WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrothermablator system comparison

  1. Comparison of imagine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, F. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Optometry and Radiography Department

    1997-12-01

    It is of great use to be able to accurately compare different film/screen systems. It allows informed decisions to be made as to the optimal choice of film and screens in regard to technical matters such as speed and resolution. Comparisons of these have not been easy, especially in the face of different terminology and specifications used by different manufacturers. A straight forward method is proposed, which requires only a line pair test tool, and the ability to produce scattergraphs. The relative efficiencies of different film/screen systems, incorporating orthochromatic and monochromatic elements are clearly portrayed. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Comparison of imagine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, F.

    1997-01-01

    It is of great use to be able to accurately compare different film/screen systems. It allows informed decisions to be made as to the optimal choice of film and screens in regard to technical matters such as speed and resolution. Comparisons of these have not been easy, especially in the face of different terminology and specifications used by different manufacturers. A straight forward method is proposed, which requires only a line pair test tool, and the ability to produce scattergraphs. The relative efficiencies of different film/screen systems, incorporating orthochromatic and monochromatic elements are clearly portrayed. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography

  3. Advanced nuclear systems in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Foskolos, K.; Goetzmann, C.; Kroeger, W.; Stanculescu, A.; Wydler, P.

    1996-09-01

    This study aims at a comparison of future reactor concepts, paying particular attention to aspects of safety, of the fuel cycle, the economics, the experience-base and the state of development. Representative examples of typical development lines, that could possibly be 'of interest' within a time horizon of 50 years were selected for comparison. This can be divided into three phases: - Phase I includes the next 10 years and will be characterised mainly by evolutionary developments of light water reactors (LWR) of large size; representative: EPR, - Phase II: i.e. the time between 2005 and 2020 approximately, encompasses the forecasted doubling of today's world-wide installed nuclear capacity; along with evolutionary reactors, innovative systems like AP600, PIUS, MHTGR, EFR will emerge, - Phase III covers the time between 2020 and 2050 and is characterised by the issue of sufficient fissile material resources; novel fast reactor systems including hybrid systems can, thus, become available; representatives: IFR, EA, ITER (the latter being). The evaluated concepts foresee partly different fuel cycles. Fission reactors can be operated in principle on the basis of either a Uranium-Plutonium-cycle or a Thorium-Uranium-cycle, while combinations of these cycles among them or with other reactor concepts than proposed are possible. With today's nuclear park (comprising mainly LWRs), the world-wide plutonium excess increases annually by about 100 t. Besides strategies based on reprocessing like: - recycling in thermal and fast reactors with mixed oxide fuels, - plutonium 'burning' in reactors with novel fuels without uranium or in 'hybrid' systems, allowing a reduction of this excess, direct disposal of spent fuel elements including their plutonium content ('one-through') is being considered. (author) figs., tabs., 32 refs

  4. A questionnaire comparison of two alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Steven G.

    1997-11-01

    A questionnaire was developed, based on guidelines for alarm system design given in NUREG/CR-6105. The intentions were both to develop a subjective instrument for rating the effectiveness of alarm systems and to learn lessons on alarm system design from a comparison of two systems. The questionnaire was administered to reactor operations staff at two locations with different alarm systems embedded in a simulation of the same underlying PWR power plant: Loviisa NPP and Halden Man-Machine Laboratory. The questionnaire, considered as a measuring instrument, had good to high reliability and moderate to good content validity. The questionnaire is considered suitable for further use in the shortened form resulting from this study. Further work is also recommended. The degree of reliability and validity also lend a degree of validation to the NUREG guidelines. The questionnaire was able to show differences between ratings of the two alarm systems. The Loviisa system showed more consistency with other control room features and was better at drawing the operators' attention to important alarms. Both systems were not rated particularly well on alarm prioritisation and spurious alarms. The Halden system was better at showing naturally occurring relationships between alarms. Some of these differences may have been due to the subjects' greater familiarity with the Loviisa alarm system. The results nevertheless show that the questionnaire can measure subjective responses to alarm systems. (author)

  5. Survey and comparison of automated UT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeley, V.I.; Avioli, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the past decade, the limitations of manual UT inspections have become more severe and adverse. Perhaps the best evidence of this has been the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWR). The onset of this problem clearly showed that better and more sophisticated UT inspection methods must be developed to assure the industry that an appropriate level of inspection integrity could be maintained. While automated UT inspection systems have been under development for some time, this event certainly spurred this activity and has resulted in a variety of commercial systems. The intent of this project, sponsored by EPRI, is to develop a utility engineer's 'Buyer guide' to automated UT systems. Comparison of different automated UT systems along with results of questionnaires on manual UT versus automated UT costs and effectiveness are reviewed. (author)

  6. Advanced nuclear systems in comparison; Fortgeschrittene nukleare Systeme im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Foskolos, K.; Goetzmann, C.; Kroeger, W.; Stanculescu, A.; Wydler, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    This study aims at a comparison of future reactor concepts, paying particular attention to aspects of safety, of the fuel cycle, the economics, the experience-base and the state of development. Representative examples of typical development lines, that could possibly be `of interest` within a time horizon of 50 years were selected for comparison. This can be divided into three phases: - Phase I includes the next 10 years and will be characterised mainly by evolutionary developments of light water reactors (LWR) of large size; representative: EPR, - Phase II: i.e. the time between 2005 and 2020 approximately, encompasses the forecasted doubling of today`s world-wide installed nuclear capacity; along with evolutionary reactors, innovative systems like AP600, PIUS, MHTGR, EFR will emerge, - Phase III covers the time between 2020 and 2050 and is characterised by the issue of sufficient fissile material resources; novel fast reactor systems including hybrid systems can, thus, become available; representatives: IFR, EA, ITER (the latter being). The evaluated concepts foresee partly different fuel cycles. Fission reactors can be operated in principle on the basis of either a Uranium-Plutonium-cycle or a Thorium-Uranium-cycle, while combinations of these cycles among them or with other reactor concepts than proposed are possible. With today`s nuclear park (comprising mainly LWRs), the world-wide plutonium excess increases annually by about 100 t. Besides strategies based on reprocessing like: - recycling in thermal and fast reactors with mixed oxide fuels, - plutonium `burning` in reactors with novel fuels without uranium or in `hybrid` systems, allowing a reduction of this excess, direct disposal of spent fuel elements including their plutonium content (`one-through`) is being considered. (author) figs., tabs., 32 refs.

  7. A Comparison of Air Force Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    a software cost model, SPQR . This model was chosen because it provides a straightforward means of modeling the enhancements as they V i VII-25 I would...estimated by SPQR (23,917) by $69 per hour for a total of $1,650,273. An additional 10 percent was added for generating or modifying the Middleware...equipment3 SLOC source lines of code SPO System Program Office SPQR System Product Quality Reporting SSC Standard Systems Center SSI system-to-system

  8. Energy efficiency comparison between geothermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal water which can be considered for generating electricity with the temperature ranging from 80℃ to 150℃ in China because of shortage of electricity and fossil energy. There are four basic types of geothermal power systems: single flash, double flash, binary cycle, and flash-binary system, which can be adapted to geothermal energy utilization in China. The paper discussed the performance indices and applicable conditions of different power system. Based on physical and mathematical models, simulation result shows that, when geofluid temperature ranges from 100℃ to 130℃, the net power output of double flash power is bigger than flash-binary system. When the geothermal resource temperature is between 130℃ and 150℃, the net power output of flash-binary geothermal power system is higher than double flash system by the maximum value 5.5%. However, the sum water steam amount of double flash power system is 2 to 3 times larger than flash-binary power system, which will cause the bigger volume of equipment of power system. Based on the economy and power capacity, it is better to use flash-binary power system when the geofluid temperature is between 100℃ and 150℃.

  9. Off-line programming (OLP) system comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Off-line programming (OLP) systems are being used to conceptualize, design, simulate, and now control automated robotic workcells. Currently available systems by Deneb, SILMA, and Cimetrix are being used at the Lawrenece Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate and control automated robotic systems for radioactive material processing and hazardous waste sorting. The differences in system architectures, workcell and robot calibration procedures, operator interface, and graphical output capability of each will be discussed. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these attributes will be discussed as they relate to varying applications in robotic workcell development and control

  10. Analysis and comparison of transportation security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1976-05-01

    The role of modeling in the analysis of transportation security systems is described. Various modeling approaches are outlined. The conflict model developed in Sandia Laboratories' Transportation Mode Analysis for the NRC Special Safeguards Study is used to demonstrate the capability of models to determine system sensitivities and compare alternatives

  11. Comparison of cloud customer relationship management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Remic, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In the theses it will be shown how cloud computing looks like. Customer relationship management (CRM) system consisting of four types will be described. All types will be represented by their most important properties and what type would be important for which company. Relationships between customers and companies are very important because of long-lasting cooperation between them and regular income. It is interesting how a company operates without CRM system and how a company that uses it da...

  12. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...... in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser...

  13. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  14. Free and Licensed Operating Systems: Direct Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Hagman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When developers comparing open with proprietary code, which should be a civilized debate often degenerates into a flame war. This paper presents a report on code quality metrics that have been collected from four major operating systems on an industrial scale is as follows: FreeBSD, Linux, OpenSolaris and Windows Research Kernel (WRK. This article is not a mysterious crime and it can be concluded as the main finding no significant differences in the quality of the code of these systems.

  15. PNG Education System: Equity Trends and Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    This paper identifies and discusses inequities in the educational system of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It begins by explaining the use of the Gini coefficient as an equity index, and then discusses inequities and equity trends in four concern areas: geographic distribution of formal education between provinces; educational achievement; distribution…

  16. Development of quality control system for fingerprint comparison processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint evidence played an important role in investigation, prosecution, and trial process due to the belief of its uniqueness and unchanged characteristics. However, in recent years, the science behind the process of fingerprint comparisons has been questioned. Main research questions have been focusing on the opaqueness within the comparison processes, subjective judgments, lack of universal standards, no error rate expression on final conclusions, and poor scientific fundamental research data. Facing the above-mentioned questions, this paper aims to suggest a quality control system (QCS for fingerprint comparison processes. This QCS is based on the use of software (PiAnoS and its technological features, being able to provide a data management model to increase the transparency and quality of fingerprint comparison processes.

  17. Comparison and selection of off-grid PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Andrey Yu.; Lobachevsky, Yakov P.; Shepovalova, Olga V.

    2018-05-01

    This work deals with comparison, evaluation and selection of PV systems of the same type based on their technical parameters either indicated in their technical specifications or calculated ones. Stand-alone and grid backed up photoelectric systems have been considered. General requirements for photoelectric system selection and evaluation have been presented that ensure system operability and required efficiency in operation conditions. Generic principles and definition of photoelectric systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeted at PV engineering personnel and private customers purchasing PV systems. It can be also applied in the course of project contests, tenders, etc.

  18. Comparison of thyristor rectifier characteristics with different gate control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, V.; Cherepakhin, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some thyristor gate control systems both synchronous and nonsynchronous ones are described. The experimental results of supply voltage asymmetry influence on spectral contents of rectified. output voltage are quoted. Dynamic and frequency responses of these systems are investigated too. Results of comparison of the spectral content of 100 Hz subharmonic of rectified voltage on loading current showed the advantage of the systems with feedback [ru

  19. Clinical comparison of two commercial blood culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjaard, L.; Kuijper, E. J.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    A prospective, volume-controlled comparison of the BacT/Alert FAN (Organon Teknika, USA) and Vital (bioMérieux, France) blood culture systems was performed in a university hospital during a period of 11 months. Twenty to 40 ml of blood drawn from an adult patient was distributed equally between a

  20. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, L.D.; Both, A.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    After reviewing basic information, three design examples have been presented to demonstrate a process of supplemental lighting design. The sequences of each example suggest careful thought and analysis are required to obtain supplemental lighting designs that provide both high levels of PAR and suitable uniformity. The end results should suggest how an analysis can evolve to achieve desired results, and the types of tools and adjustments required. It appears possible to design research greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve a {+-}10% PAR uniformity using HIPS luminaires. Further, HPS luminaires (and, by extension, NEHD, etc.) are required to achieve high PAR levels and have the decided advantage of providing the possibility of aiming, which reduces the region of the {open_quotes}edge effect{close_quotes}. Further, for designing plant lighting systems, a modification of the standard IES luminaire data file structure is potentially useful. Luminaire installation is an important factor to obtain PAR uniformity. Spacing and mounting height are critically important. Additionally, the mounting angle of each luminaire must be carefully adjusted to conform with design assumptions. This is true for both plant growth chambers and greenhouses. Surface reflectances are particularly important when designing for small lighted regions such as plant growth chambers and research greenhouses. It is not obvious, just from looking at a surface, what its reflectance is. It is suggested that an effort be mounted to develop valid surface reflectance data to be used by designers. The importance of the surfaces (particularly the walls) in achieving PAR uniformity suggests the importance of periodic cleaning/maintenance to retain initial reflectance values.

  1. Comparisons between PW Doppler system and enhanced FM Doppler system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new implementation of an echo-ranging FM Doppler system with improved performance, relative to the FM Doppler system reported previously. The use of long sweeps provides a significant reduction in peak to average power ratio compared to pulsed wave (PW) emission. A PW Doppler...... system exploits the direct relationship between arrival time of the received signal and range from the transducer. In the FM Doppler systems, a similar relationship exists in the spectral domain of the demodulated received signals, so that range is represented by frequency. Thus, a shift in location...... of moving scatterers between consecutive emissions corresponds to a frequency shift in the spectral signature. The improvement relative to the earlier version of the FM Doppler system is attained by utilizing cross-correlation of real spectra rather than of magnitude spectra for assessing flow velocity...

  2. Comparison study of hybrid VS critical systems in point kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.; Tommasi, J.; Slessarev, L.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.; Vergnes, J.

    1999-01-01

    An essential motivation for hybrid systems is a potentially high level of intrinsic safety against reactivity accidents. In this respect, it is necessary to assess the behaviour of an Accelerator Driven System during a TOP, LOF or TOC accident. A comparison between a critical and sub-critical reactor shows a larger sensitivity for the critical system. The ADS has an unquestionable advantage in case of TOP but a less favourable behaviour as for LOFWS type of accidents. However in the ADS cases, the beam could be easily shut off during the transient. Therefore, a part of the R and D effort should be focused on the monitoring and control of power. (author)

  3. A Weak Comparison Principle for Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a weak comparison principle for a reaction-diffusion system without uniqueness of solutions. We apply the abstract results to the Lotka-Volterra system with diffusion, a generalized logistic equation, and to a model of fractional-order chemical autocatalysis with decay. Moreover, in the case of the Lotka-Volterra system a weak maximum principle is given, and a suitable estimate in the space of essentially bounded functions L∞ is proved for at least one solution of the problem.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  6. Comparison of topologies suitable for Capacitor Charging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Cravero, JM

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between topologies suitable for capacitor charging systems. The topologies under evaluation are a flyback converter, a half-bridge series resonant converter and a full-bridge phase-shifted converter. The main features of these topologies are highlighted, which allows the proper topology selection according to the application requirements. Moreover, the performed analysis permits to characterize the operational range of the main components thus allowing their appropriate sizing and selection. Simulation results are provided.

  7. PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-08-27

    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  8. Performance comparison of three trigeneration systems using organic rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Hamdullahpur, Feridun; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, energetic performance comparison of three trigeneration systems is presented. The systems considered are SOFC-trigeneration, biomass-trigeneration, and solar-trigeneration systems. This study compares the performance of the systems considered when there is only electrical power and the efficiency improvement of these systems when there is trigeneration. Different key output parameters are examined: energy efficiency, net electrical power, electrical to heating and cooling ratios, and (GHG) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. This study shows that the SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency among the three systems. Alternatively, when trigeneration is used, the efficiencies of all three systems considered increase considerably. The maximum trigeneration efficiency of the SOFC-trigeneration system is around 76% while it is around 90% for the biomass-trigeneration system. On the other hand, the maximum trigeneration efficiencies of the solar-trigeneration system is around 90% for the solar mode, 45% for storage and storage mode, and 41% for the storage mode. In addition, this study shows that the emissions of CO 2 in kg per MWh of electrical power are high for the biomass-trigeneration and SOFC-trigeneration systems. However, by considering the emissions per MWh of trigeneration, their values drop to less than one fourth. -- Highlights: → We have compared the energetic performance of three potential trigeneration systems. → These systems are SOFC, biomass, and solar-trigeneration systems. → The SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency. → The trigeneration efficiencies of the biomass-trigeneration system and solar mode of the solar-trigeneration system are the highest. → The CO 2 emissions per MWh of combined cooling, heating, and power production drop significantly when trigeneration is used.

  9. Comparison of drive systems for pulsed synchronous machines - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgart, G.E.; Boenig, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasma fusion experiments require large pulses of energy to be delivered into coil systems. One of the most effective methods of generating these high energy pulses is to convert stored inertial energy into electrical energy. Large synchronous generators of both the vertical and horizontal shaft type have been successfully used for this purpose. As the pulsed energy is delivered to the load, the inertial energy of the rotor of the machine is changed into electrical energy, causing the rotor to slow down. A drive system is required to accelerate the generator from standstill to the maximum operating speed and between load pulses from a reduced operating speed to the maximum speed. There are several types of drive systems that can be used for this application. An overview of six candidate drive systems is presented and comparisons of cost, performance, efficiency and line effects for these systems are described

  10. Comparison of drive systems for pulsed synchronous machines: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgart, G.E.; Boenig, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasma fusion experiments require large pulses of energy to be delivered into coil systems. One of the most effective methods of generating these high energy pulses is to convert stored inertial energy into electrical energy. Large synchronous generators of both the vertical and horizontal shaft type have been successfully used for this purpose. As the pulsed energy is delivered to the load, the inertial energy of the rotor of the machine is changed into electrical energy, causing the rotor to slow down. A drive system is required to accelerate the generator from standstill to the maximum operating speed and between load pulses from a reduced operating speed to the maximum speed. There are several types of drive systems that can be used for this application. An overview of six candidate drive systems is presented and comparisons of cost, performance, efficiency, and line effects for these systems are described

  11. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  12. NTP system definition and comparison process for SEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corban, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The concept definition, trade-offs, and ultimate selection of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system that will enable the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars will require a rigorous systems engineering approach. A systems engineering process to provide a consistent comparison has been established to allow for evolving SEI mission requirements, level of concept definition and changing ''customer'' requirements, while continuing to improve the process as more data becomes available. All concepts will be evaluated against an established baseline NTP system to compare system benefits and merits. Establishing the evaluation criteria is extremely challenging and critical to the evaluation and selection process. Quality function deployment (QFD) will be utilized to provide structure and focus in obtaining the critical needs and attributes of the NTP system. System performance, cost, and risk analysis tools will be integrated into the process to provide the quantitative data required to allow for an informative decision on concept and technology decisions. This process will initiate the framework for design and development of a robust, reliable, cost effective NTP engine within NASA's philosophy for space systems to be developed ''faster, better, and cheaper.''

  13. NTP system definition and comparison process for SEI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert R.

    1993-01-01

    The concept definition, trade-offs, and ultimate selection of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system that will enable the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars will require a rigorous systems engineering approach. A systems engineering process to provide a consistent comparison has been established to allow for evolving SEI mission requirements, level of concept definition and changing ``customer'' requirements, while continuing to improve the process as more data becomes available. All concepts will be evaluated against an established baseline NTP system to compare system benefits and merits. Establishing the evaluation criteria is extremely challenging and critical to the evaluation and selection process. Quality function deployment (QFD) will be utilized to provide structure and focus in obtaining the critical needs and attributes of the NTP system. System performance, cost, and risk analysis tools will be integrated into the process to provide the quantitative data required to allow for an informative decision on concept and technology decisions. This process will initiate the framework for design and development of a robust, reliable, cost effective NTP engine within NASA's philosophy for space systems to be developed ``faster, better, and cheaper.''

  14. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwacke John H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  15. The comparison of petroleum contractual systems in Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partowidagdo, W.

    1993-01-01

    The earnings from oil and gas sales are a very important source of income for some countries in Asia Pacific Region. The hydrocarbons are also important source of energy for almost all of the countries in the region. Most governments in this region invite foreign companies to their countries to supply the risk capital for petroleum exploration and development in exchange for a direct share in the potential profit. In this study, a comparison of different hydrocarbon fiscal systems and profitability in Asia Pacific Region is presented

  16. Performance comparison of optical interference cancellation system architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maddie; Chang, Matt; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-04-10

    The performance of three optics-based interference cancellation systems are compared and contrasted with each other, and with traditional electronic techniques for interference cancellation. The comparison is based on a set of common performance metrics that we have developed for this purpose. It is shown that thorough evaluation of our optical approaches takes into account the traditional notions of depth of cancellation and dynamic range, along with notions of link loss and uniformity of cancellation. Our evaluation shows that our use of optical components affords performance that surpasses traditional electronic approaches, and that the optimal choice for an optical interference canceller requires taking into account the performance metrics discussed in this paper.

  17. Comparison of PV system design software packages for urban applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharakhani Siraki, Arbi; Pillay, Pragasen

    2010-09-15

    A large number of software packages are available for solar resource evaluation and PV system design. However, few of them are suitable for urban applications. In this paper a comparison has been made between two specifically designed solar tools known as the Ecotect 2010 and the PVsyst 5.05. Conclusions have been made for proper use of these packages based on their specifications and privileges. Moreover, the calculations have been repeated with HOMER software package (which is a generic tool) for the same location. The results suggest that a generic solar software tool should not be used for an urban application.

  18. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback

  19. A comparison of database systems for XML-type data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Judith E; Leunissen, Jack A M

    2010-01-01

    In the field of bioinformatics interchangeable data formats based on XML are widely used. XML-type data is also at the core of most web services. With the increasing amount of data stored in XML comes the need for storing and accessing the data. In this paper we analyse the suitability of different database systems for storing and querying large datasets in general and Medline in particular. All reviewed database systems perform well when tested with small to medium sized datasets, however when the full Medline dataset is queried a large variation in query times is observed. There is not one system that is vastly superior to the others in this comparison and, depending on the database size and the query requirements, different systems are most suitable. The best all-round solution is the Oracle 11~g database system using the new binary storage option. Alias-i's Lingpipe is a more lightweight, customizable and sufficiently fast solution. It does however require more initial configuration steps. For data with a changing XML structure Sedna and BaseX as native XML database systems or MySQL with an XML-type column are suitable.

  20. Performances of different digital mammography imaging systems: Evaluation and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Bulajic, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Delogu, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fantacci, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Novelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Quattrocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Rosso, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Stefanini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Digital mammography is entering routine clinical use and many commercial systems are now in use in the radiological units for screening and diagnostic mammography. At the same time, the research in the digital mammography field is very active in the development of more and more performing devices. In this paper we present the performance of single photon counting pixel detectors (MedipixI) tailored for digital mammographic applications. These devices are based on semiconductor (Si and GaAs) pixel detectors of different thickness, read-out by custom designed integrated circuits. To assess the imaging capability of such systems, the images of a mammographic phantom have been acquired in standard conditions for a clinical examination. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of details simulating tumor masses has been evaluated. The same phantom has been also radiographed by three different commercial digital mammographic systems in the same reference conditions and a comparison in terms of SNR has been carried out. The spatial resolution of the single photon counting systems has also been evaluated by measuring the line spread function with the edge technique and then calculating the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The MTFs of the single photon counting systems have been compared with the MTFs of the commercial systems.

  1. Performances of different digital mammography imaging systems: Evaluation and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bulajic, D.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Digital mammography is entering routine clinical use and many commercial systems are now in use in the radiological units for screening and diagnostic mammography. At the same time, the research in the digital mammography field is very active in the development of more and more performing devices. In this paper we present the performance of single photon counting pixel detectors (MedipixI) tailored for digital mammographic applications. These devices are based on semiconductor (Si and GaAs) pixel detectors of different thickness, read-out by custom designed integrated circuits. To assess the imaging capability of such systems, the images of a mammographic phantom have been acquired in standard conditions for a clinical examination. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of details simulating tumor masses has been evaluated. The same phantom has been also radiographed by three different commercial digital mammographic systems in the same reference conditions and a comparison in terms of SNR has been carried out. The spatial resolution of the single photon counting systems has also been evaluated by measuring the line spread function with the edge technique and then calculating the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The MTFs of the single photon counting systems have been compared with the MTFs of the commercial systems

  2. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-09-01

    The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)

  3. Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-01-01

    Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model

  4. A comparison of inferface pressures of three compression bandage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Richard; Bohbot, Serge; Connolly, Nicki

    To measure and compare the interface pressures achieved with two compression bandage systems - a four-layer system (4LB) and a two-layer short-stretch system (SSB) - with a new two-layer system (2LB), which uses an etalonnage (performance indicator) to help achieve the correct therapeutic pressure for healing venous leg ulcers - recommended as 40 mmHg. 32 nurses with experience of using compression bandages applied each of the three systems to a healthy female volunteer in a sitting position. The interface pressures and time taken to apply the systems were measured. A questionnaire regarding the concept of the new system and its application in comparison to the existing two systems was then completed by the nurses. The interface pressures achieved show that many nurses applied very high pressures with the 4LB (25% achieving pressures > 50 mmHg) whereas the majority of the nurses (75%) achieved a pressure of pressure of 30-50 mmHg was achieved with the new 2LB. The SSB took the least time to be applied (mean: 1 minute 50 seconds) with the 4LB the slowest (mean: 3 minutes 46 seconds). A mean time of 2 minutes 35 seconds was taken to apply the 2LB. Over 63% of the nurses felt the 2LB was very easy to apply. These results suggest that the 2LB achieves the required therapeutic pressure necessary for the management of venous leg ulcers, is easy to apply and may provide a suitable alternative to other multi-layer bandage systems.

  5. A comparison of the WIND System atmospheric models and RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the characteristics of the WIND System atmospheric models and the NRC's RASCAL code was made. The modeling systems differ substantially in the way input is entered and the way output is displayed. Nevertheless, using the same source term and meteorological input parameters, the WIND System atmospheric models and RASCAL produce similar results in most situations. The WIND System atmospheric model predictions and those made by RASCAL are within a factor of two at least 70% of the time and are within a factor of four 89% of the time. Significant differences in the dose between the models may occur during conditions of low wind speeds, strong atmospheric stability, and/or wet deposition as well as for many atmospheric cases involving cloud shine. Even though the numerical results are similar in most cases, there are many site-specific and operational characteristics that have been incorporated into the WIND System atmospheric models to provide SRS emergency response personnel with a more effective emergency response tool than is currently available from using RASCAL

  6. Operator Performance Comparison of two VDT-based Alarm Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Oh, In-Suk; Sim, Bong-Shick; Koo, In-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Taek; Lee, Ki-Young; Park, Jong-Kyun

    1998-01-01

    This study is carried out to investigate performance differences between two alarm presentation methods from the viewpoint of human factors and to provide items to be improved. One of the alarm display methods considered in this study displays alarm lists on VDT combined with hardwired alarm panels. The other method displays alarms on plant mimic diagrams of VDT. This alarm display method has other features for operator aid with which operator can get detailed information on the activated alarm in the mimic diagrams, and the capability for alarm processing such as alarm reduction and prioritization. To compare the two display methods, a human factor experiment was performed with a plant simulator in the ITF (Integrated Test Facility) that plant operators run for 4 event scenarios. During the experiment, physiological measurements, system and operator action log, and audio/video recordings were collected. Operators subjective opinion was collected as well after the experiment. Time, error rate and situation awareness were major human factor criteria used for the comparison during the analysis stage of the experiment. No statistical significance was found in the results of our statistical comparison analysis. Several findings were identified, however, through the analysis of subjective opinions. (authors)

  7. Comparison of likelihood testing procedures for parallel systems with covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayman Baklizi; Isa Daud; Noor Akma Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we considered investigating and comparing the behavior of the likelihood ratio, the Rao's and the Wald's statistics for testing hypotheses on the parameters of the simple linear regression model based on parallel systems with covariances. These statistics are asymptotically equivalent (Barndorff-Nielsen and Cox, 1994). However, their relative performances in finite samples are generally known. A Monte Carlo experiment is conducted to stimulate the sizes and the powers of these statistics for complete samples and in the presence of time censoring. Comparisons of the statistics are made according to the attainment of assumed size of the test and their powers at various points in the parameter space. The results show that the likelihood ratio statistics appears to have the best performance in terms of the attainment of the assumed size of the test. Power comparisons show that the Rao statistic has some advantage over the Wald statistic in almost all of the space of alternatives while likelihood ratio statistic occupies either the first or the last position in term of power. Overall, the likelihood ratio statistic appears to be more appropriate to the model under study, especially for small sample sizes

  8. Comparison of three systems of solar water heating by thermosiphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; Guzmán, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this project was to elaborate a comparison between three water heating systems; using two plane water heating solar collector and another using a vacuum tube heater, all of them are on top of the cafeteria's roof on building of the “Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana” in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Through testing was determined each type of water heating systems' performance, where the Stainless Steel tube collector reached a maximum efficiency of 71.58%, the Copper Tubing Collector a maximum value of 76.31% and for the Vacuum Tube Heater Collector a maximum efficiency of 72.33%. The collector with copper coil was the system more efficient. So, taking into account the Performance and Temperature Curves, along with the weather conditions at the time of the testing we determined that the most efficient Solar Heating System is the one using a Vacuum Tube Heater Collector. Reaching a maximum efficiency of 72.33% and a maximum temperature of 62.6°C.

  9. Disaster warning system: Satellite feasibility and comparison with terrestrial systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, J. H.; Hodge, W. H.; Fluk, M. J.; Bamford, T. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Disaster Warning System (DWS) is a conceptual system which will provide the National Weather Service (NWS) with communication services in the 1980s to help minimize losses caused by natural disasters. The object of this study is a comparative analysis between a terrestrial DWS and a satellite DWS. Baseline systems satisfying the NOAA requirements were synthesized in sufficient detail so that a comparison could be made in terms of performance and cost. The cost of both baseline systems is dominated by the disaster warning and spotter reporting functions. An effort was undertaken to reduce system cost through lower-capacity alternative systems generated by modifying the baseline systems. By reducing the number of required channels and modifying the spotter reporting techniques, alternative satellite systems were synthesized. A terrestrial alternative with the coverage reduced to an estimated 95 percent of the population was considered.

  10. Health systems around the world - a comparison of existing health system rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Stefanie; Acevedo, Paula N Marin; Flahault, Antoine

    2018-06-01

    Existing health systems all over the world are different due to the different combinations of components that can be considered for their establishment. The ranking of health systems has been a focal points for many years especially the issue of performance. In 2000 the World Health Organization (WHO) performed a ranking to compare the Performance of the health system of the member countries. Since then other health system rankings have been performed and it became an issue of public discussion. A point of contention regarding these rankings is the methodology employed by each of them, since no gold standard exists. Therefore, this review focuses on evaluating the methodologies of each existing health system performance ranking to assess their reproducibility and transparency. A search was conducted to identify existing health system rankings, and a questionnaire was developed for the comparison of the methodologies based on the following indicators: (1) General information, (2) Statistical methods, (3) Data (4) Indicators. Overall nine rankings were identified whereas six of them focused rather on the measurement of population health without any financial component and were therefore excluded. Finally, three health system rankings were selected for this review: "Health Systems: Improving Performance" by the WHO, "Mirror, Mirror on the wall: How the Performance of the US Health Care System Compares Internationally" by the Commonwealth Fund and "the Most efficient Health Care" by Bloomberg. After the completion of the comparison of the rankings by giving them scores according to the indicators, the ranking performed the WHO was considered the most complete regarding the ability of reproducibility and transparency of the methodology. This review and comparison could help in establishing consensus in the field of health system research. This may also help giving recommendations for future health rankings and evaluating the current gap in the literature.

  11. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  12. Comparison of high-speed transportation systems in special consideration of investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schach

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a substantial comparison of different high-speed transportation systems and an approach to stochastic cost estimations are provided. Starting from the developments in Europe, the high-speed traffic technical characteristics of high-speed railways and Maglev systems are compared. But for a comprehensive comparison more criterions must be included and led to a wider consideration and the development of a multi-criteria comparison of high-speed transportation systems. In the second part a stochastic approach to cost estimations of infrastructure projects is encouraged. Its advantages in comparison with the traditional proceeding are presented and exemplify the practical implementation.

  13. Application of the comparison principle to analysis of nonlinear systems. [using Lipschitz condition and differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison principle based on a Kamke theorem and Lipschitz conditions is presented along with its possible applications and modifications. It is shown that the comparison lemma can be used in the study of such areas as classical stability theory, higher order trajectory derivatives, Liapunov functions, boundary value problems, approximate dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear systems, and bifurcation analysis.

  14. Study on image quality and dosage comparison of F/S system and DR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Jung, Jae Eun

    2003-01-01

    Currently, many hospital are hastening to introduce digital radiography systems. This is a direct result of the intentions to improve medical services and to digitalized radiology information systems, and is also leading to the improvement of medical imaging technology. Throughout F/S system's long history, many people have researched the image quality and dosage concerning these systems, and as a result, huge improvements in the dosage of patients were possible. Similarly, I believe that DR systems need the same kind of effort. Of course, decreases in dosage that ignore image quality are unthinkable. The results of experiments conducted by five hospitals during a period of 3 months brought to us the conclusions listed below. Based on the comparison and analysis of the exposure control of F/S systems and DR systems, DR systems generally showed higher exposure control for parts of the phantom that became thicker, and the exposure control improved rapidly as the thickness increased. DR systems still proved to be somewhat deficient in resolution measurements compared to existing F/S systems. The image processing part of DR systems contributed much to these result. Under conditions used clinically, the dosage measurements of DR systems were generally higher regardless of region. According to the evaluation of image quality, DR systems showed a higher degree of satisfaction as the thickness of the region became thinner. As mentioned above and based on the mutual relationship experiments between the dosage and image quality of F/S systems and DR systems, research to increase the satisfaction of DR systems must be considered

  15. Learning from south–south comparison: the education systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Graduate School of Education, Potchefstroom University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, ... The comparison with and learning from other countries are not done ..... the informal sector for 12%, and the remaining 29% were unemployed.

  16. Energy and Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Combined Heat and Power Systems. Comparison of Various Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Costea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of various CHP system configurations, such as Vapour Turbine, Gas Turbine, Internal Combustion Engine, External Combustion Engine (Stirling, Ericsson, when different thermodynamic criteria are considered, namely the first law efficiency and exergy efficiency. Thermodynamic optimization of these systems is performed intending to maximize the exergy, when various practical related constraints (imposed mechanical useful energy, imposed heat demand, imposed heat to power ratio or main physical limitations (limited heat availability, maximum system temperature allowed, thermo-mechanical constraints are taken into account. A sensitivity analysis to model parameters is given. The results have shown that the various added constraints were useful for the design allowing to precise the influence of the model main parameters on the system design. Future perspective of the work and recommendations are stated.

  17. DC resistance comparison between a current comparator bridge and the quantum Hall system at Inmetro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M C; Vasconcellos, R T B; Carvalho, H R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison results between the Quantum Hall System (QHS) under development at the Quantum Electrical Metrology Laboratory (Lameq) and the current comparator calibration system, traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), at the Electrical Standardization Metrology Laboratory (Lampe), both part of the Electrical Metrology Division, at Inmetro. Comparisons were performed with 1 Ω, 10 Ω, 100 Ω, 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ resistors. The results obtained over two years of work are presented here, showing that the comparison contributed to improve the calibration systems of both Lampe and Lameq. (paper)

  18. Comparison results on preconditioned SOR-type iterative method for Z-matrices linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Zhong; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Fu, Ying-Ding

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present some comparison theorems on preconditioned iterative method for solving Z-matrices linear systems, Comparison results show that the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Seidel-type method is faster than the rate of convergence of the SOR-type iterative method.

  19. Comparison of indices of disproportionality in PR systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bolun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of 12 indices of disproportionality by such characteristics as: metric, definition domain, representation uniformity, invariance and utilization field, is done. As a result of comparison, the opportunity to use as index of disproportionality in elections the Average relative deviation one is argued. Graphic representation for the upper limit of optimal solutions' disproportionality, when using this index, is shown.

  20. A Three-Port Topology Comparison for a Low Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Three-port converter (TPC) topologies for renewable energy systems aim to provide higher efficiency and power density than conventional cascaded structures. This work proposes an analytical comparison of different TPC topologies for a photovoltaic LED lamp stand-alone system. A comparison using c...... component stress factor (CSF) is performed, which gives a quantitative measure of the performance of the converter. The candidate topologies are compared to each other according to a defined LED lighting strategy and a solar irradiation profile.......Three-port converter (TPC) topologies for renewable energy systems aim to provide higher efficiency and power density than conventional cascaded structures. This work proposes an analytical comparison of different TPC topologies for a photovoltaic LED lamp stand-alone system. A comparison using...

  1. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons. 50 refs

  2. Comparison of secondary system piping Cr content with inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Mitchell, A.M.

    1997-06-01

    For several years a number of Ontario Hydro and CANDU-6 stations have been sampling sections of secondary-side piping for chromium content. Several hundred of these measurements have been made, and comparisons with inspection data drawn. There is special interest in chromium concentrations in the range 0.01< Cr<0.1 wt.%, in order to better define the effect of trace chromium content on susceptibility to flow-assisted corrosion. (author)

  3. Process algebras for hybrid systems : comparison and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadim, U.

    2008-01-01

    Our research is about formal speci¯cation and analysis of hybrid systems. The formalism used is process algebra. Hybrid systems are systems that exhibit both discrete and continuous behaviour. An example of a hybrid system is a digital controller controlling a physical device such as present in

  4. Comparison between different synchronization methods of identical chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Khademian, Behzad

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies and compares three nonadaptive (bidirectional, unidirectional, and sliding mode) and two adaptive (active control and backstepping) synchronization methods on the synchronizing of four pairs of identical chaotic systems (Chua's circuit, Roessler system, Lorenz system, and Lue system). Results from computer simulations are presented in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the methods and to compare them based on different criteria

  5. A Firsthand Comparison of a System Office to a College Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard C.

    2010-01-01

    System offices for community college institutional research differ in many ways from campus offices for community college institutional research. The other chapters in this volume describe salient characteristics of system IR offices, but many readers may want to see a direct comparison of system IR offices to campus IR offices in the community…

  6. Technical comparison of domestic hot water system which used in China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2014-01-01

    and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system, such as Denmark and China. Nevertheless, the development of DHW networks in these two countries differs significantly. This article detailed the comparisons in technical aspect: common preparation methods of DHW through district heating was introduced in China...... and Denmark with the analysis on temperature level, hygienic situation of DHW system, circular system, flow capacity and heat metering....

  7. A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.G.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain...... voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage....

  8. Entropic and algebraic K-systems: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.

    1990-01-01

    In the quantum, i.e. non-commutative case, algebraic K-systems and entropic K-systems must be distinguished. The similarities and differences between them are considered, especially with regard to clustering- and mixing properties. 14 refs

  9. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  10. Comparison between different synchronization methods of identical chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeri, Mohammad [Advanced Control System Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-9363 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: haeri@sina.sharif.edu; Khademian, Behzad [Advanced Control System Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-9363 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    This paper studies and compares three nonadaptive (bidirectional, unidirectional, and sliding mode) and two adaptive (active control and backstepping) synchronization methods on the synchronizing of four pairs of identical chaotic systems (Chua's circuit, Roessler system, Lorenz system, and Lue system). Results from computer simulations are presented in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the methods and to compare them based on different criteria.

  11. Thermal imaging comparison of Signature, Infiniti, and Stellaris phacoemulsification systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoo, NK; Kwon, J-W; Wee, WR; Miller, KM; Han, YK

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To compare the heat production of 3 different phacoemulsification machines under strict laboratory test conditions. More specifically, the thermal behavior was analyzed between the torsional modality of the Infiniti system and longitudinal modalities of the Abbot WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification system and Bausch and Lomb Stellaris system. Methods Experiments were performed under in-...

  12. Comparison and evaluation of flexible and stiff piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, W.; Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study was performed on a piping system, with various support configurations, to assess the difference in piping response for flexible and stiff piping systems. Questions have arisen concerning a basic design philosophy employed in present day piping designs. One basic question is, the reliability of a flexible piping system greater than that of a stiff piping system by virtue of the fact that a flexible system has fewer snubber supports. With fewer snubbers, the pipe is less susceptible to inadvertent thermal stresses introduced by snubber malfunction during normal operation. In addition to the technical issue, the matter of cost savings in flexible piping system design is a significant one. The costs associated with construction, in-service inspection and maintenance are all significantly reduced by reducing the number of snubber supports. The evaluation study, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was performed on a boiler feedwater line at Consolidated Edison's Indian Point Unit 1. In this study, the boiler feedwater line was tested and analyzed with two fundamentally different support systems. The first system was very flexible, employing rod and spring hangers, and represented the 'old' design philosophy. The pipe system was very flexible with this support system, due to the long pipe span lengths between supports and the fact that there was only one lateral support. This support did not provide much restraint since it was near an anchor. The second system employed strut and snubber supports and represented the 'modern' design philosophy. The pipe system was relatively stiff with this support system, primarily due to the increased number of supports, including lateral supports, thereby reducing the pipe span lengths between supports. The second support system was designed with removable supports to facilitate interchange of the supports with different support types (i.e., struts, mechanical snubbers and hydraulic

  13. Comparison of alternative offshore wind farms and HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Lilje, P.; Poeller, M. [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany); Basteck, A. [Voith Turbo Wind GmbH und Co. KG, Crailsheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability of offshore wind farms connected to the main power system via HVDC systems. Wind farms consisting of different ratios of directly connected synchronous machines and doubly-fed induction machines are considered. In addition, both conventional LCC- and VSC-type HVDC systems are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered for the VSC-based system, including constant frequency control and frequency regulation. The stability analysis is done by means of time-domain simulation. The maximum and minimum ratio of the two wind turbine technologies is found for each of the different HVDC systems. (orig.)

  14. Technical comparison of several global mobile satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    The era of satellite-based mobile satellite communications (MSC) systems started with the first MARISAT satellite which was launched into a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean in 1976 to provide communications between ships and shore stations. The combination of high cost and unacceptably large equipment has kept the space-based MSC systems from appealing to the wider market of personal mobile communications. The progress made over the last ten years, however, in digital voice processing, satellite technology, and component miniaturization has resulted in the viability of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems to meet the growing market in personal mobile communications using handsets similar to those currently in use with land-based cellular systems. Three of the more mature LEO/MEO satellite systems are addressed in this paper including GLOBALSTAR, Iridium, and Odyssey. The system architectures of each system are presented along with a description of the satellite and user handset designs and the multiaccess techniques employed. It will be shown that, although a number of similarities exist among the system addressed, each system is unique in a variety of significant design areas. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems seems to be secure. It will be challenging, however, for the vendors to actually develop and deploy these systems in a cost effective, timely, and reliable way that meets a continually evolving set of requirements based upon a rapidly changing technology base.

