activated Carbon) adsorber. Since MBR are very sophisticated systems. Simpler and "lower" cost systems can also be considered. For example it is possible to nitrify leachates from sanitary landfill using a simple infiltration-percolation technique with a low energy cost. To validate previously published laboratory experiments, a semi industrial-scale pilot installation was installed at the Montzen landfill site (Belgium). The process is based on infiltration-percolation through a granular bed. This well known process was modified to increase the load, notably by changing the support medium, adding an electric fan that is run intermittently and maintaining temperatures greater than 15 degrees C. The new material is a type of granular calcium carbonate with a large specific surface area. These technical improvements enabled the system to nitrify up to 0.4 kg NH4+-N/m3 of reactor bed per day at a hydraulic load of 0.35 m.d(-1), with an ammonia removal rate in the range of 80 to 95%. Despite the high ammonia nitrogen inlet concentrations, this system exhibits remarkable nitrification efficiency. Moreover, these performances are achieved in a batch mode system without recirculation or dilution processes. If complete nitrification is needed, it can be obtained in a second in series of bioreactors. The system can be classified as a low cost process. An international patent is pending. Possible performances of those systems

  13. Biomechanical comparison of orthogonal versus parallel double plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Ata C; Tunalı, Onur; Erşen, Ali; Kapıcıoğlu, Mehmet; Sağlam, Yavuz; Demirhan, Mehmet S

    2017-01-01

    In intraarticular distal humerus fractures, internal fixation with double plates is the gold standard treatment. However the optimal plate configuration is not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of the parallel and the orthogonal anatomical locking plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models. Intraarticular distal humerus fracture (AO13-C2) with 5 mm metaphyseal defect was created in sixteen artificial humeral models. Models were fixed with either orthogonal or parallel plating systems with locking screws (Acumed elbow plating systems). Both systems were tested for their stiffness with loads in axial compression, varus, valgus, anterior and posterior bending. Then plastic deformation after cyclic loading in posterior bending and load to failure in posterior bending were tested. The failure mechanisms of all the samples were observed. Stiffness values in every direction were not significantly different among the orthogonal and the parallel plating groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in plastic deformation values (0.31 mm-0.29 mm) and load to failure tests in posterior bending (372.4 N-379.7 N). In the orthogonal plating system most of the failures occurred due to the proximal shaft fracture, whereas in the parallel plating system failure occurred due to the shift of the most distal screw in proximal fragment. Our study showed that both plating systems had similar biomechanical stabilities when anatomic plates with distal locking screws were used in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Nanoemulsion and Aqueous Micelle Systems of Paliperidone for Intranasal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, Kartika; Suares, Divya

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and compare the efficiency of nanoemulsion and aqueous micelle system of Paliperidone on intranasal administration. Both the formulations were evaluated for physical parameters such as globule size, pH, viscosity, conductivity and in vitro drug release studies. The reduction in spontaneous motor activity of L-dopa and Carbidopa-treated Swiss Albino mice on intranasal administration of nanoemulsion and micellar system of Paliperidone was compared with plain drug suspension. Histopathological evaluation of formulation treated nasal mucosal membrane was performed. Nasal spray device was evaluated for spray pattern and volume per actuation. Globule size of micellar system and nanoemulsion was found to be 16.14 & 38.25 nm, respectively. In vitro release of drug from micellar system was found to be 1.8-fold higher than nanoemulsion. The loading of drug in nanoemulsion was found to be superior (2.5 mg/mL) when compared to micellar system (0.41 mg/mL). The spray pattern of micellar system and nanoemulsion from the device was elliptical and circular, respectively. The locomotor activity of L-dopa and Carbidopa-treated Swiss albino mice was found to be 1096.5±78.49, 551.5±13.43 and 535.5±24.75 counts/min in case of plain drug suspension, micellar system and nanoemulsion, respectively. The intranasal administration of developed formulations showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the locomotor activity when compared to intranasal administration of plain drug. Thus it can be concluded that both the developed formulations have shown improved in vivo activity on intranasal administration and pose great potential for delivery of Paliperidone through intranasal route.

  15. Clinical comparison of 2 implantation systems for single-level cervical disk replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Li, Juan; Liu, Hao; Ding, Chen; Hu, Tao; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan

    2014-02-01

    The safety and effectiveness of 2 implantation systems for single-segment cervical disk replacement-the Bryan Cervical Disc System (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minnesota) and the ACCEL system (Medtronic Inc)-have not been clinically compared. A prospective, nonrandomized controlled study in consecutive patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up was performed. Fifty patients with single-level cervical disk degeneration who responded poorly to conservative treatment and underwent Bryan Cervical Disc replacement were involved. Fifty patients were included (24 in group A [Bryan Cervical Disc System] and 26 in group B [ACCEL system]).The patients' visual analog scale scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores, Odom scores, operative time, blood loss, and complications were compared. Patients' baseline statuses were similar (P>.05). Visual analog scale for neck and arm pain, NDI, and SF-36 were significantly improved postoperatively (P.05). All Odom scores were better than good. Mean operative time and average blood loss in group A (173±42.5 minutes and 250±159.8 mL, respectively), were both significantly higher than the values in group B (137.5±19.3 minutes and 138.1±86.7 mL, respectively) (Pprosthesis; there was no significant difference in the total complication rates between the 2 groups (P>.05). The 2 implantation systems displayed equal clinical effectiveness and safety, but the ACCEL system appears to have the advantages of shorter operative time and less blood loss. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Comparison of Computer-based Clinical Decision Support Systems and Content for Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, M; Wright, A; Burton, M; Fraser, G; Krall, M; Maviglia, S; Mohammed-Rajput, N; Simonaitis, L; Sonnenberg, F; Middleton, B

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems have been shown to improve quality of care and workflow efficiency, and health care reform legislation relies on electronic health records and CDS systems to improve the cost and quality of health care in the United States; however, the heterogeneity of CDS content and infrastructure of CDS systems across sites is not well known. We aimed to determine the scope of CDS content in diabetes care at six sites, assess the capabilities of CDS in use at these sites, characterize the scope of CDS infrastructure at these sites, and determine how the sites use CDS beyond individual patient care in order to identify characteristics of CDS systems and content that have been successfully implemented in diabetes care. We compared CDS systems in six collaborating sites of the Clinical Decision Support Consortium. We gathered CDS content on care for patients with diabetes mellitus and surveyed institutions on characteristics of their site, the infrastructure of CDS at these sites, and the capabilities of CDS at these sites. The approach to CDS and the characteristics of CDS content varied among sites. Some commonalities included providing customizability by role or user, applying sophisticated exclusion criteria, and using CDS automatically at the time of decision-making. Many messages were actionable recommendations. Most sites had monitoring rules (e.g. assessing hemoglobin A1c), but few had rules to diagnose diabetes or suggest specific treatments. All sites had numerous prevention rules including reminders for providing eye examinations, influenza vaccines, lipid screenings, nephropathy screenings, and pneumococcal vaccines. Computer-based CDS systems vary widely across sites in content and scope, but both institution-created and purchased systems had many similar features and functionality, such as integration of alerts and reminders into the decision-making workflow of the provider and providing messages that are

  17. Biomechanical investigation of a minimally invasive posterior spine stabilization system in comparison to the Universal Spinal System (USS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubosch, D; Kubosch, E J; Gueorguiev, B; Zderic, I; Windolf, M; Izadpanah, K; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2016-03-22

    Although minimally invasive posterior spine implant systems have been introduced, clinical studies reported on reduced quality of spinal column realignment due to correction loss. The aim of this study was to compare biomechanically two minimally invasive spine stabilization systems versus the Universal Spine Stabilization system (USS). Three groups with 5 specimens each and 2 foam bars per specimen were instrumented with USS (Group 1) or a minimally invasive posterior spine stabilization system with either polyaxial (Group 2) or monoaxial (Group 3) screws. Mechanical testing was performed under quasi-static ramp loading in axial compression and torsion, followed by destructive cyclic loading run under axial compression at constant amplitude and then with progressively increasing amplitude until construct failure. Bending construct stiffness, torsional stiffness and cycles to failure were investigated. Initial bending stiffness was highest in Group 3, followed by Group 2 and Group 1, without any significant differences between the groups. A significant increase in bending stiffness after 20'000 cycles was observed in Group 1 (p = 0.002) and Group 2 (p = 0.001), but not in Group 3, though the secondary bending stiffness showed no significant differences between the groups. Initial and secondary torsional stiffness was highest in Group 1, followed by Group 3 and Group 2, with significant differences between all groups (p ≤ 0.047). A significant increase in initial torsional stiffness after 20'000 cycles was observed in Group 2 (p = 0.017) and 3 (p = 0.013), but not in Group 1. The highest number of cycles to failure was detected in Group 1, followed by Group 3 and Group 2. This parameter was significantly different between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.001), between Group 2 and Group 3 (p = 0.002), but not between Group 1 and Group 3. These findings quantify the correction loss for minimally invasive spine implant systems and imply that

  18. Juvenile Nasal Angiofibromas: A Comparison of Modern Staging Systems in an Endoscopic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Nicholas R; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Heft-Neal, Molly E; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H

    2017-02-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical utility of four juvenile nasal angiofibroma (JNA) staging systems in a large cohort of patients. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary referral academic center. Participants Pediatric patients undergoing surgical resection of JNAs between January 2008 and June 2015. Main Outcome Measures Intraoperative blood loss and transfusions, number of staged operations, postoperative residual disease, and recurrent disease. Results In total, 34 patients were identified; all underwent preoperative embolization followed by surgery. Of the 34 patients, 33 (97%) underwent an exclusively endoscopic surgical approach, with 6 (18%) requiring planned staged operations. Ten (29%) patients had residual disease and three (9%) required further surgical resection. Using the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) staging system was most predictive of patients who required staged procedures, received intraoperative transfusions, and had residual postoperative disease (AUC: 0.89, 0.88, 0.86, respectively). Conclusions The UPMC JNA staging system accounts for both route of skull base extension and tumor vascularity, which are two important tumor attributes in the age of preoperative embolization and endoscopic endonasal surgery. The UPMC staging system is a reliable modern staging system that closely reflects prognostic information and aids in surgical planning.

  19. Comparison of the design criteria of 141 onsite wastewater treatment systems available on the French market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, V; Boutin, C

    2017-08-01

    New EC standards published in 2009 led to a surge in onsite wastewater treatment systems reaching the European market. Here we summarize their technical aspects and compare them to known values used in centralized wastewater treatment. The paper deals with two types of processes: attached-growth systems (AGS) on fine media and suspended-growth systems (SGS). Covering 141 technical approvals and 36 manufacturers, we compare onsite design criteria against the centralized wastewater design criteria for each process. The systems use a wide range of materials for bacterial growth, from soil, sand or gravel to zeolite, coconut shavings or rockwool cubes, with a huge range of variation in useful surface, from 0.26 m 2 /PE for one rockwool cube filter to 5 m 2 /PE for a (traditional system) vertical sand filter. Some rockwool can handle applied daily surface load of 160 g BOD 5 /m 2 . SGS design parameters range from 0.025 to 0.34 kg BOD 5 per kg MLVSS/d with hydraulic retention times of 0.28-3.7 d. For clarifier design, water velocity ranges from 0.15 to 1.47 m/h. In the sludge line, sludge storage volume ranges from 0.125 down to just 0.56 m 3 /PE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flight test comparison between enhanced vision (FLIR) and synthetic vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-05-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA"s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  1. A comparison of iterative methods for a model coupled system of elliptic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    Many interesting areas of current industry work deal with non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. We examine iterative methods for the solution of a model two-dimensional coupled system based on a linearized form of the two carrier drift-diffusion equations from semiconductor modeling. Discretizing this model system yields a large non-symmetric indefinite sparse matrix. To solve the model system various point and block methods, including the hybrid iterative method Alternate Block Factorization (ABF), are applied. We also employ GMRES with various preconditioners, including block and point incomplete LU (ILU) factorizations. The performance of these methods is compared. It is seen that the preferred ordering of the grid variables and the choice of iterative method are dependent upon the magnitudes of the coupling parameters. For this model, ABF is the most robust of the non-accelerated iterative methods. Among the preconditioners employed with GMRES, the blocked ``by grid point`` version of both the ILU and MILU preconditioners are the most robust and the most time efficient over the wide range of parameter values tested. This information may aid in the choice of iterative methods and preconditioners for solving more complicated, yet analogous, coupled systems.

  2. Comparison of lower limb and trunk kinematics between markerless and marker-based motion capture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, Margaret A; Pizzari, Tania; Cook, Jill; McClelland, Jodie A

    2017-02-01

    Three dimensional (3-D) motion capture systems are used by researchers and clinicians to analyze the kinematics of human movement. Traditional marker based systems are time consuming and limit the size of studies. Markerless 3-D systems are quicker to use but the differences between data captured in each system is unclear. To examine the relationship of kinematic data captured by marker based and markerless motion capture systems. Movement was assessed in two tests: a simple knee flexion test and single leg squat with a marker based protocol (Vicon) and a markerless protocol (Organic Motion). There was no significant difference between protocols in knee flexion angle (p=0.33). In single leg squat there was no significant difference in 9 of 13 clinically relevant joint angles in the change in angle from the start to the peak of squat. There were significant differences in the angle at the peak of the squat for 9 of 13 joint angles. This study provides evidence that a marker-based and a markerless protocol report similar ranges of change in angle from the start of a squat to peak squat in the pelvis and lower limb in single leg squat. Specific joint angles should not be compared between protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of several denture sanitizing systems: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R T; Goodson, L B; Bullard, J W; Conrad, R S

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to test the effectiveness of three methods of decontamination on complete dentures. Dentures worn by patients for varying lengths of time were handled aseptically and treated with three different treatment modalities. The dentures were touched and sectioned and then retouched to a variety of microbiological media. The quantity of microbial growth was recorded and predominating microorganisms were identified using standard microbiological techniques. System A was found to consistently decontaminate and sanitize dentures worn by patients. System B and System C showed variable reduction of microorganisms. An unexpected spectrum of both pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms was found in the dentures examined, including a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts. A wide range of microorganisms must be considered when treating either oral or systemic diseases in denture wearers. Denture hygiene and decontamination are critical to the prevention of oral and systemic disease transmission. The dentures of ill patients must be considered as possible sources of pathogenic microorganisms.

  5. Experimental comparison of noise and resolution for 2k and 4k storage phosphor radiography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M J; Samei, E

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality for a digital storage phosphor system using 1760 x 2140 (2k) and 3520 x 4280 (4k) image arrays. Measurements were made on a chest radiography system (Fuji FCR-9501) with special provisions to be operated in both 2k (standard) and 4k (HQ) modes. Presampled modulation transfer functions (MTF) were measured using an edge method. Noise power spectra (NPS) were determined for different input exposures by two-dimensional Fourier analysis. These measures along with exposure measurements and an x-ray spectral model were used to determine the frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency DQE (f) of the system for the 4k and the 2k modes. The magnitude of the NPS for the 4k mode was about 1/2 that of the 2k mode. A MTF value of 0.5 was found at 1.25 cycles/mm for the 4k system and 1.50 cycles/mm for the 2k system. The 4k images had an extended MTF of 0.1 at 4.5 cycles/mm in the plate-scan direction. Overall, the DQE (f) of the 4k mode was slightly better than that for the 2k mode by about 0.02 due primarily to its better noise characteristics.

  6. Comparison of SHR Mode IPL System with Alexandrite and Nd: YAG Lasers For Leg Hair Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsettin Karaca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple lasers and light sources are currently available for hair removal and many studies comparing efficacy and safety exist. SHR mode IPL is a technique that gives the total energy in divided doses with fewer side effects. We compared a SHR mode IPL system with alexandrite and Nd: YAG lasers for leg hair reductionMaterial and Methods: Twenty-five female participants with skin types II–IV, underwent treatment of unwanted hair on the cruris. Three selected areas were randomly treated with the SHR mode IPL system, Alexandrite laser and Nd: YAG laser in three sessions. Hair reduction was evaluated with digital photography by a blinded assessor every 6 weeks and 6 months after the last session. Pain severity, side effects and patient satisfaction analysis were also investigated. Results: Twenty-one participants completed the trial. The mean hair reductions in 6 weeks after the last treatment were 50% for the IPL system, 53% for Alexandrite and 39% for the Nd: YAG lasers. However after 6 months; 40%, 49% and 34% hair reduction was observed, respectively. The Alexandrite laser was the least painful system. Conclusion: Although there is no obvious advantage of one laser system over the others in terms of treatment outcome, the Alexandrite laser is still the most efficient and reliable way of hair removal in fair skinned individuals.

  7. Comparison of SHR Mode IPL System with Alexandrite and Nd: YAG Lasers For Leg Hair Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Semsettin; Kaçar, Seval Doğruk; Ozuğuz, Pınar

    2012-12-01

    Multiple lasers and light sources are currently available for hair removal and many studies comparing efficacy and safety exist. SHR mode IPL is a technique that gives the total energy in divided doses with fewer side effects. We compared a SHR mode IPL system with alexandrite and Nd: YAG lasers for leg hair reduction. Twenty-five female participants with skin types II-IV, underwent treatment of unwanted hair on the cruris. Three selected areas were randomly treated with the SHR mode IPL system, Alexandrite laser and Nd: YAG laser in three sessions. Hair reduction was evaluated with digital photography by a blinded assessor every 6 weeks and 6 months after the last session. Pain severity, side effects and patient satisfaction analysis were also investigated. Twenty-one participants completed the trial. The mean hair reductions in 6 weeks after the last treatment were 50% for the IPL system, 53% for Alexandrite and 39% for the Nd: YAG lasers. However after 6 months; 40%, 49% and 34% hair reduction was observed, respectively. The Alexandrite laser was the least painful system. Although there is no obvious advantage of one laser system over the others in terms of treatment outcome, the Alexandrite laser is still the most efficient and reliable way of hair removal in fair skinned individuals.