  15. Brain mechanisms of social comparison and their influence on the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2014-11-12

    Whenever we interact with others, we judge them and whenever we make such judgments, we compare them with ourselves, other people, or internalized standards. Countless social psychological experiments have shown that comparative thinking plays a ubiquitous role in person perception and social cognition as a whole. The topic of social comparison has recently aroused the interest of social neuroscientists, who have begun to investigate its neural underpinnings. The present article provides an overview of these neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies. We discuss recent findings on the consequences of social comparison on the brain processing of outcomes and highlight the role of the brain's reward system. Moreover, we analyze the relationship between the brain networks involved in social comparisons and those active during other forms of cognitive and perceptual comparison. Finally, we discuss potential future questions that research on the neural correlates of social comparison could address.

  16. Comparison, with regard to safety, between a hard-wired reactor protection system and a computerized protection system. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, W.E.

    1976-07-01

    The study compares a conventional hard-wired dynamic reactor protection system with a computerized protection system. In the comparison, only the unequivocally safety-oriented protection actions are considered. In the first part, the different structures of both systems and the method of verification for their functional safety will be described. In the second part, the mean unavailability in case of demand for both systems under defined conditions will be determined. (orig.) [de

  17. Comparison of centralized and decentralized energy supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich; Voß, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Communal energy programs are often embedded in a conception of a decentralized energy supply system where electricity is produced by a number of smaller power plants. For a comprehensive survey the question arises whether these decentralized systems are more advantageous than centralized systems with regard to the criterions energy consumption, safety of supply, environmental compatibility and economy. In the following, after a definition of the term "decentralized", the present structure of ...

  18. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/ Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, I.; Dadon, S.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Rofe, S.; Yaar, I.; Wasiolek, P.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC/NA-46) Program, the comparison of the U.S. and Israeli Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) study was proposed and accepted. The study, organized by the DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), involved the DOE/NNSA Aerial Measuring System Project based at the RSL and operated under a contractor agreement by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), and the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Aerial Measuring System. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000 (figure 1, down), was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE Spectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A, figure 1 up) on U.S. DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). A four-person Israeli team from the IAEC, Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) supported the activity. The main objective of this joint comparison was use the DOE/RSL Bell-412 helicopter aerial platform, perform the comparison study of measuring techniques and radiation acquisition systems utilized for emergency response by IEAC and NNSA AMS

  19. Differentiating between Distance/Open Education Systems: Parameters for Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    Suggests eight parameters as criteria for describing and comparing distance education/open learning institutions: target population, dimensions of openness, organizational structure, design and development of learning materials, use of advanced technology, teaching/tutoring system, student support systems, and interinstitutional collaboration. (35…

  20. A Framework for the Comparison of Mobile Patient Monitoring Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, P.; Jones, Valerie M.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    A mobile patient monitoring system makes use of mobile computing and wireless communication technologies for continuous or periodic measurement and analysis of biosignals of a mobile patient. In a number of trials these systems have demonstrated their user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness

  1. Comparison of Intelligent Systems in Detecting a Child's Mathematical Gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlekovic, Margita; Zekic-Susac, Marijana; Djurdjevic, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the efficiency of two intelligent methods: expert systems and neural networks, in detecting children's mathematical gift at the fourth grade of elementary school. The input space for the expert system and the neural network model consisted of 60 variables describing five basic components of a child's mathematical gift…

  2. The political abuse of international health system comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlke, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Though the science of medicine subscribes to learning from best practices and the transmission of superior treatment regimens across national boundaries, the same ethos does not inform political debates surrounding health system reform. The Canadian and English health systems have been used - and, more frequently - abused by American politicians in their quest to support their own model of reform, or preserve the status quo.

  3. Comparison Of A Neutron Kinetics Parameter For A Polyethylene Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, IV, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grove, Travis Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    This paper examines the comparison of MCNP® code’s capability to calculate kinetics parameters effectively for a thermal system containing highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Rossi-α parameter was chosen for this examination because it is relatively easy to measure as well as easy to calculate using MCNP®’s kopts card. The Rossi-α also incorporates many other parameters of interest in nuclear kinetics most of which are more difficult to precisely measure. The comparison looks at two different nuclear data libraries for comparison to the experimental data. These libraries are ENDF/BVI (.66c) and ENDF/BVII (.80c).

  4. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  5. Project JADE. Comparison of repository systems. Executive summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstedt, H.; Pers, K.; Birgersson, Lars; Ageskog, L.; Munier, R.

    2001-12-01

    KBS-3 has since 1984 been the reference method for disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. Several other methods like WP-Cave, Very Deep Holes and Very Long Holes have been evaluated and compared with KBS-3. Though the methods have been judged to have a high safety potential, KBS-3 has been shown to provide advantages in the combined judgement of 'long-term performance and safety', 'technology' and 'costs'. In the present study, different variants of the KBS-3 method have been analysed and compared with the reference concept KBS-3 V (V for vertical). The variants are: KBS-3 H (H for horizontal) and MLH (medium long holes) - with canisters in a horizontal position, single or in a row respectively. The comparison has been carried out separately for the interim items 'technology', 'long-term performance and safety' and 'costs' respectively. The outcome in each of these comparisons have finally been combined in a ranking. This ranking placed KBS-3 V in the top followed by MLH and KBS-3 H. Vertical deposition of a single canister in one deposition hole, KBS-3 V, is robust as gravity is used for lowering the canister and the bentonite into the deposition hole and since each canister has its own barrier in the near field, which reduces the risk for interference between canisters. The drawback for MLH is the uncertainty about the emplacement technique as well as the impact of weak rock and water leakage into a long deposition hole for several canisters. The advantage is that a smaller volume of rock has to be excavated. This is positive regarding the long-term performance and safety, environmental impact and costs. KBS-3 H does not have the same positive potential. The conclusion of the JADE study is that KBS-3 V should remain as reference concept, and that MLH should be studied further with the aim of clarifying the technical feasibility of emplacement and the means of handling water inflow. It is recommended that KBS-3 H with deposition of a single canister in each hole should

  6. Some comments about the comparison between a conventional and a solar powered absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, O.D.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    Two statements about the performance of solar refrigeration systems are discussed. First, concepts of efficiency and coefficient of performance are studied. Second, the influence of inflation and rise of fuel prices are considered, in relation to the comparison between solar and conventional refrigeration systems. (author)

  7. A performance comparison of single product kanban control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Ang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation experiment comparing the Single Stage, Single Product Base Stock (BS, Traditional Kanban Control System (TKCS and Extended Kanban Control System (EKCS. The results showed that BS incurs the highest cost in all scenarios; while EKCS is found to be effective only in a very niche scenario. TKCS is still a very powerful factory management system to date; and EKCS did not perform exceptionally well. The only time EKCS did outperform TKCS was during low demand arrival rates and low Backorder (Cb and Shortage costs (Cs. That is because during then, it holds no stock. The most important discovery made here is that EKCS becomes TKCS once it has base stock (or dispatched kanbans. The results have also evinced the strength of the pure kanban system, the TKCS over BS. Hence managers using BS should consider upgrading to TKCS to save cost.

  8. Performance comparison of direct and indirect lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, F.; Morse, O.; Clark, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a retrofitted indirect lighting system was compared to the performance of a typical de-lamped direct lighting system in a partitioned office space. Power, illuminance and luminance measurements were made for the de-lamped direct lighting system and after installation of the indirect lighting system with various lamp and ballast combinations. Using the same lamps and ballasts, average workplace illuminance was slightly higher with indirect lighting than with direct lighting. With indirect lighting, workplace lumen efficacy was 4.5% lower due to the higher power draw of the lamps in the more open and cooler indirect fixtures. Indirect lighting with 36 watt T-8 lamps and electronic ballasts achieved an initial average workplace illuminance of 45 foot-candles in the partitioned office space at only 1.1 w/ft 2

  9. Jauch-Piron orthomodular posets and propositional systems: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, C.

    1993-10-01

    We compare the structures obtained via orthomodular posets and via propositional systems, discussing some examples of the links between them. Despite some analogies, the two structures are fundamentally different.

  10. Comparison of Photovoltaic Energy Systems for the Solar Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    power -point-trackIng ( MPPT ) for the array. It also Includes AC and DC contactors, an isolation transformer, and a control system that fully automates...the day when the array is producing power , the battery controller uses excess array power , not needed for household use , to recharge the batteries. As...alone design) The battery controller used Is the Balance of System Specialists, Inc. Power Control Series model *8104820 rated at 48 volt, 20 amp. This

  11. Measuring situation awareness in complex systems: Comparison of measures study

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, PM; Stanton, NA; Walker, GH; Jenkins, DP; Ladva, D; Rafferty, L; Young, MS

    2008-01-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is a distinct critical commodity for teams working in complex industrial systems and its measurement is a key provision in system, procedural and training design efforts. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare three different SA measures (a freeze probe recall approach, a post trial subjective rating approach and a critical incident interview technique) when used to assess participant SA during a military planning task. The results indi...

  12. A four-year comparison of two organic dairy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Mr Richard

    2006-01-01

    Two organic systems were studied, the first based on self-sufficiency (SS) and the feeding of high-forage diets, and the second on purchased concentrates (PC) and maximising milk output. The growing of both concentrate and forage feeds in the SS system reduced the stocking density. Feeding high-forage diets increased the proportion of milk produced from forage but decreased the energy concentration of the ration, leading to lower milk persistency, reduced milk protein in early lactation and r...

  13. Comparisons of the DSPEC and DSPEC Plus spectrometer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Duc T.

    1999-01-01

    A previous experimental evaluation of nine commercial gamma-ray spectroscopy systems demonstrated significant benefits of digital signal processing for improvements in the performance of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. Spectacular improvements in the energy resolution and throughput of germanium detectors were demonstrated for the DSPEC. Recently, a new, improved version of DSPEC, the DSPEC Plus, was developed. Results of the performance of the DSPEC Plus are compared to those of the DSPEC

  14. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej; Chrystian Firlej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Uni...

  15. Comparison between moving and stationary transmitter systems in induction logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M.; Caleb Dhanasekaran, P.; Prabhakar Rao, K.

    1985-09-01

    In a general treatment of the theory of induction logging, an exact integral representation has been obtained for the mutual impedance between a vertical dipole transmitter and a coaxial dipole receiver in a three layered earth. Based on this representation, a computer model has been devised using the traditional Slingram system of induction logging and the comparatively new Turam system, ignoring borehole effects. The model results indicate that due to its much larger response, the Turam system is in general preferable to the Slingram in mineral and groundwater investigations where formation conductivity much less than 1 S/m is generally encountered. However, if the surrounding media are conductive (more than 0.1 S/m), the Turam system suffers from large amplitude attenuation and phase rotation of the primary field caused by the conductive surrounding, and is less useful than the Slingram system which does not so suffer, unless the target bed is shallow. Because it is a more complex function of system parameters than the corresponding Slingram log, a Turam log can be conveniently interpreted only by the modern inverse method using a fast algorithm for the forward solution and a high speed digital computer.

  16. Comparison of two head and neck immobilization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Hendren, Kristin; Brizel, David M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate and reproducible patient positioning is fundamental to the success of fractionated radiotherapy. Concurrent with the introduction of three-dimensional treatment planning capabilities at our institution, a head and neck immobilization system consisting of a standard foam rubber head support and three casting strips was replaced by a customized mask-based device. This study was performed to analyze the impact of the customized immobilization system on the reproducibility of patient setup during irradiation of head and neck and brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Patients treated from 1989-1991 were immobilized with the strip system while those treated from 1991-1995 were immobilized with the mask. All treatment fields were simulated and were treated on a 4 MV (where the strip, but not the mask, system was fixed to the treatment couch) or ≥ 6 MV (where both the strip and the mask systems were fixed to the couch) accelerator. Port films were taken on the initial treatment day, routinely during treatment, and following shifts (requested). The number, magnitude, and direction of any isocenter shifts were retrospectively reviewed. A two-tailed chi square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the strip and mask groups. Results: The study population consisted of 69 brain tumor (35 strip, 34 mask) and 71 head and neck (37 strip, 34 mask) patients. A total of 1575 port films representing 1070 isocenter placements were analyzed. No differences between the immobilization systems was seen on the 4-MV accelerator (where the mask system was not fixed to the couch). On the ≥ 6-MV units, the frequency of shifts was 16.1% versus 6.2% (p = 0.002) with the strips and mask, respectively. Almost all of the benefit was seen in the routine films, where the corresponding rates were 13.2% and 4.1% (p = 0.007). For the mask system, the rate of requested shifts on routine films was 4.1% ((8(197))) for the ≥ 6-MV units and 14.5% ((24(166))) for

  17. Comparison of three different laser systems for application in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindermann, Anja; Niemz, M. H.; Eisenmann, L.; Loesel, Frieder H.; Bille, Josef F.

    1993-12-01

    Three different laser systems have been investigated according to their possible application in dentistry: a free running and a Q-switched microsecond Ho:YAG laser, a free running microsecond Er:YAG laser and picosecond Nd:YLF laser system consisting of an actively mode locked oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. The experiments focused on the question if lasers can support or maybe replace ordinary drilling machines. For this purpose several cavities were generated with the lasers mentioned above. Their depth and quality were judged by light and electron microscopy. The results of the experiments showed that the picosecond Nd:YLF laser system has advantages compared to other lasers regarding their application in dentistry.

  18. Comparison of scientific and administrative database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics found to be different for scientific and administrative data bases are identified and some of the corresponding generic requirements for data base management systems (DBMS) are discussed. The requirements discussed are especially stringent for either the scientific or administrative data bases. For some, no commercial DBMS is fully satisfactory, and the data base designer must invent a suitable approach. For others, commercial systems are available with elegant solutions, and a wrong choice would mean an expensive work-around to provide the missing features. It is concluded that selection of a DBMS must be based on the requirements for the information system. There is no unique distinction between scientific and administrative data bases or DBMS. The distinction comes from the logical structure of the data, and understanding the data and their relationships is the key to defining the requirements and selecting an appropriate DBMS for a given set of applications.

  19. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Union with a distinction between value systems and surface systems. At the practical level characteristics have been established of property taxation volvasystems in the European Union considering the range of subjective and objective methods for determining and updating the tax base, as well as the amount of tax burden. Subsequently, an analysis has been done of the fiscal functions of property tax within the European Union. It has been noted that the role of the property tax in individual Member States of the European Union is different. Results indicate that the key cause of a significant variation in effects of a fiscal nature is the adopted method of determining the so-called tax value of the property (market value or rental value of the property, as determined for the purposes of establishing the tax base as well as accepted rates. It was found that tax revenues in countries where cadastral systems exist are much greater than in the case of surface systems. It should also be noted that, in countries where the dimension of property taxes is made conditional on the data collected in cadastral records, the tax potential varies, and the reasons for this state of affairs are the specific solutions adopted in particular European countries.

  20. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  1. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Using a prototype implementation of our scheme, we compare the results of human-selected, derived passwords and system generated to reveal the practical viability of our approach in terms of results achieved, ease of implementation and use. Keywords: Security, Biometric, Behavioral, Keystroke dynamics, Password.

  2. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a prototype implementation of our scheme, we compare the results of human-selected, derived passwords and system generated to reveal the practical viability of our approach in terms of results achieved, ease of implementation and use. Keywords: Security, Biometric, Behavioral, Keystroke dynamics, Password ...

  3. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  4. The systemic nature of mustard lung: Comparison with COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriary Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin (IL, chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.

  5. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  6. Suicide Bulletin Board Systems Comparison between Japan and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime; Eichenberg, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    An online questionnaire (n = 301) was conducted to analyze the cross-cultural influence of the use of suicide bulletin board systems. Factor analysis demonstrated that participants had two types of motives: the constructive motive of mutual help and the destructive motive of suicide preparation. The results showed that suicidal thoughts did not…

  7. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  8. A Comparison of the Polish and Soviet Armaments Decisionmaking Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    translated and published under the auspices of the U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C., 1977, p. 51; Antoni Rogucki, " Teoria potencjalu wojenno-ekonomicznego a...proizvodstvennogo oborudovaniia i sistema amortisatsii" (Managing the Renovation of the Production Equip- ment and Amortization System), Planovoe khoziaistvo, 1979

  9. A Comparison of the Chinese and Indian Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnove, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in education, China and India still face problems of massive illiteracy; lack of universal access to education; a hierarchical, elitist, examination-oriented system unrelated to economic needs and productive labor; a large number of unemployed school leavers; and dependence on foreign models, particularly at the higher…

  10. Learning Management Systems and Comparison of Open Source Learning Management Systems and Proprietary Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Yılmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of learning has been increasingly gaining importance for individuals, businesses and communities in the age of information. On the other hand, developments in information and communication technologies take effect in the field of learning activities. With these technologies, barriers of time and space against the learning activities largely disappear and these technologies make it easier to carry out these activities more effectively. There remain a lot of questions regarding selection of learning management system (LMS to be used for the management of e-learning processes by all organizations conducing educational practices including universities, companies, non-profit organizations, etc. The main questions are as follows: Shall we choose open source LMS or commercial LMS? Can the selected LMS meet existing needs and future potential needs for the organization? What are the possibilities of technical support in the management of LMS? What kind of problems may be experienced in the use of LMS and how can these problems be solved? How much effective can officials in the organization be in the management of LMS? In this study, primarily e-learning and the concept of LMS will be discussed, and in the next section, as for answers to these questions, open source LMSs and centrally developed LMSs will be examined and their advantages and disadvantages relative to each other will be discussed.

  11. Comparison of Extruder Systems for 3D Printer Filament Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has grown in popularity over the past thirty years, due to its versatility, short design to product cycle, and capability to fabricate complex geometries, which cannot otherwise be produced. There exist several platforms that are able to print objects composed of different materials, making this technology significant in different fields such as: automotive, aerospace, medical, electronics, amongst others. Though several types of AM technologies are available, the expiration of the patents on fused deposition modeling (FDM) in 2009 has led to a widespread use of this platform in academia and home use settings. Widespread use of FDM-type AM platforms has led to a demand to fabricate feedstock materials for this AM platform. Particularly, in the home do it yourself (DIY) community there has been a widespread interest for users to manufacture their own feedstock filament leading to a large growth in home-use extrusion systems. The low cost of these desktop-grade systems has also made them attractive to academics, but there has not been a widespread effort into determining the efficacy of these small scale extrusion systems as compared to industrial quality extruders which are typically used to manufacture feedstock for FDM platforms. The aim of this study was to compare two extrusion processes: 1) a desktop grade single-screw extruder; and 2) an industrial scale twin-screw extruder. In order to understand differences between their performance and quality of mixing, a rubberized blend of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) mixed with styrene ethylene butylene styrene with a maleic anhydride graft (SEBS-g-MA) at different ratios was compounded on each extrusion system. Melt flow index, and mechanical properties were compared. In addition, a raster pattern sensitivity study was performed to evaluate the effect of the extruder system on 3D printed objects. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces

  12. Comparison of Failure Analysis and Operating Experiences of Digital Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chan; Shin, Tae Young [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study focuses on digital control systems that have the same functions but different designs. Some differences and common points between these two digital control systems are analyzed in terms of vulnerabilities in plant operation. In addition, this study confirms why unexpected outcomes can occur through a comparison of the system failure experiences with the analytic results of FMEA and FTA. This evaluation demonstrates that the digital system may have vulnerable components whose single failures can cause plant transients even if the system has a redundant structure according to its system design.

  13. Mobile In Vivo Infrared Data Collection and Diagnoses Comparison System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick W. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Described is a mobile in vivo infrared brain scan and analysis system. The system includes a data collection subsystem and a data analysis subsystem. The data collection subsystem is a helmet with a plurality of infrared (IR) thermometer probes. Each of the IR thermometer probes includes an IR photodetector capable of detecting IR radiation generated by evoked potentials within a user's skull. The helmet is formed to collect brain data that is reflective of firing neurons in a mobile subject and transmit the brain data to the data analysis subsystem. The data analysis subsystem is configured to generate and display a three-dimensional image that depicts a location of the firing neurons. The data analysis subsystem is also configured to compare the brain data against a library of brain data to detect an anomaly in the brain data, and notify a user of any detected anomaly in the brain data.

  14. Liquidity in Retirement Savings Systems: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Beshears, John Leonard; Choi, James J.; Hurwitz, Joshua Bayard; Laibson, David I.; Madrian, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    What is the socially optimal level of liquidity in a retirement savings system? Liquid retirement savings are desirable because liquidity enables agents to flexibly respond to pre-retirement events that raise the marginal utility of consumption. On the other hand, pre-retirement liquidity is undesirable when it leads to under-saving arising from, for example, planning mistakes or self-control problems. This paper compares the liquidity that six developed economies have built into their employ...

  15. Comparison of Component Frameworks for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop, T.; Hnětynka, P.; Hošek, P.; Malohlava, M.; Bureš, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2014), s. 127-170 ISSN 0219-1377 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0312; GA UK(CZ) Project 378111; UK(CZ) SVV-2013- 267312 Keywords : component-based development * component frameworks * real-time and embedded systems Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2014

  16. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad N. A. A; Junita M. N; Aljunid Syed Alwi; Che Beson Mohd Rashidi; Endut Rosdisham

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC) code based on single photodiode detection (SPD). SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI) which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received...

  17. Comparison of DVH data from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M A; Kearvell, R; Hooton, B; Spry, N A; Bydder, S A; Joseph, D J; Haworth, A; Hug, B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the variation of dose-volume histogram (DVH) data sourced from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs). Treatment plan exports were obtained from 33 Australian and New Zealand centres during a dosimetry study. Plan information, including DVH data, was exported from the TPS at each centre and reviewed in a digital review system (SWAN). The review system was then used to produce an independent calculation of DVH information for each delineated structure. The relationships between DVHs extracted from each TPS and independently calculated were examined, particularly in terms of the influence of CT scan slice and pixel widths, the resolution of dose calculation grids and the TPS manufacturer. Calculation of total volume and DVH data was consistent between SWAN and each TPS, with the small discrepancies found tending to increase with decreasing structure size. This was significantly influenced by the TPS model used to derive the data. For target structures covered with relatively uniform dose distributions, there was a significant difference between the minimum dose in each TPS-exported DVH and that calculated independently. (note)

  18. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones’ potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls. In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  19. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-10-08

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  20. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems. PMID:25299953

  1. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  2. Comparison of multiple support excitation solution techniques for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, H.P.; Leimbach, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Design and analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems exposed to a variety of dynamic loads often require multiple support excitation analysis by modal or direct time integration methods. Both methods have recently been implemented in the computer program KWUROHR for static and dynamic analysis of piping systems, following the previous implementation of the multiple support excitation response spectrum method (see papers K 6/15 and K 6/15a of the SMiRT-4 Conference). The results of multiple support excitation response spectrum analyses can be examined by carrying out the equivalent time history analyses which do not distort the time phase relationship between the excitations at different support points. A frequent point of discussion is multiple versus single support excitation. A single support excitation analysis is computationally straightforward and tends to be on the conservative side, as the numerical results show. A multiple support excitation analysis, however, does not incur much more additional computer cost than the expenditure for an initial static solution involving three times the number, L, of excitation levels, i.e. 3L static load cases. The results are more realistic than those from a single support excitation analysis. A number of typical nuclear plant piping systems have been analyzed using single and multiple support excitation algorithms for: (1) the response spectrum method, (2) the modal time history method via the Wilson, Newmark and Goldberg integration operators and (3) the direct time history method via the Wilson integration operator. Characteristic results are presented to compare the computational quality of all three methods. (orig.)

  3. Thermal imaging comparison of Signature, Infiniti, and Stellaris phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Na Kyung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Wee, Won Ryang; Miller, Kevin M; Han, Young Keun

    2013-10-12

    To compare the heat production of 3 different phacoemulsification machines under strict laboratory test conditions. More specifically, the thermal behavior was analyzed between the torsional modality of the Infiniti system and longitudinal modalities of the Abbot WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification system and Bausch and Lomb Stellaris system. Experiments were performed under in-vitro conditions in this study.Three phacoemulsification handpieces (Infiniti, Signature, and Stellaris) were inserted into balanced salt solution-filled silicone test chambers and were imaged side-by-side by using a thermal camera. Incision compression was simulated by suspending 30.66-gram weights from the silicone chambers. The irrigation flow rate was set at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cc/min and the phacoemulsification power on the instrument consoles was set at 40, 60, 80, and 100%. The highest temperatures generated from each handpiece around the point of compression were measured at 0, 10, 30, and 60 seconds. Under the same displayed phacoemulsification power settings, the peak temperatures measured when using the Infiniti were lower than when using the other two machines, and the Signature was cooler than the Stellaris. At 10 seconds, torsional phacoemulsification with Infiniti at 100% power showed data comparable to that of the Signature at 80% and the Stellaris at 60%. At 30 seconds, the temperature from the Infiniti at 100% power was lower than the Signature at 60% and the Stellaris at 40%. Torsional phacoemulsification with the Infiniti generates less heat than longitudinal phacoemulsification with the Signature and the Stellaris. Lower operating temperatures indicate lower heat generation within the same fluid volume, which may provide additional thermal protection during cataract surgery.

  4. Thermodynamic comparison of three small-scale gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    . The present work investigates three configurations suitable for small-scale applications because of their simplicity and compactness: the single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles. The impact of different feed compositions and refrigerant properties is analysed. A detailed assessment...... to be more efficient (1000-2000 kJ/kgLNG) than expander-based ones (2500-5000 kJ/kgLNG) over larger ranges of operating conditions, at the expense of a greater system complexity and higher thermal conductance (250-500kW/K against 80-160 kW/K). The results show that the use of different thermodynamic models...

  5. Cognitive Comparisons of Students' Systems Modeling in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Kathleen; Thomas, David

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the cognition of five pairs of high school students over time as they built quantitative ecological models using STELLA software. One pair of students emerged as being particularly proficient at learning to model, and was able to use models productively to explore and explain ecological system behaviors. We present detailed contrasts between this and the other pairs of students' cognitive behaviors while modeling, in three areas that were crucial to their modeling productivity: (a) focusing on model output and net interactions versus on model input and individual relationships when building and revising models, (b) exploring the nature and implications of dependencies and feedbacks versus just creating these as properties of complex systems, and (c) using variables versus constants to represent continuous and periodic functions. We then apply theories of the multifaceted nature of cognition to describe object-level, metalevel, and emotional dimensions of cognitive performance that help to explain the observed differences among students' approaches to STELLA modeling. Finally, we suggest pedagogical strategies for supporting all types of students in learning the central scientific practice of model-based quantitative thinking.

  6. System assessment of helical reactors in comparison with tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Imagawa, S.; Muroga, T.; Sagara, A.; Okamura, S.

    2002-10-01

    A comparative assessment of tokamak and helical reactors has been performed using equivalent physics/engineering model and common costing model. Higher-temperature plasma operation is required in tokamak reactors to increase bootstrap current fraction and to reduce current-drive (CD) power. In helical systems, lower-temperature operation is feasible and desirable to reduce helical ripple transport. The capital cost of helical reactor is rather high, however, the cost of electricity (COE) is almost same as that of tokamak reactor because of smaller re-circulation power (no CD power) and less-frequent blanket replacement (lower neutron wall loading). The standard LHD-type helical reactor with 5% beta value is economically equivalent to the standard tokamak with 3% beta. The COE of lower-aspect ratio helical reactor is on the same level of high-β N tokamak reactors. (author)

  7. Structural Modeling for the Comparison Indicators in Various Electricity Generating Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2006-01-01

    Comparison indicators of various power systems can be yielded by solving a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there are different grades of interdependence among the decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, based on an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, an independence model was developed for the comparison indicators under the assumption that there is no interdependence among the decision elements. For handling different interdependence phenomena (e.g., independence, inner dependence, outer dependence, feedback effect, a combination thereof) among the decision elements, one of the simplest graph structures was investigated on the basis of an analytic network process (ANP) technique. In the present work, the main objective is to study an assessment model with a high grade of interactions among the decision elements. Comparison indicators (e.g., weighting factors, overall priority scores, and risk attitudes towards a nuclear power plant) for seven power generation systems are obtained

  8. Performance comparison analysis library communication cluster system using merge sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, D. A. R.; Ramadhan, M. E.

    2018-04-01

    Begins by using a single processor, to increase the speed of computing time, the use of multi-processor was introduced. The second paradigm is known as parallel computing, example cluster. The cluster must have the communication potocol for processing, one of it is message passing Interface (MPI). MPI have many library, both of them OPENMPI and MPICH2. Performance of the cluster machine depend on suitable between performance characters of library communication and characters of the problem so this study aims to analyze the comparative performances libraries in handling parallel computing process. The case study in this research are MPICH2 and OpenMPI. This case research execute sorting’s problem to know the performance of cluster system. The sorting problem use mergesort method. The research method is by implementing OpenMPI and MPICH2 on a Linux-based cluster by using five computer virtual then analyze the performance of the system by different scenario tests and three parameters for to know the performance of MPICH2 and OpenMPI. These performances are execution time, speedup and efficiency. The results of this study showed that the addition of each data size makes OpenMPI and MPICH2 have an average speed-up and efficiency tend to increase but at a large data size decreases. increased data size doesn’t necessarily increased speed up and efficiency but only execution time example in 100000 data size. OpenMPI has a execution time greater than MPICH2 example in 1000 data size average execution time with MPICH2 is 0,009721 and OpenMPI is 0,003895 OpenMPI can customize communication needs.

  9. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  10. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving

  11. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis

  12. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  13. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  14. Comparison of 3 tall fescue-based stocker systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, N J; Kallenbach, R L

    2010-05-01

    A 2-yr production study was conducted to evaluate 3 systems of growing stocker calves under rotational stocking. One group of steers was stocked on pasture from early April to mid August (spring-stocked steers = SSS), and another group of steers was stocked from early July to late October (fall-stocked steers = FSS). Steers were stratified by BW (n = 72, BW = 229 +/- 11 kg for SSS; n = 72, BW = 248 +/- 18 kg for FSS) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. The 3 treatments were 1) rotationally stocked only (control; CON), steers rotated to a new paddock as forage availability dropped below acceptable levels in the occupied paddock; 2) rotationally stocked with distillers grains (DIST); this was the same as CON except steers were supplemented with varying amounts of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based on forage nutritive value; and 3) rotationally stocked with round-bale silage (SIL); excess forage in spring was harvested and stored as round-bale silage and fed back as needed. Total BW gain/ha over the entire grazing season did not differ between DIST and SIL (P = 0.09) steers, but both were greater than CON (P forage nutritive value resulted in consistent BW gains throughout the grazing study, whereas steers in the SIL and CON treatments gained less BW during the latter portion of the season. Controlling forage maturity by removal in the SIL treatment resulted in total BW gains/ha that were not different than the DIST treatment.

  15. The whereabouts of Migrants : A comparison of Dutch migrant registration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Faassen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The whereabouts of migrants: a comparison of Dutch migrant registration systems. Today, one way of visualising the current refugee and migrant crisis on the outer borders of Europe is by showing a bottleneck in the processing of migrant flows: large groups of people waiting endlessly for their

  16. Stripping reactions in a three-body system. Comparison of DWBA and exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinati, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Stripping reactions 'a estados no continuo' are studied in a three particle system. Since the three-body problem has an exact treatment, comparison will be made between the exact solution and the DWBA model solution. This problem is more complex in the continuous case, as shown in the convergence problem of the standard DWBA amplitude radial integral

  17. Comparison of SOLA-FLX calculations with experiments at systems, science and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, J.K.; Hirt, C.W.; Stein, L.R.

    1977-03-01

    Preliminary results of a comparison between hydroelastic calculations at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and experiments at Systems, Science and Software are described. The axisymmetric geometry is an idealization of a pressurized water reactor at a scale of 1/25. Reasons for some of the discrepancies are described, and suggestions for improving both experiments and calculations are discussed

  18. Comparison of cellulosic ethanol yields from midwestern maize and reconstructed tallgrass prairie systems managed for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequate fertilization over years both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and the 31-spe...

  19. EDNA-An expert software system for comparison and evaluation of DNA profiles in forensic casework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldemann, B.; Dornseifer, S.; Heylen, T.

    2015-01-01

    eDNA is an expert software system for DNA profile comparison, match interpretation and automated report generation in forensic DNA casework. Process automation and intelligent graphical representation maximise reliability of DNA evidence, while facilitating and accelerating the work of DNA experts....

  20. Source-to-Sink: An Earth/Mars Comparison of Boundary Conditions for Eolian Dune Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kocurek, Gary; Ewing, Ryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Eolian dune fields on Earth and Mars evolve as complex systems within a set of boundary conditions. A source-to-sink comparison indicates that although differences exist in sediment production and transport, the systems largely converge at the dune-flow and pattern-development levels, but again differ in modes of accumulation and preservation. On Earth, where winds frequently exceed threshold speeds, dune fields are sourced primarily through deflation of subaqueous deposits as these sediments...

  1. On the fractional systems fault detection: a comparison between fractional and rational residual sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, M.; Aribi, A.; Najar, S.; Abdelkrim, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the interest of extending the dynamic parity space fault detection method for fractional systems. Accordingly, a comparison between fractional and rational residual generators using the later method is presented. An analysis of fractional and rational residuals sensitivity shows the merits of the fractional residual generators. A numerical example illustrating the advantage of using fractional residual generators for fractional systems diagnosis is given.

  2. Comparison of attitude determination approaches using multiple Global Positioning System (GPS antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bing

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available GPS-based attitude system is an important research field, since it is a valuable technique for the attitude determination of platforms. There exist two classes approaches for attitude determination using the GPS. The one determines attitude via baseline estimates in two frames, the other one solves for attitude by incorporating the attitude parameters directly into the GPS measurements. However, comparisons between these two classes approaches have been unexplored. First of all, two algorithms are introduced in detail which on behalf of these two kinds of approaches. Then we present numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of our algorithms and provide a comparison evaluating.

  3. Comparison of elastic and inelastic seismic response of high temperature piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.M.; McCabe, S.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A study of high temperature power piping systems is presented. The response of the piping systems is determined when subjected to seismic disturbances. Two piping systems are presented, a main steam line, and a cold reheat line. Each of the piping systems are modeled using the ANSYS computer program and two analyses are performed on each piping system. First, each piping system is subjected to a seismic disturbance and the pipe material is assumed to remain linear and elastic. Next the analysis is repeated for each piping system when the pipe material is modeled as having elastic-plastic behavior. The results of the linear elastic analysis and elastic-plastic analysis are compared for each of the two pipe models. The pipe stresses, strains, and displacements, are compared. These comparisons are made so that the effect of the material yielding can be determined and to access what error is made when a linear analysis is performed on a system that yields

  4. Valx: A System for Extracting and Structuring Numeric Lab Test Comparison Statements from Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianyong; Liu, Hongfang; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-05-17

    To develop an automated method for extracting and structuring numeric lab test comparison statements from text and evaluate the method using clinical trial eligibility criteria text. Leveraging semantic knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and domain knowledge acquired from the Internet, Valx takes seven steps to extract and normalize numeric lab test expressions: 1) text preprocessing, 2) numeric, unit, and comparison operator extraction, 3) variable identification using hybrid knowledge, 4) variable - numeric association, 5) context-based association filtering, 6) measurement unit normalization, and 7) heuristic rule-based comparison statements verification. Our reference standard was the consensus-based annotation among three raters for all comparison statements for two variables, i.e., HbA1c and glucose, identified from all of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes trials in ClinicalTrials.gov. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring HbA1c comparison statements were 99.6%, 98.1%, 98.8% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 98.8%, 96.9%, 97.8% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring glucose comparison statements were 97.3%, 94.8%, 96.1% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 92.3%, 92.3%, 92.3% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. Valx is effective at extracting and structuring free-text lab test comparison statements in clinical trial summaries. Future studies are warranted to test its generalizability beyond eligibility criteria text. The open-source Valx enables its further evaluation and continued improvement among the collaborative scientific community.

  5. Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.E.; Solsona, J.A.; Valla, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.

  6. Comparison between refrigeration systems: advantages, disadvantages and environmental impact; Comparacion entre sistemas de refrigeracion: ventajas, desventajas y impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo, Roberto Ricardo [CIAR, Congreso Iberoamericano de Aire Acondicionado y Refrigeracion, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: rraguilo@ciudad.com.ar

    2000-07-01

    This work perform a comparison among flow control systems with distinct cooling fluids, including the alternative of secondary cooling fluid, for evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of each system, from the technical, economical and environment impact view points.

  7. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  8. Experimental research and comparison of LDPC and RS channel coding in ultraviolet communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menglong; Han, Dahai; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Guangxin

    2014-03-10

    We have implemented a modified Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codec algorithm in ultraviolet (UV) communication system. Simulations are conducted with measured parameters to evaluate the LDPC-based UV system performance. Moreover, LDPC (960, 480) and RS (18, 10) are implemented and experimented via a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV test bed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation and suggest that based on the given power and 10(-3)bit error rate (BER), in comparison with an uncoded system, average communication distance increases 32% with RS code, while 78% with LDPC code.

  9. Comparison of cold and warm vacuum systems for intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halama, H.J.; Herrera, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    In storage rings employing superconducting magnets, the use of a cold bore as a cryopump appears, at first glance, as simple and economical. Since the selection of a cold or warm vacuum system has far-reaching implications on the basic design, each system is considered in some detail. The theoretical and practical limitations imposed on the maximum beam current by the gas desorption from the chamber walls are discussed. A realistic design of a cold vacuum chamber is developed and then compared with the proposed warm ISABELLE vacuum system. The comparison shows that the warm approach is preferable. (U.S.)

  10. Comparison of two new short-term wind-power forecasting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Rosado, Ignacio J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Fernandez-Jimenez, L. Alfredo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of La Rioja, Logrono (Spain); Monteiro, Claudio; Sousa, Joao; Bessa, Ricardo [FEUP, Fac. Engenharia Univ. Porto (Portugal)]|[INESC - Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents a comparison of two new advanced statistical short-term wind-power forecasting systems developed by two independent research teams. The input variables used in both systems were the same: forecasted meteorological variable values obtained from a numerical weather prediction model; and electric power-generation registers from the SCADA system of the wind farm. Both systems are described in detail and the forecasting results compared, revealing great similarities, although the proposed structures of the two systems are different. The forecast horizon for both systems is 72 h, allowing the use of the forecasted values in electric market operations, as diary and intra-diary power generation bid offers, and in wind-farm maintenance planning. (author)

  11. BER performance comparison of optical CDMA systems with/without turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Chauhan, Vijender S.; Dutta, Yashpal; Sinha, Ravindra K.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed and simulated the BER performance of a turbo coded optical code-division multiple-access (TC-OCDMA) system. A performance comparison has been made between uncoded OCDMA and TC-OCDMA systems employing various OCDMA address codes (optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), Generalized Multiwavelength Prime codes (GMWPC's), and Generalized Multiwavelength Reed Solomon code (GMWRSC's)). The BER performance of TC-OCDMA systems has been analyzed and simulated by varying the code weight of address code employed by the system. From the simulation results, it is observed that lower weight address codes can be employed for TC-OCDMA systems that can have the equivalent BER performance of uncoded systems employing higher weight address codes for a fixed number of active users.

  12. Default mode network links to visual hallucinations: A comparison between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciotti, Raffaella; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Perfetti, Bernardo; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Weis, Luca; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Studying default mode network activity or connectivity in different parkinsonisms, with or without visual hallucinations, could highlight its roles in clinical phenotypes' expression. Multiple system atrophy is the archetype of parkinsonism without visual hallucinations, variably appearing instead in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to evaluate default mode network functions in multiple system atrophy in comparison with PD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluated default mode network activity and connectivity in 15 multiple system atrophy patients, 15 healthy controls, 15 early PD patients matched for disease duration, 30 severe PD patients (15 with and 15 without visual hallucinations), matched with multiple system atrophy for disease severity. Cortical thickness and neuropsychological evaluations were also performed. Multiple system atrophy had reduced default mode network activity compared with controls and PD with hallucinations, and no differences with PD (early or severe) without hallucinations. In PD with visual hallucinations, activity and connectivity was preserved compared with controls and higher than in other groups. In early PD, connectivity was lower than in controls but higher than in multiple system atrophy and severe PD without hallucinations. Cortical thickness was reduced in severe PD, with and without hallucinations, and correlated only with disease duration. Higher anxiety scores were found in patients without hallucinations. Default mode network activity and connectivity was higher in PD with visual hallucinations and reduced in multiple system atrophy and PD without visual hallucinations. Cortical thickness comparisons suggest that functional, rather than structural, changes underlie the activity and connectivity differences. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Cost/benefit comparison of thermal solar energy systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    A comparison is made between thermal solar energy systems of different size for five different applications in the three main climatic zones in Switzerland. Conventional ways of energy conservation are also included in the comparison. A cost/benefit ratio is calculated for each system. The investment is used as a cost indicator whereas the useful solar heat or the conventional energy saving is chosen as benefit. It is shown that the most systems sold today in Switzerland - combined hot water and space heating systems for single family houses - have the poorest cost/benefit ratio among all systems considered in the analysis. Four applications with more favourable cost/benefit ratio are identified. Large systems have generally a better cost/benefit ratio than smaller ones, although the total investment is higher. Photovoltaics is even less favourable than all thermal systems considered. The large scale penetration of technologies with good cost/benefit ratio lies in the public interest. Supporting activities should consider the priority set by the cost/benefit ratio. (author) 1 fig., 14 refs

  14. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M; Zekovic, L; Belca, I

    2010-01-01

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  15. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  16. Comparison of specific production performances by two crystalline silicon PV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two independent photovoltaic (PV systems located close to each other on the south of the Czech Moravian Highland was accomplished. Due to differences in installation parameters; reference quantities were used to calculate transformed data sets for specific production performances comparison. Differences in monthly and annually daily production were performed by t-test.According to obtained results, it was concluded that annually mean daily productions per 1 kWp of installed capacity and per 1 m2 of active area of the panels are significantly better by single crystal silicon installation in tracking system than by stable installation of a different technology of single crystal silicon. However, comparing this performance per 1 m2 of occupied land by studied power-plants the stable installation performed higher production rates on daily mean basis in majority of months of the year 2010 as well as by annually mean daily production.