  8. Comparison of two broadly multiplexed PCR systems for viral detection in clinical respiratory tract specimens from immunocompromised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Randall T; Gu, Zhengming; Rodriguez, Alicia; Tanioka, Lisa; Ying, Claire; Morgenstern, Markus; Bankowski, Matthew J

    2012-04-01

    The detection of viral respiratory tract infections has evolved greatly with the development of PCR based commercial systems capable of simultaneously detecting a wide variety of pathogens. Evaluate the relative performance of two commercial broad range systems for the detection of viral agents in clinical respiratory tract specimens from immunocompromised children. A total of 176 patient samples were included in the analysis, representing only the first sample collected for each patient, and excluding failed reactions. Samples were de-identified and assayed in parallel using two different, broadly multiplexed PCR systems: ResPlex™ II Panel v2.0 (ResPlex), Qiagen, Hilden, Germany and FilmArray(®) Respiratory Panel (FilmArray), Idaho Technology Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. Method comparison was based upon pair-wise concordance of results according to patient age, viral target and number of targets detected. The two systems showed an overall concordance, by patient, of 83.8% (p=0.0001). FilmArray detected at least one target in 68.8% of samples, while ResPlex detected at least one target in 56.8%. ResPlex failed to detect 20.7% of FilmArray positives, and FilmArray failed to detect 4% of ResPlex positives. The relative performance of each system (including which system detected a higher number of positive samples) varied when stratified by target viral pathogen. Broadly multiplexed PCR is an effective means of detecting large numbers of clinically relevant respiratory viral pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish poultry industry: a comparison based on enterprise size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kök, M Samil

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.

  10. Comparison of pneumatic tube system with manual transport for routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Alex; Matthewson, Beverly; Whitman, Erin; Fullarton, Rachel; Chen, Yu

    2017-08-28

    The pneumatic tube system (PTS) is commonly used in modern clinical laboratories to provide quick specimen delivery. However, its impact on sample integrity and laboratory testing results are still debatable. In addition, each PTS installation and configuration is unique to its institution. We sought to validate our Swisslog PTS by comparing routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas test results and sample integrity indices between duplicate samples transported either manually or by PTS. Duplicate samples were delivered to the core laboratory manually by human courier or via the Swisslog PTS. Head-to-head comparisons of 48 routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas laboratory tests, and three sample integrity indices were conducted on 41 healthy volunteers and 61 adult patients. The PTS showed no impact on sample hemolysis, lipemia, or icterus indices (all pcoagulation and blood gas (in syringe and capillary tube) laboratory tests.

  11. Comparison of the TLDA with the Nanodrop and the reference Qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, M.; McPartlin, J.; Arthure, K.; Riedel, S.; McMillan, Nd

    2011-08-01

    The TLDA (transmitted light drop analyser) is a new microvolume UV-visible drop spectrophotometer new to the market. Assays were compared between a TLDA, NanoDrop and the Qubit system which is based on the gold standard for DNA assay, PicoGreen. The evaluation was carried out by the Trinity Biobank in St. James Hospital, Dublin on Buccal swabs and Blood samples. The data is discussed in this paper. The Qubit system is seen as the reference method in most studies as this is believed to provide more accurate results than UV absorbance methods because it distinguishes between DNA, RNA, free nucleotides, and other contaminants. The Qubit system uses fluorescent dyes to measure the concentration of the molecule of interest. The results compare both the spectrophotometric methods against the Qubit fluorescence technique.

  12. Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scar/span>s, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

  13. Recurrence time statistics in deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems in continuous time: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Nicolis, G.; Nicolis, C.

    2000-03-01

    The dynamics of transitions between the cells of a finite phase-space partition is analyzed for deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems in continuous time. Special emphasis is placed on the dependence of mean recurrence time on the resolution τ between successive observations, in the limit τ-->0. In deterministic systems the limit is found to exist, and to depend on only the intrinsic parameters of the underlying dynamics. In stochastic systems two different cases are identified, leading to a τ-independent behavior and a τ1/2 behavior, depending on whether a finite speed of propagation of the signals exists or not. An extension of the results to the second moment of the recurrence time is outlined.

  14. Comparison of short term rainfall forecasts for model based flow prediction in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Poulsen, Troels Sander; Bøvith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forecast based flow prediction in drainage systems can be used to implement real time control of drainage systems. This study compares two different types of rainfall forecasts – a radar rainfall extrapolation based nowcast model and a numerical weather prediction model. The models are applied...... performance of the system is found using the radar nowcast for the short leadtimes and weather model for larger lead times....... as input to an urban runoff model predicting the inlet flow to a waste water treatment plant. The modelled flows are auto-calibrated against real time flow observations in order to certify the best possible forecast. Results show that it is possible to forecast flows with a lead time of 24 hours. The best...

  15. Comparison Of Short Term Rainfall Forecasts For Model Based Flow Prediction In Urban Drainage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Poulsen, Troels Sander; Bøvith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forecast based flow prediction in drainage systems can be used to implement real time control of drainage systems. This study compares two different types of rainfall forecasts – a radar rainfall extrapolation based nowcast model and a numerical weather prediction model. The models are applied...... performance of the system is found using the radar nowcast for the short leadtimes and weather model for larger lead times....... as input to an urban runoff model predicting the inlet flow to a waste water treatment plant. The modelled flows are auto-calibrated against real time flow observations in order to certify the best possible forecast. Results show that it is possible to forecast flows with a lead time of 24 hours. The best...

  16. Structural genomics on membrane proteins: comparison of more than 100 GPCRs in 3 expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth; Wagner, Renaud; Reinhart, Christoph; Desmyter, Aline; Cherouati, Nadia; Magnin, Thierry; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Courtot, Melanie; Prual, Cécile; André, Nicolas; Hassaine, Gherici; Michel, Hartmut; Cambillau, Christian; Pattus, Franc

    2006-06-01

    Production of recombinant receptors has been one of the major bottlenecks in structural biology on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The MePNet (Membrane Protein Network) was established to overexpress a large number of GPCRs in three major expression systems, based on Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors. Evaluation by immunodetection demonstrated that 50% of a total of 103 GPCRs were expressed in bacterial inclusion bodies, 94% in yeast cell membranes and 95% in SFV-infected mammalian cells. The expression levels varied from low to high and the various GPCR families and subtypes were analyzed for their expressability in each expression system. More than 60% of the GPCRs were expressed at milligram levels or higher in one or several systems, compatible to structural biology applications. Functional activity was determined by binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells and the correlation between immunodetection and binding activity was analyzed.

  17. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH KDD DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaraju

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems are challenging task for finding the user as normal user or attack user in any organizational information systems or IT Industry. The Intrusion Detection System is an effective method to deal with the kinds of problem in networks. Different classifiers are used to detect the different kinds of attacks in networks. In this paper, the performance of intrusion detection is compared with various neural network classifiers. In the proposed research the four types of classifiers used are Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN. The performance of the full featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset is compared with that of the reduced featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset. The MATLAB software is used to train and test the dataset and the efficiency and False Alarm Rate is measured. It is proved that the reduced dataset is performing better than the full featured dataset.

  18. Comparison of the fate and toxicity of chlorpyrifos--laboratory versus a coastal mesocosm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo, F; Krassoi, F R; Jones, P R F; Colville, A E; Hose, G C; Lim, R P

    2008-09-01

    The widespread use of chlorpyrifos for pest control in urban and rural environments poses a risk of contamination to aquatic environments via runoff, spray drift or spillage. The aim of this study was to assess the fate of chlorpyrifos and its toxicity to common freshwater invertebrates in the laboratory and in stream mesocosms. Chlorpyrifos was rapidly lost from the test systems but the rates of loss varied considerably, such that losses in the mesocosms could not be reliably predicted from the static laboratory studies. This was likely due to the mass transport of chlorpyrifos from the mesocosm via stream flow. Chlorpyrifos was acutely toxic to all invertebrates tested with the cladoceran species (laboratory 48h LC(50) values 0.07-0.10 microg L(-1)) being most sensitive. Despite the differences in the dynamics of chlorpyrifos in the laboratory and mesocosm systems, the sensitivities of the mayfly Atalophlebia australis and the cladoceran Simocephalus vetulus were similar in the 2 systems.

  19. Exergy analysis of hypersonic propulsion systems: Performance comparison of two different scramjet configurations at cruise conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amati, V.; Bruno, C.; Simone, D.; Sciubba, E. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Roma 1 ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    An exergy analysis of an advanced hypersonic vehicle, a scramjet, is presented and discussed with a twofold scope. First, to perfect the exergy approach to the design and optimization of aerospace propulsion systems: the exergy flow diagram can provide aircraft engineers and system designers with additional insight on the avoidable and unavoidable systemic losses, thus allowing for effective design improvements. Second, to explore limits and merits of two different fuelling solutions for a scramjet-powered aircraft. Two configurations are critically compared: one with a direct H{sub 2} injection and one with an on-board kerosene reformer. The present study treats the scramjet-propelled plane as a Large Complex Energy System ('LCES'), and applies system balances (mass, energy, exergy) to calculate the relevant losses. The exergy analysis confirms that the introduction of an on-board reformer is advantageous from the point of view of the thrust efficiency (with a gain of 3 percentage points with respect to the H{sub 2}-fuelled engine) and, more importantly, from the point of view of a more correct use of the available resources (the fuel in the tanks). Another advantage of the on-board reforming is that the higher value of the volumetric-specific impulse allows for reducing the fuel tank size. All calculations have been performed with CAMEL {sup registered}, a modular simulator for energy conversion processes conceived and developed in the last decade by the Authors' group at the Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department of the University of Roma 1 'La Sapienza'. Some additional component models have been studied and implemented, and a specific tool dedicated to the analysis of propulsion systems has been created and integrated in the simulation package. (author)

  20. GFDM performance in terms of BER, PAPR and OOB and comparison to OFDM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antapurkar, Shwetal K., E-mail: h2014077@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Pandey, Avinash, E-mail: h2014083@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [P G student, Dept. of EEE, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, India-333031 (India); Gupta, K. K., E-mail: kgupta@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Asst Prof, Dept. of EEE, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, India-333031 (India)

    2016-03-09

    Generalized frequency division multiplexing is a multicarrier modulation technique which can be foreseen as a potential alternative for upcoming wireless networks. GFDM attractive features include reduced out-of-band radiation(OOB) and low peak-to-average ratio(PAPR), which are the crucial shortcomings of OFDM used in present day wireless communication networks. This paper gives detailed description of GFDM system model and further studies and validates through simulations, the performance of GFDM in terms of OOB, PAPR and Bit Error Rate (BER) and compares the results obtained with OFDM system.

  1. A comparison of national economic diplomacy systems of the leading European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article provides a comparative analysis of the leading EU-countries’ (Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy national economic diplomacy systems in line with the following criteria: role and functions of key economic diplomacy agents; competences of subnational regions as independent foreign economic actors; practice and mechanisms of ‘inward’ and ‘outward’ economic diplomacy (attraction of foreign investments and export promotion respectively; HR-policy as well as the role of country leaders in economic diplomacy measures. The author outlines the country-specifi c features of the aforementioned systems alongside treats common to all of them.

  2. Comparison of Conventional Closed-Loop Controller with an Adaptive Controller for a Disturbed Thermodynamic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alphinas, Robert A.; Hansen, Hans Henrik; Tambo, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Non-adaptive proportional controllers suffer from the ability to handle a system disturbance leading to a large steady-state error and undesired transient behavior. On the other hand, they are easy to implement and tune. This article examines whether an adaptive controller based on the MIT...... and Lyapunov principle leads to a more robust and accurate regulation. Both controllers have been tested on a thermodynamic system exposed to a disturbance. The experiment shows that the adaptive controller handles the disturbance faster and more accurate....

  3. Performance comparison of iterative algorithms for generating digital correlation holograms used in optical security systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookasis, David; Batikoff, Amit; Famini, Hagay; Rosen, Joseph

    2006-07-01

    An optical security system based on a correlation between two separate binary computer-generated holograms has been developed and experimentally tested. The two holograms are designed using two different iterative algorithms: the projection- onto constrained sets algorithm and the direct binary search (DBS) algorithm. By placing the ready-to-use holograms on a modified joint transform correlator input plane, an output image is constructed as a result of a spatial correlation between the two functions coded by the holograms. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the system's performance. While we concentrate mainly on the DBS algorithm, we also compare the performance of both algorithms.

  4. Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam for SOFC micro-CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Olesen, Anders Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to describe in qualitative and quantitative form the performance of a micro Combined Heat and Power system for residential application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fueled by natural gas with two different types of pre-reforming systems, namely Steam Reforming...... and Partial Oxidation and recirculation of anode and cathode gas. The comparative analysis among the different configurations will lead us to conclude that maximum efficiency is achieved when cathode and anode gas recirculation are used along with steam methane reforming. Further Steam Methane Reforming...

  5. Inter-laboratory comparison of three earplug fit-test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, David C; Murphy, William J; Krieg, Edward F; Ghent, Robert M; Michael, Kevin L; Stefanson, Earl W; Ahroon, William A

    2017-04-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored tests of three earplug fit-test systems (NIOSH HPD Well-Fit, Michael & Associates FitCheck, and Honeywell Safety Products VeriPRO). Each system was compared to laboratory-based real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) measurements in a sound field according to ANSI/ASA S12.6-2008 at the NIOSH, Honeywell Safety Products, and Michael & Associates testing laboratories. An identical study was conducted independently at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), which provided their data for inclusion in this article. The Howard Leight Airsoft premolded earplug was tested with twenty subjects at each of the four participating laboratories. The occluded fit of the earplug was maintained during testing with a soundfield-based laboratory REAT system as well as all three headphone-based fit-test systems. The Michael & Associates lab had the highest average A-weighted attenuations and smallest standard deviations. The NIOSH lab had the lowest average attenuations and the largest standard deviations. Differences in octave-band attenuations between each fit-test system and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) sound field method were calculated (Attenfit-test - AttenANSI). A-weighted attenuations measured with FitCheck and HPD Well-Fit systems demonstrated approximately ±2 dB agreement with the ANSI sound field method, but A-weighted attenuations measured with the VeriPRO system underestimated the ANSI laboratory attenuations. For each of the fit-test systems, the average A-weighted attenuation across the four laboratories was not significantly greater than the average of the ANSI sound field method. Standard deviations for residual attenuation differences were about ±2 dB for FitCheck and HPD Well-Fit compared to ±4 dB for VeriPRO. Individual labs exhibited a range of agreement from less than a dB to as much as 9.4 dB difference with ANSI and REAT estimates. Factors such

  6. In Vitro Spine Testing Using a Robot-Based Testing System: Comparison of Displacement Control and “Hybrid Control”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kevin M.; Hartman, Robert A.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Kang, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The two leading control algorithms for in-vitro spine biomechanical testing—“load control” and “displacement control”— are limited in their lack of adaptation to changes in the load-displacement response of a spine specimen—pointing to the need for sufficiently sophisticated control algorithms that are able to govern the application of loads/motions to a spine specimen in a more realistic, adaptive manner. A robotics-based spine testing system was programmed with a novel hybrid control algorithm combining “load control” and “displacement control” into a single, robust algorithm. Prior to in-vitro cadaveric testing, preliminary testing of the new algorithm was performed using a rigid-body-spring model with known structural properties. The present study also offers a direct comparison between “hybrid control” and “displacement control”. The hybrid control algorithm enabled the robotics-based spine testing system to apply pure moments to an FSU (in flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation) in an unconstrained manner through active control of secondary translational/rotational degrees-of-freedom—successfully minimizing coupled forces/moments. The characteristic nonlinear S-shaped curves of the primary moment-rotation responses were consistent with previous reports of the FSU having a region of low stiffness (neutral zone) bounded by regions of increasing stiffness (elastic zone). Direct comparison of “displacement control” and “hybrid control” showed that hybrid control was able to actively minimize off-axis forces and resulted in larger neutral zone and range of motion. PMID:23702044

  7. Preclinical evaluation of an MR-compatible microwave ablation system and comparison with a standard microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Rempp, Hansjörg

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of a newly developed MR-compatible microwave ablation system with focus on ablation performance and comparison with a corresponding standard microwave ablation system. A total of 52 ablations were performed with a non-cooled microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model using the following settings: [A] 16G-standard antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [B] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [C] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable; and [D] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 4 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable. Ablation durations were 3, 5 and 10 min, and additionally 15 min for [D]. Ablations zones were measured for short-axis diameter (SA) and long-axis diameter (LA). Settings [A]-[C] were compared regarding SA, volume (V) and generator energy output (E) with analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. Ablation performance of the MR-compatible settings [C] and [D] were compared regarding SA, V, E and sphericity index (SA/LA) with unpaired t-test. p standard system.

  8. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Tarim and central Asian FSU basins, II: Differences in hydrocarbon systems and possible explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shangyou, N.; Heubeck, C. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    If the Tertiary crustal shortening and indentation in the Pamirs is restored palinspastically, it would be evident that the Central Asian basins in the FSU (including Amu Darya, Tajik, Fergana, and Syr Darya) in the west and the Tarim basin in the cast probably shared many similarities in their geological history after becoming part of the Eurasia continent in the Late Paleozoic. For example, both areas contain significant amounts of coal-bearing Jurassic sequences, and a marine connection no doubt existed between the two during the maximum marine transgression period of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. A direct comparison is more difficult for the Paleozoic sequences because in the Central Asia basins, they are either buried too deeply or highly metamorphosed in the outcrops. It is interesting to note that these basins exhibit vast differences in the age and type of source and reservoir rocks. For the Tarim basin, most of the source rocks are Paleozoic (Ordovician and Carboniferous) and marine in nature, whereas in the Central Asian basins, the dominant source rocks are Jurassic and younger and include both marine and non-marine sequences. Similarly for the reservoir rocks, most of the hydrocarbons found in the Tarim basin is from the Paleozoic, (such as Devonian and Carboniferous clastics/carbonates), whereas in Amu Darya and Fergana basins, the reservoir rocks are dominated by Jurassic carbonates and Paleogene clastics respectively. This presentation will highlight these differences and address the probable causes mainly from the view points of tectonics and paleogeography. We conclude that the dominant effect is the Early Tertiary India-Asia collision, which caused significant differences in the distribution and thickness of the post-collisional clastic sediments, which in turn resulted in different maturation and migration history.

  10. Comparison of Tarim and central Asian FSU basins, II: Differences in hydrocarbon systems and possible explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shangyou, N.; Heubeck, C. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    If the Tertiary crustal shortening and indentation in the Pamirs is restored palinspastically, it would be evident that the Central Asian basins in the FSU (including Amu Darya, Tajik, Fergana, and Syr Darya) in the west and the Tarim basin in the cast probably shared many similarities in their geological history after becoming part of the Eurasia continent in the Late Paleozoic. For example, both areas contain significant amounts of coal-bearing Jurassic sequences, and a marine connection no doubt existed between the two during the maximum marine transgression period of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. A direct comparison is more difficult for the Paleozoic sequences because in the Central Asia basins, they are either buried too deeply or highly metamorphosed in the outcrops. It is interesting to note that these basins exhibit vast differences in the age and type of source and reservoir rocks. For the Tarim basin, most of the source rocks are Paleozoic (Ordovician and Carboniferous) and marine in nature, whereas in the Central Asian basins, the dominant source rocks are Jurassic and younger and include both marine and non-marine sequences. Similarly for the reservoir rocks, most of the hydrocarbons found in the Tarim basin is from the Paleozoic, (such as Devonian and Carboniferous clastics/carbonates), whereas in Amu Darya and Fergana basins, the reservoir rocks are dominated by Jurassic carbonates and Paleogene clastics respectively. This presentation will highlight these differences and address the probable causes mainly from the view points of tectonics and paleogeography. We conclude that the dominant effect is the Early Tertiary India-Asia collision, which caused significant differences in the distribution and thickness of the post-collisional clastic sediments, which in turn resulted in different maturation and migration history.