  17. Comparison of systems for memory allocation in the C programming language

    OpenAIRE

    Zavrtanik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis describes memory allocation. Work begins with description of mechanism, system calls and data structures used in memory allocators. Goals of memory allocation ares listed along with problems which must be avoided. Afterwards construction and allocating of popular memory allocators is described. Work ends with comparison of memory allocators based on time of execution of programs and memory usage, on which conclusion is based.

  18. A Study on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Management Systems Adoption: Models Comparison Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chun Yeh; Ming-Shu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Using Linear Structural Relation model (LISREL model) as analysis method and technology acceptance model and decomposed theory of planned behavior as research foundation, this study approachesmainly from the angle of behavioral intention to examine the influential factors of 421 employees adopting knowledge management systems and in the meantime to compare the two method models mentioned on the top. According to the research, there is no, in comparison with technology acceptance model anddeco...

  19. Comparison of pituitary and recombinant human thyrotropin standards in an immunoradiometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanca Fernandez, Silvia; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Julio Cesar; Nisembaum Alas, Amaparo; Sevy Gonzalez, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results of two standards of human thyrotropin of pituitaries (B) and recombinant (C) origen supplied by the Instituto of pesquisas Energeticas y Nucleares, Brazil, were compared in our immunoradiometric reference system that use an human thyrotropin pituitary standard of local production (A). This work was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency for an inter-regional comparison and set up of a reference standard

  20. The development of an automatic recognition system for earmark and earprint comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Stéphane; Pasquier, Julien; Champod, Christophe

    2012-10-10

    The value of earmarks as an efficient means of personal identification is still subject to debate. It has been argued that the field is lacking a firm systematic and structured data basis to help practitioners to form their conclusions. Typically, there is a paucity of research guiding as to the selectivity of the features used in the comparison process between an earmark and reference earprints taken from an individual. This study proposes a system for the automatic comparison of earprints and earmarks, operating without any manual extraction of key-points or manual annotations. For each donor, a model is created using multiple reference prints, hence capturing the donor within source variability. For each comparison between a mark and a model, images are automatically aligned and a proximity score, based on a normalized 2D correlation coefficient, is calculated. Appropriate use of this score allows deriving a likelihood ratio that can be explored under known state of affairs (both in cases where it is known that the mark has been left by the donor that gave the model and conversely in cases when it is established that the mark originates from a different source). To assess the system performance, a first dataset containing 1229 donors elaborated during the FearID research project was used. Based on these data, for mark-to-print comparisons, the system performed with an equal error rate (EER) of 2.3% and about 88% of marks are found in the first 3 positions of a hitlist. When performing print-to-print transactions, results show an equal error rate of 0.5%. The system was then tested using real-case data obtained from police forces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elastic and plastic buckling of shells. The CEASEMT system. Available results. Comparison with tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Roche, R.; Jeanpierre, F.; Goldstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Specific routines for the analysis of elastic and elastic-plastic buckling have been written in the CEASEMT system of analysis by the finite element method. The basis of formulation are reviewed with emphasis on important points like: the correct and comprehensive formulation of the second order terms, the nonconservative loads. Some computational results are given and a comparison is made with experimental results (Euler type buckling of a long tube, elastic-plastic buckling of torispherical ends) [fr

  2. Comparison of the Hospice Systems in the United States, Japan and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yul Lee, RN, PhD

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: Based on the comparison of three countries, the most interesting thing was that home hospice care accounted for more than 90% of all hospice services in the United States and Taiwan. The results of this study will aid the countries that are in the process of developing a hospice system including Korea, which has been implementing a pilot project only for hospital hospice services.

  3. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  4. Validation and Inter-comparison Against Observations of GODAE Ocean View Ocean Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Smith, G. C.; Lu, Y.; Hernandez, F.; Regnier, C.; Drevillon, M.; Ryan, A.; Martin, M.; Spindler, T. D.; Brassington, G. B.; Oke, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    For weather forecasts, validation of forecast performance is done at the end user level as well as by the meteorological forecast centers. In the development of Ocean Prediction Capacity, the same level of care for ocean forecast performance and validation is needed. Herein we present results from a validation against observations of 6 Global Ocean Forecast Systems under the GODAE OceanView International Collaboration Network. These systems include the Global Ocean Ice Forecast System (GIOPS) developed by the Government of Canada, two systems PSY3 and PSY4 from the French Mercator-Ocean Ocean Forecasting Group, the FOAM system from UK met office, HYCOM-RTOFS from NOAA/NCEP/NWA of USA, and the Australian Bluelink-OceanMAPS system from the CSIRO, the Australian Meteorological Bureau and the Australian Navy.The observation data used in the comparison are sea surface temperature, sub-surface temperature, sub-surface salinity, sea level anomaly, and sea ice total concentration data. Results of the inter-comparison demonstrate forecast performance limits, strengths and weaknesses of each of the six systems. This work establishes validation protocols and routines by which all new prediction systems developed under the CONCEPTS Collaborative Network will be benchmarked prior to approval for operations. This includes anticipated delivery of CONCEPTS regional prediction systems over the next two years including a pan Canadian 1/12th degree resolution ice ocean prediction system and limited area 1/36th degree resolution prediction systems. The validation approach of comparing forecasts to observations at the time and location of the observation is called Class 4 metrics. It has been adopted by major international ocean prediction centers, and will be recommended to JCOMM-WMO as routine validation approach for operational oceanography worldwide.

  5. Comparison between wavelet and wavelet packet transform features for classification of faults in distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind, Pratul

    2012-11-01

    The ability to identify and classify all ten types of faults in a distribution system is an important task for protection engineers. Unlike transmission system, distribution systems have a complex configuration and are subjected to frequent faults. In the present work, an algorithm has been developed for identifying all ten types of faults in a distribution system by collecting current samples at the substation end. The samples are subjected to wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network in order to yield better classification results. A comparison of results between wavelet transform and wavelet packet transform is also presented thereby justifying the feature extracted from wavelet packet transform yields promising results. It should also be noted that current samples are collected after simulating a 25kv distribution system in PSCAD software.

  6. Comparison Study of Power System Small Signal Stability Improvement Using SSSC and STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    the connected power system, both SSSC and STATCOM are able to participate in the power system inter-area oscillation damping by changing the compensated reactance or the provided reactive power. This paper analyses the influence of SSSC and STATCOM on power system small signal stability. The damping controller...... schemes for SSSC and STATCOM are presented and discussed. The IEEE 39-bus New England system model as the test system is built in DIgSIELNT PowerFactory, in which the damping control strategies for both SSSC and STATCOM are validated by time domain simulations and modal analysis. Furthermore, comparison......A static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) has the ability to emulate a reactance in series with the connected transmission line. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is able to provide the reactive power to an electricity network. When fed with some supplementary signals from...

  7. Decision support systems in nuclear emergencies: A scenario-based comparison of domestic and reference tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Slavnicu, S. D.; Slavnicu, E.; Vamanu, B.

    2004-01-01

    The article reports selective results of a comparison between RODOS - an emerging decision support system for the management of nuclear emergencies in Europe developed by an international research consortium under EEC aegis, and a resident software package developed and maintained for similar purposes at IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Reproducible similarity patterns obtained in the output data distributions provide for simple normalising procedures that may ensure convergent radiological assessments. When properly consolidated on a sufficient scenario casuistry, such procedures could lend a certain resilience to domestic decision support tools over the interim lead time required by the full implementation of RODOS, or other major league, internationally accepted reference systems. (authors)

  8. [The quality of the German health-care system in an international comparison - a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerer, M; Emmert, M; Schöffski, O

    2013-08-01

    Studies assessing the quality of the German health-care system in an international comparison come to different results. Therefore, this review aims to investigate how the German health-care system is evaluated in comparison to other health-care systems by reviewing international publications. Results show starting points for ways to improve the German health-care system, to maintain and expand its strengths as well as to derive strategies for solving identified problems. A systematic review searching different databases [library catalogues, WorldCat (including MEDLINE and OAIster-search), German National Library, Google Scholar and others]. Search requests were addressed to English or German language publications for the time period 2000-2010 (an informal search was conducted in October 2011 for an update). Results of the identified studies were aggregated and main statements derived. In total, 13 publications assessing the German health-care system in an international comparison were identified. These comparisons are based on 377 measures. After aggregation, 244 substantially different indicators remained, which were dedicated to 14 categories. It became apparent that the German health-care system can be characterised by a high level of expenses, a well-developed health-care infrastructure as well as a high availability of personal and material resources. Outcome measures demonstrate heterogeneous results. It can be stated that, particularly in this field, there is potential for further improvement. The utilisation of health-care services is high, the access is mostly not regulated and out of pocket payments can pose a barrier for patients. Waiting times are not regarded as a major weakness. Although civic satisfaction seems to be acceptable, a large portion of the citizens calls for elementary modifications. Especially, more patient-centred health-care delivery should be addressed as well as management of information and the adoption of meaningful electronic

  9. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. A. A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC code based on single photodiode detection (SPD. SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received power. The hybrid SCM OCDMA system shows better performance compare to conventional OCDMA system although the number of users involved is very high. This is because, for hybrid SCM OCDMA system, the number of users can be increased by increasing the number of subcarriers without affect the number of code length and optical codes. Increasing the number of subcarriers will enhance the power consumption by applying hybrid SCM system in OCDMA compared to the conventional OCDMA system. This is because increasing the number of users for hybrid SCM system does not affects the number of code length and the number of optical codes but only increase the number of subcarriers. Thus, hybrid SCM OCDMA system has to increase spectral efficiency and produce better performance compared to conventional of OCDMA system.

  10. Evaluation and comparison of closed-loop wash-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.M.; Greer, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Effluent from vehicle and equipment cleaning is known to contain a variety of potential pollutants, the most common being hydrocarbons and suspended solids. Proper treatment and discharge of this effluent is a growing concern as environmental awareness increases. In the United States, discharge of this effluent to municipal sewage treatment systems requires a permit from local authorities, discharge to surface waters requires a federal permit and, in most cases, discharge to the ground in prohibited. Furthermore, discharge to ground and surface waters can cause soil or groundwater contamination resulting in property devaluation, adverse impact on human health, fines from regulatory agencies, expensive cleanup and negative publicity. Effluent from vehicle washing typically does not meet the minimum pollutant levels allowed by regulatory agencies for discharge to surface waters or sewage treatment plants. Because of the liability associated with discharge to ground and surface waters and the difficulty in meeting municipal sewer discharge permit requirements, closed-loop wastewater treatment is an attractive alternative to discharge. Evaluation and comparison of systems from each category constitute the basis of this paper. Factors involved in selecting a system and available water-treatment technologies are discussed. The conclusion summarizes the results of the system comparison and makes recommendations for selecting and installing closed-loop water treatment systems for vehicle and equipment cleaning

  11. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Final report, Inter-group comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The individual tests are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 8 and Volume 11, and are summarized in Volume 1. Inter-group comparisons are addressed in this document, Volume 9. These comparisons are grouped as follows: mapping versus SBLOCA transients, SBLOCA, pump effects, and the effects of noncondensible gases. Appendix A provides an index and description of the microfiched plots for each test, which are enclosed with the corresponding Volumes 2 through 8. 147 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. A graphical criterion for working fluid selection and thermodynamic system comparison in waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Huan; Li, Ming-Jia; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we proposed a graphical criterion called CE diagram by achieving the Pareto optimal solutions of the annual cash flow and exergy efficiency. This new graphical criterion enables both working fluid selection and thermodynamic system comparison for waste heat recovery. It's better than the existing criterion based on single objective optimization because it is graphical and intuitionistic in the form of diagram. The features of CE diagram were illustrated by studying 5 examples with different heat-source temperatures (ranging between 100 °C to 260 °C), 26 chlorine-free working fluids and two typical ORC systems including basic organic Rankine cycle(BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). It is found that the proposed graphical criterion is feasible and can be applied to any closed loop waste heat recovery thermodynamic systems and working fluids. - Highlights: • A graphical method for ORC system comparison/working fluid selection was proposed. • Multi-objectives genetic algorithm (MOGA) was applied for optimizing ORC systems. • Application cases were performed to demonstrate the usage of the proposed method.

  13. Economic Comparison of Two Business Models for Implementation of Small Integrated PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matak, N.; Krajacic, G.; Jerkic, E.; Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared two different models for the implementation of small photovoltaic solar systems in the Croatia. The new prosumer model presented in the new Croatian law on the Renewable Energy Sources and Highly Efficient Cogeneration (OG 100/15) and PV ESCO model which is similar to net metering. The PV ESCO model is developed from authors to determine possibility to raise payback period of small integrated PV systems. The comparison was done on a 15-minute basis and there were compared values of Simple Payback Period (SPP) for different locations and systems size considering electricity demand and market prices. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) were compared for 4 different cases. Conducted comparison showed that PV ESCO model is always more favourable for the owner of PV system in terms of lower SPP and higher IRR and NPV. It has been noticed that for systems higher than 5 kWp use of PV ESCO model is recommended. For smaller systems it is not always clear which model should be used, since some losses are generated in the system on the side of the electricity supply company. For smaller systems from 2 to 5 kWp, PV ESCO model has SPP from 7.5 to 13 years and SPP value for the prosumer model is 8.7 to 15 years. This difference is higher when comparing PV system from 6 to 10 kWp. SPP for PV ESCO model, in that case, is from 10 to 13 years and in the prosumer model is from 17.5 to 28 years.(author).

  14. Comparison of cumulative dissipated energy between the Infiniti and Centurion phacoemulsification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ming Chen,1 Erik Anderson,2 Geoffrey Hill,3 John J Chen,4 Thomas Patrianakos2 1Department of Surgery, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 2Department of Ophthalmology, John H Stroger, Jr Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, 3Department of Ophthalmology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 4Biostatistics Core, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA Purpose: To compare cumulative dissipated energy between two phacoemulsification machines. Setting: An ambulatory surgical center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: A total of 2,077 consecutive cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification performed by five surgeons from November 2012 to November 2014 were included in the study; 1,021 consecutive cases were performed using the Infiniti Vision System, followed by 1,056 consecutive cases performed using the Centurion Vision System. Results: The Centurion phacoemulsification system required less energy to remove a cataractous lens with an adjusted average energy reduction of 38% (5.09 percent-seconds (P<0.001 across all surgeons in comparison to the Infiniti phacoemulsification system. The reduction in cumulative dissipated energy was statistically significant for each surgeon, with a range of 29%–45% (2.25–12.54 percent-seconds (P=0.005–<0.001. Cumulative dissipated energy for both the Infiniti and Centurion systems varied directly with patient age, increasing an average of 2.38 percent-seconds/10 years. Conclusion: The Centurion phacoemulsification system required less energy to remove a cataractous lens in comparison to the Infiniti phacoemulsification system. Keywords: phacoemulsification, cumulative dissipated energy, Centurion Vision System, Infiniti Vision System

  15. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  16. COMPARISON OF RECENTLY USED PHACOEMULSIFICATION SYSTEMS USING A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiannan; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Caimin; Ying, Xiaohua; Zou, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    To compare the recently used phacoemulsification systems using a health technology assessment (HTA) model. A self-administered questionnaire, which included questions to gauge on the opinions of the recently used phacoemulsification systems, was distributed to the chief cataract surgeons in the departments of ophthalmology of eighteen tertiary hospitals in Shanghai, China. A series of senile cataract patients undergoing phacoemulsification surgery were enrolled in the study. The surgical results and the average costs related to their surgeries were all recorded and compared for the recently used phacoemulsification systems. The four phacoemulsification systems currently used in Shanghai are the Infiniti Vision, Centurion Vision, WhiteStar Signature, and Stellaris Vision Enhancement systems. All of the doctors confirmed that the systems they used would help cataract patients recover vision. A total of 150 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification surgery were enrolled in the present study. A significant difference was found among the four groups in cumulative dissipated energy, with the lowest value found in the Centurion group. No serious complications were observed and a positive trend in visual acuity was found in all four groups after cataract surgery. The highest total cost of surgery was associated with procedures conducted using the Centurion Vision system, and significant differences between systems were mainly because of the cost of the consumables used in the different surgeries. This HTA comparison of four recently used phacoemulsification systems found that each of system offers a satisfactory vision recovery outcome, but differs in surgical efficacy and costs.

  17. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF USART COMMUNICATION BETWEEN REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM (RTOS AND NATIVE INTERRUPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novian Habibie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Comunication between microcontrollers is one of the crucial point in embedded sytems. On the other hand, embedded system must be able to run many parallel task simultaneously. To handle this, we need a reliabe system that can do a multitasking without decreasing every task’s performance. The most widely used methods for multitasking in embedded systems are using Interrupt Service Routine (ISR or using Real Time Operating System (RTOS. This research compared perfomance of USART communication on system with RTOS to a system that use interrupt. Experiments run on two identical development board XMega A3BU-Xplained which used intenal sensor (light and temperature and used servo as external component. Perfomance comparison done by counting ping time (elapsing time to transmit data and get a reply as a mark that data has been received and compare it. This experiments divided into two scenarios: (1 system loaded with many tasks, (2 system loaded with few tasks. Result of the experiments show that communication will be faster if system only loaded with few tasks. System with RTOS has won from interrupt in case (1, but lose to interrupt in case (2.

  18. A Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms for Tracking Time-Varying Recursive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made of the behaviour of some evolutionary algorithms in time-varying adaptive recursive filter systems. Simulations show that an algorithm including random immigrants outperforms a more conventional algorithm using the breeder genetic algorithm as the mutation operator when the time variation is discontinuous, but neither algorithm performs well when the time variation is rapid but smooth. To meet this deficit, a new hybrid algorithm which uses a hill climber as an additional genetic operator, applied for several steps at each generation, is introduced. A comparison is made of the effect of applying the hill climbing operator a few times to all members of the population or a larger number of times solely to the best individual; it is found that applying to the whole population yields the better results, substantially improved compared with those obtained using earlier methods.

  19. Visualizing request-flow comparison to aid performance diagnosis in distributed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Raja R; Shafer, Ilari; Mazurek, Michelle L; Ganger, Gregory R

    2013-12-01

    Distributed systems are complex to develop and administer, and performance problem diagnosis is particularly challenging. When performance degrades, the problem might be in any of the system's many components or could be a result of poor interactions among them. Recent research efforts have created tools that automatically localize the problem to a small number of potential culprits, but research is needed to understand what visualization techniques work best for helping distributed systems developers understand and explore their results. This paper compares the relative merits of three well-known visualization approaches (side-by-side, diff, and animation) in the context of presenting the results of one proven automated localization technique called request-flow comparison. Via a 26-person user study, which included real distributed systems developers, we identify the unique benefits that each approach provides for different problem types and usage modes.

  20. Inter comparison of REPAS and APSRA methodologies for passive system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.; Singh, Suneet; Varde, P.V.; Verma, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of passive systems in the innovative nuclear reactors puts demand on the estimation of the reliability assessment of these passive systems. The passive systems operate on the driving forces such as natural circulation, gravity, internal stored energy etc. which are moderately weaker than that of active components. Hence, phenomenological failures (virtual components) are equally important as that of equipment failures (real components) in the evaluation of passive systems reliability. The contribution of the mechanical components to the passive system reliability can be evaluated in a classical way using the available component reliability database and well known methods. On the other hand, different methods are required to evaluate the reliability of processes like thermohydraulics due to lack of adequate failure data. The research is ongoing worldwide on the reliability assessment of the passive systems and their integration into PSA, however consensus is not reached. Two of the most widely used methods are Reliability Evaluation of Passive Systems (REPAS) and Assessment of Passive System Reliability (APSRA). Both these methods characterize the uncertainties involved in the design and process parameters governing the function of the passive system. However, these methods differ in the quantification of passive system reliability. Inter comparison among different available methods provides useful insights into the strength and weakness of different methods. This paper highlights the results of the thermal hydraulic analysis of a typical passive isolation condenser system carried out using RELAP mode 3.2 computer code applying REPAS and APSRA methodologies. The failure surface is established for the passive system under consideration and system reliability has also been evaluated using these methods. Challenges involved in passive system reliabilities are identified, which require further attention in order to overcome the shortcomings of these

  1. Comparison measurements of the official individual dosimetry systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.

    1988-01-01

    At present, about 220,000 radiation workers are subject to individual monitoring of external radiation in the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with the X-Ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Each radiation worker must wear at least one individual dosemeter provided by one of the five officially authorized dosemeter services. Requirements for these dosemeter services with respect to technical equipment and personnel are published in the form of a national directive. The five dosemeter services must participate in the comparison measurements for photon radiation with the official dosemeters issued by them. The comparison measurements are organized at least once a year by the Physicalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in agreement with the Federal Minister of Economics. Film dosemeters evaluated with a filter analysis procedure are most frequently used (96.% of all evaluations in 1984) to monitor the whole body exposure to photon radiation. Glass dosemeters play a minor role (0.5%). They are issued by only two officially authorized dosemeter services and are approved for measurements of photons with energies above 45 keV. According to the national directive, thermoluminescence dosemeters may be used only for partial body dosimetry of photon and beta radiation (2.8%). Nuclear track emulsion films are distributed to measure neutrons of energies above 0.5 MeV. A thermoluminescence albedo dosemeter for the measurement of less energetic neutrons is being introduced. The dosimetry systems involved in the comparison measurements and the operational radiation protection monitoring system of the Federal Republic of Germany are described elsewhere. The objective of this work is to describe the performance of the comparison measurements and to give some results obtained from 1979 to 1984

  2. Endodontic retreatment: clinical comparison of reciprocating systems versus rotary system in disinfecting root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Freitas, Lilian F; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Fernandes, Aleteia M; Leite, Fabio R M; Gomes, Ana P M; Camões, Izabel C G

    2015-07-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of single-file reciprocating systems and rotary systems in removing endotoxins and cultivable bacteria in endodontic retreatment. Thirty endodontically treated teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis were selected. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the system used: WaveOne (n = 10), Reciproc instrument (n = 10), and ProTaper Universal Retreatment system (n = 10). Samples were collected before and after chemomechanical preparation. The irrigation was performed by using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay test was used to quantify endotoxins. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial colony-forming unit counts. At baseline, endotoxins and cultivable bacteria were recovered from 100% of the root canal samples in a median value of 5.84 EU/mL and 4.98 × 10(3) CFU/mL, respectively. After CMP, no differences were found in the median percentage values of endotoxin reduction achieved with reciprocating systems-WaveOne [94.11%] and Reciproc [93.29%] and with rotary systems-ProTaper [94.98%] (P > 0.05). Both single-file reciprocating systems [WaveOne (98.27%) and Reciproc (99.54%)] and rotary system [ProTaper (98.73%)] were effective in reducing bacterial load (P > 0.05). Moreover, no differences were found among the systems tested. The Reciproc and WaveOne reciprocating systems were as effective as the ProTaper system for removal of endotoxins and bacteria in endodontic retreatment. All systems tested were effective to remove cultivable bacteria and endotoxin in endodontic retreatment. As no differences among systems were observed, it is possible to suggest that clinicians should choose the preferred technique to perform endodontic.

  3. A comparison of optimal semi-active suspension systems regarding vehicle ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulocheris, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, Georgios; Chrysos, Emmanouil

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comparison of the main semi active suspension systems used in a passenger car, after having optimized the suspension systems of the vehicle model in respect with ride comfort and road holding. Thus, a half car model, equipped with controllable dampers, along with a seat and a driver was implemented. Semi-active suspensions have received a lot of attention since they seem to provide the best compromise between cost (energy consumption, actuators/sensors hardware) and performance in comparison with active and passive suspensions. In this work, the semi active suspension systems studied are comfort oriented and consist of (a) the two version of Skyhook control (two states skyhook and skyhook linear approximation damper), (b) the acceleration driven damper (ADD), (c) the power driven damper (PDD), (d) the combination of Skyhook and ADD (Mixed Skyhook-ADD) and (e) the combination of the two with the use of a sensor. The half car model equipped with the above suspension systems was excited by a road bump, and was optimized using genetic algorithms (GA) in respect with ride comfort and road holding. This study aims to highlight how the optimization of the vehicle model could lead to the best compromise between ride comfort and road holding, overcoming their well-known trade-off. The optimum results were compared with important performance metrics regarding the vehicle’s dynamic behaviour in general.

  4. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology between levelized method and the evaluation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengli

    2005-01-01

    Different methodology would bring different results. This paper includes an introduction of levelized discounted generation cost methodology as well as that of Chinese system, respectively. In general, there have two key indices in Chinese evaluation system, they are generation cost and electricity sales price to the grid. This paper contains a description of cost breakdown and calculation procedure for each index. Comparison between these two methods and the primary differences are also included. For the first time, equations for calculating generation cost and selling price to the grid based on Chinese system have been derived, and its accuracy has been shown through running the special computer program. The two systems are quite different in many aspects. Firstly, levelized generation cost is always calculated with discounted method that excluded in Chinese system. Secondly, levelized generation cost is a single and constant value that would not change over the economic life while generation cost in Chinese system is estimated on a year by year base. Thirdly, the makeup of generation cost in Chinese system is different from that of levelized system since taxes and dividend share removed. Finally, the electricity sales price in Chinese system is more similar to levelized generation cost. (authors)

  5. VerSi. A method for the quantitative comparison of repository systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, T.U.; Ruebel, A.; Resele, G. [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Moenig, J. [GRS Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Decision making and design processes for radioactive waste repositories are guided by safety goals that need to be achieved. In this context, the comparison of different disposal concepts can provide relevant support to better understand the performance of the repository systems. Such a task requires a method for a traceable comparison that is as objective as possible. We present a versatile method that allows for the comparison of different disposal concepts in potentially different host rocks. The condition for the method to work is that the repository systems are defined to a comparable level including designed repository structures, disposal concepts, and engineered and geological barriers which are all based on site-specific safety requirements. The method is primarily based on quantitative analyses and probabilistic model calculations regarding the long-term safety of the repository systems under consideration. The crucial evaluation criteria for the comparison are statistical key figures of indicators that characterize the radiotoxicity flux out of the so called containment-providing rock zone (einschlusswirksamer Gebirgsbereich). The key figures account for existing uncertainties with respect to the actual site properties, the safety relevant processes, and the potential future impact of external processes on the repository system, i.e., they include scenario-, process-, and parameter-uncertainties. The method (1) leads to an evaluation of the retention and containment capacity of the repository systems and its robustness with respect to existing uncertainties as well as to potential external influences; (2) specifies the procedures for the system analyses and the calculation of the statistical key figures as well as for the comparative interpretation of the key figures; and (3) also gives recommendations and sets benchmarks for the comparative assessment of the repository systems under consideration based on the key figures and additional qualitative

  6. Project JADE. Long-term function and safety. Comparison of repository systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars; Pers, K.; Wiborgh, M.

    2001-12-01

    A comparison of the KBS-3 V(ertical deposition), KBS-3 H(orizontal deposition) and MLH repository systems with regard to the long-term repository performance and the radionuclide migration is presented in the report. Several differences between the repository systems have been identified. The differences are mainly related to the: distance between canister and backfilled tunnels, excavated rock volumes, deposition hole direction. The overall conclusion is that the differences are in general quite small with regard to the repository function and safety. None of the differences are of such importance for the long-term repository performance and radionuclide migration that they discriminate any of the repository systems. The differences between the two KBS-3 systems are small. Based on this study, there is no reason to change from the reference system KBS-3 V to KBS-3 H. MLH has the potential to be a very robust system, especially in a long-term perspective. However, the MLH system will require extensive research, development, and analysis before it will be as confident as the reference repository system, KBS-3 V. Although the MLH and KBS-3 H systems are in some ways favourable compared to the reference system KBS-3 V, the overall conclusion is that the KBS-3 V system is still a very attractive system. A major advantage with KBS-3 V is that it is by far the most investigated and developed system. The JADE-project was initiated in 1996, and the main part of the study was carried out during 1997 and 1998. The JADE study is consequently based on presumptions that were valid a few years ago. Some of these presumptions have been modified since then. The new presumptions are however not judged to change the overall conclusions

  7. Comparison of preliminary D-T and ''catalyzed'' D-D system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the research currently underway is to provide technological and eventual economic comparison of a reference D-T reactor to a ''catalyzed'' D-D reactor. Two separate reactor designs are delineated and examined for this purpose. These systems include plasma parameters, blanket and shield configurations, magnetic coil configurations, and power conversion systems, including a divertor-direct convertor system for the D-D design. The initial conclusions reached are as follows: (a) no extraordinary requirements in the D-D reactor in the areas of blanket or magnet technology, (b) advantageous use of minimum activity blankets and shields, (c) increased overall efficiency via introduction of divertor-direct convertor subsystem in D-D design and (d) 65 percent increase in the toroidal radius of the D-D design compared to the D-T reference value

  8. Open Access Intellectual Property Systems: A Comparison to Commercial Solutions in Competitive Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cerny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ICT/IS management plays an important role within the framework of innovation management, and one of the key elements of this role is the support of Competitive Intelligence in the context of innovation processes. The strategic information needs of innovation management are also directed towards different kinds of intellectual property (IP information entities and commercialization. The purpose of this paper is to define these entities and IP information systems as an important part of a company’s Competitive Intelligence Unit for competitor analysis and technology trends. The open access IP information systems will be analysed together with commercial solutions.. The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of open access IP systems compared to added value commercial solutions for competitive intelligence purposes for SMEs. The comparison will be carried out using examples of patent searches within a concrete dataset.

  9. Comparison of a multispectral vision system and a colorimeter for the assessment of meat color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Jensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance...... are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods...... accounting for other sources of variation leading to the conclusion that color assessment using a multispectral vision system is superior to traditional colorimeter assessments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  11. Energy comparison between CO2 cascade systems and state of the art R404A systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Pachai, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    , freezer or cooling plant is being built in Denmark that requires HFC¿s or other greenhouse effect gases.1¿ Taxes linked to the GWP value and phase out plans have lead to intense investigations in alternative solutions. Amongst these systems are also cascade systems for supermarkets with CO2 as working...... fluid for both medium and low temperature applications. In 2002 two of these cascade systems with CO2 and R404A were installed. The displays cabinets and cooling/freezing rooms are cooled directly by CO2 in the low temperature part of the cascade plant, while the high temperature part of the cascade...

  12. An Historical Analysis and Comparison of the Military Retirement System and the Federal Employee Retirement system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breth, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    The most significant change to private sector as well as civil service employee retirement systems over the past 15 years has been the transition from defined benefit to defined contribution retirement plans...

  13. Pluri-energy analysis of livestock systems--a comparison of dairy systems in different territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-15

    This paper introduces a generic assessment method called pluri-energy analysis. It aims to assess the types of energy used in agricultural systems and their conversion efficiencies. Four types of energy are considered: fossil energy, gross energy contained in the biomass, energy from human and animal labor and solar energy. The method was applied to compare smallholder low-input dairy-production systems, which are common in developing countries, to the high-input systems encountered in OECD countries. The pluri-energy method is useful for analyzing the functioning of agricultural systems by highlighting their modes of energy management. Since most dairy systems in South Mali (SM) are low-input systems, they are primarily based on solar and labor energy types and do not require substantial fossil-energy inputs to produce milk. Farms in Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR) show intermediate values of fossil-energy use for milk production, similar to that found in the literature for typical European systems. However, fossil-energy use for milk production is higher on PC than BR farms because of a higher proportion of maize silage in the forage area; grazing pastures are more common on BR farms. Farms on Reunion Island (RI) require a relatively large amount of fossil energy to produce milk, mainly because the island context limits the amount of arable land. Consequently, milk production is based on large imports of concentrated feed with a high fossil-energy cost. The method also enables assessment of fossil-energy-use efficiency in order to increase the performance of biological processes in agricultural systems. Comparing the low-input systems represented by SM to the high-input systems represented by RI, PC and BR, an increase in solar-energy conversion, and thus land productivity, was observed due to intensification via increased fossil-energy use. Conversely, though fossil-energy use at the herd level increased milk productivity, its effect on gross

  14. Comparison of cumulative dissipated energy between the Infiniti and Centurion phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Anderson, Erik; Hill, Geoffrey; Chen, John J; Patrianakos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To compare cumulative dissipated energy between two phacoemulsification machines. An ambulatory surgical center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Retrospective chart review. A total of 2,077 consecutive cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification performed by five surgeons from November 2012 to November 2014 were included in the study; 1,021 consecutive cases were performed using the Infiniti Vision System, followed by 1,056 consecutive cases performed using the Centurion Vision System. The Centurion phacoemulsification system required less energy to remove a cataractous lens with an adjusted average energy reduction of 38% (5.09 percent-seconds) (PInfiniti phacoemulsification system. The reduction in cumulative dissipated energy was statistically significant for each surgeon, with a range of 29%-45% (2.25-12.54 percent-seconds) (P=0.005-Infiniti and Centurion systems varied directly with patient age, increasing an average of 2.38 percent-seconds/10 years. The Centurion phacoemulsification system required less energy to remove a cataractous lens in comparison to the Infiniti phacoemulsification system.

  15. Comparison of the Hungarian and Scottish communicable disease control systems: lessons for a convergent European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, D; Bhopal, R

    2010-03-01

    European public health systems are converging, particularly in relation to communicable disease control. This process requires mutual learning through comparison; this was undertaken for Scotland (population 5.1 million) and Hungary (population 10.5 million). Using the official web- and paper-based publications, the practice of communicable disease control was compared between the two countries in three specific fields: seasonal influenza surveillance; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance; and the childhood vaccination system. The organization structure for communicable disease control was very similar, comprising of government, national, regional and sub-regional tiers in Hungary, and government, national and local (sub-regional) tiers in Scotland. The influenza surveillance system in both countries was mainly based on the 'fluspotter system'. In the 2005/6, 2006/7 and 2007/8 seasons, there was no exceptional influenza activity in either country. Although the data collection and surveillance system of HIV is similar, there was a massive difference in the number of reported cases. In 2007, the cumulative incidence of reported HIV cases was 14.74/100,000 in Hungary and 105.21/100,000 in Scotland. The routine childhood vaccination schedule is similar in the two countries. However, while the vaccine uptake rates were nearly 100% in Hungary, these rates were lower in Scotland. The numbers of reported pertussis (98 vs 48), mumps (2741 vs 16), rubella (146 vs 0) and measles (168 vs zero) cases were significantly higher in Scotland than in Hungary. There were no differences for polio and chickenpox. The economic difference between the two countries not reflected in the efficiency of communicable disease control and in communicable disease patterns. The historical, political and cultural differences seem more determinative in this comparison. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison Study on the Integrated Risk Estimation for Various Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, J. J.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, J. T.; Min, K. R.; Kim, K. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a system for the comparative analysis of the environmental impacts, risks, health effects, and social acceptance for various electricity generation systems and a computational framework and necessary databases. In this study, the second phase of the nuclear research and development program(2002-2004), the methodologies for the comparative analysis of the environmental impacts, risks, and health effects for various electricity generation systems was investigated and applied to reference power plants. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology as a comparative analysis tool for the environmental impacts was adopted and applied to fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. The scope of the analysis considered in this study are the construction, operation/fuel cycle), and demolition of each power generation system. In the risk analysis part, the empirical and analytical methods were adopted and applied to fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. In the empirical risk assessment part, we collected historical experiences of worldwide energy-related accidents with fatalities over the last 30 years. The scope of the analysis considered in this study are the construction, operation (fuel cycle), and demolition stages of each power generation systems. The risks for the case of nuclear power plants which have potential releases of radioactive materials were estimated In a probabilistic way (PSA) by considering the occurrence of severe accidents and compared with the risks of other electricity generation systems. The health effects testimated as external cost) resulting from the operation of nuclear, coal, and hydro power systems were estimated and compared by using the program developed by the IAEA. Regarding a comprehensive comparison of the various power systems, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is introduced to aggregate the diverse information under conflicting decision criteria. Social aspect is treated by a web

  17. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-01-01

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8-9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies' aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1'' x 1'', 2'' x 4'' x 4'', 2'' x 4'' x16'', and an ''up-looking'' 2'' x 4'' x 4''. The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center - Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2'' diameter x 2'' long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24-27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test

  18. System thermodynamic performance comparison of CO2-EGS and water-EGS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fu-Zhen; Jiang, Pei-Xue; Xu, Rui-Na

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 may be a better heat transmission fluid than water for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The advantages and disadvantages of these two kinds of EGS are the focus of this study. The water and CO 2 -EGS system models including simple subsurface heat transfer and flow models and a surface energy conversion system model were designed based on the reservoir grade and the ambient temperatures. The results indicate that the operating parameters including the injection pressure, turbine outlet pressure and reservoir stimulated area should be optimized to match the actual CO 2 -EGS conditions. CO 2 -EGS produce more power than water-EGS for reservoirs with low recoverable thermal energies due to less irreversible losses compared to ORC or flash cycles for water-EGS. However, high resistance losses caused by high mass flow rates degrade the CO 2 -EGS performance; thus, the water-EGS has better performance than CO 2 -EGS for larger energy content reservoirs. -- Highlights: • Comparing the performance of CO 2 -EGS and water-EGS for various conditions. • Presenting the scope of applications for these two kinds of EGS systems. • Cooling after compression before the CO 2 is injected improves CO 2 -EGS performance. • There is an optimum recoverable thermal energy content for CO 2 -EGS

  19. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwan, Y M; Leow, W Z; Irwanto, M; M, Fareq; Hassan, S I S; Amelia, A R; Safwati, I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer. (paper)

  20. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies' results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%

  1. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  2. A comparison of ray-tracing software for the design of quadrupole microbeam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incerti, S.; Smith, R.W.; Merchant, M.; Grime, G.W.; Meot, F.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.; Touzeau, C.; Barberet, Ph.; Habchi, C.; Nguyen, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    For many years the only ray-tracing software available with sufficient precision for the design of quadrupole microbeam focusing systems has been OXRAY and its successor TRAX, developed at Oxford in the 1980s. With the current interest in pushing the beam diameter into the nanometre region, this software has become dated and more importantly the precision at small displacements may not be sufficient and new simulation tools are required. Two candidates for this are Zgoubi, developed at CEA as a general beam line design tool and the CERN simulation program Geant in its latest version Geant4. In order to use Geant4 new quadrupole field modules have been developed and implemented. In this paper the capabilities of the three codes TRAX, Zgoubi and Geant4 are reviewed. Comparisons of ray-tracing calculations in a high demagnification quadrupole probe-forming system for the sub-micron region are presented

  3. Comparison of encryption techniques between chaos theory and password for wireless power transfer system: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, N. H.; Azizan, M. M.; Ali, A.; Albreem, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the techniques used in Wireless power transfer (WPT). WPT is one of the most useful ways to transfer power. Based on power transfer distances, the WPT system can be divided into three categories, namely, near, medium, and far fields. Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling contactless techniques are used in the near-field WPT. Magnetic resonant coupling technique is used in the medium-field WPT. Electromagnetic radiation is used in the far-field WPT. In addition, energy encryption plays a major role in ensuring that power is transferred to the true receiver. Therefore, this paper reviews the energy encryption techniques in WPT system. A comparison between different technique shows that the distance, efficiency, and number of receivers are the main factors in selecting the suitable energy encryption technique.

  4. A comparison of soil organic carbon stock in ancient and modern land use systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Elberling, Bo; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    . A comparison of the organic matter content in these mound cores and the plough layer in modern farmland offers an opportunity to compare the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in ancient and modern land use systems and to evaluate the long-term trends in carbon (C) sequestration in relation to modern farmland......During the South Scandinavian Early Bronze Age about 3300 years ago, thousands of burial mounds were constructed of sods from fallow ground used for grazing in Denmark and northern Germany. In some of these mounds a wet, anaerobic core developed, preventing the decomposition of organic matter...... with varying inputs of manure and inorganic fertilizers. In the present paper we compare SOC stocks based on integrated horizon-specific densities and SOC contents in three 3300-year-old buried farmland soils, representing the land use system at that time, with results from soil surveys representing modern...

  5. Comparison of vibration damping of standard and PDCPD housing of the electric power steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    A comparison of two different types of electric power steering system housing is presented. The first considered type of the housing was a standard one that is made of an aluminium alloy. The second one is made of polydicyclopentadiene polymer (PDCPD) and was produced using the RIM technology. Considered elements were analysed in order to verify their properties of vibrations damping. This property is very important taking into account noise generated by elements of a car’s power steering system. During the carried out tests vibrations of analysed power steering housings were measured using Marco Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric transducers. Results obtained for both considered power steering housings in case of the same parameters of vibrations excitations were measured and juxtaposed. Obtained results were analysed in order to verify if the housing made of PDCPD polymer has better properties of vibration damping than the standard one.

  6. International comparison of requirements for connection of wind turbines to power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Wind Energy; Matevosyan, J.; Ackermann, T. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Bolik, S. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Power production from wind turbines has increased considerably during the last decade. Therefore today's wind turbines, which are typically set up in wind farms, have a significant influence on the operation of power systems. The efficient and secure operation of power systems is supported by grid codes, which are sets of requirements for all network users (suppliers, customers, etc.). In Europe, several transmission network operators have introduced special grid connection requirements for wind farms. These requirements are mainly based on existing grid codes, initially written for conventional power plants usually equipped with synchronous generators. This article presents a comparison of grid connection requirements for wind farms issued, or proposed as a draft, by transmission network operators in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Scotland and Ireland. (author)

  7. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Halevy, I. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel)

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  8. Systematic evaluation of a 171Yb optical clock by synchronous comparison between two lattice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Zhou, Min; Han, Chengyin; Li, Shangyan; Zhang, Shuang; Yao, Yuan; Li, Bo; Qiao, Hao; Ai, Di; Lou, Ge; Zhang, Mengya; Jiang, Yanyi; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng; Xu, Xinye

    2018-05-22

    Optical clocks are the most precise measurement devices. Here we experimentally characterize one such clock based on the 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 transition of neutral 171 Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice. Given that the systematic evaluation using an interleaved stabilization scheme is unable to avoid noise from the clock laser, synchronous comparisons against a second 171 Yb lattice system were implemented to accelerate the evaluation. The fractional instability of one clock falls below 4 × 10 -17 after an averaging over a time of 5,000 seconds. The systematic frequency shifts were corrected with a total uncertainty of 1.7 × 10 -16 . The lattice polarizability shift currently contributes the largest source. This work paves the way to measuring the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the primary Cs standard or against the International System of Units (SI) second.