  11. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all indirect

  12. Comparison of H-infinity control and generalized predictive control for a laser scanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordys, A.W.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Smillie, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tests performed on a laser scanner system to assess the feasibility of H-infinity control and generalized predictive control design techniques in achieving a required performance in a trajectory folowing problem. The two methods are compared with respect to achieved scan times...

  13. A Comparison of Moisture Variables in the Vertical Interpolations of a 4-D Assimilation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-11

    HIRAS. 8 Unlike the NMC 01 analysis, which 8. Wilfong, T., Stobie, J., Renninger, L., Lewis, M., Lewis, F., Carr, E., Weiner, A., and Tuell , J. (1984...Weiner, A., and Tuell , J. (1984) The Air Force Global Weather Central’s high resolution analysis system. Preprints, Sixth Conf. on Numerical Weather

  14. Whistling of a pipe system with multiple side branches: comparison with corrugated pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonon, D.; Landry, B.J.T.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Willems, J.F.H.; Hofmans, G.C.J.; Hirschberg, A.

    2010-01-01

    Corrugated pipes are widely used because they combine local rigidity with global flexibility. Whistling induced by flow through such pipes can lead to serious environmental and structural problems. The whistling of a multiple side branch system is compared to the whistling behavior of corrugated

  15. The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria revisited : a genomic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Bayjanov, J.; Renckens, B.A.M.; Nauta, A.; Siezen, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of gram-positive, lactic acid producing Firmicutes. They have been extensively used in food fermentations, including the production of various dairy products. The proteolytic system of LAB converts proteins to peptides and then to amino acids, which

  16. The comparison of milk production and quality in cows from conventional and automatic milking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Touov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different types of milking systems (conventional parlour vs. automatic milking system and the season of the year on the composition and hygienic quality of milk from Czech Fleckvieh cows. A total of 500 cows were involved; 200 and 300 in conventional and automatic milking systems, respectively. Bulk milk samples were collected for 12 months from July 2010 to June 2011. The following milk components and quality indicators were determined: % of fat, % of protein, % of lactose, % of fat-free dry matter (FFDM, % of casein, urea content, somatic cell count (SSC, total germ count (TGC and milk freezing point (FP. The data were processed and evaluated with MS Excel and the statistical software SAS 9.1. Significantly higher (P<0.05 0.01 contents of fat, protein, FFDM and casein and increased TGC were observed in the automatic milking system, whereas SCC and FP were significantly lower (P<0.01. The highest contents of fat, protein and casein, and the lowest lactose content were found in the winter season. The highest contents of FFDM, urea and SCC were observed in autumn, whereas TGC was highest in summer (P<0.05 0.01. Only FP was not influenced by the season.

  17. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced fo...

  18. [Continuous speech recognition system for radiological reporting: comparison with experience of dictation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Koizumi, Jun; Takahara, Taro; Myojin, Kazunori; Yamashita, Eiko; Nasu, Seiji; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Imai, Yutaka; Tsukune, Yoshihiko

    2005-10-01

    To compare rates of accuracy of recognition between experienced dictators and inexperienced ones in using an enrollment-less continuous speech recognition (CSR) system of radiological reporting, and to evaluate the usefulness of the system. Twenty board-certified radiologists were classified into 2 groups: a group of 10 members with more than 6 years' experience of conventional dictation by transcriptionist (group A) and a group of 10 members with no experience of dictation (group B). All radiologists created fresh radiological reports on sets of images using free-style dictation in the reports. We counted errors and total words in the reports individually, and compared the rates of accuracy of word recognition in the two groups. We used a CSR system AmiVoice (Advanced Media, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). The average rate of accuracy of word recognition was 96.42 +/- 1.68% in group A and 95.92 +/- 1.15% in group B. There was no significant difference in accuracy rate between the two groups. The accuracy of word recognition was independent of the experience of dictation, and the enrollment-less CSR system of radiological reporting was considered convenient and useful.

  19. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  20. Comparison of five cone beam computed tomography systems for the detection of vertical root fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, B.; Metska, M.E.; Ozok, A.R.; van der Stelt, P.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study compared the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans made by five different systems in detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs). It also assessed the influence of the presence of root canal filling (RCF), CBCT slice orientation selection, and the type of tooth

  1. Comparison of the Public Procurement System in Romania and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Bogdan Petrișor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at a comparative study in the EU, mainly focusing on the analysis of the United Kingdom and Romania on procurement systems. One of the points made is that the European Union is trying an upgrade and revision of the regulations on public procurement, thus trying to promote quality and innovation in this area.

  2. Comparison of work of breathing using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic breathing systems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G T; McEwen, J P J; Beaton, S J; Young, D

    2007-04-01

    We compared the work of breathing under general anaesthesia in children using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic systems. A pilot study was conducted in four children weighing > 20 kg in whom it would usually be considered appropriate to use breathing systems designed for adult anaesthesia. The pilot study compared work of breathing using the Mapleson D breathing system and the Triservice Anaesthetic Apparatus (TSAA). Work of breathing was calculated using the modified Campbell technique that calculates work using a pressure volume loop derived from oesophageal pressure and airway gas volume measurements. We found no difference in the work of breathing when comparing the Mapleson D and the TSAA in children > 20 kg. Following completion of the pilot study, we conducted a study on 10 children weighing between 10 and 20 kg comparing work of breathing using the Mapleson F breathing system and the TSAA. We found no significant difference in the work of breathing between the Mapleson F and the TSAA for these children. The TSAA can therefore be recommended for use down to a lower weight limit of 10 kg.

  3. A Comparison of Organization-Centered and Agent-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    on the organizational model Moise+, which is combined with Jason in the middleware called J-Moise+. We have investigated whether taking the organization-oriented approach had any clear advantages to the classical way of implementing multi-agent systems. Although not decisive the investigation did indicate...

  4. Comparison of different computer models of the neural control system of the lower urinary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, F.; Rosier, P. F.; Bemelmans, B. L.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; van Oosterom, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a series of five models that were formulated for describing the neural control of the lower urinary tract in humans. A parsimonious formulation of the effect of the sympathetic system, the pre-optic area, and urethral afferents on the simulated behavior are included. In spite of

  5. Nutritional assessment of pregnant adolescents: comparison of two popular classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Janaina de Fátima Ávila; Vasconcelos, Guilherme Miranda; Torloni, Maria Regina; Fisberg, Mauro; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Guazzelli, Cristina Aparecida Falbo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of concordance between two popular classification systems [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2000 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-2009] used to categorise the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 327 pregnant adolescents (10-19 years) booking for antenatal care at a single public maternity in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified into one of four categories, by both systems according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index and age. The CDC-2000 system classified significantly fewer pregnant adolescents as underweight (3.7% vs. 12.5%, P pregnant adolescent would be classified in a non-corresponding category if the IOM-2009 classification was used instead of the CDC-2000 classification. The IOM-2009 nutritional classification, which does not take into account age and gender, tends to overestimate the proportion of underweight adolescents, especially in the younger-age group. The use of this classification system can lead to recommendations of higher gestational weight gain in a substantial proportion of pregnant adolescents, which could predispose to post-partum weight retention and future obesity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Report on RUNE’s coastal experiment and first inter-comparisons between measurements systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    to estimate the near-shore wind resource. In this report we document all information regarding the measurement systems and the coastal campaign. The wind speed is estimated from radial velocities measured by a lidar in sector-scanning mode, from two lidars performing dual-overlapping scans and from five...

  7. Loss comparison of different nine-switch and twelve-switch energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Loh, Poh Chiang; Qin, Zian

    2014-01-01

    with an answer only available after performing a thorough analysis. For that, it is the intention now to compare the nine-switch and twelve-switch converters when they are used in ac-ac, ac-dc, dc-ac or dc-dc energy conversion systems. Their losses will be compared to identify when the nine-switch converter...

  8. Capturing the Family Context of Emotion Regulation: A Family Systems Model Comparison Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Several dimensions of family functioning are recognized as formative influences on children's emotion regulation. Historically, they have been studied separately, limiting our ability to understand how they function within the family system. The present investigation tested models including family emotional climate, interparental conflict, and…

  9. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.M.A. de; Meijer, A.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Donker, G.A.; Koppeschaar, C.E.; Hooiveld, M.; Ruigrok, N.; Hoek, W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For

  10. A Conceptual Critique of the EA:es Comparison in the Comprehensive Rorschach System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiger, James H.; Exner, John E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The EA:es index (part of the Comprehensive Rorschach System) is discussed, demonstrating how conceptual difficulties and abstract jargon can result in misleading and contradictory inferences. The comments of J. E. Exner, Jr., and the response of J. H. Kleiger concern the importance of theory in Rorschach interpretation. (SLD)

  11. Satellite guidance systems in agriculture: experimental comparison between EZ-Steer/RTK and AUTOPILOT/EGNOS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D’Antonio, P; D’Antonio, C; Evangelista, C; Doddato, V

    2013-01-01

    ...: the EZ-Steer/RTK and Autopilot/EGNOS. The machines used in the tests were the tractor New Holland T7060, the rotary harrow Alpego DG-400 and the burier Forigo DG-45, in order to determine which of the two systems ensured the best quality of work...