  9. Catecholaminergic System of Invertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects in Comparison With the Octopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Accordi, Fiorenza; Chimenti, Claudio; Civinini, Annalena; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examined the catecholaminergic system of invertebrates, starting from protists and getting to chordates. Different techniques used by numerous researchers revealed, in most examined phyla, the presence of catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline or of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. The catecholamines are generally linked to the nervous system and they can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones; moreover they play a very important role as regards the response to a large number of stress situations. Nevertheless, in some invertebrate phyla belonging to Protostoma, the monoamine octopamine is the main biogenic amine. The presence of catecholamines in some protists suggests a role as intracellular or interorganismal signaling molecules and an ancient origin of their synthetic pathways. The catecholamines appear also involved in the regulation of bioluminescence and in the control of larval development and metamorphosis in some marine invertebrate phyla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calculation methods for SPF for heat pump systems for comparison, system choice and dimensioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Andersson, Kajsa; Axell, Monica; Lindahl, Markus

    2010-09-15

    In this project, results from field measurements of heat pumps have been collected and summarised. Also existing calculation methods have been compared and summarised. Analyses have been made on how the field measurements compare to existing calculation models for heat pumps Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), and what deviations may depend on. Recommendations for new calculation models are proposed, which include combined systems (e.g. solar - HP), capacity controlled heat pumps and combined DHW and heating operation

  11. Indicators of Informal Funds Transfer Systems: A Comparison of Traditional and Modern Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Systems,” The American Criminal Law Review 41 (2004): 190-191; Bala Shanmugam, “Hawala and Money Laundering: A Malaysian Perspective,” Journal of...Individuals or small groups may use IFTS in combination with a personally owned small business to launder a portion of their profits to avoid taxation or...laundering: the Malaysian perspective,” Journal of Money Laundering Control 10 (2007): 431-433; Trade Based Money Laundering. 51

  12. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  13. Comparison of a nonlinear dynamic model of a piping system to test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, K.D.; Howard, G.E.; Walton, W.B.; Johnson, B.A.; Chitty, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Response of a nonlinear finite element model of the Heissdampfreaktor recirculation piping loop (URL) was compared to measured data, representing the physical benchmarking of a nonlinear model. Analysis-test comparisons of piping response are presented for snapback tests that induced extreme nonlinear behavior of the URL system. Nonlinearities in the system are due to twelve swaybraces (pipe supports) that possessed nonlinear force-deflection characteristics. These nonlinearities distorted system damping estimates made by using the half-power bandwidth method on Fourier transforms of measured accelerations, with the severity of distortion increasing with increasing degree of nonlinearity. Time domain methods, which are not so severely affected by the presence of nonlinearities, were used to compute system damping ratios. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were accurately and efficiently performed using the pseudo-force technique and the finite element program MSC/NASTRAN. Measured damping was incorporated into the model for snapback simulations. Acceleration time histories, acceleration Fourier transforms, and swaybrace force time histories of the nonlinear model, plus several linear models, were compared to test measurements. The nonlinear model predicted three-fourths of the measured peak accelerations to within 50%, half of the accelerations to within 25%, and one-fifth of the accelerations to within 10%. This nonlinear model predicted accelerations (in the time and frequency domains) and swaybrace forces much better than did any of the linear models, demonstrating the increased accuracy resulting from properly simulating nonlinear support behavior. In addition, earthquake response comparisons were made between the experimentally validated nonlinear model and a linear model. Significantly lower element stresses were predicted for the nonlinear model, indicating the potential usefulness of nonlinear simulations in piping design assessments. (orig.)

  14. Systematic Comparison of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Anatael [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Queen' s College

    2005-06-22

    The MINOS experiment is a neutrino oscillation baseline experiment intending to use high resolution L/E neutrinos to measure the atmospheric neutrino oscillations parameters to unprecedented precision. Two detectors have been built to realize the measurements, a Near detector, located about 1km downstream from the beam target at the Fermi Laboratory, and a Far detector, located at 736km, at the Soudan Laboratory. The technique relies on the Near detector to measure the un-oscillated neutrino spectrum, while the Far detector measures the neutrino spectrum once oscillated. The comparison between the two measurements is expected to allow MINOS to measure Δm2 beyond 10% precision level. The Near and Far detectors have been built similarly to minimize possible systematic effects. Both detectors have been endowed with different readout systems, as the beam event rates are very different. The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet), installed at CERN, was instrumented with both readout systems such that they can simultaneously measure and characterize the energy deposition (response and event topology) of incident known particle from test-beams. This thesis presents the investigations to quantify the impact of the performance of both readout systems on the MINOS results using the measurements obtained with CalDet. The relative comparison of the responses of both readout systems have been measured to be consistent with being identical within a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The event topologies have been found to be negligibly affected. In addition, the performance of the detector simulations have been thoroughly investigated and validated to be in agreement with data within similar level of uncertainties.

  15. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  16. A Comparison of Fission Power System Options for Lunar and Mars Surface Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of reactor and power conversion design options for 50 kWe class lunar and Mars surface power applications with scaling from 25 to 200 kWe. Design concepts and integration approaches are provided for three reactor-converter combinations: gas-cooled Brayton, liquid-metal Stirling, and liquid-metal thermoelectric. The study examines the mass and performance of low temperature, stainless steel based reactors and higher temperature refractory reactors. The preferred system implementation approach uses crew-assisted assembly and in-situ radiation shielding via installation of the reactor in an excavated hole. As an alternative, self-deployable system concepts that use earth-delivered, on-board radiation shielding are evaluated. The analyses indicate that among the 50 kWe stainless steel reactor options, the liquid-metal Stirling system provides the lowest mass at about 5300 kg followed by the gas-cooled Brayton at 5700 kg and the liquid-metal thermoelectric at 8400 kg. The use of a higher temperature, refractory reactor favors the gas-cooled Brayton option with a system mass of about 4200 kg as compared to the Stirling and thermoelectric options at 4700 kg and 5600 kg, respectively. The self-deployed concepts with on-board shielding result in a factor of two system mass increase as compared to the in-situ shielded concepts

  17. The comparison of System 1000 analysis and type testing for neoprene gasket environmental qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Heum; Kim, Jong Seok; Jeong, Sun Chul; Jang, Kyung Nam; Hwang, Sung Phil

    2010-01-01

    The typical environmental qualification is to ensure that equipment will operate on demand to meet system performance requirements during normal and abnormal service conditions. There are four environmental qualification methods, type testing, operating experience, analysis and combined method. Generally, the American EQ do not contain the mechanical equipment like pumps and valves in their EQ equipment list because their EQ standard 10CFR50.49 limits EQ equipment as electrical equipment. On the other hand, Canadian EQ contain the mechanical equipment like pumps and valves in their EQ components list, Canadians usually call American 'equipment' as 'components', because their EQ standard CSA N290.13-05 do not limits EQ equipment as electrical equipment. System 1000 program is typical Canadian EQ analysis method using mathematical modeling and comparison with established engineering information and manufacturers' data. Most of Canadian nuclear power utilities like NB Power, Hydro Quebec and OPG use the System 1000 program to evaluate the design life for their EQ components. To qualify a pump, I had to list all the non-metallic parts in the pump and found there are lots of gaskets made by neoprene material. I tried to qualify these neoprene gaskets by analysis using System 1000 program and by type testing. In this paper, I'd like to introduce the qualification results of neoprene gasket both type testing and analysis using System 1000 program

  18. [Comparison between the Austrian and German DRG systems in hand surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, O; Jaminet, P; Schwarzach, S; Schaller, H E

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) are a patient classification system grouping related types of patients treated to the resources they consumed. In this analysis, we compared the Austrian and the German DRG systems. The 15 most common hand surgical diagnoses and their corresponding operative treatment were transferred into the Austrian system. Thus, the length of stay and the reimbursement of both countries could be obtained and compared. The mean values and the median values of the upper and lower thresholds of length of stay as well as the average length of stay were all lower in Austria compared to Germany. Reimbursement in Germany was higher in 13 of 19 cases. Total proceeds amounted to 1.67 million in the German and 1.70 million in the Austrian health care system. Considering the purchasing power applying consumer prize parities, the difference of reimbursement between the countries rose to 130,000 which equals a difference of almost 8%. Reimbursement of the top 15 diagnoses in hand surgery in Austria is 8% higher than in Germany. Except for one case, mean values as well as upper and lower thresholds of length of stay are considerably shorter in Austria. Comparison of international data to refine a national compensation system is advocated.

  19. Comparison of high temperature gas particulate collectors for low level radwaste incinerator volume reduction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.; Johnston, J.R.; Waters, R.M.; Zievers, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Incinerator system off-gases must be treated to prevent the release of particulates, noxious gases and radioactive elements to the environment. Fabric filters, venturi scrubbers, cyclone separators, an ceramic or metal filter candles have been used for particulate removal. Dry high temperature particulate collectors have the advantage of not creating additional liquid wastes. This paper presents a graphical comparison of different methods for filtering particles from high temperature incineration system off-gases. Eight methods of off-gas handling are compared. A much larger group may be present, but some judicious selection of different, but related systems was done for this paper based on experience with the Combustion Engineering Waste Incineration System (CE/WIS) Prototype. The eight types are: Inertial Devices, Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP), Standard Fabric Bags, Woven Ceramic Bags, Granular Beds, Sintered Metal Tubes, Felted Ceramic Bags and Ceramic Filter Candles. For high temperature LLRW particulate collection in incinerator off-gas systems, ceramic filter candles are the best overall choice

  20. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  1. System Accuracy Evaluation of Four Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Following ISO 15197 Using a Glucose Oxidase and a Hexokinase-Based Comparison Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Manuela; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2015-04-14

    The standard ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 is widely accepted for the accuracy evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Accuracy evaluation was performed for 4 SMBG systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoCheck XL, GlucoMen LX PLUS) with 3 test strip lots each. To investigate a possible impact of the comparison method on system accuracy data, 2 different established methods were used. The evaluation was performed in a standardized manner following test procedures described in ISO 15197:2003 (section 7.3). System accuracy was assessed by applying ISO 15197:2003 and in addition ISO 15197:2013 criteria (section 6.3.3). For each system, comparison measurements were performed with a glucose oxidase (YSI 2300 STAT Plus glucose analyzer) and a hexokinase (cobas c111) method. All 4 systems fulfilled the accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2003 with the tested lots. More stringent accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were fulfilled by 3 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoMen LX PLUS) when compared to the manufacturer's comparison method and by 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT) when compared to the alternative comparison method. All systems showed lot-to-lot variability to a certain degree; 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT), however, showed only minimal differences in relative bias between the 3 evaluated lots. In this study, all 4 systems complied with the evaluated test strip lots with accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003. Applying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limits, differences in the accuracy of the tested systems were observed, also demonstrating that the applied comparison method/system and the lot-to-lot variability can have a decisive influence on accuracy data obtained for a SMBG system. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. A simple method for the comparison of commercially available ATP hygiene-monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, K O; Timms, S; Fricker, C R

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a methodology which could easily be used in any test laboratory in a uniform and consistent way for determining the sensitivity and reproducibility of results obtained with three ATP hygiene-monitoring systems. The test protocol discussed here allows such comparison to be made, thereby establishing a method of benchmarking both new systems and developments of existing systems. The sensitivity of the LUMINOMETER K, PocketSwab (Charm Sciences) was found to be between 0.4 and 4.0 nmol of ATP with poor reproducibility at the 40.0 nmol level (CV, 35%). The sensitivity of the IDEXX LIGHTING system and the Biotrace UNILITE Xcel were both between 0.04 and 0.4 nmol with coefficients of variation (CVs) of between 9% at 0.04 nmol and 10% at 0.4 nmol for the IDEXX system and 17% at 0.04 nmol and 21% at 0.4 nmol for the Biotrace system. The three systems were tested with a range of dilutions of different food residues: orange juice, raw milk, and ground beef slurry. All three test systems allowed detection of orange juice and raw milk at dilutions of 1:1,000, although the CV of results from the Charm system (54 and 74% respectively) was poor at this dilution for both residues. The sensitivity of the test systems was poorer for ground beef slurry than it was for orange juice and raw milk. Both the Biotrace and IDEXX systems were able to detect a 1:100 dilution of beef slurry (with CVs of 17 and 10% respectively), whilst at this dilution results from the Charm system had a CV of 55%. It was possible by using the method described in this paper to rank in order of sensitivity and reproducibility the three single-shot ATP hygiene-monitoring systems investigated, with the IDEXX LIGHTNING being the best, followed by the Biotrace UNILITE Xcel, and then the charm LUMINOMETER K, PocketSwab.

  3. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. CoCoNUT: an efficient system for the comparison and analysis of genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. This area of research is driven by the large number of sequenced genomes and heavily relies on efficient algorithms and software to perform pairwise and multiple genome comparisons. Results Most of the software tools available are tailored for one specific task. In contrast, we have developed a novel system CoCoNUT (Computational Comparative geNomics Utility Toolkit that allows solving several different tasks in a unified framework: (1 finding regions of high similarity among multiple genomic sequences and aligning them, (2 comparing two draft or multi-chromosomal genomes, (3 locating large segmental duplications in large genomic sequences, and (4 mapping cDNA/EST to genomic sequences. Conclusion CoCoNUT is competitive with other software tools w.r.t. the quality of the results. The use of state of the art algorithms and data structures allows CoCoNUT to solve comparative genomics tasks more efficiently than previous tools. With the improved user interface (including an interactive visualization component, CoCoNUT provides a unified, versatile, and easy-to-use software tool for large scale studies in comparative genomics.

  5. A Comparison of Mental Health Care Systems in Northern and Southern Europe: A Service Mapping Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Sadeniemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mental health services (MHS have gone through vast changes during the last decades, shifting from hospital to community-based care. Developing the optimal balance and use of resources requires standard comparisons of mental health care systems across countries. This study aimed to compare the structure, personnel resource allocation, and the productivity of the MHS in two benchmark health districts in a Nordic welfare state and a southern European, family-centered country. The study is part of the REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems’ Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care project. The study areas were the Helsinki and Uusimaa region in Finland and the Girona region in Spain. The MHS were mapped by using the DESDE-LTC (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories for Long Term Care tool. There were 6.7 times more personnel resources in the MHS in Helsinki and Uusimaa than in Girona. The resource allocation was more residential-service-oriented in Helsinki and Uusimaa. The difference in mental health personnel resources is not explained by the respective differences in the need for MHS among the population. It is important to make a standard comparison of the MHS for supporting policymaking and to ensure equal access to care across European countries.

  6. Comparison of the Remineralizing Effects of Sodium Fluoride and Bioactive Glass Using Bioerodible Gel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiguppe Ramashetty Prabhakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A carious lesion is the accumulation of numerous episodes of de- and remineralization, rather than a unidirectional demineralization process. Tooth destruction can be arrested or reversed by the frequent delivery of fluoride or calcium/phosphorous ions to the tooth surface. The present study compared and evaluated the remineralization potential of sodium fluoride and bioactive glass delivered through a bioerodible gel system. Materials and methods. Longitudinal sections of artificial carious lesions, created at the gingivofacial surface of 64 primary maxillary incisors were photographed under a polarized light microscope and quantified for demineralization. The sections were repositioned into the tooth form and randomly mounted in sets of four that simulated an arch form. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1 sodium fluoride films, 2 bioactive glass films, 3 control films placed interproximally and 4 nontreatment group. Following exposure to artificial saliva for 30 days, the lesions were again photographed and quantified as above. The recorded values were statistically analyzed using Student’s paired t-test for intragroup comparison, one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey’s test for pairwise comparison. Results. The sodium fluoride and bioactive gel groups showed significant remineralization compared with the control groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Bioerodible gel films can be used to deliver remineralizing agents to enhance remineralization.

  7. BER PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MIMO SYSTEMS USING OSTBC WITH ZF AND ML DECODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenitha Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO systems with multiple antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver ends are an efficient solution for wireless communication systems. They provide high data rates by exploiting the spatial domain under the constraints of limited bandwidth and transmit power. Space-Time Block Coding (STBC is a MIMO transmit strategy which exploits transmit diversity and provides high reliability. Implementation of orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs for a two transmitter–two receiver system under AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise channel and flat fading channel is performed. Alamouti code is employed for the STBC. The modulation techniques used are BPSK, QPSK and 16-QAM. Decoding is done using the Zero Forcing (ZF algorithm and Maximum Likelihood (ML algorithm. The BER Performance of each modulation scheme is compared with the un-coded version of the same. Performance comparison between the two decoding techniques is also done. It is found that ML detection offers a slightly better performance for BPSK and QPSK system than ZF detection.

  8. Cost comparison of dry-type and conventional cooling systems for representative nuclear generating plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, J.P.; Cecil, E.A.; Young, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of studies comparing the use of dry-type cooling towers with conventional cooling methods for representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants. The studies were based on the hypothetical use of dry-type cooling towers for three nuclear power plants now under construction which were designed and are being built to use conventional cooling methods. One of the plants is located in the northeastern United States, one in the Southeast and one in the West. The report also presents the results of comparisons based on a hypothetical plant at a typical eastern United States site. The three electric utilities which participated in these studies have furnished actual construction cost information for the conventional cooling systems being constructed, and the authors have made construction estimates for economically optimum dry cooling systems which might have been built in place of the conventional cooling systems being constructed. The report compares the physical and operating characteristics of dry-type and conventional cooling systems as well as the relative economics of the different cooling methods. The effect of dry cooling on the bus-bar cost of power has been computed for the three selected plants and for the typical eastern plant

  9. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2016-08-02

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO{sub 2} accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  10. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh R Narala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  11. Harmonics in power systems of ships with electrical propulsion drives. Comparison between different converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-11-01

    In this report the effects of harmonics in marine power systems is discussed and a comparison is given between the most typical converter types, including pulse width modulated drives, load commutated inverters and cycloconverters. The effect of harmonic distortion on the power system equipment and loads is first briefly discussed. Special attention is given to the circumstances in the low voltage distribution system, where general load equipment is connected. In addition to the total harmonic distortion the effect of voltage deviation to the supply quality is also considered. The origin of harmonics in the load currents of the three converter types is then considered. The differences between the converters are outlined, and the most typical spectra are presented. The possible means for reducing the harmonic distortion are also studied. The solutions considered are the increasing of the short circuit level, the use of harmonic filters and the increasing of the pulse number. In the case of cycloconverters, the optimization of the phase shift between the parallel operating bridges is also presented. Finally the effects of different converter types on the voltage quality are compared using calculations made for a typical marine power system. (author)

  12. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO 2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  13. Assessments of the kinetic and dynamic transient behavior of sub-critical systems (ADS) in comparison to critical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron kinetic and the reactor dynamic behavior of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is significantly different from those of conventional power reactor systems currently in use for the production of power. It is the objective of this study to examine and to demonstrate the intrinsic differences of the kinetic and dynamic behavior of accelerator driven systems to typical plant transient initiators in comparison to the known, kinetic and dynamic behavior of critical thermal and fast reactor systems. It will be shown that in sub-critical assemblies, changes in reactivity or in the external neutron source strength lead to an asymptotic power level essentially described by the instantaneous power change (i.e. prompt jump). Shutdown of ADS operating at high levels of sub-criticality, (i.e. k eff ∼0.99), without the support of reactivity control systems (such as control or safety rods), may be problematic in case the ability of cooling of the core should be impaired (i.e. loss of coolant flow). In addition, the dynamic behavior of sub-critical systems to typical plant transients such as protected or unprotected loss of flow (LOF) or heat sink (LOH) transients are not necessarily substantially different from the plant dynamic behavior of critical systems if the reactivity feedback coefficients of the ADS design are unfavorable. As expected, the state of sub-criticality and the temperature feedback coefficients, such as Doppler and coolant temperature coefficient, play dominant roles in determining the course and direction of plant transients. Should the combination of these safety coefficients be very unfavorable, not much additional margin in safety may be gained by making a critical system only sub-critical (i.e. k eff ∼0.95). A careful optimization procedure between the selected operating level of sub-criticality, the safety reactivity coefficients and the possible need for additional reactivity control systems seems, therefore, advisable during the early

  14. ProCKSI: a decision support system for Protein (Structure Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażewicz Jacek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce the decision support system for Protein (Structure Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information (ProCKSI. ProCKSI integrates various protein similarity measures through an easy to use interface that allows the comparison of multiple proteins simultaneously. It employs the Universal Similarity Metric (USM, the Maximum Contact Map Overlap (MaxCMO of protein structures and other external methods such as the DaliLite and the TM-align methods, the Combinatorial Extension (CE of the optimal path, and the FAST Align and Search Tool (FAST. Additionally, ProCKSI allows the user to upload a user-defined similarity matrix supplementing the methods mentioned, and computes a similarity consensus in order to provide a rich, integrated, multicriteria view of large datasets of protein structures. Results We present ProCKSI's architecture and workflow describing its intuitive user interface, and show its potential on three distinct test-cases. In the first case, ProCKSI is used to evaluate the results of a previous CASP competition, assessing the similarity of proposed models for given targets where the structures could have a large deviation from one another. To perform this type of comparison reliably, we introduce a new consensus method. The second study deals with the verification of a classification scheme for protein kinases, originally derived by sequence comparison by Hanks and Hunter, but here we use a consensus similarity measure based on structures. In the third experiment using the Rost and Sander dataset (RS126, we investigate how a combination of different sets of similarity measures influences the quality and performance of ProCKSI's new consensus measure. ProCKSI performs well with all three datasets, showing its potential for complex, simultaneous multi-method assessment of structural similarity in large protein datasets. Furthermore, combining different similarity measures is usually more robust than

  15. Scheduling of head-sensitive cascaded hydro systems : a comparison based on numerical simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Mariano, S.J.P.S. [Beira Interior Univ., Covilha (Portugal). Dept. of Electromechanical Engineering; Mendes, V.M.F. [Superior Engineering Inst. of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Automation; Ferreira, L.A.F.M. [Technical Univ. of Lisbon, Superior Technical Inst., Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computers

    2008-07-01

    The electric power sector in Portugal and Spain has shifted from a traditional monopoly to a deregulated, competitive energy market. As such, hydroelectric facilities face the optimal challenge of how to make a profit by managing water resources without compromising future potential profit. As such, hydro scheduling is a key activity for hydroelectric power utilities because of its significant economic impact. It involves the optimal management of water inflows and storage in reservoirs. This paper considered the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, concerning head-sensitive cascaded reservoirs, and the algorithmic aspects of its solution. The authors proposed and compared optimization methods based on dynamic programming, and linear and nonlinear network programming. The comparison revealed a negligible extra computational effort in a realistic cascaded hydro system where the head depended on the stored water volume. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society.

  17. Does a Least-Preferred Candidate Win a Seat? A Comparison of Three Electoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hizen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the differences between two variations of proportional representation (PR, open-list PR and closed-list PR, are analyzed in terms of their ability to accurately reflect voter preference. The single nontransferable vote (SNTV is also included in the comparison as a benchmark. We construct a model of voting equilibria with a candidate who is least preferred by voters in the sense that replacing the least-preferred candidate in the set of winners with any loser is Pareto improving, and our focus is on whether the least-preferred candidate wins under each electoral system. We demonstrate that the least-preferred candidate never wins under the SNTV, but can win under open-list PR, although this is less likely than winning under closed-list PR.

  18. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society. (author)

  19. Scheduling of head-sensitive cascaded hydro systems : a comparison based on numerical simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Mariano, S.J.P.S.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Ferreira, L.A.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    The electric power sector in Portugal and Spain has shifted from a traditional monopoly to a deregulated, competitive energy market. As such, hydroelectric facilities face the optimal challenge of how to make a profit by managing water resources without compromising future potential profit. As such, hydro scheduling is a key activity for hydroelectric power utilities because of its significant economic impact. It involves the optimal management of water inflows and storage in reservoirs. This paper considered the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, concerning head-sensitive cascaded reservoirs, and the algorithmic aspects of its solution. The authors proposed and compared optimization methods based on dynamic programming, and linear and nonlinear network programming. The comparison revealed a negligible extra computational effort in a realistic cascaded hydro system where the head depended on the stored water volume. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Comparison of the CATHENA model of Gentilly-2 end shield cooling system predictions to station data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagre, G.; Sabourin, G. [Candu Energy Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chapados, S. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Gentilly-2 Refurbishment Project, Hydro-Quebec has elected to perform the End Shield Cooling Safety Analysis. A CATHENA model of Gentilly-2 End Shield Cooling System was developed for this purpose. This model includes new elements compared to other CANDU6 End Shield Cooling models such as a detailed heat exchanger and control logic model. In order to test the model robustness and accuracy, the model predictions were compared with plant measurements.This paper summarizes this comparison between the model predictions and the station measurements. It is shown that the CATHENA model is flexible and accurate enough to predict station measurements for critical parameters, and the detailed heat exchanger model allows reproducing station transients. (author)

  1. Energy efficient security in MANETs: a comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, N.

    2010-01-01

    MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment, having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. We carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that we have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSec, and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS-DC based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. We extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state-of-the-art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. Our results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, we also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modelling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs. (author)

  2. Sustainable thorium nuclear fuel cycles: A comparison of intermediate and fast neutron spectrum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.R., E-mail: nbrown@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Powers, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, B.; Heidet, F.; Stauff, N.E.; Zhang, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of intermediate and fast spectrum thorium-fueled reactors. • Variety of reactor technology options enables self-sustaining thorium fuel cycles. • Fuel cycle analyses indicate similar performance for fast and intermediate systems. • Reproduction factor plays a significant role in breeding and burn-up performance. - Abstract: This paper presents analyses of possible reactor representations of a nuclear fuel cycle with continuous recycling of thorium and produced uranium (mostly U-233) with thorium-only feed. The analysis was performed in the context of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to develop a compendium of informative nuclear fuel cycle performance data. The objective of this paper is to determine whether intermediate spectrum systems, having a majority of fission events occurring with incident neutron energies between 1 eV and 10{sup 5} eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. The intermediate spectrum options analyzed include tight lattice heavy or light water-cooled reactors, continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. All options were modeled in reactor physics codes to calculate their lattice physics, spectrum characteristics, and fuel compositions over time. Based on these results, detailed metrics were calculated to compare the fuel cycle performance. These metrics include waste management and resource utilization, and are binned to accommodate uncertainties. The performance of the intermediate systems for this self-sustaining thorium fuel cycle was similar to a representative fast spectrum system. However, the number of fission neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed limits performance in intermediate spectrum systems.

  3. Environmental impact assessment system in Thailand and its comparison with those in China and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanteep, Kultip, E-mail: suwanteep.k.aa@m.titech.ac.jp; Murayama, Takehiko; Nishikizawa, Shigeo

    2016-04-15

    This paper aims to find ways to streamline the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system in Thailand to increase its effectiveness by comparative analysis with China and Japan. This study is mainly focused on review, update and comparison of EIA systems between these three countries. It is intended to clarify fundamental information of the EIA systems and characteristics of the key elements of EIA processes (screening, consideration of alternatives, prediction or evaluation of impact, and public participation). Moreover, the number of the EIA projects that have been implemented in all the provinces in Thailand are presented. The results identified the similarities and differences of the EIA processes among the three aforementioned countries. The type of EIA report used in Thailand, unlike those in China and Japan, is an Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), which is concerned with the health and environmental impacts that could occur from the project. In addition, EIA reports in Thailand are made available to the public online and the shortcomings of the process have details of barriers resulting from the projects to help future projects with reconsideration and improvements. In this study, it is pointed out that Thai's EIA system still lacks local EIA authority which needs to be empowered by implementing a set of laws or ordinance. - Highlights: • Reviewed current EIA procedures in Thailand, Japan and China • The EIA database is getting improved so as to generate profile of EIAs in the past. • Thailand needs to empower the local EIA authority within the EIA system. • The potential impacts should be more concerned than their scale in Japanese EIA. • Time limits and transparency should be reconsidered in China's EIA system.

  4. Environmental impact assessment system in Thailand and its comparison with those in China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanteep, Kultip; Murayama, Takehiko; Nishikizawa, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to find ways to streamline the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system in Thailand to increase its effectiveness by comparative analysis with China and Japan. This study is mainly focused on review, update and comparison of EIA systems between these three countries. It is intended to clarify fundamental information of the EIA systems and characteristics of the key elements of EIA processes (screening, consideration of alternatives, prediction or evaluation of impact, and public participation). Moreover, the number of the EIA projects that have been implemented in all the provinces in Thailand are presented. The results identified the similarities and differences of the EIA processes among the three aforementioned countries. The type of EIA report used in Thailand, unlike those in China and Japan, is an Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), which is concerned with the health and environmental impacts that could occur from the project. In addition, EIA reports in Thailand are made available to the public online and the shortcomings of the process have details of barriers resulting from the projects to help future projects with reconsideration and improvements. In this study, it is pointed out that Thai's EIA system still lacks local EIA authority which needs to be empowered by implementing a set of laws or ordinance. - Highlights: • Reviewed current EIA procedures in Thailand, Japan and China • The EIA database is getting improved so as to generate profile of EIAs in the past. • Thailand needs to empower the local EIA authority within the EIA system. • The potential impacts should be more concerned than their scale in Japanese EIA. • Time limits and transparency should be reconsidered in China's EIA system.

  5. Sustainable thorium nuclear fuel cycles: A comparison of intermediate and fast neutron spectrum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.R.; Powers, J.J.; Feng, B.; Heidet, F.; Stauff, N.E.; Zhang, G.; Todosow, M.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of intermediate and fast spectrum thorium-fueled reactors. • Variety of reactor technology options enables self-sustaining thorium fuel cycles. • Fuel cycle analyses indicate similar performance for fast and intermediate systems. • Reproduction factor plays a significant role in breeding and burn-up performance. - Abstract: This paper presents analyses of possible reactor representations of a nuclear fuel cycle with continuous recycling of thorium and produced uranium (mostly U-233) with thorium-only feed. The analysis was performed in the context of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to develop a compendium of informative nuclear fuel cycle performance data. The objective of this paper is to determine whether intermediate spectrum systems, having a majority of fission events occurring with incident neutron energies between 1 eV and 10 5 eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. The intermediate spectrum options analyzed include tight lattice heavy or light water-cooled reactors, continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. All options were modeled in reactor physics codes to calculate their lattice physics, spectrum characteristics, and fuel compositions over time. Based on these results, detailed metrics were calculated to compare the fuel cycle performance. These metrics include waste management and resource utilization, and are binned to accommodate uncertainties. The performance of the intermediate systems for this self-sustaining thorium fuel cycle was similar to a representative fast spectrum system. However, the number of fission neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed limits performance in intermediate spectrum systems

  6. Comparison of multimedia system and conventional method in patients’ selecting prosthetic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghai R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Selecting an appropriate treatment plan is one of the most critical aspects of dental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare multimedia system and conventional method in patients' selecting prosthetic treatment and the time consumed."nMaterials and Methods: Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group A, once were instructed using the conventional method of dental office and once multimedia system and time was measured in seconds from the beginning of the instruction till the patient had came to decision. The patients were asked about the satisfaction of the method used for them. In group B, patients were only instructed using the conventional method, whereas they were only exposed to soft ware in group C. The data were analyzed with Paired-T-test"n(in group A and T-test and Mann-Whitney test (in groups B and C."nResult: There was a significant difference between multimedia system and conventional method in group A and also between groups B and C (P<0.001. In group A and between groups B and C, patient's satisfaction about multimedia system was better. However, in comparison between groups B and C, multimedia system did not have a significant effect in treatment selection score (P=0.08."nConclusion: Using multimedia system is recommended due to its high ability in giving answers to a large number of patient's questions as well as in terms of marketing.

  7. Measurement of the optical density of packable composites: comparison between direct and indirect digital systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziottin Luiz Felipe Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the optical density of four packable composite resins with widths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm, by means of Digora® (direct and DentScan DentView® (indirect digital imaging systems, in order to compare both methods. Twenty acrylic plates, with the proposed thicknesses, were used, each one containing a sample of each resin. Each acrylic plate was radiographed three times, under a standardized technique. For the Digora® system, an optical plate was used under each resin sample, and, for the DentScan DentView® system, occlusal films were employed, totalizing 60 exposures for each system. Optical plates and films were scanned and three consecutive optical readouts were carried out, totalizing 1,440 readouts. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and revealed that the average optical density of the four resins always increased as thickness increased. Regarding the comparisons between the composite resins, in both analysis the resin with the greater optical density was SurefilTM followed by ProdigyTM Condensable, AlertTM and Solitaire®. The correlations between the results of Digora® and DentScan DentView® were significant for the different thicknesses and materials. The observed tendency is that as the values obtained with the Digora® system increase, so do the values obtained with DentScan DentView®. While thickness increased, the values of optical density in both Digora® and DentScan DentView® tended to approach each other. The Digora® system presented smaller amplitude between the results obtained in adjacent thicknesses.

  8. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic

  9. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  10. A Robust Iris Identification System Based on Wavelet Packet Decomposition and Local Comparisons of the Extracted Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossant Florence

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a complete iris identification system including three main stages: iris segmentation, signature extraction, and signature comparison. An accurate and robust pupil and iris segmentation process, taking into account eyelid occlusions, is first detailed and evaluated. Then, an original wavelet-packet-based signature extraction method and a novel identification approach, based on the fusion of local distance measures, are proposed. Performance measurements validating the proposed iris signature and demonstrating the benefit of our local-based signature comparison are provided. Moreover, an exhaustive evaluation of robustness, with regards to the acquisition conditions, attests the high performances and the reliability of our system. Tests have been conducted on two different databases, the well-known CASIA database (V3 and our ISEP database. Finally, a comparison of the performances of our system with the published ones is given and discussed.

  11. Comparison of response times of a mobile-web EHRs system using PHP and JSP languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Antón-Rodríguez, Míriam; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; Perozo-Rondón, Freddy José

    2012-12-01

    Performance evaluation is highly important in the Electronic Health Records (EHRs) system implementation. Response time's measurement can be considered as one manner to make that evaluation. In the e-health field, after the creation of EHRs available through different platforms such as Web and/or mobile, a performance evaluation is necessary. The operation of the system in the right way is essential. In this paper, a comparison of the response times for the MEHRmobile system is presented. The first version uses PHP language with a MySQL database and the second one employs JSP with an eXist database. Both versions have got the same functionalities. In addition to the technological aspects, a significant difference is the way the information is stored. The main goal of this paper is choosing the version which offers better response times. We have created a new benchmark to calculate the response times. Better results have been obtained for the PHP version. Nowadays, this version is being used for specialists from Fundación Intras, Spain.

  12. Comparison of a multispectral vision system and a colorimeter for the assessment of meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinderup, Camilla H; Dahl, Anders; Jensen, Kirsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Conradsen, Knut

    2015-04-01

    The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance properties, so several factors can influence the instrumental assessment of meat color. In order to assess whether two methods are equivalent, the variation due to these factors must be taken into account. A statistical analysis was conducted and showed that on a calibration sheet the two instruments are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods accounting for other sources of variation leading to the conclusion that color assessment using a multispectral vision system is superior to traditional colorimeter assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural identifiability of systems biology models: a critical comparison of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Teodora Chis

    Full Text Available Analysing the properties of a biological system through in silico experimentation requires a satisfactory mathematical representation of the system including accurate values of the model parameters. Fortunately, modern experimental techniques allow obtaining time-series data of appropriate quality which may then be used to estimate unknown parameters. However, in many cases, a subset of those parameters may not be uniquely estimated, independently of the experimental data available or the numerical techniques used for estimation. This lack of identifiability is related to the structure of the model, i.e. the system dynamics plus the observation function. Despite the interest in knowing a priori whether there is any chance of uniquely estimating all model unknown parameters, the structural identifiability analysis for general non-linear dynamic models is still an open question. There is no method amenable to every model, thus at some point we have to face the selection of one of the possibilities. This work presents a critical comparison of the currently available techniques. To this end, we perform the structural identifiability analysis of a collection of biological models. The results reveal that the generating series approach, in combination with identifiability tableaus, offers the most advantageous compromise among range of applicability, computational complexity and information provided.

  14. Comparison study of time history and response spectrum responses for multiply supported piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade, several investigators have studied the problem of independent support excitation of a multiply supported piping system to identify the real need for such an analysis. This approach offers an increase in accuracy at a small increase in computational costs. To assess the method, studies based on the response spectrum approach using independent support motions for each group of commonly connected supports were performed. The results obtained from this approach were compared with the conventional envelope spectrum and time history solutions. The present study includes a mathematical formulation of the independent support motion analysis method suitable for implementation into an existing all purpose piping code PSAFE2 and a comparison of the solutions for some typical piping system using both Time History and Response Spectrum Methods. The results obtained from the Response Spectrum Methods represent the upper bound solution at most points in the piping system. Similarly, the Seismic Anchor Movement analysis based on the SRP method over predicts the responses near the support points and under predicts at points away from the supports

  15. International comparisons of health system performance among OECD countries: opportunities and data privacy protection challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderkirk, Jillian; Ronchi, Elettra; Klazinga, Niek

    2013-09-01

    Health data constitute a significant resource in most OECD countries that could be used to improve health system performance. Well-intended policies to allay concerns about breaches of confidentiality and to reduce potential misuse of personal health information may be limiting data use. A survey of 20 OECD countries explored the extent to which countries have developed and use personal health data and the reasons why data use may be problematic in some. Countries are divided, with one-half engaged regularly in national data linkage studies to monitor health care quality. Country variation is linked to risk management in granting an exemption to patient consent requirements; in sharing identifiable data among government authorities; and in project approvals and granting access to data. The resources required to comply with data protection requirements is a secondary problem. The sharing of person-level data across borders for international comparisons is rarely reported and there were few examples of studies of health system performance. Laws and policies enabling data sharing and data linkage are needed to strengthen national information infrastructure. To develop international studies comparing health care quality and health system performance, actions are needed to address heterogeneity in data protection practices. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconciliation of international administrative coding systems for comparison of colorectal surgery outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, A; Chang, D; Mamidanna, R; Middleton, S; Joy, M; Penninckx, F; Darzi, A; Livingston, E; Faiz, O

    2014-07-01

    Significant variation in colorectal surgery outcomes exists between different countries. Better understanding of the sources of variable outcomes using administrative data requires alignment of differing clinical coding systems. We aimed to map similar diagnoses and procedures across administrative coding systems used in different countries. Administrative data were collected in a central database as part of the Global Comparators (GC) Project. In order to unify these data, a systematic translation of diagnostic and procedural codes was undertaken. Codes for colorectal diagnoses, resections, operative complications and reoperative interventions were mapped across the respective national healthcare administrative coding systems. Discharge data from January 2006 to June 2011 for patients who had undergone colorectal surgical resections were analysed to generate risk-adjusted models for mortality, length of stay, readmissions and reoperations. In all, 52 544 case records were collated from 31 institutions in five countries. Mapping of all the coding systems was achieved so that diagnosis and procedures from the participant countries could be compared. Using the aligned coding systems to develop risk-adjusted models, the 30-day mortality rate for colorectal surgery was 3.95% (95% CI 0.86-7.54), the 30-day readmission rate was 11.05% (5.67-17.61), the 28-day reoperation rate was 6.13% (3.68-9.66) and the mean length of stay was 14 (7.65-46.76) days. The linkage of international hospital administrative data that we developed enabled comparison of documented surgical outcomes between countries. This methodology may facilitate international benchmarking. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  18. A comparison between different error modeling of MEMS applied to GPS/INS integrated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, Alex G; Falco, Gianluca; Falletti, Emanuela; Dovis, Fabio; Ferrer, Carles

    2013-07-24

    Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS) and the inertial navigation system (INS) integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV) and the power spectral density (PSD) techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR) filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade) presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency) and long-term (low-frequency) components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways.

  19. A Comparison between Different Error Modeling of MEMS Applied to GPS/INS Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dovis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS and the inertial navigation system (INS integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV and the power spectral density (PSD techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency and long-term (low-frequency components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways.

  20. A comparison of digital radiography systems in terms of effective detective quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Iori, Mauro [Department of Advanced Technology, Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy); Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., Modena 41049 (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum, Physics Department, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Radiology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Radiology Unit, Azienda USL, Reggio Emilia 42122 (Italy); Department of Advanced Technology, Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare digital radiography systems using the metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE), which better reflects digital radiography imaging system performance under clinical operating conditions, in comparison with conventional metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectra (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: The eDQE was computed by the calculation of the MTF, the NNPS, the phantom attenuation and scatter, and estimation of x-ray flux. The physical characterization of the systems was obtained with the standard beam conditions RQA5 and RQA9, using the PA Chest phantom proposed by AAPM Report no. 31 simulating the attenuation and scatter characteristics of the adult human thorax. The MTF (eMTF) was measured by using an edge test placed at the frontal surface of the phantom, the NNPS (eNNPS) was calculated from images of the phantom acquired at three different exposure levels covering the operating range of the system (E{sub 0}, which is the exposure at which a system is normally operated, 1/3 E{sub 0}, and 3 E0), and scatter measurements were assessed by using a beam-stop technique. The integral of DQE (IDQE) and eDQE (IeDQE) was calculated over the whole spatial frequency range. Results: The eMTF results demonstrate degradation due to magnification and the presence of scattered radiation. The eNNPS was influenced by the grid presence, and in some systems, it contained structured noise. At typical clinical exposure levels, the magnitude of eDQE(0) with respect to DQE(0) at RQA9 beam conditions was 13%, 17%, 16%, 36%, and 24%, respectively, for Carestream DRX-1, Carestream DRX-1C, Carestream Direct View CR975, Philips Digital Diagnost VM, and GE Revolution XR/d. These results were confirmed by the ratio of IeDQE and IDQE in the same conditions. Conclusions: The authors confirm the robustness and reproducibility of the eDQE method. As expected, the DR systems

  1. A comparison of digital radiography systems in terms of effective detective quantum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Iori, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare digital radiography systems using the metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE), which better reflects digital radiography imaging system performance under clinical operating conditions, in comparison with conventional metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectra (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: The eDQE was computed by the calculation of the MTF, the NNPS, the phantom attenuation and scatter, and estimation of x-ray flux. The physical characterization of the systems was obtained with the standard beam conditions RQA5 and RQA9, using the PA Chest phantom proposed by AAPM Report no. 31 simulating the attenuation and scatter characteristics of the adult human thorax. The MTF (eMTF) was measured by using an edge test placed at the frontal surface of the phantom, the NNPS (eNNPS) was calculated from images of the phantom acquired at three different exposure levels covering the operating range of the system (E 0 , which is the exposure at which a system is normally operated, 1/3 E 0 , and 3 E0), and scatter measurements were assessed by using a beam-stop technique. The integral of DQE (IDQE) and eDQE (IeDQE) was calculated over the whole spatial frequency range. Results: The eMTF results demonstrate degradation due to magnification and the presence of scattered radiation. The eNNPS was influenced by the grid presence, and in some systems, it contained structured noise. At typical clinical exposure levels, the magnitude of eDQE(0) with respect to DQE(0) at RQA9 beam conditions was 13%, 17%, 16%, 36%, and 24%, respectively, for Carestream DRX-1, Carestream DRX-1C, Carestream Direct View CR975, Philips Digital Diagnost VM, and GE Revolution XR/d. These results were confirmed by the ratio of IeDQE and IDQE in the same conditions. Conclusions: The authors confirm the robustness and reproducibility of the eDQE method. As expected, the DR systems performed

  2. Comparison of 3-dimensional dose reconstruction system between fluence-based system and dose measurement-guided system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji, E-mail: nkgc2003@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Ono, Takeshi [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Onitsuka, Ryota [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Maruyama, Masato; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Kai, Yudai [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) are commercial quasi-3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry arrays. Cross-validation to compare them under the same conditions, such as a treatment plan, allows for clear evaluation of such measurement devices. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of reconstructed dose distributions from the COMPASS system and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software using Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and clinical VMAT plans. In a phantom study, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed clear differences from COMPASS, measurement and MC due to the detector resolution and the dose reconstruction method. Especially, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed 7% difference from MC for the heterogeneous phantom. ArcCHECK 3DVH only corrects the 3D dose distribution of treatment planning system (TPS) using ArcCHECK measurement, and therefore the accuracy of ArcCHECK 3DVH depends on TPS. In contrast, COMPASS showed good agreement with MC for all cases. However, the COMPASS system requires many complicated installation procedures such as beam modeling, and appropriate commissioning is needed. In terms of clinical cases, there were no large differences for each QA device. The accuracy of the compass and ArcCHECK 3DVH systems for phantoms and clinical cases was compared. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages for clinical use, and consideration of the operating environment is important. The QA system selection is depending on the purpose and workflow in each hospital.