  12. Comparison of various liquid-phase systems with respect to heat requirements and temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hartmann, G.

    1942-05-22

    The differences that should be kept in mind between the conditions prevailing in 10-liter experimental apparatus for coal hydrogenation and those in the full-scale production units are detailed so that no mistakes would be made in running the production units according to information gained in experiments. One of the major differences was that the proportion of heat brought into the system which was lost by radiation away from the system varied greatly depending on the relative size of the system; thus in the smaller experimental system, the heat brought in by the reactants plus the heat generated in the exothermic reaction was not sufficient to cover radiation losses and keep the temperature up to keep the reaction going, so the oven itself had to be heated from outside; whereas in the full-scale apparatus the oven could not be heated from outside, so all necessary heat had to be brought in with the reactants or generated in the oven (however, in fact usually cool gas had to be added to the full-scale oven to keep the temperature down to the proper level). In order to try to approximate more closely other actual production situations in the experiment, several adjustments were made in experimental procedure. Some of these involved using a lower temperature in the reaction oven than did full-scale operation and using relatively smaller amounts of gas per volume of coal paste to compensate for the better mixing of reactants in the experimental apparatus. 2 graphs.

  13. A comparison of different rubber dam systems on a dental simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Martin; Sustova, Zdenka; Ivancakova, Romana; Suchanek, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that more recently developed rubber dam systems (OptraDam ® Plus and OptiDam™) are faster and easier to handle, and that the quality of isolation is not decreased. The rubber dam systems were applied in standard conditions on a dental simulator in several model clinical situations. The time of preparation, application and removal were measured and the quality of isolation was evaluated. The median time of rubber dam placement was 51 s (Q1 = 38 s; Q3 = 79 s). The shortest median time of application was with OptiDam™ (42 s), followed by a conventional rubber dam (53 s), and finally the longest was with OptraDam® Plus (58 s). The median volume of fluid remaining in the isolated space after 5 minutes was 9.5 mL (Q1 = 8 mL; Q3 = 10 mL). The largest median volume of remaining water was with OptiDam™ (10 mL), followed by a conventional rubber dam (9.5 mL) and the least with OptraDam® Plus (8.5 mL). The afore-stated hypothesis about the advantages of modern rubber dam isolation systems was accepted for OptiDam™, but rejected for OptraDam® Plus. The results could contribute to decision-making concerning the choice of rubber dam system.

  14. COMPARISON OF RUNOFF AND SOIL EROSION FROM NO-TILL AND INVERSION TILLAGE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage systems that prevent soil erosion and maintain or increase soil carbon offer long-term benefits for producers in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) USA. Our objective was to compare conventional tillage and no-till for runoff and soil erosion. Two neighboring drainages in the 13...

  15. Comparison of PSDA and CCA detection methods in a SSVEP-based BCI-system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, Gido; Reuderink, B.; Obbink, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Using steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is the subject of a lot of research. One of the most popular and widely used detection method is using a power spectral density analysis (PSDA). Lately there have been some new methods emerging, one of

  16. Comparison of soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage, no-tillage and old field systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, A Y; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) sorghum and adjacent old field (OF) were compared using pitfall trap captures. Total numbers of individuals and species, overall diversity (anti H), richness (D), evenness (J'), dominance (C) and similarity quotients (QS) between systems were calculated for each of seven 24 hour sampling periods throughout the season. Although each system was distinct (any two of the systems had less than 30 percent of their species in common), NT was most similar to OF and least similar to CT during a period of stress (drought) and after heading of the sorghum. Percentages of individuals and species represented by spiders were similar in NT and OF; percentages were substantially less in CT. Yields (biomass of sorghum) in CT and NT were not significantly different despite the generally predicted higher pest populations in NT. Results suggest that insecticide stress may lower the stability of NT systems, thus allowing an increase in pest species.

  17. Comparison of biofilm cell quantification methods for drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Sharon A; Packman, Aaron I; Hausner, Martina

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water quality typically degrades after treatment during conveyance through the distribution system. Potential causes include biofilm growth in distribution pipes which may result in pathogen retention, inhibited disinfectant diffusion, and proliferation of bad tastes and odors. However, there is no standard method for direct measurement of biofilms or quantification of biofilm cells in drinking water distribution systems. Three methods are compared here for quantification of biofilm cells grown in pipe loops samplers: biofilm heterotrophic plate count (HPC), biofilm biovolume by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and biofilm total cell count by flow cytometry (FCM) paired with Syto 9. Both biofilm biovolume by CLSM and biofilm total cell count by FCM were evaluated for quantification of the whole biofilms (including non-viable cells and viable but not culturable cells). Signal-to-background ratios and overall performance of biofilm biovolume by CLSM and biofilm total cell count by FCM were found to vary with the pipe material. Biofilm total cell count by FCM had a low signal-to-background ratio on all materials, indicating that further development is recommended before application in drinking water environments. Biofilm biovolume by CLSM showed the highest signal-to-background ratio for cement and cast iron, which suggests promise for wider application in full-scale systems. Biofilm biovolume by CLSM and Syto 9 staining allowed in-situ biofilm cell quantification thus elimination variable associated with cell detachment for quantification but had limitations associated with non-specific staining of cement and, to a lesser degree, auto-fluorescence of both cement and polyvinyl chloride materials. Due to variability in results obtained from each method, multiple methods are recommended to assess biofilm growth in drinking water distribution systems. Of the methods investigated here, HPC and CLSM and recommended for further development towards

  18. Comparison of mandibular movements in TMD by means of a 3D ultrasonic system and digital caliper rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetto, Marcelo Oliveira; Anacleto, Mateus Aparecido; Rodrigues, Carolina Almeida; Bragança, Rafaella Mariana Fontes; Paiva, Guiovaldo; Valencise Magri, Laís

    2017-01-01

    To compare the amplitude of mandibular movement measurements obtained by two different methods: the ultrasound JAM system and digital caliper rule in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) vs. Sixty individuals, without distinction between sex and age were evaluated: 30 with diagnosis of TMD (RDC/TMD) and 30 controls. Mandibular movements of opening, protrusion, and left and right laterality were measured by means of two Instruments: Digital caliper rule and 3D ultrasonic Jaw Motion Analyzer (JMA-Zebris Medizintechnik, Isny/Allgäu, Germany). Data obtained were analyzed by descriptive analysis and compared by parametric statistics (Student's t-test), adopting a 5% level of significance. When comparing the digital caliper rule with JMA, no significant differences were found for any of the movements evaluated (p > 0.05). In the comparison between groups, a difference was found in protrusion for both instruments used: JMA (p = 0.004) and digital caliper rule (p = 0.003), with the TMD group presenting reduced movement of protrusion when compared with the control group. This study found no differences in obtaining the amplitude of mandibular movements when using the digital caliper rule or JMA system; both methods are effective. However, the ultrasonic system allows other types of analyses to be performed, such as the trajectory and speed of movement. Among the mandibular movements analyzed, protrusion was shown to be more compromised and limited in TMDs.

  19. Comparison of the Standards applied to Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Stations in Korea and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Dong Young

    2005-04-15

    This report describes a comparison result of technical standards applied to instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants between in Korea and in Russia. Russia also has a state-run organization authorized to conduct approval, cancellation, and audit in use of nuclear facility or equipment. The Russian standards for nuclear instrumentation and control equipment are analogous with the Korean ones in the aspect of basic concepts and principles. However, there are some differences in document structure, design requirements, qualification test items, depth of contents between two standard systems. The biggest deviation exists in the standard documents for seismic qualification and electromagnetic interference qualification. Korean seismic qualification standard utilizing US approach, defines testing and qualification methods specifically and clearly. Russian standards however provide only conceptual definitions and requirements in the seismic related aspects. Therefore, it is conceived that any equipment or system qualified seismically in accordance with Korean standards should additionally provide technical evidence that it is satisfactory with Russian standards as well. In electromagnetic interference qualification, because Russian standard requires more testing items than the current Korean standard, the additional qualification tests are necessary to meet the Russian requirements. However, these additional test items are based on IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission), therefore it is not a problem to perform those tests in a Korean testing facility.

  20. A comparison of discrete versus continuous adjoint states to invert groundwater flow in heterogeneous dual porosity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Frederick; Badri, Hamid; Fahs, Marwan; Ackerer, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Dual porosity models become increasingly used for simulating groundwater flow at the large scale in fractured porous media. In this context, model inversions with the aim of retrieving the system heterogeneity are frequently faced with huge parameterizations for which descent methods of inversion with the assistance of adjoint state calculations are well suited. We compare the performance of discrete and continuous forms of adjoint states associated with the flow equations in a dual porosity system. The discrete form inherits from previous works by some of the authors, as the continuous form is completely new and here fully differentiated for handling all types of model parameters. Adjoint states assist descent methods by calculating the gradient components of the objective function, these being a key to good convergence of inverse solutions. Our comparison on the basis of synthetic exercises show that both discrete and continuous adjoint states can provide very similar solutions close to reference. For highly heterogeneous systems, the calculation grid of the continuous form cannot be too coarse, otherwise the method may show lack of convergence. This notwithstanding, the continuous adjoint state is the most versatile form as its non-intrusive character allows for plugging an inversion toolbox quasi-independent from the code employed for solving the forward problem.