  3. Pathways to care and psychological problems of general practice patients in a "gate keeper" and an "open access" health care system - A comparison of Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M; Gothe, H; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    Background The comparison of different health care systems is one way to give empirical evidence to health care reform and policy. The differences between health care systems in which general practitioners serve as gate keepers in comparison to systems in which patients are free to contact every

  4. Comparison of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism between Possible and Probable Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyum-Yil Kwon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the relationship between presenting clinical manifestations and imaging features of multisystem neuronal dysfunction in MSA patients, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET. Methods: We studied 50 consecutive MSA patients with characteristic brain MRI findings of MSA, including 34 patients with early MSA-parkinsonian (MSA-P and 16 with early MSA-cerebellar (MSA-C. The cerebral glucose metabolism of all MSA patients was evaluated in comparison with 25 age-matched controls. 18F-FDG PET results were assessed by the Statistic Parametric Mapping (SPM analysis and the regions of interest (ROI method. Results: The mean time from disease onset to 18F-FDG PET was 25.9±13.0 months in 34 MSA-P patients and 20.1±11.1 months in 16 MSA-C patients. Glucose metabolism of the putamen showed a greater decrease in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P (p=0.031. Although the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS score did not differ between possible MSA-P and probable MSA-P, the subscores of rigidity (p=0.04 and bradykinesia (p= 0.008 were significantly higher in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P. Possible MSA-C showed a greater decrease in glucose metabolism of the cerebellum than probable MSA-C (p=0.016. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that the early neuropathological pattern of possible MSA with a predilection for the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system differs from that of probable MSA, which has prominent involvement of the autonomic nervous system in addition to the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system.

  5. Comparison of Panasonic’s Dosimetric System with Gamma-31 Dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Urban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipment being used in medical or industrial institutions is often a source of ionizing radiation with different energies and types, which complicates the detection and assessment of doses. Up until now, for dosimetric measurements of ionizing radiation, Gamma-31 dosimeters have been used in the Central Mining Institute for many years. Now, this system will be expanded by a Panasonic system, for which measurement procedures were developed and comparisons with other dosimeters were held. The method is based on a four-element dosimeters UD-802 Panasonic equipped with CaSO and LiBO detectors additionally sheltered by filters of different surface mass. The use of UD-802 dosimeters, in contrast to Gamma-31 dosimeters, permits measuring radiation doses in a different range of photon energy. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a more accurate analysis of the hazards caused by gamma radiation in underground mines. The publication includes a description of the dosimetry system and presents the results of measurements conducted by means of both types of dosimeters. In order to verify the correctness of the indications of the new dosimetry system a series of measurements were carried out, which allowed examining the behaviour of the dosimeters under different environmental conditions. As a place of exposure, the selected laboratories in the Silesian Centre for Environmental Radiometry were chosen, where the work is connected with (TENORM and equipment producing ionizing radiation or containing sources of this type of radiation. Moreover, to observe the dosimeters behaviour in difficult environmental conditions, they were exposed in water treatment plants and an underground potassium salt mine.

  6. A clinical comparison of cordless and conventional displacement systems regarding clinical performance and impression quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Özlem; Erkut, Selim; Özçelik, Tuncer Burak; Ozdemır, Erdem; Akçil, Mehtap

    2014-05-01

    It is not clear whether newly introduced cordless displacement systems are better able to manage gingiva than conventional systems. The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the gingival management ability of 4 different displacement methods with a standardized subgingival preparation finish line. The effects of 4 displacement techniques on gingival management and impression quality were evaluated by means of 6 evaluation criteria. A subgingival preparation finish line of between 1 and 2 mm was ensured, and the buccal aspects of 252 (n=63) teeth were clinically assessed for ease of application, time spent, bleeding, remnants, and dilatation. The complete reproduction of the preparation finish line and the bubble and void formations on polyether impressions were also evaluated. The data were statistically analyzed with the χ(2) test (α=.05). The Bonferroni correction was used to control Type I error for the pairwise comparison groups (α=.008). Statistically significant differences were found for all criteria among the groups (Pimpression quality (Pimpression quality (P>.008). The retraction cap with paste group showed better results for ease of application, time spent, and bleeding than the aluminum chloride impregnated cord group (Pimpression qualities. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison between nailfold capillaroscopy patterns in adulthood in juvenile and adult-onset systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Boracchi, Patrizia; Gualtierotti, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus on capillar......OBJECTIVE: Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus...... on capillaroscopy. In this retrospective exploratory study, series of patients with juvenile-onset SSc were matched with series of adult-onset SSc having the same gender and autoantibody profile. RESULTS: 30 of 123 patients with juvenile-onset and 2108 of 7133 with adult-onset SSc had data on capillaroscopy...... in 61% of juvenile- and 55.5% of adult-onset SSc. The OR was 1.06 and 95% CI 0.34-3.56. CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study on the comparison of capillaroscopy between juvenile- and adult-onset SSc in adulthood. Juvenile-onset SSc had an increase prevalence of scleroderma pattern...

  8. Compact mode-locked diode laser system for high precision frequency comparisons in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, H.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Wicht, A.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.; Peters, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays cold atom-based quantum sensors such as atom interferometers start leaving optical labs to put e.g. fundamental physics under test in space. One of such intriguing applications is the test of the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Universality of Free Fall (UFF), using different quantum objects such as rubidium (Rb) and potassium (K) ultra-cold quantum gases. The corresponding atom interferometers are implemented with light pulses from narrow linewidth lasers emitting near 767 nm (K) and 780 nm (Rb). To determine any relative acceleration of the K and Rb quantum ensembles during free fall, the frequency difference between the K and Rb lasers has to be measured very accurately by means of an optical frequency comb. Micro-gravity applications not only require good electro-optical characteristics but are also stringent in their demand for compactness, robustness and efficiency. For frequency comparison experiments the rather complex fiber laser-based frequency comb system may be replaced by one semiconductor laser chip and some passive components. Here we present an important step towards this direction, i.e. we report on the development of a compact mode-locked diode laser system designed to generate a highly stable frequency comb in the wavelength range of 780 nm.

  9. Monitoring, characterization and comparison. Operation-project of oil and oil water systems in platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Louvisse, Ana M.T.; Ramalho, Joao B.V.S.; Miragaya, Jose C.G.

    2000-01-01

    During the process of petroleum production, water are also commonly produced. Usually, a standard oil-water separation process will not lead to water phase ready to be discharged - the present legislation requires oily contents (oil and/or greases) bellow 20 mg/L concentration level value. Thus, secondary treatment is required to bring such oily concentration to the allowed level or lower, prior to the water discard in the environment. This paper describes the adopted systematic work in the Campos Basin Petroleum Production Platforms, which has allowed to evaluate and optimize the water treatment performed in there. Such description includes the typical water treatment systems installed, the typical physical-chemistry of the effluents and also presents comparisons between the basic designs that guided such systems construction and their present operational conditions and set-ups. The analysis of such results has allowed the introduction of minor modifications leading to the process optimization. The common use of Pilot Plants in such optimization process is also described and their contribution reported. (author)

  10. Development of Optical Fiber-Based Daylighting System and Its Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic daylighting systems have been shown to be a promising and effective way to transmit sunlight in the interior space whilst reducing electric lighting energy consumption. To increase efficiency in terms of providing uniform illumination in the interior, the current need is to illuminate optical fiber-bundle with uniform light flux. To this end, we propose a method for achieving collimated light, which illuminates the fiber-bundle uniformly. Light is collected through a parabolic concentrator and focused toward a collimating lens, which distributes the light over each optical fiber. An optics diffusing structure is utilized at the end side of the fiber bundle to spread light in the interior. The results clearly reveal that the efficiency in terms of uniform illumination, which also reduces the heat problem for optical fibers, is improved. Furthermore, a comparison study is conducted between current and previous approaches. As a result, the proposed daylighting system turns out convenient in terms of energy saving and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Technical and Economic Comparison of Conventional Wastewater Treatment Systems in the Sugar Industries in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s location in an arid and water scarce area characterized by qualititative and quantitative degradation in its water resources makes strict planning imperative for reduced water consumption and wastewater treatment and reuse, especially in the industry sector. The technical and economic evaluation of various industrial treatment processes is a key factor in the success of such schemes in the face of the effects of climate variety, high wastewater treatment costs, and environmental factors on selecting a most suitable alternative for industrial wastewater treatment. The situation is even more critical in the case of the sugar industry as the largest pollutant source and especially because more than 90% of its facilities are located on plains with a negative water balance. Reviewing wastewater problems associated with the Iranian sugar facilities, this paper will attempt to perform an economic assessment and a comparison of conventional anaerobic-aerobic processes under various conditions in order to identify the best aleternative and to determine the most important environmental and cost factors affecting the selection of a desirable alternative. For this purpose, six combined treatment systems are selected and their construction and operation costs and detailed uniform annual cost sensitivity analysis based on the most important parameters are presented. Finally, two different combined wastewater treatment systems of UASB + facultative lagoons and UASB + trickling filters will be introduced as the best treatment processes for Iranian conditions.

  12. Comparison and utilization of two dosimetric systems for e-beam industrial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Marcio Z., E-mail: mzamboti@aceletron.com.b [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia Tecnica e Operacoes; Sousa, Fernando N.C. de; Boente, Otavio C., E-mail: fernando.nuno@aceletron.com.b, E-mail: otavio@aceletron.com.b [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Desenvolvimento de Produtos; Sousa, Nuno R.A., E-mail: engenheiro.nuno.sousa@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The utilization of electron linear accelerators (LINAC's) for industrial irradiation of several products like turf, sterilization of medical products, cosmetics, polymers, food, and gems, can only be successful if a reliable dosimetric system is chosen. There are several different available technologies and two were selected for this study. The first one uses alanine dosimeters which can be read with electron spin resonance spectrometers (ESR); the second uses B3 radiochromic dosimeters which are read with a spectrophotometer. This study presents a comparison of both technologies in the dose range of 1 to 80 kGy, taking into account initial cost, precision, reading time, calibration, among others, for a typical 24 hour production run, and for normal operational routines and tests. It is shown that each system has its own advantages and disadvantages, and that both can be used in an e-beam installation. However, for industrial applications it is necessary to optimize the process, so it is presented which dosimeter is used for each routine application. (author)

  13. Comparison of Three Smart Camera Architectures for Real-Time Machine Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a machine vision system for real-time computation of distance and angle of a camera from a set of reference points located on a target board. Three different smart camera architectures were explored to compare performance parameters such as power consumption, frame speed and latency. Architecture 1 consists of hardware machine vision modules modeled at Register Transfer (RT level and a soft-core processor on a single FPGA chip. Architecture 2 is commercially available software based smart camera, Matrox Iris GT. Architecture 3 is a two-chip solution composed of hardware machine vision modules on FPGA and an external microcontroller. Results from a performance comparison show that Architecture 2 has higher latency and consumes much more power than Architecture 1 and 3. However, Architecture 2 benefits from an easy programming model. Smart camera system with FPGA and external microcontroller has lower latency and consumes less power as compared to single FPGA chip having hardware modules and soft-core processor.

  14. [Comparison of hand surgery in the German and Italian DRG systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, O; Dolderer, J; Stahl, S; Atzei, A; Haerle, M; Schaller, H E

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are a patient classification system grouping related types of patients treated to the resources they consumed. In this analysis we compared the Italian and the German DRG systems regarding hand surgery with an emphasis on reimbursement of clinical cases. The 15 most common hand surgical diagnoses and their corresponding operative treatment in our clinic in 2009 were processed using a DRG grouper. The underlying data were transferred to the Italian system. Thus, the length of stay and the reimbursement of both countries could be obtained and compared. The latter was adjusted and corrected by the purchasing power of each country. The mean of the upper threshold of length of stay was 10 days in the German as well as the Italian system whereas the median was 2 times higher in Italy (6 vs. 12 days). Fifteen out of 19 cases showed higher reimbursement in Germany. The case mix index (CMI) of 0.917 in Germany represents a mean payment of 2,676 € per case. In Italy the hypothetical CMI of 0.635 resulted in a mean reimbursement of 1,853 € per case. The biggest difference in remuneration could be found for replantation of multiple fingers. For this service the German health-care system pays 12,320 € more than the Italian. Total proceeds of the top 15 diagnoses applying the number of cases treated in our clinic revealed 1.7 million € in the German and 1.2 million € in the Italian DRG system. Considering the purchasing power utilizing consumer prize parities, the difference of reimbursement between the countries decreased to 300,000 €. There is no mean length of stay per DRG in Italy, only the upper threshold of length of stay is determined. In most cases the latter is higher in Italy compared to Germany. The consumption of resources for finger replantation is not adequately represented in the Italian DRG system compared to finger amputation. Reimbursement of inpatient care is influenced by multiple factors not being subject

  15. Comparing Apples to Apples: Paleoclimate Model-Data comparison via Proxy System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Sylvia; Emile-Geay, Julien; Evans, Michael; Noone, David

    2014-05-01

    The wealth of paleodata spanning the last millennium (hereinafter LM) provides an invaluable testbed for CMIP5-class GCMs. However, comparing GCM output to paleodata is non-trivial. High-resolution paleoclimate proxies generally contain a multivariate and non-linear response to regional climate forcing. Disentangling the multivariate environmental influences on proxies like corals, speleothems, and trees can be complex due to spatiotemporal climate variability, non-stationarity, and threshold dependence. Given these and other complications, many paleodata-GCM comparisons take a leap of faith, relating climate fields (e.g. precipitation, temperature) to geochemical signals in proxy data (e.g. δ18O in coral aragonite or ice cores) (e.g. Braconnot et al., 2012). Isotope-enabled GCMs are a step in the right direction, with water isotopes providing a connector point between GCMs and paleodata. However, such studies are still rare, and isotope fields are not archived as part of LM PMIP3 simulations. More importantly, much of the complexity in how proxy systems record and transduce environmental signals remains unaccounted for. In this study we use proxy system models (PSMs, Evans et al., 2013) to bridge this conceptual gap. A PSM mathematically encodes the mechanistic understanding of the physical, geochemical and, sometimes biological influences on each proxy. To translate GCM output to proxy space, we have synthesized a comprehensive, consistently formatted package of published PSMs, including δ18O in corals, tree ring cellulose, speleothems, and ice cores. Each PSM is comprised of three sub-models: sensor, archive, and observation. For the first time, these different components are coupled together for four major proxy types, allowing uncertainties due to both dating and signal interpretation to be treated within a self-consistent framework. The output of this process is an ensemble of many (say N = 1,000) realizations of the proxy network, all equally plausible

  16. Comparison of strategies for model predictive control for home heating in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, Pierre Jacques Camille; Popovski, Petar; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Model predictive control is seen as one of the key future enabler in increasing energy efficiency in buildings. This paper presents a comparison of the performance of the control for different formulations of the objective function. This comparison is made in a simulation study on a single buildi...

  17. Comparison of Low-Complexity Diversity Schemes for Dual-Hop AF Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-02-13

    This paper investigates the performance of two low-complexity combining schemes, which are based on one- or two-phase observation, to mitigate multipath fading in dual-hop amplify-and-forward relaying systems. For the one-phase-based combining, a single-antenna station is assumed to relay information from a multiple-antenna transmitter to a multiple-antenna receiver, and the activation of the receive antennas is adaptively performed based on the second-hop statistics, regardless of the first-hop conditions. On the other hand, the two-phase-based combining suggests using multiple single-antenna stations between the multiple-antenna transmitter and the single-antenna receiver, where the suitable set of active relays is identified according to the precombining end-to-end fading conditions. To facilitate comparisons between the two schemes, formulations for the statistics of the combined signal-to-noise ratio and some performance measures are presented. Numerical and simulation results are shown to clarify the tradeoff between the achieved diversity-array gain, the processing complexity, and the power consumption.

  18. Comparison between TRM and FRP strengthening systems at preventing buckling failure of brick masonry walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat-Maso, E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP and Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM have been studied, compared and applied to strengthen brick masonry walls. The comparison of their performance against second order bending effects is addressed in this paper for the first time. Experimental and analytical data from previous researches and new analytical data for TRM cases are summarised, ordered and systematically compared to analyse the structural response of strengthened brick masonry walls. The results show a similar performance for both systems in terms of load bearing capacity and in-plane response. However, TRM strengthened cases showed greater lateral deformation than FRP ones.Materiales tipo Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP y Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM han sido estudiados, comparados y aplicados para reforzar muros de fábrica de ladrillo. La comparación de su comportamiento frente a efectos de flexión de segundo orden se abordada en este artículo por primera vez. Datos experimentales y analíticos de investigaciones previas y nuevos datos analíticos para los casos de TRM son resumidos, ordenados y sistemáticamente comparados para analizar la respuesta estructural de los muros de fábrica de ladrillo reforzados. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento similar de los dos sistemas respecto su capacidad de carga y su respuesta en el plano. Los casos reforzados con TRM mostraron desplazamientos laterales superiores a los reforzados con FRP.

  19. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Namiecińska, Olga; Czerwińska, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140), stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers) or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  20. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140, stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  1. Comparison of Standard Wind Turbine Models with Vendor Models for Power System Stability Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gomez Lazaro, E.; Jimenez-Buendia, F.; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 61400-27-1 was published in February 2015. This standard deals with the development of generic terms and parameters to specify the electrical characteristics of wind turbines. Generic models of very complex technological systems, such as wind turbines, are thus defined based on the four common configurations available in the market. Due to its recent publication, the comparison of the response of generic models with specific vendor models plays a key role in ensuring the widespread use of this standard. This paper compares the response of a specific Gamesa dynamic wind turbine model to the corresponding generic IEC Type III wind turbine model response when the wind turbine is subjected to a three-phase voltage dip. This Type III model represents the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine, which is not only one of the most commonly sold and installed technologies in the current market but also a complex variable-speed operation implementation. In fact, active and reactive power transients are observed due to the voltage reduction. Special attention is given to the reactive power injection provided by the wind turbine models because it is a requirement of current grid codes. Further, the boundaries of the generic models associated with transient events that cannot be represented exactly are included in the paper.

  2. Comparison of vertical hydraulic conductivity in a streambed-point bar system of a gaining stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Chen, Xunhong; Wang, Zhaowei; Ou, Gengxin; Liu, Can

    2012-07-01

    SummaryVertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) of both streambed and point bars can influence water and solute exchange between streams and surrounding groundwater systems. The sediments in point bars are relatively young compared to the older sediments in the adjacent aquifers but slightly older compared to submerged streambeds. Thus, the permeability in point bar sediments can be different not only from regional aquifer but also from modern streambed. However, there is a lack of detailed studies that document spatial variability of vertical hydraulic conductivity in point bars of meandering streams. In this study, the authors proposed an in situ permeameter test method to measure vertical hydraulic conductivity of the two point bars in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA. We compared the Kv values in streambed and adjacent point bars through 45 test locations in the two point bars and 51 test locations in the streambed. The Kv values in the point bars were lower than those in the streambed. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed that the Kv values from the point bars and from the channel came from two statistically different populations. Within a point bar, the Kv values were higher along the point bar edges than those from inner point bars. Grain size analysis indicated that slightly more silt and clay particles existed in sediments from inner point bars, compared to that from streambed and from locations near the point bar edges. While point bars are the deposits of the adjacent channel, the comparison of two groups of Kv values suggests that post-depositional processes had an effect on the evolution of Kv from channel to point bars in fluvial deposits. We believed that the transport of fine particles and the gas ebullition in this gaining stream had significant effects on the distribution of Kv values in a streambed-point bar system. With the ageing of deposition in a floodplain, the permeability of point bar sediments can likely decrease due to reduced effects of the upward

  3. Comparison of the Mismatch Repair System between Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancers Using Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Approximately 10%–15% of the CRC cases have defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Although the high level of microsatellite instability status is a predictor of favorable outcome in primary CRC, little is known about its frequency and importance in secondary CRC. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC for MMR proteins (e.g., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 has emerged as a useful technique to complement polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses. Methods In this study, comparison between the MMR system of primary CRCs and paired liver and lung metastatic lesions was done using IHC and the correlation with clinical outcomes was also examined. Results Based on IHC, 7/61 primary tumors (11.4% showed deficient MMR systems, while 13/61 secondary tumors (21.3% showed deficiencies. In total, 44 cases showed proficient expression in both the primary and metastatic lesions. Three cases showed deficiencies in both the primary and paired metastatic lesions. In 10 cases, proficient expression was found only in the primary lesions, and not in the corresponding metastatic lesions. In four cases, proficient expression was detected in the secondary tumor, but not in the primary tumor. Conclusions Although each IHC result and the likely defective genes were not exactly matched between the primary and the metastatic tumors, identical results for primary and metastatic lesions were obtained in 77% of the cases (47/61. These data are in agreement with the previous microsatellite detection studies that used PCR and IHC.

  4. [Economic impact of AFId management with modern management system in Intensive Care patients: comparison between ICUs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Giovanni; Di Giulio, Paola

    2016-01-01

    . Economic impact of AFId management with modern management systems in Intensive Care patients: comparison between ICUs. Acute fecal incontinence associated with diarrhea (AFId) affects up to 40% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may be responsible for pressure ulcers (PU). The FMS (Fecal Management System) though improving the management of these patients is not often provided due to its cost. To measure the costs of the use of FMS compared to routine care in three intensive care units (ICU) of Piedmont (Italy). All patients admitted from January to June 2016, > 18 years with at least three AFId episodes in the previous 24 hours were included. The costs for hygiene, medications and nursing time spent were calculated on 10 patients without FMS, accounting for the mean number of diarrhea attacks (3.04 per day), and mean days of FMS use. The FMS generated savings compared to routine care in nursing time, equipments for hygiene and pressure sores medications in patients with sacral sores. Savings depended on length of use (LoU) of the device: ICU with 10 patients (7 with PUs), mean LoU FMS 11.9 days, savings 1.210 euros; ICU with 10 patients (2 with PUs), mean LoU FMS 17.3 days, savings 5.317 euros; ICU with 45 patients (11 with PUs) mean LoU FMS 9.3 days, cost increase 1.057 euros. The cost of FMS is quickly amortised in patients with PUs. No FMS patients developed a new PUs. The FMS gives rise to savings when used in patients with PUs or for more than 10 days. The savings related to the prevention of PUs should be also added.

  5. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  6. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  7. Comparison of accident risks in different energy systems: Comments from Russian specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Many articles on accident risk analysis of different energy systems in comparison with nuclear power share certain stereotypical features. For example: When assessing the risks associated with the operation of such facilities, they ignore the effects of the upgrading of RBMK reactors which was carried out after the Chernobyl accident. In their integrated assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident they use numerous studies which frequently contain unreliable source data and unfounded predictions, and they ignore many socio-political factors which considerably increased the damage caused by the accident. Unfortunately, the study in question, despite its topicality and originality of approach, is also not without such shortcomings. After the Chernobyl accident, reconstruction and safety enhancement measures were implemented at nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors which were without precedent in world practice and have continued to this day. According to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) carried out with the assistance of international experts, the probability of serious accidents at RBMKs has decreased by a factor of two or more thanks to the above mentioned measures. The mean weighted safety index for all operational RBMK reactors is 10 -4 l/year and is decreasing thanks to the ongoing and planned reconstruction of all units. All operational nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors are thus on a par with the successfully operating Soviet WWERs and western boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and satisfy the IAEA recommendations regarding the risk level of older generation nuclear power plants. The authors of the IAEA Bulletin article give estimates of the remote radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident which range from an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 fatal cases of radiation-induced cancer, and the literature on the subject contains even more extreme estimates. However, our 14 years

  8. Comparison of Some Rural Wastewater Refining Systems Considering Chemical Properties and Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Yazdanpanah

    2016-02-01

    compared to the value of the same variable at the inlet. Also, the percentage change of wastewater properties at the outlet ratio to the inlet values in the refining systems was calculated. Meanwhile, the efficiency was evaluated using permissible values reported by the Environmental Protection Organization of Iran. Results and Discussion: The results showed that after purification, the amounts of DO, Cd and Mo were not significantly different among the studied systems, while, the other parameters were found to be similar. In almost all the cases, the amounts of pollutants decreased at the outlets, nevertheless considering the permissible standards, just in few cases the pollution was reduced. Moreover, in comparison to the standard values, the amount of TP increased, while Turbidity decreased. Additionally, the amount of DO was higher than the threshold values. As a result of purification in all the studied systems, the concentrations of Cd and Pb were reduced, whereas the concentration of Ni increased. Also, the concentrations of heavy metals, except Mo were less than the standard values. Conclusion: It was concluded that the selected refining systems had limited performance in the purification of wastewater in the studied rural areas. However, the amounts of pollutants showed some reductions at the outlets, based on the permissible standards reported by the Environmental Protection Organization of Iran. In just a few cases the pollution indices were reduced. In fact, the septic tank systems could not remove the chemical pollutants from wastewaters, although the best performance was observed for TSS and Turbidity, which were reduced with respect to permissible levels. The amounts of BOD and COD were higher than the standard values, indicating low efficiency of the refining systems in removal of chemical and biological agents. Also, the concentration of TP was found to be higher than the permissible level. The entrance of phosphorous into the surface runoff and water

  9. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was

  10. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Comparison of two different systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Wei; Li, Xiao-Long; He, Ya-Ping; Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Liu, Bo-Ji; Yue, Wen-Wen; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two different shear wave elastography (SWE) techniques in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign ones. From March 2016 to May 2016, a total of 153 breast lesions (mean diameter, 16.8 mm±10.5; range 4.1-90.0 mm) in 153 patients (mean age, 46.4 years±15.1; age range 20-86 years) were separately performed by two different SWE techniques (i.e. T-SWE, Aplio500, Toshiba Medical System, Tochigi, Japan; and S-SWE, the Aixplorer US system, SuperSonic Imagine, Provence, France). The maximum (Emax), mean (Emean) and standard deviation (ESD) of elasticity modulus values in T-SWE and S-SWE were analyzed. All the lesions were confirmed by ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (n = 26), surgery (n = 122), or both (n = 5), with pathological results as the gold standard. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the diagnostic performance between T-SWE and S-SWE. Operator consistency was also evaluated. Among the 153 lesions, 41 (26.8%) were malignant and 112 (73.2%) were benign. Emax (T-SWE: 40.10±37.14 kPa vs. 118.78±34.41 kPa; S-SWE: 41.22±22.54 kPa vs. 134.77±60.51 kPa), Emean (T-SWE: 19.75±16.31 kPa vs. 52.93±25.75 kPa; S-SWE: 20.95±10.98 kPa vs. 55.95±22.42 kPa) and ESD (T-SWE: 9.00±8.55 kPa vs. 38.44±12.30 kPa; S-SWE: 8.17±6.14 kPa vs. 29.34±13.88 kPa) showed statistical differences in distinguishing malignant lesions from benign ones both in T-SWE and S-SWE (all p  0.05 in comparison with Emax) and Emean (AUROC = 0.930, p = 0.034 in comparison with Emax). AUROC-max (T-SWE: 0.909 vs. 0.967), AUROC-mean (T-SWE: 0.892 vs. 0.930) and AUROC-SD (T-SWE: 0.958 vs. 0.962) showed no significant difference between T-SWE and S-SWE (all p > 0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients

  11. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  12. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  13. Comparison of Knee and Ankle Dynamometry between NASA's X1 Exoskeleton and Biodex System 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Newby, N. J.; Hackney, K. J.; DeWitt, J. K.; Beck, C. E.; Rovekamp, R. N.; Rea, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Pre- and post-flight dynamometry is performed on International Space Station crewmembers to characterize microgravity-induced strength changes. Strength is not assessed in flight due to hardware limitations and there is poor understanding of the time course of in-flight changes. PURPOSE: To assess the reliability of a prototype dynamometer, the X1 Exoskeleton (EXO) and its agreement with a Biodex System 4 (BIO). METHODS: Eight subjects (4 M/4 F) completed 2 counterbalanced testing sessions of knee extension/flexion (KE/KF), 1 with BIO and 1 with EXO, with repeated measures within each session in normal gravity. Test-retest reliability (test 1 and 2) and device agreement (BIO vs. EXO) were evaluated. Later, to assess device agreement for ankle plantarflexion (PF), 10 subjects (4 M/6 F) completed 3 test conditions (BIO, EXO, and BIOEXO); BIOEXO was a hybrid condition comprised of the Biodex dynamometer motor and the X1 footplate and ankle frame. Ankle comparisons were: BIO vs. BIOEXO (footplate differences), BIOEXO vs. EXO (motor differences), and BIO vs. EXO (all differences). Reliability for KE/KF was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Device agreement was assessed with: 1) repeated measures ANOVA, 2) a measure of concordance (rho), and 3) average difference. RESULTS: ICCs for KE/KF were 0.99 for BIO and 0.96 to 0.99 for EXO. Agreement was high for KE (concordance: 0.86 to 0.95; average differences: -7 to +9 Nm) and low to moderate for KF (concordance: 0.64 to 0.78; average differences: -4 to -29 Nm, Pexoskeleton to perform portable dynamometry for large muscle groups of the lower body.

  14. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO: cross-sexual comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata eWierzba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples. The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50, male couple (50, female couple (50, male (25 and female (25. Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  15. The feasibility of using Pareto fronts for comparison of treatment planning systems and delivery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Rickard O.; Sjoestroem, David; Behrens, Claus F.; Karlsson, Anna; Engstroem, Per E.; Knoeoes, Tommy; Ceberg, Crister

    2009-01-01

    Pareto optimality is a concept that formalises the trade-off between a given set of mutually contradicting objectives. A solution is said to be Pareto optimal when it is not possible to improve one objective without deteriorating at least one of the other. A set of Pareto optimal solutions constitute the Pareto front. The Pareto concept applies well to the inverse planning process, which involves inherently contradictory objectives, high and uniform target dose on one hand, and sparing of surrounding tissue and nearby organs at risk (OAR) on the other. Due to the specific characteristics of a treatment planning system (TPS), treatment strategy or delivery technique, Pareto fronts for a given case are likely to differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Pareto fronts as a comparative tool for TPSs, treatment strategies and delivery techniques. In order to sample Pareto fronts, multiple treatment plans with varying target conformity and dose sparing of OAR were created for a number of prostate and head and neck IMRT cases. The DVHs of each plan were evaluated with respect to target coverage and dose to relevant OAR. Pareto fronts were successfully created for all studied cases. The results did indeed follow the definition of the Pareto concept, i.e. dose sparing of the OAR could not be improved without target coverage being impaired or vice versa. Furthermore, various treatment techniques resulted in distinguished and well separated Pareto fronts. Pareto fronts may be used to evaluate a number of parameters within radiotherapy. Examples are TPS optimization algorithms, the variation between accelerators or delivery techniques and the degradation of a plan during the treatment planning process. The issue of designing a model for unbiased comparison of parameters with such large inherent discrepancies, e.g. different TPSs, is problematic and should be carefully considered

  16. The feasibility of using Pareto fronts for comparison of treatment planning systems and delivery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Engstrom, Per E; Sjöström, David; Behrens, Claus F; Karlsson, Anna; Knöös, Tommy; Ceberg, Crister

    2009-01-01

    Pareto optimality is a concept that formalises the trade-off between a given set of mutually contradicting objectives. A solution is said to be Pareto optimal when it is not possible to improve one objective without deteriorating at least one of the other. A set of Pareto optimal solutions constitute the Pareto front. The Pareto concept applies well to the inverse planning process, which involves inherently contradictory objectives, high and uniform target dose on one hand, and sparing of surrounding tissue and nearby organs at risk (OAR) on the other. Due to the specific characteristics of a treatment planning system (TPS), treatment strategy or delivery technique, Pareto fronts for a given case are likely to differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Pareto fronts as a comparative tool for TPSs, treatment strategies and delivery techniques. In order to sample Pareto fronts, multiple treatment plans with varying target conformity and dose sparing of OAR were created for a number of prostate and head & neck IMRT cases. The DVHs of each plan were evaluated with respect to target coverage and dose to relevant OAR. Pareto fronts were successfully created for all studied cases. The results did indeed follow the definition of the Pareto concept, i.e. dose sparing of the OAR could not be improved without target coverage being impaired or vice versa. Furthermore, various treatment techniques resulted in distinguished and well separated Pareto fronts. Pareto fronts may be used to evaluate a number of parameters within radiotherapy. Examples are TPS optimization algorithms, the variation between accelerators or delivery techniques and the degradation of a plan during the treatment planning process. The issue of designing a model for unbiased comparison of parameters with such large inherent discrepancies, e.g. different TPSs, is problematic and should be carefully considered.

  17. Thermo economic comparison of conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems for small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batens, Ellen; Cuellar, Rafael; Marissal, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    out a thermo economic comparison of a conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems. A model to estimate the savings and cost targets for solid oxide fuel cell systems is presented. A comparison between fuel cell technologies in the danish market with “state......Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and electricity at the point of use. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently competitive to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. The goal of this paper is to carry...... of the art” traditional heat and power generation technologies currently used in Denmark is considered. The conventional method of covering electrical, heating (e.g. hot water) and cooling (e.g. space cooling) load demands is by purchasing electricity from the electricity network grid and with a fossil fuel...

  18. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  19. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed

  20. Comparison between film-screen and computed radiography systems in Brazilian mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.A.; Oliveira, J.R.; Carvalho, L.A.P.; César, A.C.Z.; Nogueira, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 the Public Health Office of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil has established the Image Quality Control Program in Mammography. It evaluates the image quality based on an accredited phantom of the Brazilian College of Radiology (CBR). This phantom follows international standards such as masses, specks, fibers, contrast details and spatial resolution. The contrast index (CI) is accessed through optical density (OD) measurements. Although OD is defined under film-screen (FS) scope, among all accessible mammographic systems under the health office surveillance, almost 80% are computed radiography (CR) based. A necessity to adapt the protocol has emerged to consider OD as a conformity parameter. Objective: To verify the OD accessibility under CR´s printed out films and the feasibility to calculate contrast index, in comparison with FS´s. Results: A total of 56 images were evaluated with three different CBR phantoms. They were equally divided into FS and CR systems and a densitometer was used to read out their OD values. The correlation between their contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was found to be in the order of 0.77 (±0.14). The samples were not significantly different (inside 5% incertitude) for every phantom. The CNR correlation coefficient was 0.871. For OD, correlation coefficient was 0.989 and a log-fit function has shown good agreement with detector response. The OD-normalized standard deviation difference between CR and FS for every different phantom was 36.6%, 2.8% and 20.2%. A CI range for CR´s lying between 0.13 and 0.69 was found. Conclusions: Different phantoms were successfully tested in both CR and FS to evaluate the feasibility in use contrast index as a conformity parameter since their correlations are strictly related to calibration curve, as provided by phantom manufacturer. The relative CR-FS OD σ-difference provides a spreading indicator, where the first and last phantoms are considerably out of expectation. Such differences are

  1. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines....... The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software, WAMIT. The model also includes models for the dynamic mooring lines as well...... as the turbines non-linear yaw and teeter motion behavior. The main focus on the comparison will be on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions such as increasing wind speed, wave height and wind...

  2. Model for economical analysis of oil and gas deepwater production concepts : Comparisons of life cycle cost of subsea production systems vs. floating structures with dry wellheads.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Mata, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The scope of the work was to create a model that will allow the comparison of Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for subsea production systems and floating structures with dry wellheads for the Mexican territorial waters of the Gulf of Mexico. To give validity to the model, an empirical comparison on the resulting recovery factor based on data of the US Gulf of Mexico was included. This comparison is intended to answer ¿Is there a significant diffe...

  3. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: international multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R; Ngu, Jing H; Schultz, Michael; Abazi, Roseta; Zakko, Liam; Thornton, Susan; Wilkinson, Kelly; Khor, Cristopher J L; Murray, Iain A; Laursen, Stig B

    2017-01-04

     To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  International multicentre prospective study.  Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.  3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined.  The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65.0-65.3%. No score was helpful at predicting rebleeding or length

  4. Comparison of different chaotic maps in particle swarm optimization algorithm for long-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yaoyao; Zhou Jianzhong; Xiang Xiuqiao; Chen Heng; Qin Hui

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a novel chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm and compares the efficiency of three one-dimensional chaotic maps within symmetrical region for long-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling. The introduced chaotic maps improve the global optimal capability of CPSO algorithm. Moreover, a piecewise linear interpolation function is employed to transform all constraints into restrict upriver water level for implementing the maximum of objective function. Numerical results and comparisons demonstrate the effect and speed of different algorithms on a practical hydro-system.

  5. International comparison of systems to determine entitlements to medical specialist care: performance and organizational issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Stolk (Elly); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Jerak (Sonja); M. Stroet (Mary); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary Objective: CVZ has asked us to provide a comparison of criteria and procedures that different countries use to determine entitlements to medical specialist care. This question was asked within the context of the recent introduction of the DBC (diagnosis treatment combinations)

  6. Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stanzel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.

  7. Clinical assessment of a commercial delivery system for aerosol ventilation scanning by comparison with Krypton-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Eriksson, L.; Andersson, A.

    1985-01-01

    A commercial aerosol delivery system for ventilation scanning was evaluated in 23 patients with lung disease involving regional disturbances of ventilation. Ventilation scans obtained after inhalation of an aerosol labeled with In-113m were compared with Kr-81m ventilation scans. An indirect comparison was also made with a settling bag technique. There was close agreement between the aerosol and the Kr-81m ventilation scans in all of the patients. The aerosol outlined the ventilated parts of the lung adequately, and central deposition of particles was minimal. The penetration of the aerosol into the lung was higher with the delivery system that with a settling bag system. The aerosol delivery system appears suitable for clinical pulmonary ventilation scintigraphy

  8. Clinical assessment of a commercial aerosol delivery system for ventilation scanning by comparison with KR-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Eriksson, L.; Andersson, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive aerosols offer a means for steady state ventilation scanning in multiple views. The clinical use of radioaerosol techniques has been hampered by the lack of delivery systems producing sufficiently small particles. If the aerosol contains large particles, heavy deposition occurs in major airways, especially in patients with airways disease. The authors have assessed a new, commercial aerosol delivery system (Syntevent) by comparison with Kr-81m ventilation scanning in 23 patients with airways obstruction. An indirect comparison was also made with a settling bad technique. Ventilation scans in four projections were obtained during continuous inhalation of Kr-81m. Subsequently, the patient inhaled an aerosol labelled with In-113m from the Syntevent system, and aerosol ventilation scans were obtained in the same projections. Spirometry was performed to establish the degree of airways obstruction. The aerosol delineated the ventilated regions of the lungs adequately in all the patients. Deposition of aerosol in larger airways was seen in a few patients only, and this did not impede the interpretation of the scintigram. A quantitative analysis of the penetration of the aerosol to the periphery of the lung failed to demonstrate any significant correlation between particle penetration and airways obstruction. Aerosol penetration was significantly greater (p<0.001) with the Syntevent system than with a settling bag technique

  9. A techno-economic comparison of ground-coupled and air-coupled heat pump system for space cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    This paper reports a techno-economic comparison between a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system and an air-coupled heat pump (ACHP) system. The systems connected to a test room in Firat University, Elazig (38.41{sup o}N, 39.14{sup o}E), Turkey, were designed and constructed for space cooling. The performances of the GCHP and the ACHP system were experimentally determined. The experimental results were obtained from June to September in cooling season of 2004. The average cooling performance coefficients (COP{sub sys}) of the GCHP system for horizontal ground heat exchanger (HGHE) in the different trenches, at 1 and 2m depths, were obtained to be 3.85 and 4.26, respectively and the COP{sub sys} of the ACHP system was determined to be 3.17. The test results indicate that system parameters can have an important effect on performance, and that GCHP systems are economically preferable to ACHP systems for the purpose of space cooling. (author)

  10. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  11. Comparison of Failure Modes in 2-D and 3-D Woven Carbon Phenolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Grant A.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Braun, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is developing Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) materials as a new class of heatshields for entry vehicles (Stackpoole). Currently, there are few options for ablative entry heatshield materials, none of which is ideally suited to the planetary probe missions currently of interest to NASA. While carbon phenolic was successfully used for the missions Pioneer Venus and Galileo (to Jupiter), the heritage constituents are no longer available. An alternate carbon phenolic would need to be qualified for probe missions, which is most efficient at heat fluxes greater than those currently of interest. Additional TPS materials such as Avcoat and PICA are not sufficiently robust for the heat fluxes required. As a result, there is a large TPS gap between the materials efficient at very high conditions (carbon phenolic) and those that are effective at low-moderate conditions (all others). Development of 3D Woven TPS is intended to fill this gap, targeting mid-density weaves that could with withstand mid-range heat fluxes between 1100 W/sq cm and 8000 W/sq cm (Venkatapathy (2012). Preliminary experimental studies have been performed to show the feasibility of WTPS as a future mid-range TPS material. One study performed in the mARC Jet Facility at NASA Ames Research Center characterized the performance of a 3D Woven TPS sample and compared it to 2D carbon phenolic samples at ply angles of 0deg, 23.5deg, and 90deg. Each sample contained similar compositions of phenolic and carbon fiber volume fractions for experimental consistency. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the TPS materials by evaluating resulting recession and failure modes. After exposing both samples to similar heat flux and pressure conditions, the 2D carbon phenolic laminate was shown to experience significant delamination between layers and further pocketing underneath separated layers. The 3D Woven TPS sample did not experience the delamination or pocketing

  12. A Comparison Of Joint Ordering Rule And Other Inventory Order Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGEN, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The typical manuracturing corporation has about fourty or fifty percent of its total assets invested in inventory items Because of this reason inventory control is considered to be one of the most important problems that deserves a special attention of top management There are several diferent inventory control techniques that can be used in inventory management The joint ordering rule discused here is some of the most powerful techniques This paper presents a comparison of joint order...