  1. Reducing the risk of fatal and disabling hypoglycaemia: a comparison of arterial blood sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K A; Eapen, G; Turnbull, D

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) published a report after 42 incidents and two deaths where glucose-containing flush solutions were attached to the arterial line. The molar concentration of 5% glucose is 277 mmol litre(-1). Only a tiny amount of sample contamination will lead to an artificially high glucose. As the NPSA sought a solution, a bench model was constructed to compare the performance of three open and three closed arterial line systems in limiting sample contamination. All arterial line systems were set up in a standard manner and pressurized to 300 mm Hg with 5% glucose used as the flush solution. This was connected to the 'radial artery' using an 18 G needle representing the radial cannula. The radial artery was simulated using a wide-bore extension set with 'blood' flow at 60 ml min(-1). Blood was simulated by the addition of red dye to Hartmann's solution. Increasing multiples of arterial line dead space were aspirated and discarded. Blood samples were then obtained and glucose concentration was measured. Significant glucose contamination (3 mmol litre(-1) +/-3.4) was detected in all open arterial line systems up to an aspiration volume of five times the dead space. No samples from the closed systems recorded glucose concentration >1 mmol litre(-1). Recommended minimal discard volumes are inadequate in the presence of glucose as the flush solution and can lead to high blood glucose readings, inappropriate insulin use, and iatrogenic neuroglycopaenia. Our study demonstrates that the closed-loop arterial sampling system could be the universal solution sought by the NPSA.

  2. Comparison of the Accuracy and Speed of Transient Mobile A/C System Simulation Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, T.; Lustbader, J.

    2014-03-01

    The operation of air conditioning (A/C) systems is a significant contributor to the total amount of fuel used by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. Therefore, continued improvement of the efficiency of these mobile A/C systems is important. Numerical simulation has been used to reduce the system development time and to improve the electronic controls, but numerical models that include highly detailed physics run slower than desired for carrying out vehicle-focused drive cycle-based system optimization. Therefore, faster models are needed even if some accuracy is sacrificed. In this study, a validated model with highly detailed physics, the 'Fully-Detailed' model, and two models with different levels of simplification, the 'Quasi-Transient' and the 'Mapped- Component' models, are compared. The Quasi-Transient model applies some simplifications compared to the Fully-Detailed model to allow faster model execution speeds. The Mapped-Component model is similar to the Quasi-Transient model except instead of detailed flow and heat transfer calculations in the heat exchangers, it uses lookup tables created with the Quasi-Transient model. All three models are set up to represent the same physical A/C system and the same electronic controls. Speed and results of the three model versions are compared for steady state and transient operation. Steady state simulated data are also compared to measured data. The results show that the Quasi-Transient and Mapped-Component models ran much faster than the Fully-Detailed model, on the order of 10- and 100-fold, respectively. They also adequately approach the results of the Fully-Detailed model for steady-state operation, and for drive cycle-based efficiency predictions

  3. Development of the Astoria Canyon-Fan physiography and comparison with similar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Carlson, P.R.; Byrne, J.V.; Alpha, T.R.

    1970-01-01

    A detailed bathymetric study of Astoria Canyon and Astoria Fan provides a model for typical submarine canyon-fan systems. The present canyon head is 9 miles (17 km) west of the Columbia River mouth but buried Pleistocene channels appear to have connected the two features in the past. The canyon, which is distinguished by its relief, V-shaped profiles, and numerous tributaries, winds sinuously and is coincident with apparent structural trends across the continental shelf and slope. At the fan apex, the canyon mouth merges smoothly into Astoria Channel, which is characterized by its U-shaped profiles, lower walls of even height, and levee development. Astoria Channel and the fan valley at the base of the continental slope are the most recently active of a series of main fan valleys that appear to have: (1) progressively "hooked left"; (2) migrated from north to south across the fan during its formation; and (3) been partly responsible for the asymmetrical shape of the fan. The deep, narrow upper fan valleys that characterize the steep (> 1:100, or 0??35???) and rough (10-30 fathoms, or 18-55 m) upper fan surface break into distributaries on the middle fan, where there is the sharpest change in gradient. The main valleys become broader and shallower down the fan, while the generally concave fan surface grades to nearly a flat seafloor (to gradients Similarity of Astoria Canyon-Fan system with other deep-sea fan and alluvial fan systems, suggests the hypothesis that size of drainage basin, sediment size, and sediment load control the size, gradient, and valley development of any fan system. Data from bathymetry, seismic refraction stations, and sediment load of the Columbia River indicate that the cutting of Astoria Canyon and the deposition of the unconsolidated sediment layer forming Astoria Fan could have been accomplished during the Pleistocene. A similar history can be suggested for other major submarine canyon-fan systems. ?? 1970.

  4. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  5. Comparison of detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode digital tomosynthesis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwoo; Han, Minah; Baek, Jongduk

    2017-03-01

    Digital tomosynthesis system has been widely used in chest, dental, and breast imaging. Since the digital tomosynthesis system provides volumetric images from multiple projection data, structural noise inherent in X-ray radiograph can be reduced, and thus signal detection performance is improved. Currently, tomosynthesis system uses two data acquisition modes: step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. Several studies have been conducted to compare the system performance of two acquisition modes with respect to spatial resolution and contrast. In this work, we focus on signal detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. For evaluation, uniform background is considered, and eight spherical objects with diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 mm are used as signals. Projection data with and without spherical objects are acquired in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode, respectively, and quantum noise are added. Then, noisy projection data are reconstructed by FDK algorithm. To compare the detection performance of two acquisition modes, we calculate task signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels for each spherical object. While the task-SNR values of two acquisition modes are similar for spherical objects larger than 1 mm diameter, step-and-shoot mode yields higher detectability for small signal sizes. The main reason of this behavior is that small signal is more affected by X-ray tube motion blur than large signal. Our results indicate that it is beneficial to use step-and-shoot data acquisition mode to improve the detectability of small signals (i.e., less than 1 mm diameter) in digital tomosynthesis systems.

  6. Establishment of a general NAFLD scoring system for rodent models and comparison to human liver pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen; Menke, Aswin L; Driessen, Ann; Koek, Ger H; Lindeman, Jan H; Stoop, Reinout; Havekes, Louis M; Kleemann, Robert; van den Hoek, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed histological scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN) has been widely used in clinical settings, but is increasingly employed in preclinical research as well. However, it has not been systematically analyzed whether the human scoring system can directly be converted to preclinical rodent models. To analyze this, we systematically compared human NAFLD liver pathology, using human liver biopsies, with liver pathology of several NAFLD mouse models. Based upon the features pertaining to mouse NAFLD, we aimed at establishing a modified generic scoring system that is applicable to broad spectrum of rodent models. The histopathology of NAFLD was analyzed in several different mouse models of NAFLD to define generic criteria for histological assessment (preclinical scoring system). For validation of this scoring system, 36 slides of mouse livers, covering the whole spectrum of NAFLD, were blindly analyzed by ten observers. Additionally, the livers were blindly scored by one observer during two separate assessments longer than 3 months apart. The criteria macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis were generally applicable to rodent NAFLD. The inter-observer reproducibility (evaluated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) between the ten observers was high for the analysis of macrovesicular steatosis and microvesicular steatosis (ICC = 0.784 and 0.776, all p<0.001, respectively) and moderate for the analysis of hypertrophy and inflammation (ICC = 0.685 and 0.650, all p<0.001, respectively). The intra-observer reproducibility between the different observations of one observer was high for the analysis of macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis and hypertrophy (ICC = 0.871, 0.871 and 0.896, all p<0.001, respectively) and very high for the analysis of inflammation (ICC = 0.931, p<0.001). We

  7. Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

    2008-04-01

    A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and

  8. A comparison of approximation techniques for variance-based sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Goutsias, John

    2010-05-12

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for the analysis of complex systems. In a recent paper, we have introduced a thermodynamically consistent variance-based sensitivity analysis approach for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems under uncertainty in the standard chemical potentials of the activated complexes of the reactions and the standard chemical potentials of the molecular species. In that approach, key sensitivity indices were estimated by Monte Carlo sampling, which is computationally very demanding and impractical for large biochemical reaction systems. Computationally efficient algorithms are needed to make variance-based sensitivity analysis applicable to realistic cellular networks, modeled by biochemical reaction systems that consist of a large number of reactions and molecular species. We present four techniques, derivative approximation (DA), polynomial approximation (PA), Gauss-Hermite integration (GHI), and orthonormal Hermite approximation (OHA), for analytically approximating the variance-based sensitivity indices associated with a biochemical reaction system. By using a well-known model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade as a case study, we numerically compare the approximation quality of these techniques against traditional Monte Carlo sampling. Our results indicate that, although DA is computationally the most attractive technique, special care should be exercised when using it for sensitivity analysis, since it may only be accurate at low levels of uncertainty. On the other hand, PA, GHI, and OHA are computationally more demanding than DA but can work well at high levels of uncertainty. GHI results in a slightly better accuracy than PA, but it is more difficult to implement. OHA produces the most accurate approximation results and can be implemented in a straightforward manner. It turns out that the computational cost of the four approximation techniques considered in