  13. Comparison between two calibration models of a measurement system for thyroid monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows a comparison between two theoretical calibration that use two mathematical models to represent the neck region. In the first model thyroid is considered to be just a region limited by two concentric cylinders whose dimensions are those of trachea and neck. The second model uses functional functions to get a better representation of the thyroid geometry. Efficiency values are obtained using Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  14. On correlation comparison of identical pions in different systems of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgoretskij, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that a comparison of correlations of identical pions in reference frames moving with different velocities along the reaction axis enables one to select the frame for which there is a kinematical symmetry in the multiple generation process. The indicated possibility is due to the fact that in the considered symmetrical frame the space-time parameters R and tau are extremal. An experimental selection of the ''symmetrical frame'' may be useful in the choice between competing models of multiple generation

  15. A Performance Comparison of Tree and Ring Topologies in Distributed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    A distributed system is a collection of computers that are connected via a communication network. Distributed systems have become commonplace due to the wide availability of low-cost, high performance computers and network devices. However, the management infrastructure often does not scale well when distributed systems get very large. Some of the considerations in building a distributed system are the choice of the network topology and the method used to construct the distributed system so as to optimize the scalability and reliability of the system, lower the cost of linking nodes together and minimize the message delay in transmission, and simplify system resource management. We have developed a new distributed management system that is able to handle the dynamic increase of system size, detect and recover the unexpected failure of system services, and manage system resources. The topologies used in the system are the tree-structured network and the ring-structured network. This thesis presents the research background, system components, design, implementation, experiment results and the conclusions of our work. The thesis is organized as follows: the research background is presented in chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the system components, including the different node types and different connection types used in the system. In chapter 3, we describe the message types and message formats in the system. We discuss the system design and implementation in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we present the test environment and results, Finally, we conclude with a summary and describe our future work in chapter 6.

  16. Evaluation of degree of readsorption of radionuclides during sequential extraction in soil: comparison between batch and dynamic extraction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald; Hou, Xiaolin

    . However, the techniques have an important problem with redistribution as a result of readsorption of dissolved analytes onto the remaining solids phases during extraction. Many authors have demonstrated the readsorption problem and inaccuracy from it. In our previous work, a dynamic extraction system......Sequential extraction techniques have been widely used to fractionate metals in solid samples (soils, sediments, solid wastes, etc.) due to their leachability. The results are useful for obtaining information about bioavailability, potential mobility and transport of element in natural environments...... developed in our laboratory for heavy metal fractionation has shown the reduction of readsorption problem in comparison with the batch techniques. Moreover, the system shows many advantages over the batch system such as speed of extraction, simple procedure, fully automatic, less risk of contamination...

  17. Comparison between reverse Brayton and Kapitza based LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    LNG boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction systems in LNG carrier ships uses refrigeration devices which are based on reverse Brayton, Claude, Kapitza (modified Claude) or Cascade cycles. Some of these refrigeration devices use nitrogen as the refrigerants and hence nitrogen storage vessels or nitrogen generators needs to be installed in LNG carrier ships which consume space and add weight to the carrier. In the present work, a new configuration based on Kapitza liquefaction cycle which uses BOG itself as working fluid is proposed and has been compared with Reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC) on sizes of heat exchangers and compressor operating parameters. Exergy analysis is done after simulating at steady state with Aspen Hysys 8.6® and the comparison between RBC and Kapitza may help designers to choose reliquefaction system with appropriate process parameters and sizes of equipment. With comparable exergetic efficiency as that of an RBC, a Kaptiza system needs only BOG compressor without any need of nitrogen gas.

  18. Portal verification using the KODAK ACR 2000 RT storage phosphor plate system and EC films. A semiquantitative comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Peter; Blank, Hilbert; Alheit, Horst

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of the storage phosphor plate system ACR 2000 RT (Eastman Kodak Corp., Rochester, MN, USA), that is destined for portal verification as well as for portal simulation imaging in radiotherapy, had to be proven by the comparison with a highly sensitive verification film. The comparison included portal verification images of different regions (head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) irradiated with 6- and 15-MV photons and electrons. Each portal verification image was done at the storage screen and the EC film as well, using the EC-L cassettes (both: Eastman Kodak Corp., Rochester, MN, USA) for both systems. The soft-tissue and bony contrast and the brightness were evaluated and compared in a ranking of the two compared images. Different phantoms were irradiated to investigate the high- and low-contrast resolution. To account for quality assurance application, the short-time exposure of the unpacked and irradiated storage screen by green and red room lasers was also investigated. In general, the quality of the processed ACR images was slightly higher than that of the films, mostly due to cases of an insufficient exposure to the film. The storage screen was able to verify electron portals even for low electron energies with only minor photon contamination. The laser lines were sharply and clearly visible on the ACR images. The ACR system may replace the film without any noticeable decrease in image quality thereby reducing processing time and saving the costs of films and avoiding incorrect exposures.

  19. Robust, accurate, and non-contacting vibration measurement systems: Summary of comparison measurements of the robust laser interferometer and typical accelerometer systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenow, T.C.; Shipman, R.L.; Holland, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    Epoch Engineering, Incorporated (EEI) has completed a series of vibration measurements comparing their newly-developed Robust Laser Interferometer (RLI) with accelerometer-based instrumentation systems. EEI has successfully demonstrated, on several pieces of commonplace machinery, that non-contact, line-of-sight measurements are practical and yield results equal to or, in some cases, better than customary field implementations of accelerometers. The demonstration included analysis and comparison of such phenomena as nonlinearity, transverse sensitivity, harmonics, and signal-to-noise ratio. Fast Fourier Transformations were performed on the accelerometer and the laser system outputs to provide a comparison basis. The RLI was demonstrated, within the limits of the task, to be a viable, line-of-sight, non-contact alternative to accelerometer systems. Several different kinds of machinery were instrumented and compared, including a small pump, a gear-driven cement mixer, a rotor kit, and two small fans. Known machinery vibration sources were verified and RLI system output file formats were verified to be compatible with commercial computer programs used for vibration monitoring and trend analysis. The RLI was also observed to be less subject to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and more capable at very low frequencies

  20. Robust, accurate, and non-contacting vibration measurement systems: Supplemental appendices presenting comparison measurements of the robust laser interferometer and typical accelerometer systems. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenow, T.C.; Shipman, R.L.; Holland, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    Epoch Engineering, Incorporated (EEI) has completed a series of vibration measurements comparing their newly-developed Robust Laser Interferometer (RLI) with accelerometer-based instrumentation systems. EEI has successfully demonstrated, on several pieces of commonplace machinery, that non-contact, line-of-sight measurements are practical and yield results equal to or, in some cases, better than customary field implementations of accelerometers. The demonstration included analysis and comparison of such phenomena as nonlinearity, transverse sensitivity, harmonics, and signal-to-noise ratio. Fast Fourier Transformations were performed on the accelerometer and the laser system outputs to provide a comparison basis. The RLI was demonstrated, within the limits o the task, to be a viable, line-of-sight, non-contact alternative to accelerometer systems. Several different kinds of machinery were instrumented and. compared, including a small pump, a gear-driven cement mixer, a rotor kit, and two small fans. Known machinery vibration sources were verified and RLI system output file formats were verified to be compatible with commercial computer programs used for vibration monitoring and trend analysis. The RLI was also observed to be less subject to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and more capable at very low frequencies. This document, Volume 2, provides the appendices to this report

  1. Climate mitigation comparison of woody biomass systems with the inclusion of land-use in the reference fossil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, S.; Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R.

    2014-01-01

    While issues of land-use have been considered in many direct analyses of biomass systems, little attention has heretofore been paid to land-use in reference fossil systems. Here we address this limitation by comparing forest biomass systems to reference fossil systems with explicit consideration of land-use in both systems. We estimate and compare the time profiles of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of woody biomass systems and reference fossil systems. A life cycle perspective is used that includes all significant elements of both systems, including GHG emissions along the full material and energy chains. We consider the growth dynamics of forests under different management regimes, as well as energy and material substitution effects of harvested biomass. We determine the annual net emissions of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 for each system over a 240-year period, and then calculate time profiles of CRF as a proxy measurement of climate change impact. The results show greatest potential for climate change mitigation when intensive forest management is applied in the woody biomass system. This methodological framework provides a tool to help determine optimal strategies for managing forests so as to minimize climate change impacts. The inclusion of land-use in the reference system improves the accuracy of quantitative projections of climate benefits of biomass-based systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the dynamics of GHG emissions from woody biomass and fossil systems. • With a life cycle perspective, we account for forest land-use in both systems. • Replacing more carbon intensive fossil fuels gives greater climate benefit. • Increasing the intensity of forest management gives greater climate benefit. • Methodological choices in defining temporal system boundaries are important

  2. Outdoor Performance Comparison of Concentrator Photovoltaic and Flat Plate Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidaka Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Output characteristics of tracking type concentrator photovoltaic (CPV system, multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si PV system, CIGS PV system, and amorphous silicon (a-Si PV system were analyzed in the data period of a year from August 2013 to July 2014. In this study, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors using average photon energy (APE and temperature of solar cell (Tcell. The characteristics of 14 kW CPV system, 50 kW mc-Si PV system, 60 kW CIGS PV system, 1.35 kW a-Si PV system were evaluated and compared. As a result, the output performance of CPV was highest between the four systems at the most frequent conditions in the outdoor environment.

  3. [Comparison of the systems used for providing local anesthesia in dentistry--the Wand (Milestone Scientific) and Injex (Rosch)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzecka, Joanna; Gończowski, Krzysztof; Kesek, Barbara; Darczuk, Dagmara; Zapała, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Local anesthesia is one of the basic and the most often executed interventions in dentistry. This procedure is very stressful for the patients because it is combined with pain. The new systems for delivering local anesthesia in dentistry have revolutionized the technique considerably by its simplify as well as reduction in pain. this study presents the comparison between the local anesthesia delivery systems used in dentistry--The Wand and Injex, taking into consideration pain intensity during performing anesthesia and the intensification of fear before executed anesthesia with the given system. the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), verbal scale and questionnaires were used to evaluate pain and fear. On the basis of our investigations it can be concluded that there were statistically important differences between men and women in fear intensity combined with the anesthesia procedure--men were less afraid than women. The patients who were anaesthetized with system The WAND declared less fear before similar anesthesia in future. The average value of intensity of pain analyzed with both verbal and visual scales during anaesthetizing with the system Injex (independently from sex) was statistically significantly higher than for system The WAND--respectively 0.57 and 8.55 for The WAND, 2.02 and 32.18 for Injex (p = 0.001). on the basis of the results of this study it can be concluded that the less stressful and painful local anesthesia delivery system is the WAND.

  4. A comparison of commercial and custom-made electronic tracking systems to measure patient flow through an ambulatory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Sharif; Pandit, Ravi; Singman, Eric L; Appelbaum, Jeffrey; Boland, Michael V

    2015-10-29

    Understanding how patients move through outpatient clinics is important for optimizing clinic processes. This study compares the costs, benefits, and challenges of two clinically important methods for measuring patient flow: (1) a commercial system using infrared (IR) technology that passively tracks patient movements and (2) a custom-built, low cost, networked radio frequency identification (RFID) system that requires active swiping by patients at proximity card readers. Readers for both the IR and RFID systems were installed in the General Eye Service of the Wilmer Eye Institute. Participants were given both IR and RFID tags to measure the time they spent in various clinic stations. Simultaneously, investigators recorded the times at which patients moved between rooms. These measurements were considered the standard against which the other methods were compared. One hundred twelve patients generated a total of 252 events over the course of 6 days. The proportion of events successfully recorded by the RFID system (83.7%) was significantly greater than that obtained with the IR system (75.4%, p RFID system). There was no statistical difference between the IR, RFID, and manual time measurements (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Both RFID and IR methods are effective at providing patient flow information. The custom-made RFID system was as accurate as IR and was installed at about 10% the cost. Given its significantly lower costs, the RFID option may be an appealing option for smaller clinics with more limited budgets.

  5. Comparison of a R744 cascade refrigeration system with R404A and R22 conventional systems for supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alessandro da; Pedone Bandarra Filho, Enio; Pontes Antunes, Arthur Heleno

    2012-01-01

    The present article focuses on the energy efficiency and climate performance of three different systems used in supermarket applications. The refrigeration systems consist of a cascade cycle (CO 2 /HFC-404A) – provide nominal refrigerating capacity – with carbon dioxide for subcritical operation and HFC-404A in the high stage temperature stage (pump circuit for normal refrigeration and direct expansion for deep-freezing), and also HFC-404A and HCFC-22 with direct expansion systems. The cascade system presented a lower refrigerant charge, 47 kg of both fluids, which represents less than a half of the refrigerant charge of the other systems. An important factor is the total GWP in case of leakage, where the impact in the atmosphere of the cascade system operating with CO 2 was much less than the two direct expansion systems.

  6. Comparison of the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan expansions in the three nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afnan, I.R.; Birrell, N.D.

    1977-01-01

    The binding energy of 3 H, percentage S-, S'- and D-state probability, and charge form factor of 3 He are calculated using the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan separable expansions to the Reid soft core potential. Comparison of the results for the two separable expansions show that the expansion of Adhikari and Sloan has the better convergence property, and the lowest rank expansion considered (equivalent to the unitary pole approximation) gives a good approximation to the binding energy of 3 H and the charge form factor of 3 He, even at large momentum transfer (K 2 -2 ). (Author)

  7. Comparison of surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.B.; Ullrich, C.G.; Moore, T.

    1988-01-01

    Both surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional image processing from CT data can provide accurate demonstration of skeletal anatomy. While realistic, surface contour images may obscure fine detail such as nondisplaced fractures, and thin bone may disappear. Volumetric processing can provide high detail, but the transparency effect is unnatural and may yield a confusing image. Comparison of both three-dimensional modes is presented to demonstrate those findings best shown with each and to illustrate helpful techniques to improve volumetric display, such as disarticulation of unnecessary anatomy, short-angle repeating rotation (dithering), and image combination into overlay displays

  8. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    , IPOSIM calculation as well as PSIM simulation. These calculations are validated via simulations results in PSIM. The main conclusion is that presented modular RPCs can be divided into general purpose RPC and special purpose RPC in terms of the behavior and efficiency. It is helpful to choose......, voltage stress and current stress of power switch, numbers of the power switches and capacitor are derived by analytical methods. Moreover, the numerical comparison of operating controllers is completed for modular RPCs. In addition, power losses of five modular RPCs are obtained by theoretical analysis...

  9. Physical and Clinical Comparison between a Screen-Film System and a Dual-Side Reading Mammography-Dedicated Computed Radiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, S.; Canossi, B.; Battista, R.; Vetruccio, E.; Torricelli, P.; Lanconelli, N.; Danielli, C.; Borasi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Digital mammography systems, thanks to a physical performance better than conventional screen-film units, have the potential of reducing the dose to patients, without decreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To achieve a physical and clinical comparison between two systems: a screen-film plate and a dual-side computed radiography system (CRM; FUJIFILM FCR 5000 MA). Material and Methods: A unique feature of the FCR 5000 MA system is that it has a clear support medium, allowing light emitted during the scanning process to be detected on the 'back' of the storage phosphor plate, considerably improving the system's efficiency. The system's physical performance was tested by means of a quantitative analysis, with calculation of the modulation transfer function, detective quantum efficiency, and contrast-detail analysis; subsequently, the results were compared with those achieved using a screen-film system (SFM; Eastmann Kodak MinR-MinR 2000). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then performed on 120 paired clinical images obtained in a craniocaudal projection with the conventional SFM system under standard exposure conditions and also with the CRM system working with a dose reduced by 35% (average breast thickness: 4.3 cm; mean glandular dose: 1.45 mGy). CRM clinical images were interpreted both in hard copy and in soft copy. Results: The ROC analysis revealed that the performances of the two systems (SFM and CRM with reduced dose) were similar (P>0.05): the diagnostic accuracy of the two systems, when valued in terms of the area underneath the ROC curve, was found to be 0.74 for the SFM, 0.78 for the CRM (hard copy), and 0.79 for the CRM (soft copy). Conclusion: The outcome obtained from our experiments shows that the use of the dual-side CRM system is a very good alternative to the screen-film system

  10. Comparison and Analysis of Evaluation System of Child Care Program in Primary Health Care System in the East Azerbaijan Province Based on Comprehensive Evaluation Model (CIPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Mousa Zadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Planning plays an important role in improving children's health and an evaluation system is necessary to planning. The purpose of this study was comparing and analyzing evaluation system of child care program in primary health care system in the Eastern Azerbaijan province based on Comprehensive Evaluation Model (CIPP. Material and Methods : This is a cross sectional study. The process includes a review of current evaluation system, comparison and analysis of the system based on a comprehensive model and to assess and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the current systems. The quantitative methods (such as brainstorming, observation and interview and consensus of study group about the results of the study were used for analyzing and interpreting results. Results: It showed that not enough attention was paid to the context and performance and the content of evaluation just includes inputs and processes based on the finding. Specific criteria and impact were considered in four areas (context, input, process and outcome and all levels which were according to the proposal and based on the CIPP model. Conclusion: Evaluation is a control process tool by higher levels and self-assessment by service provider is not considered in the current system. Evaluation includes quantitative aspects and not the quality of process. So, it is recommended that forecasting system that utilizes evaluation will result in improving future planning and a scientific model to be used in designing evaluation program. ​

  11. A comparison of two software architectural styles for space-based control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the hardware/software design of control systems it is almost an article of faith to decompose a system into loosely coupled subsystems, with state variables encapsulated inside device and subsystem objects.

  12. A comparison of data management systems used in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansl-Kozanecka, T.

    1992-04-01

    Data-management systems for defining data and manipulating them with FORTRAN programs have become increasingly important. We compare three systems that were developed within the high-energy physics community: BOS, JAZELLE and ZEBRA. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Viera Ševčíková; Marek Angelovič; Ondřej Bučko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfar...

  14. Consumer Health Information Provision in Rural Public Libraries: A Comparison of Two Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace

    2013-01-01

    To better understand health information provision in the public library setting, two cooperative library systems that serve primarily rural populations in upstate New York were studied. The central library in one of those systems established a consumer health information center (CHIC) in 1999. In the other system, the central library does not have…

  15. Analyzing Information Systems Development: A Comparison and Analysis of Eight IS Development Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivari, Juhani; Hirschheim, Rudy

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes and compares eight information systems (IS) development approaches: Information Modelling, Decision Support Systems, the Socio-Technical approach, the Infological approach, the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, and the Scandinavian Trade Unionist approach. Discusses the organizational roles…

  16. A Comparison of Organization-Centered and Agent-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most classical multi-agent systems have the agent in center, there has recently been a development towards focusing more on the organization of the system, thereby allowing the designer to focus on what the system goals are, without considering how the goals should be fulfilled. We have d...

  17. A Preliminary Comparison of Student and Professional Motivations for Choosing Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nita; Korzaan, Melinda; Ceccucci, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Demand for qualified information systems professionals continues to rise. Additionally, over the past decade, enrollment in information systems-related educational programs has declined. In order to understand why and to better understand how to position information systems undergraduate programs to recruit and retain students, this study provides…

  18. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Krajcsi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  19. Preliminary comparison of the system of AERMOD and ISCST3 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Curbelo Garea, Lariza; Diaz Rivero, Norberto

    2006-01-01

    On October 21st, 2005 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), establishes AERMOD as regulatory model to be used for the dispersion of pollutants at local scale, in substitution of the ISCST3 model used up to that moment. Whenever a new dispersion model appears, it is necessary for the scientific community to make a comparison in order to discover the differences between the results obtained with the new model and the previous one. Considering the above mentioned fact, this work makes a preliminary comparison between the maximum concentrations calculated by each model (ISCST3 and AERMOD) for a specific case study that consists of eleven batteries of generation sets distributed throughout Havana City which will operate in base load mode and will use a fuel oil with 4% of sulphur. The modelling domain is the 50 xs 37 km with 1 x 1 km cells for a total of 1 850 calculation points (receptors), located in all Havana City and the bordering municipalities of Havana province. In each one of these receptors the dispersion of SO 2 and NO x were modelled

  20. Phylogenetic comparisons of a coastal bacterioplankton community with its counterparts in open ocean and freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappé; Vergin; Giovannoni

    2000-09-01

    In order to extend previous comparisons between coastal marine bacterioplankton communities and their open ocean and freshwater counterparts, here we summarize and provide new data on a clone library of 105 SSU rRNA genes recovered from seawater collected over the western continental shelf of the USA in the Pacific Ocean. Comparisons to previously published data revealed that this coastal bacterioplankton clone library was dominated by SSU rRNA gene phylotypes originally described from surface waters of the open ocean, but also revealed unique SSU rRNA gene lineages of beta Proteobacteria related to those found in clone libraries from freshwater habitats. beta Proteobacteria lineages common to coastal and freshwater samples included members of a clade of obligately methylotrophic bacteria, SSU rRNA genes affiliated with Xylophilus ampelinus, and a clade related to the genus Duganella. In addition, SSU rRNA genes were recovered from such previously recognized marine bacterioplankton SSU rRNA gene clone clusters as the SAR86, SAR11, and SAR116 clusters within the class Proteobacteria, the Roseobacter clade of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, the marine group A/SAR406 cluster, and the marine Actinobacteria clade. Overall, these results support and extend previous observations concerning the global distribution of several marine planktonic prokaryote SSU rRNA gene phylotypes, but also show that coastal bacterioplankton communities contain SSU rRNA gene lineages (and presumably bacterioplankton) shown previously to be prevalent in freshwater habitats.

  1. A comparison of the Web of Science with publication-level classification systems of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ruiz-Castillo, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new criterion for choosing between a pair of classification systems of science that assign publications (or journals) to a set of scientific fields. Consider the standard normalization procedure in which field mean citations are used as normalization factors. We recommend system A over system B whenever the standard normalization procedure based on A performs better than the when it is based on B. Since the evaluation can be made in terms of either system, the performance assessment requires a double test. In addition, since the assessment of two normalization procedures would be generally biased in favor of the one based on the classification system used for evaluation purposes, ideally a pair of classification systems must be compared using a third, independent classification system for evaluation purposes. We illustrate this strategy by comparing a Web of Science journal-level classification system, consisting of 236 journal subject categories, with two publication-level algorithmically constructed classification systems consisting of 1,363 (G6) and 5,119 (G8) clusters. There are two main findings. (1) The G8 system is found to dominate the G6 system. Therefore, when we have a choice between two classification systems at different granularity levels, we should use the system at the higher level because it typically exhibits a better standard normalization performance. (2) The G8 system and the Web of Science (WoS) journal-level system are found to be non-comparable. Nevertheless, the G8-normalization procedure performs better using the WoS system for evaluation purposes than the WoS-normalization procedure using the G8 system for evaluation purposes. Furthermore, when we use the G6 system for evaluation purposes, the G8-normalization procedure performs better than the WoS-normalization procedure. We conclude that algorithmically constructed classification systems constitute a credible alternative to the WoS system and, by extension, to

  2. Comparison of the effectiveness of different immobilization systems in different body regions using daily megavoltage CT in helical tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K-F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Effective immobilization is crucial for the accurate delivery of radiotherapy. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the commonly used immobilization systems for different body regions using megavoltage CT (MVCT). Methods: Daily treatment set-up data from 212 patients treated by helical tomotherapy (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) in 6 body regions (52 head and neck, 41 chest, 38 abdomen, 36 pelvis, 18 breast and 27 cranium) were obtained. Based on a verification tool using the pre-treatment MVCT, set-up corrections for each patient were recorded. Mean systematic and random errors of lateral, longitudinal, vertical and roll directions and three-dimensional vectors were compared between immobilization systems of each region. Results: Smaller set-up deviations were observed in the Orfit system (Orfit Industries NV, Wijnegem, Belgium) of the head and neck region, while the performance of immobilization systems for the chest, abdomen and pelvis regions was similar. Larger differences were noted in the breast group, where the prone BodyFIX® system (Medical Intelligence, Medizintechnik GmbH, Schwabmünchen, Germany) was less stable than the supine VacLok® system (CIVCO Medical Solutions, Orange City, IA). Conclusion: Differences were found between the immobilization systems in the head and neck region, in which the Orfit system was relatively more effective, whereas the VacLok and BodyFIX systems performed similarly in the chest, abdomen and pelvis regions. For the breast case, the supine position with VacLok was much more stable than the prone breast technique. The results provided references for the estimation of clinical target volume–planning target volume margins. Advances in knowledge: This is the first article on comprehensive comparisons performed in immobilization systems for main body regions that provides some practical recommendations. PMID:24398111

  3. Generic Modeling of a Life Support System for Process Technology Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ganapathi, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model called the Life Support Systems Analysis Simulation Tool (LiSSA-ST), the spreadsheet program called the Life Support Systems Analysis Trade Tool (LiSSA-TT), and the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) modeling technique. Results of using the LiSSA-ST and the LiSSA-TT will be presented for comparing life support system and process technology options for a Lunar Base with a crew size of 4 and mission lengths of 90 and 600 days. System configurations to minimize the life support system weight and power are explored.

  4. The Design and Comparison of Central and Distributed Light Sensored Smart LED Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Özçelik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of published peer-reviewed research comparing the efficiencies of distributed versus central sensor-controlled LED lighting systems. This research proposes improving the smart illumination of a room with external fenestration using central and distributed light sensors. The optical and electrical measurements of the daylight have been made in the case where the light was not distributed evenly and not sufficient. Test results show that the proposed distributed light sensor illumination system has increased the efficiency by 28% when compared to the proposed central system. It has also been shown that the two tested systems are more cost-effective than common smart illumination systems.

  5. Treatment verification system in radiotherapy using a digital portal imaging device. Comparison with screen/film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Manabu; Komai, Yoshinori; Okada, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Chadani, Kazuma; Nohara, Hiroki; Kazusa, Chudou.

    1994-01-01

    A digital portal imaging (DPI) system for megavoltage photon beams was installed recently in our department. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality of this system. We have analyzed the following properties of the system; relationship between measured dose-rate and pixel values of the DPI, spatial resolution, detectability of low-contrast objects and setup errors. The results were compared with those of conventional screen-film systems. As a result, the relationship between the measured dose-rate and the pixel value of the DPI was found to be linear in the dose-rate range between 100 and 400 cGy/min. Spatial resolution was 1.25 and 0.5 mm for the DPI and the screen-film systems, respectively. The slope of the contrast-detail curves differed between the DPI and the screen-film systems, the contrast thresholds were 0.6 and 0.3% for the DPI and the screen-film systems, respectively. The detectability of a setup error of 1 mm and 2 mm for the DPI was lower than that by the screen-film systems, although the difference was not very significant. In conclusion, the image quality of the DPI at present time is slightly inferior to the conventional screen-film systems. However, notable advantages of the DPI system are that any positional changes in patients during irradiation can be detected very quickly, and that quantitative analysis of the setup variation can be obtained. The image quality of the DPI will be improved as the technology regarding advances. Therefore, this verification system using the DPI device, is expected to be used for clinical radiation therapy in the future. (author)

  6. Similar predictions of etravirine sensitivity regardless of genotypic testing method used: comparison of available scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Johan; Nijs, Steven; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Hoogstoel, Annemie; Anderson, David; Picchio, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare various genotypic scoring systems commonly used to predict virological outcome to etravirine, and examine their concordance with etravirine phenotypic susceptibility. Six etravirine genotypic scoring systems were assessed: Tibotec 2010 (based on 20 mutations; TBT 20), Monogram, Stanford HIVdb, ANRS, Rega (based on 37, 30, 27 and 49 mutations, respectively) and virco(®)TYPE HIV-1 (predicted fold change based on genotype). Samples from treatment-experienced patients who participated in the DUET trials and with both genotypic and phenotypic data (n=403) were assessed using each scoring system. Results were retrospectively correlated with virological response in DUET. κ coefficients were calculated to estimate the degree of correlation between the different scoring systems. Correlation between the five scoring systems and the TBT 20 system was approximately 90%. Virological response by etravirine susceptibility was comparable regardless of which scoring system was utilized, with 70-74% of DUET patients determined as susceptible to etravirine by the different scoring systems achieving plasma viral load <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. In samples classed as phenotypically susceptible to etravirine (fold change in 50% effective concentration ≤3), correlations with genotypic score were consistently high across scoring systems (≥70%). In general, the etravirine genotypic scoring systems produced similar results, and genotype-phenotype concordance was high. As such, phenotypic interpretations, and in their absence all genotypic scoring systems investigated, may be used to reliably predict the activity of etravirine.

  7. Data-Driven Machine-Learning Model in District Heating System for Heat Load Prediction: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisnik Dalipi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our data-driven supervised machine-learning (ML model to predict heat load for buildings in a district heating system (DHS. Even though ML has been used as an approach to heat load prediction in literature, it is hard to select an approach that will qualify as a solution for our case as existing solutions are quite problem specific. For that reason, we compared and evaluated three ML algorithms within a framework on operational data from a DH system in order to generate the required prediction model. The algorithms examined are Support Vector Regression (SVR, Partial Least Square (PLS, and random forest (RF. We use the data collected from buildings at several locations for a period of 29 weeks. Concerning the accuracy of predicting the heat load, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms using mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and correlation coefficient. In order to determine which algorithm had the best accuracy, we conducted performance comparison among these ML algorithms. The comparison of the algorithms indicates that, for DH heat load prediction, SVR method presented in this paper is the most efficient one out of the three also compared to other methods found in the literature.

  8. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfare principles. There was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in the both breeding systems.  The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand, daily and the same day was supplemented water to drinking troughs. Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding laying hens and production of high quality and safe production of table eggs. From the evaluation of the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell thickness was observed in the breeding free range system compared to the thickness of the egg shell in the breeding cage system, and in age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding systems compared to the thickness of the egg shell in age 30 weeks of laying hens. No statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in egg shell weight between breeding cage system and free range system. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell weight was observed in the age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding  systems compared to age 30 weeks of laying hens. There no statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in the share of egg shell and egg shell strength between breeding cage system and free range system, nor between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  9. Towards a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems in comparison with fossil energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Jungmeier, G.; Apps, M.; Bohlin, F.; Gustavsson, L.; Marland, G.; Pingoud, K.; Savolainen, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, which was prepared as part of IEA Bioenergy Task XV (''Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems''), we outline a standard methodology for comparing the greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems with those of fossil energy systems. Emphasis is on a careful definition of system boundaries. The following issues are dealt with in detail: time interval analysed and changes of carbon stocks; reference energy systems; energy inputs required to produce, process and transport fuels; mass and energy losses along the entire fuel chain; energy embodied in facility infrastructure; distribution systems; cogeneration systems; by-products; waste wood and other biomass waste for energy; reference land use; and other environmental issues. For each of these areas recommendations are given on how analyses of greenhouse gas balances should be performed. In some cases we also point out alternative ways of doing the greenhouse gas accounting. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations on how bioenergy systems should be optimized from a greenhouse-gas emissions point of view. (author)

  10. Performance comparison between a solar driven rotary desiccant cooling system and conventional vapor compression system (performance study of desiccant cooling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, T.S.; Ziegler, F.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solar driven rotary desiccant cooling systems have been widely recognized as alternatives to conventional vapor compression systems for their merits of energy-saving and being eco-friendly. In the previous paper, the basic performance features of desiccant wheel have been discussed. In this paper, a solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system and a vapor compression system are simulated to provide cooling for one floor in a commercial office building in two cities with different climates: Berlin and Shanghai. The model developed in the previous paper is adopted to predict the performance of the desiccant wheel. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate and compare the thermodynamic and economic performance of the two systems and to obtain useful data for practical application. Results show that the desiccant cooling system is able to meet the cooling demand and provide comfortable supply air in both of the two regions. The required regeneration temperatures are 55 deg. C in Berlin and 85 deg. C in Shanghai. As compared to the vapor compression system, the desiccant cooling system has better supply air quality and consumes less electricity. The results of the economic analysis demonstrate that the dynamic investment payback periods are 4.7 years in Berlin and 7.2 years in Shanghai.

  11. A comparison of HK-CONWIP and BK-CONWIP control strategies in a multi-product manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonyelum Emmanuel Onyeocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of the Hybrid Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy and Basestock Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy operating Shared Kanban Allocation Policy (S-KAP and Dedicated Kanban Allocation Policy (D-KAP in a multi-product serial flow line. We explored the effect of an increase of product types on the WIP inventory in the system. A simulation-based optimisation technique was used in determining the optimal settings for the strategies. The strategies were compared via pairwise comparison technique and Nelson’s ranking and selection procedure. S-KAP responds quicker to demand than D-KAP. BK-CONWIP outperforms HK-CONWIP in a serial manufacturing system. It was shown that an increase in the number of product-type increases the number of PAC and WIP inventory.

  12. High energy ballistic and fracture comparison between multilayered armor systems using non-woven curaua fabric composites and aramid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For personal protection against high kinetic energy projectiles, multilayered armor systems (MAS are usually the best option. They combine synergistically the properties of different materials such as ceramics, composites and metals. In the present work, ballistic tests were performed to evaluate multilayered armor systems (MAS using curaua non-woven fabric epoxy composites as second layer. A comparison to a MAS using aramid (Kevlar™ fabric laminates was made. The results showed that the curaua non-woven fabric composites are suitable to the high ballistic applications, and are promising substitutes for aramid fabric laminates. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Non-woven fabric, Aramid laminate, Ballistic test

  13. Comparison of programmed and cabled re-entrance systems. Elaboration of cabled re-entrance system for a CII 90.40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraudeau, Jean

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study problems related to re-entrance, and, more particularly, to study a re-entrance system for a CII 90.40 computer. Such a system can be realised under a programmed or cabled form, and both approaches are described and compared. A generalisation of this comparison is briefly proposed. As the computer already possesses a programmed re-entrance system, the author focuses on the study of the cabled re-entrance system which results in an improvement of performance and possibilities provided by this computer, particularly for its use in real time. The design, realisation and development of such a cabled system are reported. A first part reports a theoretical study on re-entrance (definition, problems, applications), a presentation of the computer, a description of the programmed re-entrance system, a presentation of the principle of the chosen cabled re-entrance system, a definition of the structure and operating mode of the cabled pile and a description of its various components, and a flowchart analysis of function execution. The second part reports the practical realisation: definition, technological overview, technology used in the cabled pile, sequencing and multiplexing principle, impulse transmission, logical layouts, and circuit adjustments. The third part presents practical example. An assessment and perspectives are finally discussed

  14. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  15. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The conceptual design of a hybrid life support system based on the evaluation and comparison of terrestrial testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, M.; Horneck, G.; Blome, H. J.

    This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Computer models, including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. In order to cope with the differences in the supported crew size and provided nutrition, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six for a 780 day Mars mission (180 days transport to Mars; 600 days surface period) as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario [Hoffman, S.J., Kaplan, D.L. Human exploration of Mars: the Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploratory Study, 1997]. All models were scaled to provide the same daily allowances, as of calories, to the crew. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) analysis was used to compare the investigated system models against each other. Following the comparison of the terrestrial systems, the system specific subsystem options for Food Supply, Solid Waste Processing, Water Management and Atmosphere Revitalization were evaluated in a separate trade study. The best subsystem technologies from the trade study were integrated into an overall design solution based on mass flow relationships. The optimized LSS is mainly a bioregenerative system, complemented by a few physico-chemical elements, with a total ESM of 18,088 kg, which is about 4 times higher than that of a pure physico-chemical LSS, as designed in an earlier study.

  17. Comparison between Laying Hen Performance in the Cage System and the Deep Litter System on a Diet Free from Animal Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Voslářová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery cage systems for housing laying hens are being replaced by alternative systems including the deep litter system. At the same time, the substitution of meat and bone meal by vegetable matter in poultry feed mixtures is sought in the nutrition of laying hens. In the experiment, we compared the performance of laying hens of the ISA BROWN hybrid in both the cage system and the deep litter system, on a diet with the meat and bone meal content replaced by vegetable feeds (based on lupin. In the first group, 36 laying hens were kept in the deep litter system; in the second group, 36 laying hens were kept in cages. Over the period of nine months, the number of eggs laid, their weight, shell quality, the clinical state of the laying hens and incidence of their mortality were monitored daily. We found that in the cage system a higher number of eggs was obtained; a lower mean egg weight (p p p p p > 0.05, and the number of laying hens which died was lower (p < 0.05 in comparison with the deep litter system. The results of the experiment demonstrate that, with the substitution of meat and bone meal by vegetable matter in the feed mixtures for laying hens, there are differences between the performance of laying hens from the deep litter system as compared to the laying hens from the cage system. The deep litter system better meets the requirements for the welfare of laying hens; however, it provides a lower yield.

  18. System design and as-built MCNP model comparison for the Lujan Center target moderator reflector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhrer, G.; Ferguson, P.D.; Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    During the design of the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center target, a simplified Monte Carlo model was used to estimate target system performance and to aid engineers as decisions were made regarding the construction of the target system. Although the simplified model ideally would perfectly reflect the as-built system performance, assumptions were made in the model during the design process that may result in deviations between the model predictions and the as-built system performance. Now that the Lujan Center target system has been completed, a more detailed, as-built, model of the target system has been completed. The purpose of this work is to investigate differences between the predicted target system performance of the simplified model and the as-built model from the standpoint of time-averaged moderator brightness. Calculated discrepancies between the two models have been isolated to a few key issues. Figure 1 shows MCNP geometric plots of the simplified and as-built models. Major differences between these two models include details in the moderator designs (plena) and piping, full versus partial moderator canisters (only in the direction of the extracted neutron beam for the simplified model), and reflector details including cooling pipes and engineering tolerance gaps. In addition, Fig. 1 demonstrates that the detailed model includes shielding and additional material beyond that which was modeled by the original simplified model

  19. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  20. A comparison of nuclear power systems for Brazil using plutonium and binary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Fernandes, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power systems based on plutonium cycle and binary cycle are compared taking into account natural uranium demand and reactor combination. The systems start with PWR type reactors (U5/U8) and change to systems composed exclusively of FBR type reactors or PWR-FBR symbiotic systems. Four loading modes are considered for the PWR and two for the FBR. The FBR is either a LMFBR loaded with PU/U or a LMFBR loaded the binary way. A linear and a non-linear capacity growth and two different criteria for the FBR introduction are considered. The results show that a 100 GWe permanent system can be established in 50 years in all cases, based on 300000 t of natural uranium and in case of delay in the FBR introduction and if a thermal-fast symbiotic system is chosen, a binary cycle could be more advantageous than a plutonium cycle. (F.E.) [pt

  1. Comparison of linear, mixed integer and non-linear programming methods in energy system dispatch modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, three frequently used operation optimisation methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined utility technologies for electric power and DH (district heating) of eastern Denmark. The investigation focusses on individual plant operation...... differences and differences between the solution found by each optimisation method. One of the investigated approaches utilises LP (linear programming) for optimisation, one uses LP with binary operation constraints, while the third approach uses NLP (non-linear programming). The LP model is used...... as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest amount of constraints of the three. A comparison of the optimised operation of a number of units shows significant differences between the three methods. Compared to the reference, the use of binary integer variables, increases operation...

  2. Investigation of Industrialised Building System Performance in Comparison to Conventional Construction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional construction methods are still widely practised, although many researches have indicated that this method is less effective compared to the IBS construction method. The existence of the IBS has added to the many techniques within the construction industry. This study is aimed at making comparisons between the two construction approaches. Case studies were conducted at four sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Two projects were IBS-based while the remaining two deployed the conventional method of construction. Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the IBS approach has more to offer compared to the conventional method. Among these advantages are shorter construction periods, reduced overall costs, less labour needs, better site conditions and the production of higher quality components.

  3. Comparisons between in vivo estimates of systemic Pu deposition and autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the UK the radiochemical analyses of autopsy specimens have been undertaken following the death of 30 employees during the period 1964 - 1980 whose work has at some time brought them into contact with plutonium. These workers were routinely monitored during their lifetime and estimates made of their total body content of plutonium. Past experience has shown that the urinary plutonium content bears a marked relationship to the bone and liver deposition levels of plutonium but not to the quantities found in the lungs (1). In this paper therefore the comparisons are made between in vivo estimates of bone and liver plutonium deposition and estimates derived from both the wet and ash weights of autopsy specimens. (author)

  4. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation – Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. ► Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. ► Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. ► Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (−0.1 to −2.4 kg NO 3 - eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (−0.4 to −1.0 kg SO 2 - eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (−790 to −960 kg CO 2 - eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (−1.7 to −3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The

  5. (abstract) Generic Modeling of a Life Support System for Process Technology Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ganapathi, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model called the Life Support Systems Analysis Simulation Tool (LiSSA-ST), the spreadsheet program called the Life Support Systems Analysis Trade Tool (LiSSA-TT), and the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) modeling technique. Results of using the LiSSA-ST and the LiSSA-TT will be presented for comparing life support systems and process technology options for a Lunar Base and a Mars Exploration Mission.

  6. Comparison of Different Computer–Aided Surgery Systems in Skull Base Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ecke, U.; Luebben, B.; Maurer, J.; Boor, S.; Mann, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Computer–aided surgery (CAS) based on high–resolution imaging techniques represents an important adjunct to precise intraoperative orientation when anatomical landmarks are distorted or missing. Several commercial systems, mostly based on optical or electromagnetic navigation principles, are on the market. This study investigated the application of EasyGuide®, VectorVision®, and InstaTrak® CAS systems in ENT surgery under practical and laboratory conditions. System accuracy, time required, ha...

  7. Second law comparison of single effect and double effect vapour absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a comparative study between single effect and double effect absorption refrigeration systems with identical cold output is carried out. Simulation results were used to study the influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient, the thermal loads of the components, exergetic efficiency (rational efficiency) and the total change in exergy of the two systems. It is concluded that the COP of double effect system is approximately twice the COP of single effect system but the exergetic efficiency of double effect system increase slightly compared to the exergetic efficiency of single effect system. It is found that for each condenser and evaporator temperature, there is an optimum generator temperature where the total change in exergy of the single effect and double effect absorption refrigeration systems is minimum. At this point the COP and exergetic efficiency of the systems become maximum. In this study and when the evaporation temperature is varied from 4 deg. C to 10 deg. C, condenser and absorber temperatures are varied from 33 deg. C to 39 deg. C and generator (HPG) temperature is varied from 60 deg. C to 190 deg. C the maximum COP values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 0.73-0.79 and for double effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 1.22-1.42. The maximum exergetic efficiency values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 12.5-23.2% and for double effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 14.3-25.1%.

  8. Comparison of short term rainfall forecasts for model based flow prediction in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Poulsen, Troels Sander; Bøvith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forecast based flow prediction in drainage systems can be used to implement real time control of drainage systems. This study compares two different types of rainfall forecasts – a radar rainfall extrapolation based nowcast model and a numerical weather prediction model. The models are applied...... performance of the system is found using the radar nowcast for the short leadtimes and weather model for larger lead times....

  9. Comparison of short-term rainfall forecasts for modelbased flow prediction in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Ahm, Malte; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbek

    2013-01-01

    Forecast-based flow prediction in drainage systems can be used to implement real-time control of drainage systems. This study compares two different types of rainfall forecast - a radar rainfall extrapolation-based nowcast model and a numerical weather prediction model. The models are applied...... performance of the system is found using the radar nowcast for the short lead times and the weather model for larger lead times....

  10. Comparison of three digital radiographic imaging systems for the visibility of endodontic files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Won; Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong

    2004-01-01

    To compare three digital radiographic imaging sensors by evaluating the visibility of endodontic file tips with interobserver reproducibility and assessing subjectively the clarity of images in comparison with the x-ray film images. Forty-five extracted sound premolars were used for this study. Fifteen plaster blocks were made with three premolars each and 8, 10, 15 K-flexofiles were inserted into the root canal of premolars. They were radiographically exposed using periapical x-ray films (Kodak Insight Dental film, Eastmann Kodak company, Rochester, USA), Digora imaging plates (Soredex-Orion Co., Helsinki, Finland), CDX 2000HQ sensors (Biomedisys Co., Seoul, Korea), and CDR sensors (Schick Inc., Long Island, USA). The visibility of endodontic files was evaluated with interobserver reproducibility, which was calculated as the standard deviations of X, Y coordinated of endodontic file tips measured on digital images by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The clarity of images was assessed subjectively using 3 grades, i.e, plus, equal, and minus in comparison with the conventional x-ray film images. Interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tips was the highest in CDR sensor (p<0.05) only except at Y coordinates of 15 file. In the subjective assessment of the image clarity, the plus grade was the most frequent in CDR sensor at all size of endodontic file (p<0.05). CDR sensor was the most superior to the other sensors, CDX 2000HQ sensor and Digora imaging plate in the evaluation of interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tip and subjective assessment of image clarity.

  11. Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

  12. Comparison of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Guanyu; Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei

    2009-11-01

    The classification of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is still controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the relative merits of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis. In our study, the nodal status was classified according to the 5th edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system, the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC), the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, and the size of the largest metastatic lymph node. Each staging system was scored as good (+2), fair (+1), or poor (0) with respect to the theoretical value (extent of the anatomical lymphatic tumor spread), convenience (simplicity), surgical applicability (extent of lymph node dissection), and prognostic value (ability to predict survival rate). In the multivariate analysis including the four staging systems and other potential prognostic factors, stepwise Cox regression revealed that the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes was the most independent prognostic factor. The TNM, ratio, and size systems were convenient because they had no consideration for the location of the tumor and lymph node. Although the JCGC system had advantages in theoretical value and surgical application, it was most optional due to the complexity of the system. Although all different staging systems are comparable, the metastatic lymph node ratio system is convenient, reproducible, and has the highest ability to predict survival.

  13. Comparison of intelligent fuzzy based AGC coordinated PID controlled and PSS controlled AVR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Asansol Engineering College, Asansol, West Bengal (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal (India)

    2007-11-15

    This paper attempts to investigate the performance of intelligent fuzzy based coordinated control of the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) loop and the excitation loop equipped with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controlled Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) system and Power System Stabilizer (PSS) controlled AVR system. The work establishes that PSS controlled AVR system is much more robust in dynamic performance of the system over a wide range of system operating configurations. Thus, it is revealed that PSS equipped AVR is much more superior than PID equipped AVR in damping the oscillation resulting in improved transient response. The paper utilizes a novel class of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) termed as Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CRPSO) as optimizing tool to get optimal tuning of PSS parameters as well as the gains of PID controllers. For on-line, off-nominal operating conditions Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy Logic (TSFL) has been applied to obtain the off-nominal optimal gains of PID controllers and parameters of PSS. Implementation of TSFL helps to achieve very fast dynamic response. Fourth order model of generator with AVR and high gain thyristor excitation system is considered for PSS controlled system while normal gain exciter is considered for PID controlled system. Simulation study also reveals that with high gain exciter, PID control is not at all effective. Transient responses are achieved by using modal analysis. (author)

  14. Comparison of ICEPEL predictions with single elbow flexible piping system experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ICEPEL Code for coupled hydrodynamic-structural response analysis of piping systems is used to analyze an experiment on the response of flexible piping systems to internal pressure pulses. The piping system consisted of two flexible Nickel-200 pipes connected in series through a 90 0 thick-walled stainless steel elbow. A tailored pressure pulse generated by a calibrated pulse gun is stabilized in a long thick-walled stainless steel pipe leading to the flexible piping system which ended with a heavy blind flange. The analytical results of pressure and circumferential strain histories are discussed and compared against the experimental data obtained by Stanford Research Institute

  15. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  16. COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES VIBRO-IMPACT SYSTEM DYNAMICAL BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelova О.S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of external periodic loading parameters and constructive parameters modification for two different types of nonlinear two-mass vibro-impact systems with two degrees of freedom at their movement is analyzed. The contact force that is described by Hertz law models the impact. It is shown that both systems change vibration regimes character from harmonic with one impact in the cycle to subharmonic with several impacts in the cycle up to chaotic. But the system with the impact at soft limiting stop is somewhat more sensitive to parameters modification and changes its vibration regime character more frequently then the system with the impact at rigid limiting stop.

  17. A Comparison of the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Vacuum Tube and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bielskus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents simulation based exergy analysis used for comparing solar thermal systems applied for preparing domestic hot water. The simulation of flat and vacuum tube solar collector systems was performed in TRNSYS simulation environment. A period of one year under Lithuanian climate conditions was chosen. Simulation was performed on 6 min time step resolution by calculating energy and exergy flows and creating balance calculation. Assessment results at system and element levels have been presented as monthly variation in efficiency. The conducted analysis has revealed that the systems designed to cover equal heat energy demand operates in different exergetic efficiencies.Article in Lithuanian

  18. On board processing for future satellite communications systems: Comparison of FDM, TDM and hybrid accessing schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, G.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.

    1982-01-01

    Several satellite uplink and downlink accessing schemes for customer premises service are compared. Four conceptual system designs are presented: satellite-routed frequency division multiple access (FDMA), satellite-switched time division multiple access (TDMA), processor-routed TDMA, and frequency-routed TDMA, operating in the 30/20 GHz band. The designs are compared on the basis of estimated satellite weight, system capacity, power consumption, and cost. The systems are analyzed for fixed multibeam coverage of the continental United States. Analysis shows that the system capacity is limited by the available satellite resources and by the terminal size and cost.

  19. Comparison of Three Commercial Systems for Identification of Yeasts Commonly Isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlin, Jill K.; Hanko, Gayle; Stewart, Rebecca; Pape, John; Nachamkin, Irving

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P clinically relevant yeasts. PMID:10325356

  20. Comparison of five systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Choi, G S; Whang, I; Suh, I S

    1997-09-01

    There are several systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Their relative merits are not clear. In this retrospective analysis, the nodal status was classified according to the Union Internacional Contra la Cancrum (UICC) and Japanese staging systems, the number and frequency of lymph node metastasis, and the level of involved nodes. Each staging system was scored as good (+1), fair (0) or poor (-1) with respect to prognostic value, theoretical value, convenience, reproducibility and surgical applicability. There were no differences between the five staging systems in predicting survival. The Japanese staging system was most arbitrary owing to the complexity of the system, although it had an advantage in surgical application. The same disadvantage was found in the UICC system and the level system. Determination of the number and frequency of involved nodes was convenient and reproducible, but the number of lymph nodes dissected must be considered when the number of positive nodes is used for staging. The classification of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes as N0 (no nodal metastasis), N1 (metastasis in 1-25 per cent of dissected nodes) and N2 (metastasis in more than 25 per cent of dissected nodes) would be a simple, convenient, reproducible staging system with an ability to predict surgical results.

  1. Comparison of CPR1000 and AP1000 rod position indication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure, the function, the digital detection principle of reactor control rod position and monitoring systems in CPR1000 and AP1000, comparing with the characteristics of the system design. The results show that the operation mode and function of AP1000 Rod position indication system are similar to that of CPR1000, but AP1000 rod position system provides higher reliability, and reduces the numbers of containment electrical penetrations and is with better characteristics than that of CPR1000, since it incorporated the redundancy design and data communication. (authors)

  2. A comparison of ISO 14001 to other related environmental management systems and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.E.; Byron, D.F.; Livingston, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Efficient environmental management is of increasing priority for the industrial sector. The achievement of ISO 14001 certification will demonstrate that the environmental management system meets or exceeds industry standards since this standard will be the accepted international measure of environmental management. A review of published environmental management systems and tools was conducted to ensure all aspects of environmental management are covered in the establishment or formalization of an environmental management system. The objective of this effort is to compare the ISO 14001 standard with other environmental management systems and tools

  3. Comparison of sensor systems designed using multizone, zonal, and CFD data for protection of indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin [Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is mostly by intuition and experience rather than by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, the proper selection of an indoor airflow model is needed. Various indoor airflow models exist in the literature, from complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simpler approaches such as multizone and zonal models. Airflow models provide the contaminant concentration data, to which an optimization method can be applied to design sensor systems. The authors utilized a subzonal modeling approach when using a multizone model and were the first to utilize a zonal model for systematic sensor system design. The objective of the study was to examine whether or not data from a simpler airflow model could be used to design sensor systems capable of performing just as well as those designed using data from more complex CFD models. Three test environments, a small office, a large hall, and an office suite were examined. Results showed that when a unique sensor system design was not needed, sensor systems designed using data from simpler airflow models could perform just as well as those designed using CFD data. Further, only for the small office did the common engineering sensor system design practice of placing a sensor at the exhaust result in sensor system performance that was equivalent to one designed using CFD data. (author)

  4. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg damage and dirty, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the damage and dirty eggs and egg weight, depending on two different breeding systems and different ages of laying hens. Object of investigation were table eggs, their damage and dirty in the laying hens of the final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and the free range system.  In both rearing systems were ensured the conditions for laying hens in accordance with legislation establishing minimum standards for the laying hens minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, protection of animals kept for farming purposes in accordance with the principles of the so-called five freedoms. That was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in both breeding systems. The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand every day and the same day were supplemented water to drinking troughs.  Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding hens and production of high quality and safe of table eggs. Based on the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that to the damage and dirty eggs are not affected by the age of the breeding system and age of laying hens. Statistically significant difference     (p ≤ 0.05 in the egg weight was observed between breeding cage system and breeding free range system and   between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  5. Comparison between various patch wise strategies for reconstruction of ultra-spectral cubes captured with a compressive sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac Y.; Revah, Liat; Stern, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Recently we introduced a Compressive Sensing Miniature Ultra-Spectral Imaging (CS-MUSI) system. The system is based on a single Liquid Crystal (LC) cell and a parallel sensor array where the liquid crystal cell performs spectral encoding. Within the framework of compressive sensing, the CS-MUSI system is able to reconstruct ultra-spectral cubes captured with only an amount of ~10% samples compared to a conventional system. Despite the compression, the technique is extremely complex computationally, because reconstruction of ultra-spectral images requires processing huge data cubes of Gigavoxel size. Fortunately, the computational effort can be alleviated by using separable operation. An additional way to reduce the reconstruction effort is to perform the reconstructions on patches. In this work, we consider processing on various patch shapes. We present an experimental comparison between various patch shapes chosen to process the ultra-spectral data captured with CS-MUSI system. The patches may be one dimensional (1D) for which the reconstruction is carried out spatially pixel-wise, or two dimensional (2D) - working on spatial rows/columns of the ultra-spectral cube, as well as three dimensional (3D).

  6. Comparison of simulated and experimental results of temperature distribution in a closed two-phase thermosyphon cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanika, E.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miki, M.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Murase, Y.; Oryu, T.; Yanamoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting generators offer numerous advantages over conventional generators of the same rating. They are lighter, smaller and more efficient. Amongst a host of methods for cooling HTS machinery, thermosyphon-based cooling systems have been employed due to their high heat transfer rate and near-isothermal operating characteristics associated with them. To use them optimally, it is essential to study thermal characteristics of these cryogenic thermosyphons. To this end, a stand-alone neon thermosyphon cooling system with a topology resembling an HTS rotating machine was studied. Heat load tests were conducted on the neon thermosyphon cooling system by applying a series of heat loads to the evaporator at different filling ratios. The temperature at selected points of evaporator, adiabatic tube and condenser as well as total heat leak were measured. A further study involving a computer thermal model was conducted to gain further insight into the estimated temperature distribution of thermosyphon components and heat leak of the cooling system. The model employed boundary conditions from data of heat load tests. This work presents a comparison between estimated (by model) and experimental (measured) temperature distribution in a two-phase cryogenic thermosyphon cooling system. The simulation results of temperature distribution and heat leak compared generally well with experimental data.

  7. Ab initio study of the atomic motion in liquid metal surfaces: comparison with Lennard-Jones systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Luis E; Gonzalez, David J

    2006-01-01

    It is established that liquid metals exhibit surface layering at the liquid-vapour interface, while dielectric simple systems, like those interacting through Lennard-Jones potentials, show a monotonic decay from the liquid density to that of the vapour. First principles molecular dynamics simulations of the free liquid surface of several liquid metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ba, Al, Tl and Si), and the Na 3 K 7 alloy near their triple points have been performed in order to study the atomic motion at the interface, mainly at the outer layer. Comparison with the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations of a Lennard-Jones system shows interesting differences and similarities. The probability distribution function of the time of residence in a layer shows a peak at very short times and a long-lasting tail. The mean residence time in a layer increases when approaching the interfacial region, slightly in the Lennard-Jones system but strongly in the metallic systems. The motion within the layers, parallel to the interface, can be described as diffusion enhanced (strongly in the case of the outermost layer) with respect to the bulk, for both types of systems, despite its reduced dimensionality in metals

  8. Appropriateness of dynamical systems for the comparison of different embedding methods via calculation of the maximum Lyapunov exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, M; Ricci, L

    2014-01-01

    The embedding of time series provides a valuable, and sometimes indispensable, tool in order to analyze the dynamical properties of a chaotic system. To this purpose, the choice of the embedding dimension and lag is decisive. The scientific literature describes several methods for selecting the most appropriate parameter pairs. Unfortunately, no conclusive criterion to decide which method – and thus which embedding pair – is the best has been so far devised. A widely employed quantity to compare different methods is the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) because, for chaotic systems that have explicit analytic representations, MLE can be numerically evaluated independently of the embedding dimension and lag. Within this framework, we investigated the dependence on the calculated MLE on the embedding dimension and lag in the case of three dynamical systems that are also widespreadly used as reference systems, namely the Lorenz, Rössler and Mackey-Glass attractors. By also taking into account the statistical fluctuations of the calculated MLE, we propose a new method to assess which systems provide suitable test benches for the comparison of different embedding methods via MLE calculation. For example we found that, despite of its popularity in this scientific context, the Rössler attractor is not a reliable workbench to test the validity of an embedding method

  9. A comparison of two systems of patient immobilization for prostate radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Reproducibility of different immobilization systems, which may affect set-up errors, remains uncertain. Immobilization systems and their corresponding set-up errors influence the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-PTV) margins and thus may result in undesirable treatment outcomes. This study compared the reproducibility of patient positioning with Hipfix system and whole body alpha cradle with respect to localized prostate cancer and investigated the existing CTV-PTV margins in the clinical oncology departments of two hospitals. Methods Forty sets of data of patients with localized T1-T3 prostate cancer were randomly selected from two regional hospitals, with 20 patients immobilized by a whole-body alpha cradle system and 20 by a thermoplastic Hipfix system. Seven sets of the anterior-posterior (AP), cranial-caudal (CC) and medial-lateral (ML) deviations were collected from each patient. The reproducibility of patient positioning within the two hospitals was compared using a total vector error (TVE) parameter. In addition, CTV-PTV margins were computed using van Herk’s formula. The resulting values were compared to the current CTV-PTV margins in both hospitals. Results The TVE values were 5.1 and 2.8 mm for the Hipfix and the whole-body alpha cradle systems respectively. TVE associated with the whole-body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly less than the Hipfix system (p < 0.05). The CC axis in the Hipfix system attained the highest frequency of large (23.6%) and serious (7.9%) set-up errors. The calculated CTV to PTV margin was 8.3, 1.9 and 2.3 mm for the Hipfix system, and 2.1, 3.4 and 1.8 mm for the whole body alpha cradle in CC, ML and AP axes respectively. All but one (CC axis using Hipfix) margin calculated did not exceed the corresponding hospital protocol. The whole body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly better than the Hipfix system in terms of reproducibility (p < 0.05), especially

  10. A comparison of two systems of patient immobilization for prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Peter; Yee, Chui Ka; Shan, Lee Chi; Chung, Lee Wai; Man, Ng Ho; Cheung, Yik Shing

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility of different immobilization systems, which may affect set-up errors, remains uncertain. Immobilization systems and their corresponding set-up errors influence the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-PTV) margins and thus may result in undesirable treatment outcomes. This study compared the reproducibility of patient positioning with Hipfix system and whole body alpha cradle with respect to localized prostate cancer and investigated the existing CTV-PTV margins in the clinical oncology departments of two hospitals. Forty sets of data of patients with localized T1-T3 prostate cancer were randomly selected from two regional hospitals, with 20 patients immobilized by a whole-body alpha cradle system and 20 by a thermoplastic Hipfix system. Seven sets of the anterior-posterior (AP), cranial-caudal (CC) and medial-lateral (ML) deviations were collected from each patient. The reproducibility of patient positioning within the two hospitals was compared using a total vector error (TVE) parameter. In addition, CTV-PTV margins were computed using van Herk’s formula. The resulting values were compared to the current CTV-PTV margins in both hospitals. The TVE values were 5.1 and 2.8 mm for the Hipfix and the whole-body alpha cradle systems respectively. TVE associated with the whole-body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly less than the Hipfix system (p < 0.05). The CC axis in the Hipfix system attained the highest frequency of large (23.6%) and serious (7.9%) set-up errors. The calculated CTV to PTV margin was 8.3, 1.9 and 2.3 mm for the Hipfix system, and 2.1, 3.4 and 1.8 mm for the whole body alpha cradle in CC, ML and AP axes respectively. All but one (CC axis using Hipfix) margin calculated did not exceed the corresponding hospital protocol. The whole body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly better than the Hipfix system in terms of reproducibility (p < 0.05), especially in the CC axis. The whole body alpha

  11. A comparison of two systems of patient immobilization for prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter; Yee, Chui Ka; Shan, Lee Chi; Chung, Lee Wai; Man, Ng Ho; Cheung, Yik Shing

    2014-01-22

    Reproducibility of different immobilization systems, which may affect set-up errors, remains uncertain. Immobilization systems and their corresponding set-up errors influence the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-PTV) margins and thus may result in undesirable treatment outcomes. This study compared the reproducibility of patient positioning with Hipfix system and whole body alpha cradle with respect to localized prostate cancer and investigated the existing CTV-PTV margins in the clinical oncology departments of two hospitals. Forty sets of data of patients with localized T1-T3 prostate cancer were randomly selected from two regional hospitals, with 20 patients immobilized by a whole-body alpha cradle system and 20 by a thermoplastic Hipfix system. Seven sets of the anterior-posterior (AP), cranial-caudal (CC) and medial-lateral (ML) deviations were collected from each patient. The reproducibility of patient positioning within the two hospitals was compared using a total vector error (TVE) parameter. In addition, CTV-PTV margins were computed using van Herk's formula. The resulting values were compared to the current CTV-PTV margins in both hospitals. The TVE values were 5.1 and 2.8 mm for the Hipfix and the whole-body alpha cradle systems respectively. TVE associated with the whole-body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly less than the Hipfix system (p < 0.05). The CC axis in the Hipfix system attained the highest frequency of large (23.6%) and serious (7.9%) set-up errors. The calculated CTV to PTV margin was 8.3, 1.9 and 2.3 mm for the Hipfix system, and 2.1, 3.4 and 1.8 mm for the whole body alpha cradle in CC, ML and AP axes respectively. All but one (CC axis using Hipfix) margin calculated did not exceed the corresponding hospital protocol. The whole body alpha cradle system was found to be significantly better than the Hipfix system in terms of reproducibility (p < 0.05), especially in the CC axis. The whole body alpha

  12. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term -{\\Delta}Q, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and {\\Delta} is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensi...

  13. Comparison of indoor air distribution and thermal environment for different combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid system with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system, which is regarded as an advanced heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, has been applied in many modern buildings worldwide. To date, almost no studies focused on comparative analysis of the indoor...... air distribution and the thermal environment for all combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems. Therefore, in this article, the indoor air distribution and the thermal environment were comparatively analyzed in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH......) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV) when the supply air temperature ranged from 15.0°C to 19.0°C. The results showed that the temperature effectiveness values were 1.05–1.16 and 0.95–1.02 for MV+ FH and MV+ CH, respectively, and they were 0.78–0.91 and 0.51–0.67 for DV + FH and DV...

  14. Physician-received scatter radiation with angiography systems used for interventional radiology: Comparison among many x-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Morishima, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Taura, M.; Ebata, A.; Takeda, K.; Shimura, H.; Zuguchi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection for interventional radiology (IR) physicians is very important. Current IR X-ray systems tend to use flat-panel detectors (FPDs) rather than image intensifiers (IIs). The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in physician-received scatter radiation (PRSR) between FPD systems and II systems. This study examined 20 X-ray systems in 15 cardiac catheterisation laboratories (11 used a FPD and 9 used an II). The PRSR with digital cine-angiography and fluoroscopy were compared among the 20 X-ray systems using a phantom and a solid-state-detector electronic pocket dosemeter. The maximum PRSR exceeded the minimum PRSR by ∼12-fold for cine-angiography and ∼9-fold for fluoroscopy. For both fluoroscopy and digital cine-angiography, the PRSR had a statistically significant positive correlation with the entrance surface dose (fluoroscopy, r = 0.87; cine-angiography, r = 0.86). There was no statistically significant difference between the average PRSR of FPDs and IIs during either digital cine-angiography or fluoroscopy. There is a wide range of PRSR among the radiography systems evaluated. The PRSR correlated well with the entrance surface dose of the phantom in 20 X-ray units used for IR. Hence, decreasing the dose to the patient will also decrease the dose to staff. (authors)

  15. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal perfor...

  16. Comparison of Computer-Based Versus Counselor-Based Occupational Information Systems with Disadvantaged Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maola, Joseph; Kane, Gary

    1976-01-01

    Subjects, who were Occupational Work Experience students, were randomly assigned to individual guidance from either a computerized occupational information system, to a counselor-based information system or to a control group. Results demonstrate a hierarchical learning effect: The computer group learned more than the counseled group, which…

  17. Comparison of the converter systems for a high-voltage variable-frequency AC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Zhemerov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Matlab-models of two converter systems of an 8 MW AC drive are developed, one based on a self-contained current inverter with cut-off diodes, the other based on a multilevel cascade voltage inverter. By applying virtual simulation, qualitative characteristics of these systems are compared.

  18. Comparison of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation systems in predicting virological outcomes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Frentz (Dineke); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); M. Assel (Matthias); A. de Luca (Andrea); M. Fabbiani (Massimiliano); F. Incardona (Francesca); P. Libin (Pieter); N. Manca (Nino); V. Müller (Viktor); B.O. Nualláin (Breanndán); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Prosperi (Mattia); E. Quiros-Roldan (Eugenia); L. Ruiz (Lidia); P.M.A. Sloot (Peter); C. Torti (Carlo); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); K. Laethem (Kristel); M. Zazzi (Maurizio); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanford's HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks.

  19. Multi-Course Comparison of Traditional versus Web-Based Course Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Michael; Lennon, Ron

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure and compare the effectiveness of a Web-based course delivery system to a traditional course delivery system. The results indicate that a web-based course is effective and equivalent to a traditional classroom environment. As with the implementation of all new technologies, there are some pros and cons that…

  20. Home ranges of brown hares in a natural salt marsh: comparisons with agricultural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, P.; Wal, van der R.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2001-01-01

    This is the first study on spatial behaviour of brown hares Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 based on radio-telemetry in a natural system, which we contrast with data from agricultural systems. Radio tracking took place in a Dutch salt marsh over a 10-month period, with intensive tracking sessions

  1. Home ranges of brown hares in a natural salt marsh : comparisons with agricultural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, PJG; van der Wal, R; van Wieren, Sip

    This is the first study on spatial behaviour of brown hares Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 based on radio-telemetry in a natural system, which we contrast with data from agricultural systems. Radio tracking took place in a Dutch salt marsh over a 10-month period, with intensive tracking sessions

  2. Hospital Readmissions Following Physician Call System Change: A Comparison of Concentrated and Distributed Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Christopher J; Shadowitz, Steven; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2016-07-01

    Physician call schedules are a critical element for medical practice and hospital efficiency. We compared readmission rates prior to and after a change in physician call system at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. We studied patients discharged over a decade (2004 through 2013) and identified whether or not each patient was readmitted within the subsequent 28 days. We excluded patients discharged for a surgical, obstetrical, or psychiatric diagnosis. We used time-to-event analysis and time-series analysis to compare rates of readmission prior to and after the physician call system change (January 1, 2009). A total of 89,697 patients were discharged, of whom 10,001 (11%) were subsequently readmitted and 4280 died. The risk of readmission was increased by about 26% following physician call system change (9.7% vs 12.2%, P system change (95% confidence interval, 22%-31%; P system change persisted across patients with diverse ages, estimated readmission risks, and medical diagnoses. The net effect was equal to 7240 additional patient days in the hospital following call system change. A modest increase was observed at a nearby acute care hospital that did not change physician call system, and no increase in risk of death was observed with increased hospital readmissions. We suggest that changes in physician call systems sometimes increase subsequent hospital readmission rates. Further reductions in readmissions may instead require additional resources or ingenuity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison Evaluations of VRF and RTU Systems Performance on Flexible Research Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-hyeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy performance of a variable refrigerant flow (VRF system was evaluated using an occupancy-emulated research building in the southeastern region of the United States. Full- and part-load performance of the VRF system in heating and cooling seasons was compared with a conventional rooftop unit (RTU variable-air-volume system with electric resistance heating. During both the heating and cooling seasons, full- and part-load conditions (i.e., 100%, 75%, and 50% thermal loads were maintained alternately for 2 to 3 days each, and the energy use, thermal conditions, and coefficient of performance (COP for the RTU and VRF system were measured. During the cooling season, the VRF system had an average COP of 4.2, 3.9, and 3.7 compared with 3.1, 3.0, and 2.5 for the RTU system under 100%, 75%, and 50% load conditions and resulted in estimated energy savings of 30%, 37%, and 47%, respectively. During the heating season, the VRF system had an average COP ranging from 1.2 to 2.0, substantially higher than the COPs of the RTU system, and resulted in estimated energy savings of 51%, 47%, and 27% under the three load conditions, respectively.

  4. A Comparison of the Performance Improvement by Collocated and Noncollocated Active Damping in Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, both collocated and noncollocated active vibration control (AVC) of a the vibrations in a motion system are considered. Pole-zero plots of both the AVC loop and the motion-control (MC) loop are used to analyze the effect of the applied active damping on the system dynamics. Using

  5. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  6. Comparison of co-simulation approaches for building and HVAC/R system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Wetter, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Jiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Appraisal of modern performance-based energy codes, as well as heating, ventilation, airconditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) system design require use of an integrated building and system performance simulation program. However, the required scope of the modeling library of such integrated tools

  7. The comparison of solar water heating system operation parameters calculated using traditional method and dynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper design of renewable energy based systems is really important to provide their efficient and safe operation. The aim of this paper is to compare the results obtained during traditional static calculations, with the results of dynamic simulations. For this reason, simulations of solar water heating (SWH system, designed for a typical residential building, were conducted in the TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool. Carried out calculations allowed to determine the heat generation in the discussed system as well as to estimate the efficiency of considered installation. Obtained results were compared with the results from other available tool based on the static calculations. It may be concluded, that using dynamic simulations at the designing stage of renewable energy based systems may help to avoid many exploitation problems (including low efficiency, overheating etc. and allows to provide safe exploitation of such installations.

  8. Comparison of all-electric secondary power systems for civil subsonic transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, David D.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate studies have shown operational, weight, and cost advantages for commercial subsonic transport aircraft using an all-electric secondary power system. The first study in 1982 showed that all-electric secondary power systems produced the second largest benefit compared to four other technology upgrades. The second study in 1985 showed a 10 percent weight and fuel savings using an all-electric high frequency (20 kHz) secondary power system. The last study in 1991 showed a 2 percent weight savings using today's technology (400 Hz) in an all-electric secondary power system. This paper will compare the 20 kHz and 400 Hz studies, analyze the 2 to 10 percent difference in weight savings and comment on the common benefits of the all-electric secondary power system.

  9. Comparison of all-electric secondary power systems for civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, David D.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate studies have shown operational, weight, and cost advantages for commercial subsonic transport aircraft using an all-electric secondary power system. The first study in 1982 showed that all-electric secondary power systems produced the second largest benefit compared to four other technology upgrades. The second study in 1985 showed a 10 percent weight and fuel savings using an all-electric high frequency (20 kHz) secondary power system. The last study in 1991 showed a 2 percent weight savings using today's technology (400 Hz) in an all-electric secondary power system. This paper will compare the 20 kHz and 400 Hz studies, analyze the 2 to 10 percent difference in weight savings and comment on the common benefits of the all-electric secondary power system.

  10. A stage is a stage is a stage: a direct comparison of two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Theo L

    2003-09-01

    L. Kohlberg (1969) argued that his moral stages captured a developmental sequence specific to the moral domain. To explore that contention, the author compared stage assignments obtained with the Standard Issue Scoring System (A. Colby & L. Kohlberg, 1987a, 1987b) and those obtained with a generalized content-independent stage-scoring system called the Hierarchical Complexity Scoring System (T. L. Dawson, 2002a), on 637 moral judgment interviews (participants' ages ranged from 5 to 86 years). The correlation between stage scores produced with the 2 systems was .88. Although standard issue scoring and hierarchical complexity scoring often awarded different scores up to Kohlberg's Moral Stage 2/3, from his Moral Stage 3 onward, scores awarded with the two systems predominantly agreed. The author explores the implications for developmental research.

  11. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  12. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  13. Treatment plan quality of tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system in comparison with that of VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae; Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The ViewRay{sup TM} system combines a 0.35-T MR imaging system and a radiation therapy system using a total of three Co-60 sources. It can perform static intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with leaf widths of 1.05 cm at the plane of isocenter, at source to axis distance (SAD) of 105 cm. Since the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system can acquire near-real-time cine sagittal MR images during treatment, automated respiratory gating can be performed based on these cine images, thus, the target margins for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) could be reduced considerably by comparison with the internal tarvet volume (ITV) approach. we compared lung SABR treatment plans of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system with gross tumor volume (GTV) to those of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using TrueBeam STx™ (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with ITV in this study. The plan quality of the target volume of the VMAT with ITV was better than that of the GTV-based tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT for lung SABR. No significant differences for OARs were observed between the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT and VMAT. However, the plan quality of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system was clinically acceptable. Despite the relatively poor plan quality of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system, it still has the advantage of real-time monitoring of tumor motion during treatment.

  14. Digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I ampersand C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs

  15. Comparison of Near-Infrared Imaging Camera Systems for Intracranial Tumor Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Steve S; Zeh, Ryan; Pierce, John T; Salinas, Ryan; Singhal, Sunil; Lee, John Y K

    2018-04-01

    Distinguishing neoplasm from normal brain parenchyma intraoperatively is critical for the neurosurgeon. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been shown to improve gross total resection and progression-free survival but has limited availability in the USA. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has advantages over visible light fluorescence with greater tissue penetration and reduced background fluorescence. In order to prepare for the increasing number of NIR fluorophores that may be used in molecular imaging trials, we chose to compare a state-of-the-art, neurosurgical microscope (System 1) to one of the commercially available NIR visualization platforms (System 2). Serial dilutions of indocyanine green (ICG) were imaged with both systems in the same environment. Each system's sensitivity and dynamic range for NIR fluorescence were documented and analyzed. In addition, brain tumors from six patients were imaged with both systems and analyzed. In vitro, System 2 demonstrated greater ICG sensitivity and detection range (System 1 1.5-251 μg/l versus System 2 0.99-503 μg/l). Similarly, in vivo, System 2 demonstrated signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of 2.6 ± 0.63 before dura opening, 5.0 ± 1.7 after dura opening, and 6.1 ± 1.9 after tumor exposure. In contrast, System 1 could not easily detect ICG fluorescence prior to dura opening with SBR of 1.2 ± 0.15. After the dura was reflected, SBR increased to 1.4 ± 0.19 and upon exposure of the tumor SBR increased to 1.8 ± 0.26. Dedicated NIR imaging platforms can outperform conventional microscopes in intraoperative NIR detection. Future microscopes with improved NIR detection capabilities could enhance the use of NIR fluorescence to detect neoplasm and improve patient outcome.

  16. Performance comparison of solar parabolic trough system with glass and film reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qian; Li, Longlong; Li, Huairui; Huang, Weidong; Li, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar trough model should consider refractive surface error with glass reflector. • Solar trough system with glass mirror has less efficiency than that with film mirror. • Solar trough system has very low efficiency in a winter day at high latitude. - Abstract: This paper considers the refractive surface error transfer process to present an optical performance model of solar trough system as well as the reflective surface error. We validate the optical model through comparing the calculation results with the experimental data. The optimized design parameters are presented based on the maximization of the annual average net heat efficiency. The results show that maximum relative error of 20% for the optical efficiency may produce if the refractive surface error transfer process is ignored. It indicates that the refractive surface error should be considered in predicting the performance of the solar trough system especially for the glass reflector as well as the reflective surface error. We apply the model to compare the performance of solar parabolic trough system with vacuum tube receiver under two kinds of reflectors, which are glass mirror and film mirror. The results indicate that both parabolic trough systems with a vacuum tube receiver and a north–south axis tracking system are relatively inefficient in winter days, and the net energy output in the winter solstice is less than one sixth of the summer. The net heat efficiency of solar trough system with film mirror is 50% less than that of the system with the glass mirror at noon of the winter solstice and latitude 40 if the design and parameter of the two systems are the same. The results indicate that film reflector is more preferable than glass reflector especially in high latitude if they have the same optical property

  17. Comparison of emergency medical services systems across Pan-Asian countries: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Do; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Alsakaf, Omer; Karim, Sarah Abdul; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Lin, Chih-Hao; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Tham, Lai Peng; Cone, David C

    2012-01-01

    There are great variations in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival outcomes among different countries and different emergency medical services (EMS) systems. The impact of different systems and their contribution to enhanced survival are poorly understood. This paper compares the EMS systems of several Asian sites making up the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) network. Some preliminary cardiac arrest outcomes are also reported. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey study addressing population demographics, service levels, provider characteristics, system operations, budget and finance, medical direction (leadership), and oversight. Most of the systems are single-tiered. Fire-based EMS systems are predominant. Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur have hospital-based systems. Service level is relatively low, from basic to intermediate in most of the communities. Korea, Japan, Singapore, and Bangkok have intermediate emergency medical technician (EMT) service levels, while Taiwan and Dubai have paramedic service levels. Medical direction and oversight have not been systemically established, except in some communities. Systems are mostly dependent on public funding. We found variations in available resources in terms of ambulances and providers. The number of ambulances is 0.3 to 3.2 per 100,000 population, and most ambulances are basic life support (BLS) vehicles. The number of human resources ranges from 4.0 per 100,000 population in Singapore to 55.7 per 100,000 population in Taipei. Average response times vary between 5.1 minutes (Tainan) and 22.5 minutes (Kuala Lumpur). We found substantial variation in 11 communities across the PAROS EMS systems. This study will provide the foundation for understanding subsequent studies arising from the PAROS effort.

  18. Microcoaxial cataract surgery outcomes: comparison of 1.8 mm system and 2.2 mm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Kwon, Hyung-Goo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2009-05-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of a 1.8 mm and a 2.2 mm microcoaxial cataract surgery system. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. In a prospective study, eyes were randomly selected to have phacoemulsification using a Stellaris system or an Intrepid Infiniti system. The initial incision size was 1.8 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. Measured intraoperative parameters included phacoemulsification time, mean cumulative dissipated ultrasound energy (CDE), change in incision size at each step of surgery, and total volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) used. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal astigmatism, corneal thickness, and endothelial cell count were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. The study evaluated 86 eyes of 78 patients (43 eyes in each group). There were no significant differences in postoperative BCVA, surgically induced astigmatism, or amount of BSS used between the 2 systems (P >.05). However, for high-density cataracts, the 1.8 mm group had a greater change between the initial incision size and the incision size after phacoemulsification (P = .019, nuclear opalescence [NO] NO3; P = .001, NO4), a longer phacoemulsification time (P = .013, NO3), greater mean CDE (P = .005, NO3; P = .001, NO4), and greater corneal endothelial cell loss (P = .003, NO4). Both systems were safe and effective in microcoaxial phacoemulsification. The 1.8 mm system performed better with cortical-type cataract and the 2.2 mm system, with high-density nuclear-type cataract.

  19. Comparison of the initial orthodontic force systems produced by a new lingual bracket system and a straight-wire appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Wiechmann, Dirk; Drescher, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces and moments produced by a new lingual bracket system during the leveling phase of orthodontic treatment and to compare those with the corresponding force system of a labial straight-wire appliance. The intra-oral situation of ten patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was replicated in measurement casts fitted with lingual and labial brackets. Special care was taken to precisely reproduce each patient's interbracket geometry. We measured each tooth's force systems as generated by a leveling arch inserted into the lingual and labial brackets. The resulting force systems of both appliances were found to be quite similar with regard to the magnitude of most force and moment components. Only the first molars were subjected to considerably greater single forces with the lingual appliance. Tipping moments were found to be significantly smaller with the lingual technique, whereas the rotational moments were significantly smaller with the labial appliance. All in all we noted significant differences between the two techniques only in certain areas which upon closer examination were distributed over only a few tooth types. The initial force systems produced by the new lingual bracket system proved to be comparable with those delivered by a conventional straight-wire appliance. The actual levels of forces and moments, however, were found in certain cases to be too heavy with both techniques. We therefore recommend the development of leveling wires producing considerably lighter forces and moments.

  20. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Deteccao e a quantificacao de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a free ware system tool. Methods: thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm 2 , mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values 2 = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyper inflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. Conclusions: the SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyper inflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients. (author)

  1. Comparison of digital intraoral scanners by single-image capture system and full-color movie system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Meguru; Kataoka, Yu; Manabe, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    The use of dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restoration is rapidly increasing. This study was performed to evaluate the marginal and internal cement thickness and the adhesive gap of internal cavities comprising CAD/CAM materials using two digital impression acquisition methods and micro-computed tomography. Images obtained by a single-image acquisition system (Bluecam Ver. 4.0) and a full-color video acquisition system (Omnicam Ver. 4.2) were divided into the BL and OM groups, respectively. Silicone impressions were prepared from an ISO-standard metal mold, and CEREC Stone BC and New Fuji Rock IMP were used to create working models (n=20) in the BL and OM groups (n=10 per group), respectively. Individual inlays were designed in a conventional manner using designated software, and all restorations were prepared using CEREC inLab MC XL. These were assembled with the corresponding working models used for measurement, and the level of fit was examined by three-dimensional analysis based on micro-computed tomography. Significant differences in the marginal and internal cement thickness and adhesive gap spacing were found between the OM and BL groups. The full-color movie capture system appears to be a more optimal restoration system than the single-image capture system.

  2. Exergetic Analysis, Optimization and Comparison of LNG Cold Exergy Recovery Systems for Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dorosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shares in the global energy market is steadily increasing. One possible application of LNG is as a fuel for transportation. Stricter air pollution regulations and emission controls have made the natural gas a promising alternative to liquid petroleum fuels, especially in the case of heavy transport. However, in most LNG-fueled vehicles, the physical exergy of LNG is destroyed in the regasification process. This paper investigates possible LNG exergy recovery systems for transportation. The analyses focus on “cold energy” recovery systems as the enthalpy of LNG, which may be used as cooling power in air conditioning or refrigeration. Moreover, four exergy recovery systems that use LNG as a low temperature heat sink to produce electric power are analyzed. This includes single-stage and two-stage direct expansion systems, an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle system, and a combined system (ORC + direct expansion. The optimization of the above-mentioned LNG power cycles and exergy analyses are also discussed, with the identification of exergy loss in all components. The analyzed systems achieved exergetic efficiencies in the range of 20 % to 36 % , which corresponds to a net work in the range of 214 to 380 kJ/kg L N G .