  9. A comparison of approximation techniques for variance-based sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for the analysis of complex systems. In a recent paper, we have introduced a thermodynamically consistent variance-based sensitivity analysis approach for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems under uncertainty in the standard chemical potentials of the activated complexes of the reactions and the standard chemical potentials of the molecular species. In that approach, key sensitivity indices were estimated by Monte Carlo sampling, which is computationally very demanding and impractical for large biochemical reaction systems. Computationally efficient algorithms are needed to make variance-based sensitivity analysis applicable to realistic cellular networks, modeled by biochemical reaction systems that consist of a large number of reactions and molecular species. Results We present four techniques, derivative approximation (DA), polynomial approximation (PA), Gauss-Hermite integration (GHI), and orthonormal Hermite approximation (OHA), for analytically approximating the variance-based sensitivity indices associated with a biochemical reaction system. By using a well-known model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade as a case study, we numerically compare the approximation quality of these techniques against traditional Monte Carlo sampling. Our results indicate that, although DA is computationally the most attractive technique, special care should be exercised when using it for sensitivity analysis, since it may only be accurate at low levels of uncertainty. On the other hand, PA, GHI, and OHA are computationally more demanding than DA but can work well at high levels of uncertainty. GHI results in a slightly better accuracy than PA, but it is more difficult to implement. OHA produces the most accurate approximation results and can be implemented in a straightforward manner. It turns out that the computational cost of the four approximation

  10. Occurrence of medication errors and comparison of manual and computerized prescription systems in public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%-60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21-30 years (21%-24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber's signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%-19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and electronic

  11. Occurrence of medication errors and comparison of manual and computerized prescription systems in public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Riaz

    Full Text Available The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%-60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21-30 years (21%-24%. A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber's signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%-19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both

  12. Comparison of olive pomace and biowaste composts in a vegetable cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Morra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to study the growth and the yield responses of different vegetable crops to pomace compost and biowaste (source-separated municipal organic fraction compost and to the increase in their rates. A secondary aim was to assess the efficiency of nitrogen (N supplied to the crops by the compost rate integrated or not with N fertilisers. Finally, the ability of the two composts to improve the soil organic carbon content was also compared. The research was carried out from July 2009 to June 2011. A comparison was made of treatments resulting from the factorial combination of two composts, two rates of application, and two levels of nitrogen fertiliser. A non-fertilised control was also analysed and a standard mineral fertilisation completed the group of treatments. Cauliflower and potato were harvested after the first compost distribution, and onion and lettuce after the second. Our results indicated that the higher the quantity of olive pomace compost applied the greater the slow release of NO3–N for crop needs. This has to be related to the high carbon:nitrogen ratio of the olive pomace compost.The halved rate of N fertiliser added to compost was sufficient to overcome the competition between soil microorganisms and roots for nitrogen, only on the second crop in the annual sequence. The biowaste compost without N fertiliser integration also reduced crop yields, but this was to a lesser degree than that achieved with olive pomace compost and was independent of the rate applied. The halved rate of N fertiliser supplied was able to overcome the problems of nitrogen availability. As a consequence, the nitrogen utilisation efficiency showed a higher recovery of nitrogen from biowaste compost than from olive pomace compost, as well as from the 10 t ha–1 dose (rate 10 of dry matter than from the 20 t ha–1 dose. On the other hand, the soil organic carbon content increased significantly only when the composts were

  13. Mutation accumulation and fitness effects in hybridogenetic populations: a comparison to sexual and asexual systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri Homayoun C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female only unisexual vertebrates that reproduce by hybridogenesis show an unusual genetic composition. They are of hybrid origin but show no recombination between the genomes of their parental species. Instead, the paternal genome is discarded from the germline prior to meiosis, and gametes (eggs only contain solely unrecombined maternal genomes. Hence hybridogens only transmit maternally inherited mutations. Hybridity is restored each generation by backcrossing with males of the sexual parental species whose genome was eliminated. In contrast, recombining sexual species propagate an intermixed pool of mutations derived from the maternal and paternal parts of the genome. If mutation rates are lower in female gametes than males, it raises the possibility for lower mutation accumulation in a hybridogenetic population, and consequently, higher population fitness than its sexual counterpart. Results We show through Monte-Carlo simulations that at higher male to female mutation ratios, and sufficiently large population sizes, hybridogenetic populations can carry a lower mutation load than sexual species. This effect is more pronounced with synergistic forms of epistasis. Mutations accumulate faster on the sexual part of the genome, and with the purifying effects of epistasis, it makes it more difficult for mutations to be transmitted on the clonal part of the genome. In smaller populations, the same mechanism reduces the speed of Muller's Ratchet and the number of fixed mutations compared to similar asexual species. Conclusion Since mutation accumulation can be less pronounced in hybridogenetic populations, the question arises why hybridogenetic organisms are so scarce compared to sexual species. In considering this, it is likely that comparison of population fitnesses is not sufficient. Despite competition with the sexual parental species, hybrid populations are dependent on the maintenance of – and contact with – their

  14. Ridge systems of Caloris - Comparison with lunar basins. [evolution of surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. A.; Gifford, A. W.

    1980-01-01

    It has been found that the wrinkle ridge systems of the Caloris basin on Mercury display many of the traits which are characteristic of ridges in the mare-filled lunar multiring basins. The considered investigation is concerned with the ridge systems within the Caloris basin on Mercury, and implications for the origin of ridges within basins on both Mercury and the moon. The observed features are found to indicate that the early evolution of Caloris was similar to that of lunar mascon basins. The morphology of ridges within Caloris compares favorably with lunar ridges when viewed on similar resolution earth-based lunar photographs. Ridges in Caloris occur from 1000 to 1320 km diameter range, and are situated within the boundary delineated by topographic benches in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the basin. The orientation of Caloris ridges is more dominantly concentric than ridge orientations in lunar basins.

  15. Publishable Manuscript on Cross-cultural Comparison of Systems of Provision in the Food Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Rito, Ana

    The goal of this report is to analyse and compare cross-culturally systems of provision of food, e.g., retail structure, eating out (school lunches, restaurants, catering) in Europe (Task 7.3.4). The basic assumption is that a highly concentrated retail structure as well as children’s immediate...... food environments are overwhelmingly “obesogenic” and hence contribute to the obesity pandemic. The report starts with a general overview of the respective systems of food provision, namely the retail structures and the market environment in Europe and the I.Family countries in particular....... It then looks into families’ eating out and discusses the causes and consequences of out-of-home eating in schools, restaurants and other places. Wrapping up, the report then reviews policies for healthier out-of-home eating in general and addresses the school food environment in particular. We conclude...

  16. A Comparison Between The NORCAT Rover Test Results and the ISRU Excavation System Model Predictions Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Agui, Juan H.; Creager, Colin M.; Oravec, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technology Inc. rovers were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Simulated Lunar Operations facility. This testing was in support of the In-Situ Resource Utilization program Innovative Partnership Program. Testing occurred in soils developed at the Glenn Research Center which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. This testing is part of an ongoing correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model. The results from this series of tests compared reasonably with the predicted values from the code.

  17. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  18. Comparison of two temperature control techniques in a forced water heater solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; E Guzmán, R.; Santos, A.; Cordoba, E.

    2017-12-01

    a study on the performance of a forced solar heating system in which a comparative analysis of two control strategies, including the classic on-off control and PID control is presented. From the experimental results it was found that the two control strategies show a similar behaviour in the solar heating system forced an approximate settling time of 60 min and over-elongation 2°C for the two control strategies. Furthermore, the maximum temperature in the storage tank was 46°C and the maximum efficiency of flat plate collector was 76.7% given that this efficiency is the ratio of the energy of the radiation on the collector and the energy used to heat water. The efficiency obtained is a fact well accepted because the business efficiencies of flat plate collectors are approximately 70%.

  19. Reflections from the Jury Box: Improving Evidence Based Practice through a Comparison with Our Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Coppenrath

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: An experience serving jury duty prompted reflection on the parallels between evidenced based medicine and our legal system. Findings: The steps of the legal system can be tied to each step of the practice of evidenced based medicine. Implications: Patients should be included in evidence based decisions. Pharmacists can act as resources for other providers practicing evidenced based medicine. Educators can use this analogy to teach evidence based medicine. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Commentary

  20. Hemodynamic comparison of mild and severe preeclampsia: concept of stroke systemic vascular resistance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardo, J; Kiser, R; Dillon, A; Brost, B; Newman, R

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare baseline hemodynamic parameters of mild and severe preeclampsia. Patients admitted to the Medical University Labor and Delivery Unit with the diagnosis of preeclampsia who had not received prior antihypertensive or magnesium sulfate therapy were recruited for noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with thoracic electrical bioimpedance. After stabilization in the lateral recumbent position, hemodynamic monitoring was begun. Baseline hemodynamic parameters, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), and stroke index (SI) were recorded. Stroke systemic vascular resistance index (SSVRI), the resistance imposed by vasculature on each beat of the heart, was calculated for each patient by multiplying SVRI by HR. For statistical analysis, unpaired Student's t-tests (two-tailed) were utilized (P preclampsia appears to be a more intensely vasoconstricted state than mild preeclampsia. Although CI is inversely proportional to SVRI, increased HR in severe preeclampsia prevents this expected decrease in cardiac output.