  3. Comparison of Environment Impact between Conventional and Cold Chain Management System in Paprika Distribution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidelweijs A Putri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasir Langu village in Cisarua, West Java, is the largest central production area of paprika in Indonesia. On average, for every 200 kilograms of paprika produced, there is rejection amounting to 3 kilograms. This resulted in money loss for wholesalers and wastes. In one year, this amount can be approximately 11.7 million Indonesian rupiahs. Recently, paprika wholesalers in Pasir Langu village recently are developing cold chain management system to maintain quality of paprika so that number of rejection can be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare environmental impacts between conventional and cold chain management system in paprika distribution process using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology and propose Photovoltaic (PV system in paprika distribution process. The result implies that the cold chain system produces more CO2 emission compared to conventional system. However, due to the promotion of PV system, the emission would be reduced. For future research, it is necessary to reduce CO2 emission from transportation process since this process is biggest contributor of CO2 emission at whole distribution process. Keywords: LCA, environmentally friendly distribution, paprika,cold chain, PV system

  4. Social organization of self-management support of persons with diabetes: a health systems comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtz, Michaela; Frølich, Anne; Krasnik, Allan; Taylor, Warren; Hsu, John

    2012-09-01

    Identify important organizational elements for providing self-management support (SMS). Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in two healthcare systems. Kaiser Permanente Northern California and the Danish Health Care System. 36 managers and healthcare professionals in the two healthcare systems. Elements important to providing self-management support to persons with diabetes. Healthcare professionals' provision of SMS was influenced by healthcare system organization and their perceptions of SMS, the capability and responsibility of healthcare systems, and their roles in the healthcare organization. Enabling factors for providing SMS included: strong leadership; aligned incentives; use of an integrated health information technology (HIT) system; multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams; ongoing training for healthcare professionals; outreach; and quality goals. Barriers to providing SMS included lack of collaboration between providers and skeptical attitudes towards prevention and outreach. Implementation of SMS can be improved by an understanding of the elements that enhance its provision: (1) initiatives seeking to improve collaboration and integration between providers; (2) implementation of an integrated HIT system; and (3) ongoing training of healthcare professionals.

  5. A FIRST COMPARISON OF KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES IN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Gautier, Thomas N. III; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we present an overview of the rich population of systems with multiple candidate transiting planets found in the first four months of Kepler data. The census of multiples includes 115 targets that show two candidate planets, 45 with three, eight with four, and one each with five and six, for a total of 170 systems with 408 candidates. When compared to the 827 systems with only one candidate, the multiples account for 17% of the total number of systems, and one-third of all the planet candidates. We compare the characteristics of candidates found in multiples with those found in singles. False positives due to eclipsing binaries are much less common for the multiples, as expected. Singles and multiples are both dominated by planets smaller than Neptune; 69 +2 -3 % for singles and 86 +2 -5 % for multiples. This result, that systems with multiple transiting planets are less likely to include a transiting giant planet, suggests that close-in giant planets tend to disrupt the orbital inclinations of small planets in flat systems, or maybe even prevent the formation of such systems in the first place.

  6. Design, comparison, and testing of a new user-friendly extremity dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmann, H.; Schmitzer, C.; Michler, E. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Fellinger, J.; Velbeck, K.J.; Rotunda, J.E. [BICRON RMP, Solon (United States)

    2000-05-01

    A new extremity TLD system has been developed and tested that provides for user convenience and automated processing while meeting various accreditation requirements. The design is a result of successful collaboration among organisational entities in different countries and included research centres, users, and the manufacturer. The primary consideration was to meet the needs of the medical market, without losing sight of the needs of research laboratories and power plants. This dosimetry system design provides various detector designs based on the need to measure photons or betas. Beyond the fundamental need for accurate dosimetry, the system meets the customers need for a versatile and comfortable ring and provides for both hot and cold sterilisation. The system represents a unique integration of components comprising the finger ring, dosimeter and dosimeter identification system, and TLD Instruments. The dosimeter identification system in the TLD Reader incorporates a CCD Camera and Machine Vision Technology to interpret the circular bar codes used to quickly and accurately identifies each individual dosimeter. Portability of this dosimetry system has been realised with the adaptation into multiple TLD Instruments. (author)

  7. Design, comparison, and testing of a new user-friendly extremity dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadtmann, H.; Schmitzer, C.; Michler, E.; Fellinger, J.; Velbeck, K.J.; Rotunda, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    A new extremity TLD system has been developed and tested that provides for user convenience and automated processing while meeting various accreditation requirements. The design is a result of successful collaboration among organisational entities in different countries and included research centres, users, and the manufacturer. The primary consideration was to meet the needs of the medical market, without losing sight of the needs of research laboratories and power plants. This dosimetry system design provides various detector designs based on the need to measure photons or betas. Beyond the fundamental need for accurate dosimetry, the system meets the customers need for a versatile and comfortable ring and provides for both hot and cold sterilisation. The system represents a unique integration of components comprising the finger ring, dosimeter and dosimeter identification system, and TLD Instruments. The dosimeter identification system in the TLD Reader incorporates a CCD Camera and Machine Vision Technology to interpret the circular bar codes used to quickly and accurately identifies each individual dosimeter. Portability of this dosimetry system has been realised with the adaptation into multiple TLD Instruments. (author)

  8. COMPARISON OF COMPOST MATURITY, MICROBIAL SURVIVAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS IN TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N.K. Rockson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collected on germination index, temperature, moisture content, pH, total viable count, total coliform count and total fungi count were determined during composting in HV and FA systems at VREL Farms for a period of thirteen weeks and analysed to ascertain the effects of temperature, moisture and pH on compost maturity and microbial survival. There were no significant differences in germination index, pH and moisture content values for both systems as ANOVA results at α = 5% yielded p-values of 0.17, 0.98 and 0.13 respectively. Moisture content and pH values ranged between 40%-70% and 7.20 - 8.30 respectively. Temperature values recorded however were significantly different (p-value = 1.2 x 10-5, α = 5% in both systems and affected the microbial distribution during the process. The temperature recorded in HV and FA systems ranged between 45.19 ºC – 65.44 ºC and 29.00 ºC – 50.83ºC respectively. Germination Index values were >150% in different systems at the end of week 12. Listeria spp., known to be zoonotic, and Staphylococcus spp. survived in compost processed in FA system; and Penicillium spp. in both systems.

  9. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  10. [Comparison of different types automatic water-supply system for mouse rearing (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, S; Suzuki, M; Tagashira, Y

    1979-04-01

    Rearing and breeding scores were compared between groups of mice (JCL : ICR and ddN strains) raised with two different types of automatic water-supply systems; the Japanese type and the American type, using manual water-supply system as control. The mice raised with the manual water-supply system were superior in body weight gain as compared to those with two automatic water-supply systems. As to the survival rate, however, the m; anual water-supply system and the Japanese type gave better results than the American type. As to weanling rate in the breeding test, the manual water-supply system gave somewhat better result than either of the two automatic types. Accidental water leaks, which are serious problems of automatic systems, occurred frequently only when the American type was used. Only one defect of the Japanese type revealed was that it was unfavorable for mice with smaller size (e.g., young ddN mice), resulting in lower body weight gain as well as lower breeding scores.

  11. Numerical Comparison of Various Methods of Transient Flow Calculation in Water Conveyance Systems with Pumping Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khoshfetrat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Under transient flow condition, the behavior of water conveyance system varies according to their characteristics. In the present study, the pressure was measured using a fast and sensitive pressure gauge in Bukan and Piranshahr water conveyance system. The pressure simulation was conducted using Bentley Hammer software. The friction head loss was calculated by different methods. The results showed that Unsteady Vitkovsky method had minimum error comparing with other methods. Wave velocity increase had direct effect on maximum pressures while velocity decrease affected minimum pressures. In a shorter water conveyance system, the reduction of wave velocity had direct effect on maximum pressure. Destruction to the long conveyance system was more probable and maximum and minimum pressures occurred during the first period. Shorter conveyance system had more pressure fluctuations and the minimum pressure did not occur in the first period. Coincidence of periods happened at the beginning and continued untill the end of data recording in the longer conveyance system. However, as time passed by, such coincidence did not occure in shorter conveyance system.

  12. Portal verification using the KODAK ACR 2000 RT storage phosphor plate system and EC registered films. A semiquantitative comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.; Blank, H.; Alheit, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: the suitability of the storage phosphor plate system ACR 2000 RT (Eastman Kodak Corp., Rochester, MN, USA), that is destined for portal verification as well as for portal simulation imaging in radiotherapy, had to be proven by the comparison with a highly sensitive verification film. Material and Methods: the comparison included portal verification images of different regions (head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) irradiated with 6- and 15-MV photons and electrons. Each portal verification image was done at the storage screen and the EC registered film as well, using the EC-L registered cassettes (both: Eastman Kodak Corp., Rochester, MN, USA) for both systems. The soft-tissue and bony contrast and the brightness were evaluated and compared in a ranking of the two compared images. Different phantoms were irradiated to investigate the high- and low-contrast resolution. To account for quality assurance application, the short-time exposure of the unpacked and irradiated storage screen by green and red room lasers was also investigated. Results: in general, the quality of the processed ACR images was slightly higher than that of the films, mostly due to cases of an insufficient exposure to the film. The storage screen was able to verify electron portals even for low electron energies with only minor photon contamination. The laser lines were sharply and clearly visible on the ACR images. Conclusion: the ACR system may replace the film without any noticeable decrease in image quality thereby reducing processing time and saving the costs of films and avoiding incorrect exposures. (orig.)

  13. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed excel analytical model, HRS O pt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids

  14. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  15. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  16. Comparison of dynamic isotope power systems for distributed planet surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Rodriguez, Carlos D.; Withrow, Colleen A.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) alternatives were investigated and characterized for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition. System designs based on two convertor types were studied. These systems were characterized parametrically and compared over the steady-state electrical output power range 0.2 to 20 kWe. Three methods of thermally integrating the heat source and the Stirling heater head were considered, depending on unit size. Figures of merit were derived from the characterizations and compared over the parametric range. Design impacts of mission environmental factors are discussed and quantitatively assessed.

  17. A comparison of the efficiency of health systems in providing life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Zarulli, Virginia

    The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure...... their efficiency in absolute terms, the countries can be compared with each other. The relative efficiency of health systems can be measured by the life expectancy that they provide by taking education level and their funding structure into account. Based on data coming from the HMD, GGS, OECD and WHO, data...

  18. Comparison of completely knotless and hybrid double-row fixation systems: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Thomas; McDonald, Erik; Tufaga, Michael; Kandemir, Utku; Buckley, Jenni; Ma, C Benjamin

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of a completely knotless double-row repair system (SutureCross Knotless Anatomic Fixation System; KFx Medical, Carlsbad, CA) with 2 commonly used hybrid double-row repair (medial knot-tying, lateral knotless) systems (Bio-Corkscrew/PushLock [Arthrex, Naples, FL] and Spiralok/Versalok [DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA]). Fourteen pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were harvested, the supraspinatus tendons were isolated, and full-thickness supraspinatus tears were created. One of each pair was repaired with the completely knotless system, and the contralateral side was repaired with either of the hybrid systems. The repairs were then subjected to cyclic loading followed by load to failure. Conditioning elongation, peak-to-peak elongation, ultimate load, and mechanism of failure were recorded and compared by use of paired t tests. Seven additional shoulders were tested to determine the effect of refrigeration storage on the completely knotless system by use of the same mechanical testing protocol. For the completely knotless repair group, 11 of 14 paired specimens failed during the cyclic loading period. Only 1 of 14 hybrid repair systems had failures during cyclic loading, and both hybrid repair systems had statistically lower conditioning elongation than the completely knotless repair group. The mean ultimate load of the SutureCross group was 166 ± 87 N, which was significantly lower than that in the Corkscrew/PushLock (310 ± 82 N) and Spiralok/Versalok (337 ± 44 N) groups. There was an effect of refrigeration storage on the peak-to-peak elongation and stiffness of the SutureCross group; however, there was no difference in ultimate tensile load or conditioning elongation. The completely knotless repair system has lower time-zero biomechanical properties than the other 2 hybrid systems. The SutureCross system has lower time-zero biomechanical properties when compared with other hybrid repair

  19. Comparison of Models Needed for Conceptual Design of Man-Machine Systems in Different Application Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    and subjective preferences. For design of man-machine systems in process control, a framework has been developed in terms of separate representation of the problem domain, the decision task, and the information processing strategies required. The author analyzes the application of this framework to a number......For systematic and computer-aided design of man-machine systems, a consistent framework is needed, i. e. , a set of models which allows the selection of system characteristics which serve the individual user not only to satisfy his goal, but also to select mental processes that match his resources...

  20. Comparison of different lubricating oil pump systems for combustion engines. Vergleich verschiedener Schmieroelpumpen-Systeme bei Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, S; Haerle, C; Schreiber, B

    1994-10-01

    The present day and future legislative requirements with regard to fuel consumption and improvement of emission values are forcing the automotive industry to continually improve its technology. However, the investments made in such technical innovations should be set-off by the results. The lubricating oil pump can make an important contribution with optimum design and through the choice of the most adequate pump system. Over the last 17 years, SHW has worked very closely with the automotive industry on the development of lubricating oil pumps. One of the results of this research work is a Suction Regulated Pump (SRP) which distinguishes itself from conventional pumps through its lower drive power. We will proceed to explain this pump system, comparing it with the present day pump systems. (orig.)

  1. A place for pragmatism in the current educational system in Poland in comparison to the American system of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Czujko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when schools are closing and teachers are made redundant, a question arises whether the current educational system and the teaching methods or the knowledge and skills which people leave school with are adequate. Now, as never before, students and employers realize how important practical skills are in the labor market. Where are schools and universities in meeting this need? Do schools answer the natural needs people have for self-development? Does the educational system stimulate development of individuals interests? Unfortunately, I think the answer to a lot of these questions would be negative. Yet, if so, it is time we fi nd a way to offer something more, not only to young people, but also to adults who want to explore the area of their interests by taking the trouble to obtain further degrees. One of the solutions to the urgent needs for the educational system is a pragmatic approach towards learning and teaching.

  2. Something is amiss in Denmark: A comparison of preventable hospitalisations and readmissions for chronic medical conditions in the Danish Healthcare system and Kaiser Permanente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Michaela Louise; Price, Mary; Frølich, Anne

    2011-01-01

    As many other European healthcare systems the Danish healthcare system (DHS) has targeted chronic condition care in its reform efforts. Benchmarking is a valuable tool to identify areas for improvement. Prior work indicates that chronic care coordination is poor in the DHS, especially in comparison...

  3. An overview of molecular dynamics simulations of oxidized lipid systems, with a comparison of ELBA and MARTINI force fields for coarse grained lipid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siani, Pablo; de Souza, R M; Dias, L G

    2016-01-01

    our new data of all-atom and coarse-grained simulations of hydroperoxidized lipid monolayer and bilayer systems and (iii) provide a comparison of the MARTINI and ELBA coarse grained force fields for lipid bilayer systems. We show that the better electrostatic treatment of interactions in ELBA is able...

  4. Development of a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory motion monitoring system using the kinect device: Accuracy comparison with the conventional stereovision navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myungsoo; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Namkug

    2018-07-01

    To develop and validate a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory monitoring system based on a Kinect device with a custom-made simple marker. A 3D respiratory monitoring system comprising the simple marker and the Microsoft Kinect v2 device was developed. The marker was designed for simple and robust detection, and the tracking algorithm was developed using the depth, RGB, and infra-red images acquired from the Kinect sensor. A Kalman filter was used to suppress movement noises. The major movements of the marker attached to the four different locations of body surface were determined from the initially collected tracking points of the marker while breathing. The signal level of respiratory motion with the tracking point was estimated along the major direction vector. The accuracy of the results was evaluated through a comparison with those of the conventional stereovision navigation system (NDI Polaris Spectra). Sixteen normal volunteers were enrolled to evaluate the accuracy of this system. The correlation coefficients between the respiratory motion signal from the Kinect device and conventional navigation system ranged from 0.970 to 0.999 and from 0.837 to 0.995 at the abdominal and thoracic surfaces, respectively. The respiratory motion signal from this system was obtained at 27-30 frames/s. This system with the Kinect v2 device and simple marker could be used for cost-effective, robust and accurate 3D respiratory motion monitoring. In addition, this system is as reliable for respiratory motion signal generation and as practically useful as the conventional stereovision navigation system and is less sensitive to patient posture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  6. Comparison and Sensitivity Investigations of a CALM and SALM Type Mooring System for Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Pecher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system size and stiffness. The two mooring systems were designed for the same reference load case, corresponding to a horizontal design load at the wave energy converter (WEC of 2000 kN and a water depth of 30 m. This reference scenario seems to be representative for large WECs operating in intermediate water depths, such as Weptos, Wave Dragon and many others, including reasonable design safety factors. Around this reference scenario, the main influential parameters were modified in order to investigate their impact on the specifications of the mooring system, e.g. the water depth, the horizontal design load, and a mooring design parameter.

  7. Air-cooled recirculation cooling systems. Technical and economic comparison; Luftgekuehlte Rueckkuehlsysteme. Technisch wirtschaftlicher Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, G. [Fa. Jaeggi/Guentner (Schweiz) AG, Trimbach (Switzerland)

    2000-03-01

    There are several air-cooled forced-circulation cooling systems for heat removal from refrigeration systems. Optimum solutions should not be selected on the basis of the cost factor alone; an integrative approach should be used instead. An exemplary investigation is presented. [German] Fuer die Waermeabfuhr aus kaeltetechnischen Anlagen stehen verschiedene luftgekuehlte, zwangsbelueftete Rueckkuehlsysteme zur Verfuegung. Die Auswahl des Systems ist oft von kurzfristigem Kostendenken gepraegt, was in technischer und wirtschaftlicher Hinsicht aber nicht immer der optimalen Loesung entspricht. Erst die genauere Kenntnis der verschiedenen Systeme und eine ganzheitliche Betrachtungsweise ermoeglichen die optimale Wahl fuer den einzelnen Fall. Die hier praesentierte Untersuchung wird anhand eines konkreten Falls dargestellt, wobei Preise und technische Produktdaten auf realen Anfragen beruhen. Der Autor ist um objetive Bewertung bemueht, der Leser moege aber selbst urteilen. (orig./AKF)

  8. Occupational health crossing borders part 2: Comparison of 18 occupational health systems across the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, Katja; Ehrenstein, Vera; Nowak, Dennis; Bigaignon-Cantineau, Janine; Gonzalez, Maria; Vellore, Arun Dev; Zamora, Veronica Enzina; Gupta, Neeraj; Huang, Lirong; Kandkers, Salamat; Lanza, Ana María Menchú; Garcia, Leila Posenato; Patsis, Keti Stylianos; Rojas, Ana Maria Sanchez; Shoma, Ashraf; Verbeek, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is considered one of the most important factors for a sustainable development; however, it is often considered a luxury by decision-makers. This article compares OHS systems of 18 countries at different stages of development. In an international summer school, structure of the national OHS system, definition of occupational accidents and diseases, procedures for compensation claims, outcome (expressed as incidence of occupational accidents) and training opportunities were presented. National OHS systems ranged from non-existent to systems implemented almost 200 years ago. Priorities, incidence of occupational accidents and training opportunities varied. Common problems included the lack of OHS service for small enterprises and in rural areas. International training programs like this summer school might enhance the exchange about OHS opportunities around the globe and contribute to improved workers health. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Comparison of two cut-to-length harvesting systems operating in eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Niel K. Huyler

    2001-01-01

    We compared production rates, operating costs, and break-even points (BEP) for small and large cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems operating at several machine utilization rates (MUR) in mixed hardwood and softwood stands in Vermont.

  10. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-01-01

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar

  11. Performance Comparison of Different System Identification Algorithms for FACET and ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, J; Schulte, D

    2013-01-01

    Good system knowledge is an essential ingredient for the operation of modern accelerator facilities. For example, beam-based alignment algorithms and orbit feedbacks rely strongly on a precise measurement of the orbit response matrix. The quality of the measurement of this matrix can be improved over time by statistically combining the effects of small system excitations with the help of system identification algorithms. These small excitations can be applied in a parasitic mode without stopping the accelerator operation (on-line). In this work, different system identification algorithms are used in simulation studies for the response matrix measurement at ATF2. The results for ATF2 are finally compared with the results for FACET, latter originating from an earlier work.

  12. A comparison of thermal algorithms of fuel rod performance code systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. J.; Park, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Moon, J. S.; Jeong, I. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Song, K. C.

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the fuel rod performance is to identify the robustness of a fuel rod with cladding material. Computer simulation of the fuel rod performance becomes one of important parts to designed and evaluate new nuclear fuels and claddings. To construct a computing code system for the fuel rod performance, several algorithms of the existing fuel rod performance code systems are compared and are summarized as a preliminary work. Among several code systems, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI for LWR, ELESTRES for CANDU reactor, and LIFE for fast reactor are reviewed. Thermal algorithms of the above codes are investigated including methodologies and subroutines. This work will be utilized to construct a computing code system for dry process fuel rod performance

  13. Comparisons of Bitcoin Cryptosystem with Other Common Internet Transaction Systems by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Maček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes proposed methodology for evaluation of critical systems and prioritization of critical risks and assets identified in highly secured information systems. For different types of information assets or security environments it is necessary to apply different techniques and methods for their prioritization and evaluation. In this article, VECTOR matrix method for prioritization of critical assets and critical risks is explained and integrated into AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process technique as a set of fixed criteria for evaluation of defined alternatives. Bitcoin cryptocurrency was compared and evaluated along with other common Internet transaction systems by information security professionals according to defined VECTOR criteria. Also, the newly proposed hybrid AHP model is presented with potential case studies for future research. This article tries to discover security posture of Bitcoin cryptocurrency in the context of information security risks related to the existing most common online payment systems like e-banking, m-banking, and e-commerce.

  14. A comparison of radioisotope Brayton and Stirling system for lunar surface mobile power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell 2.5-kWe modular dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) using a Stirling power conversion system. The results of this study were compared with similar results performed under the DIPS program using a Brayton power conversion system. The study indicated that the Stirling power module has 20% lower mass and 40% lower radiator area than the Brayton module. However, the study also revealed that because the Stirling power module requires a complex heat pipe arrangment to transport heat from the isotope to the Stirling heater head and a pumped NaK heat rejection loop, the Stirling module is much more difficult to integrate with the isotope heat source and heat rejection system

  15. A comparison of thermal algorithms of fuel rod performance code systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. J.; Park, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Moon, J. S.; Jeong, I. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Song, K. C

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the fuel rod performance is to identify the robustness of a fuel rod with cladding material. Computer simulation of the fuel rod performance becomes one of important parts to designed and evaluate new nuclear fuels and claddings. To construct a computing code system for the fuel rod performance, several algorithms of the existing fuel rod performance code systems are compared and are summarized as a preliminary work. Among several code systems, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI for LWR, ELESTRES for CANDU reactor, and LIFE for fast reactor are reviewed. Thermal algorithms of the above codes are investigated including methodologies and subroutines. This work will be utilized to construct a computing code system for dry process fuel rod performance.

  16. Comparison of treatments of steep and shoot generated by different inverse planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of IMRT treatments with the technique Steep and Shoot or static is the number of segments and monitor units used in the treatment. These parameters depend largely on the inverse planning system which determines treatment. Are evaluated three commercial planning systems, with each one performing clinical dosimetry for the same series of patients. Dosimetric results are compared, UM calculated and number of segments.

  17. Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Dysphonia: A Comparison Between Narrow and Broad Terminology Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    of the terminology used in the multiparameter Danish Dysphonia Assessment (DDA) approach into the five-parameter GRBAS system. Methods. Voice samples illustrating type and grade of the voice qualities included in DDA were rated by five speech language pathologists using the GRBAS system with the aim of estimating...... terms and antagonists, reflecting muscular hypo- and hyperfunction. Key Words: Auditory-perceptual voice analysis–Dysphonia–GRBAS–Listening test–Voice ratings....

  18. Comparison of Canopy Openness in Different Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Production Systems in Alto Beni, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Niether, Wiebke; Maldonado, Carla; Silva, Erika; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) grows naturally as an understory tree in tropical forests and produces well under shaded and non-shaded conditions. It is cultivated by small scale farmers in South America under various conditions, ranging from monocultures to different kinds of agroforestry systems. While in monocultures it is exposed to direct sunlight, one or various tree species shade the cocoa in agroforestry systems. Also organic cocoa cultivation is becoming more and more popular due to prem...

  19. Comparison of open source database systems(characteristics, limits of usage)

    OpenAIRE

    Husárik, Braňko

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to compare some chosen open source database systems (Ingres, PostgreSQL, Firebird, Mysql). First part of work is focused on history and present situation of companies which are developing these products. Second part contains the comparision of certain group of specific features and limits. The benchmark of some operations is its own part. Possibilities of usage of mentioned database systems are summarized at the end of work.

  20. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  1. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  2. A comparison of the consequences of different waste handling systems in two Danish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    a system based solely on non-economic incentives. The main objective was to compare citizen`s beliefs and attitudes towards waste handling systems and their consequence for motivations to co-operate. Th groups of hypotheses concerning the beliefs-attitude relationship, differences in attitudes between...... cities, and the use of economic incentives were tested. Whereas beliefs influenced attitudes in the expected direction, the consequences of economi incentives for differences in attitudes were less clear....

  3. Evaluating performance of local case-mix system by international comparison: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wei-Yan; Lu, Ming; Cui, Tao; Hu, Mu

    2011-01-01

    Case-mix is an important tool for health planning and management in many countries. As a major developing country, China is considering the introduction of the case-mix system in the health reform. Beijing, the capital of China, developed a local case-mix version whose performance needs to be evaluated before utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the case-mix system developed in Beijing by comparing it with those used in Australia and the U.S.A. A total of 1.3 million inpatient records from 154 hospitals in Beijing in 2008 were grouped respectively using three case-mix systems: (i) Beijing Diagnosis Related Groups (BJ-DRGs); (ii) US-based All Patient DRGs; and (iii) Australian Refined DRGs. Coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of DRGs system. The BJ-DRGs produced the best CV and RIV results for expenditure. However, at the level of Major Diagnostic Category (MDC), three MDCs of BJ-DRGs gave the poorest RIVs for both expenditure and length of stay. Although the performance of BJ-DRGs was acceptable, further revision and improvement is needed. Comparisons with other mature DRGs versions can assist in identifying the improvement priorities of the local version. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Pilot-scale comparison of two hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems operated in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Sean; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems employ active pretreatment to remove dissolved inorganic constituents and decrease the oxygen demand of the leachate prior to treatment in a passive system. In a 1-year pilot-scale study, two passive treatment systems - a peat and wood shaving biological trickle filter and a sand and gravel constructed wetland - were installed to treat leachate from the Merrick Landfill in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Leachate was pretreated in a fixed-film aerobic reactor, which provided reductions in COD (26%), and masses of ammonia (21%), Al (69%), Ca (57%), Fe (73%) and Sr (37%). A comparison of the performance of the hybrid-passive treatment systems indicated different extents of heterotrophic nitrification; the peat and wood shaving filter removed 49% of the ammonia and nitrified 29%, while the constructed wetland removed 99% of the ammonia and nitrified 90%. Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment was determined to be feasible in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The design of high vacuum system for baby electron beam machine (baby ebm): a comparison between theoretical and experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rizal Mamat; Rosli Darmawan; Lee Chee Huei; Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Leo Kwee Wah; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Fadzlie Nordin; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    Baby ebm which was developed to study the engineering and physics of electrons requires the use of high vacuum system in order to prevent electron loss and ionization of air molecules. In selecting the high vacuum system for baby ebm two main factors were considered: the ultimate pressure and the pump down time. The ultimate pressure required for the operation of the baby ebm is in 10-7 torr range. The pump down time was estimated from calculations, taking into account the vacuum pump and chamber size. The turbomolecular pump system (tmp), which is capable of achieving the required vacuum level was selected as the high vacuum system and installed to baby ebm. The tmp is currently fully operational. It was found that the vacuum pumping performance of the tmp differs considerably from what the calculations indicate. Compared to the calculations, it takes a much longer time to achieve the required operating pressure of baby ebm. This could be due to the fact that the formula used for the calculations was a very simplified formula that takes into account the main factors only which are the vacuum pump and chamber size. This paper attempts to present the comparison of the tmp performance between the theoretical and experimental. (Author)

  7. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Soo [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Pyung [Korea Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Eun [Chungbuk Nat. Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices.

  8. Comparison of the Infiniti vision and the series 20,000 Legacy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Castro, Luis E; Solomon, Kerry D; Hu, Daniel J; Vroman, David T; Sandoval, Helga P

    2008-01-01

    To compare the efficiency of the Infiniti vision system and the Series 20,000 Legacy system phacoemulsification units during routine cataract extraction. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients were randomized to have their cataract removed using either the Infiniti or the Legacy system, both using the Neosonix handpiece. System settings were standardized. Ultrasound time, amount of balanced salt solution (BSS) used intraoperatively, and postoperative visual acuity at postoperative days 1, 7 and 30 were evaluated. Preoperatively, best corrected visual acuity was significantly worse in the Infiniti group compared to the Legacy group (0.38 +/- 0.23 and 0.21 +/- 0.16, respectively; p = 0.012). The mean phacoemulsification time was 39.6 +/- 22.9 s (range 6.0-102.0) for the Legacy group and 18.3 +/-19.1 s (range 1.0-80.0) for the Infiniti group (p = 0.001). The mean amounts of intraoperative BSS used were 117 +/- 37.7 ml (range 70-195) in the Legacy group and 85.3 +/- 38.9 ml (range 40-200) in the Infiniti group (p = 0.005). No differences in postoperative visual acuity were found. The ability to use higher flow rates and vacuum settings with the Infiniti vision system allowed for cataract removal with less phacoemulsification time than when using the Legacy system. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moret Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  10. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  11. Biomechanical comparison of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems in soft tissue-constrained shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; King, Frank K; Tashjian, Robert Z; Burks, Robert T

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined the biomechanics of isolated variables in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This study directly compared the composite performance of two reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems; each system was designed around either a medialized or a lateralized glenohumeral center of rotation. Seven pairs of shoulders were tested on a biomechanical simulator. Center of rotation, position of the humerus, passive and active range of motion, and force to abduct the arm were quantified. Native arms were tested, implanted with a Tornier Aequalis or DJO Surgical Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis (RSP), and then retested. Differences from the native state were then documented. Both systems shifted the center of rotation medially and inferiorly relative to native. Medial shifts were greater in the Aequalis implant (P .05). Both reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems exhibited adduction deficits, but the RSP implant deficit was smaller (P = .046 between implants). Both systems reduced forces to abduct the arm compared with native, although the Aequalis required more force to initiate motion from the resting position (P = .022). Given the differences in system designs and configurations, outcome variables were generally comparable. The RSP implant allowed slightly more adduction, had a more lateralized humeral position, and required less force to initiate elevation. These factors may play roles in limiting scapular notching, improving active external rotation by normalizing the residual rotator cuff length, and limiting excessive stress on the deltoid. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  13. A comparison of two systems for lunar surface remote and mobile power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Otting, W.D.; Hunt, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is now being developed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) and NASA-LeRC for space power applications. Some conceptualizations of an isotope powered FPSE have been proposed. The performance characteristics of the proposed 2.5-kWe Stirling Isotope Power (STIP) system were developed for lunar surface remote and mobile applications. The Stirling system configuration uses a nonredundant power conversion system coupled to an annular heat source assembly (HSA) using an array of sodium heat pipes which transfer energy from the annular general-purpose heat source (GPHS) stack within the HSA to the Stirling heater head. The Stirling engine uses a dual-opposed piston design with heater head coupling. The engine coolers are connected to a single-pumped coolant loop, which rejects the cycle's waste heat to a radiator. Quantitative information, such as mass, area, and efficiency, are reported for the system. The results of a qualitative evaluation of the proposed STIP system against the desirable attributes of a lunar-based isotope power system are presented. Alternate configurations are also presented

  14. Comparison between iterative wavefront control algorithm and direct gradient wavefront control algorithm for adaptive optics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Sheng-Yi; Liu Wen-Jin; Chen Shan-Qiu; Dong Li-Zhi; Yang Ping; Xu Bing

    2015-01-01

    Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n 2 ) ∼ O(n 3 ) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ∼ (O(n) 3/2 ), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. (paper)

  15. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Soo; Kim, Young Pyung; Lee, Jae Eun

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices

  16. A comparison of the performance of modern screen-film and digital mammography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnin, P [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gutierrez, D [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bulling, S [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Lepori, D [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV), CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Valley, J-F [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, F R [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-06-07

    This work compares the detector performance and image quality of the new Kodak Min-R EV mammography screen-film system with the Fuji CR Profect detector and with other current mammography screen-film systems from Agfa, Fuji and Kodak. Basic image quality parameters (MTF, NPS, NEQ and DQE) were evaluated for a 28 kV Mo/Mo (HVL = 0.646 mm Al) beam using different mAs exposure settings. Compared with other screen-film systems, the new Kodak Min-R EV detector has the highest contrast and a low intrinsic noise level, giving better NEQ and DQE results, especially at high optical density. Thus, the properties of the new mammography film approach those of a fine mammography detector, especially at low frequency range. Screen-film systems provide the best resolution. The presampling MTF of the digital detector has a value of 15% at the Nyquist frequency and, due to the spread size of the laser beam, the use of a smaller pixel size would not permit a significant improvement of the detector resolution. The dual collection reading technology increases significantly the low frequency DQE of the Fuji CR system that can at present compete with the most efficient mammography screen-film systems.

  17. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Nicola; Tonello, Andrea M.

    2010-12-01

    We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT) modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) modulated filter bank (FB). It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998), and Weiss and Stewart (2000), and Tonello (2006). A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  18. High intensification screen-film systems in thorax radiography: a clinical comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, C.B.; Sokiranski, R.; Claussen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: The quality of chest images was evaluated for a conventional screen-film system, a new asymmetric screen-film system, and a new uv screen-film system. Materials and Methods: 138 Chest radiographs (69 p.a., 69 lateral) obtained with three different high intensification screen-film combinations were compared. Film density and film contrast were measured. Three readers graded the image quality according to 16 criteria. Results: The asymmetric film-screen combination Insight HC showed the lowest film contrast, the best exposure range, and a elevated film density in the mediastinal area. The asymmetric screen-film system was ranked by all three observers as being substantially better in image quality. Conclusion: Compared to conventional screen-film systems, the new screen-film systems can improve the image quality of chest radiographs. Therefore, the new high intensification screen-film combinations can be used as a low cost alternative to the Amber technique and digital radiography. (orig.) [de

  19. A New Study of Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques and Comparison for PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Atallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracker techniques vary in many aspects as simplicity, digital or analogical implementation, sensor required, convergence speed, range of effectiveness, implementation hardware,popularity, cost and in other aspects. This paper presents in details comparative study between two most popular  algorithm  technique  which  is  incremental  conductance  algorithm  and  perturb  and  observe algorithm.  Two  different  converters  buck  and  cuk  converter  use  for  comparative  in  this  study. Few comparisons such as efficiency, voltage, current and power output for each different combination have been recorded. Multi changes in irradiance, temperature by keeping voltage and current as main sensed parameter been done in the simulation. Matlab simulink tools have been used for performance evaluation on energy point. Simulation will consider different solar irradiance and temperature variations.

  20. Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy. Comparison of emerging and traditional technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. This work addresses an economic comparison between emerging and traditional Electric Energy Storage (EES) technologies in a competitive electricity market. In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate Self-Scheduling (SS) approach must first be developed for each of them to determine their maximum potential of expected profit among multi-markets such as energy and ancillary service markets. Then, these technologies are economically analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) index. Finally, the amounts of needed financial supports are determined for choosing the emerging technologies when an investor would like to invest on EES technologies. Among available EES technologies, we consider NaS battery (Natrium Sulfur battery) and pumped-storage plants as emerging and traditional technologies, respectively. (author)

  1. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduwole, Olayinka, E-mail: olayinka.oduwole@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grob, David Tim, E-mail: tim.grob@eng.ox.ac.uk; Sheard, Steve, E-mail: steve.sheard@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration. - Highlights: • We modelled the interactions between a pair of super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. • We tracked the movement of the bead pair and captured it on video. • We compared the numerical results with the video data and achieved a good agreement. • We predicted the agglomeration time as a function of the separation distance.

  2. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  3. Comparisons of spectrally-enhanced asymmetrically-clipped optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2016-02-22

    Asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) is a technique that sacrifices spectral efficiency in order to transmit an orthogonally frequency-division multiplexed signal over a unipolar channel, such as a directly modulated direct-detection fiber or free-space channel. Several methods have been proposed to regain this spectral efficiency, including: asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM), enhanced U-OFDM (EU-OFDM), spectral and energy efficient OFDM (SEE-OFDM), Hybrid-ACO-OFDM and Layered-ACO-OFDM. This paper presents simulations up to high-order constellation sizes to show that Layered-ACO-OFDM offers the highest receiver sensitivity for a given optical power at spectral efficiencies above 3 bit/s/Hz. For comparison purposes, white Gaussian noise is added at the receiver, component nonlinearities are not considered, and the fiber is considered to be linear and dispersion-less. The simulations show that LACO-OFDM has a 7-dB sensitivity advantage over DC-biased OFDM (DCO-OFDM) for 1024-QAM at 87.5% of DCO-OFDM's spectral efficiency, at the same bit rate and optical power. This is approximately equivalent to a 4.4-dB advantage at the same spectral efficiency of 87.7% if 896-QAM were to be used for DCO-OFDM.

  4. Economics and environmental impacts of nuclear energy in comparison with other energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the 1992 OECD/NEA-IEA study on comparative electricity generation costs of nuclear and fossil-fuelled power plants are presented. It is focused on plants that could be commercially available for commissioning in the year 2000 or shortly thereafter. The generation costs for nuclear, relative to coal or natural gas fuelled power plants, are shown. The attractiveness of these three main fuel options for large base load power stations for commissioning around the year 2000 is critically dependent on the discount rate required by the utility or government. Higher discount rates (10%) favour the low investment cost option, gas, whilst lower discount rates (5%) favour the low fuel cost option. The role of nuclear power in avoiding greenhouse gas emissions is illustrated, as well as penetration of nuclear power, displacing fossil fuels for electricity generation and annual change in CO 2 emissions in varies countries from 1975 to 1992 as a function of the nuclear share in electricity generation for 1992. A comparison between quantities of fuel and wastes for nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants is given. Some issues of impacts of particular energy sources on health and the environment are outlined. In the conclusions, nuclear power is considered to be the most likely non-fossil-fuel technology that could be deployed on a large scale for electricity generation, if the objectives of advanced nuclear power development programmes are met and social acceptability of nuclear energy is reached. 9 figs., 2 ann., 16 refs. (I.P.)

  5. Comparison of index systems for rating water quality in intermittent rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Raïs, Naoual; Chahinian, Nanée; Dowse, Lauryan; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2018-01-08

    Water quality indexes (WQI) are a practical way to evaluate and compare the level of chemical contamination of different water bodies and to spatially and temporally compare levels of pollution. The purpose of this study was to check if these indexes are appropriate for intermittent rivers under arid and semi-arid climates. A literature review enabled the comparison of 25 water quality indexes to discern their capability to evaluate spatial (inter and intra catchment) and temporal (high and low water flow conditions) variations in water quality in three Mediterranean intermittent rivers: the River Vène (France) and the Oued Fez and the River Sebou (Morocco). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified groups of WQI with similar behavior and brought to light the 6 most distinguishing indexes. Whatever the hydrological conditions at the two sites, both the ME-MCATUHE and NCS indexes, which were developed for Morocco and Greece, and the CCMEWQI and BCWQI indexes, which were developed for non-arid or semi-arid zones, gave appropriate water quality evaluations.

  6. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  7. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  8. Comparison of plutonium systemic distribution in rats and dogs with published data in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dunstana R; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2014-11-01

    This manuscript compares the behavior of monomeric (239)Pu(4+)-citrate injected intravenously in rats and dogs with a comparison of available humans' data. The experimental design for these two studies consisted of eight groups sacrificed at predetermined time-points post exposure. All organs and tissues as well as daily urinary and fecal excretion were analyzed. Liver and skeleton were the organs with the highest (239)Pu uptake in both species; 76% in dogs and 70% in rats at 24 hours (h) post IV administration. By the end of the study (28 days, d), the activity in skeleton and liver was 85% in dogs and 65% in rats. The urinary excretion function seems to be similar for rats, dogs and humans but the daily fecal to urinary excretion ratio differs between species. A rapid clearance from the liver of rats was observed compared to dogs. Skeleton-to-liver ratios are variable between species. Urinary and fecal excretion patterns for dogs are consistent with human data, indicating that dogs seem to represent better the (239)Pu behavior in humans. The data confirm that the better animal model to evaluate the efficacy of (239)Pu chelating compounds is the canine model.

  9. Comparison of Expected Crash and Injury Reduction from Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) now tests for forward collision warning (FCW) and lane departure warning (LDW). The design of these warnings differs greatly between vehicles and can result in different real-world field performance in preventing or mitigating the effects of collisions. The objective of this study was to compare the expected number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the fleet were equipped with the FCW and LDW systems tested under the U.S. NCAP. To predict the potential crashes and serious injury that could be prevented, our approach was to computationally model the U.S. crash population. The models simulated all rear-end and single-vehicle road departure collisions that occurred in a nationally representative crash database (NASS-CDS). A sample of 478 single-vehicle crashes from NASS-CDS 2012 was the basis for 24,822 simulations for LDW. A sample of 1,042 rear-end collisions from NASS-CDS years 1997-2013 was the basis for 7,616 simulations for FCW. For each crash, 2 simulations were performed: (1) without the system present and (2) with the system present. Models of each production safety system were based on 54 model year 2010-2014 vehicles that were evaluated under the NCAP confirmation procedure for LDW and/or FCW. NCAP performed 40 LDW and 45 FCW tests of these vehicles. The design of the FCW systems had a dramatic impact on their potential to prevent crashes and injuries. Between 0 and 67% of crashes and 2 and 69% of moderately to fatally injured drivers in rear-end impacts could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with the FCW systems. Earlier warning times resulted in increased benefits. The largest effect on benefits, however, was the lower operating speed threshold of the systems. Systems that only operated at speeds above 20 mph were less than half as effective as those that operated above 5 mph with similar warning times. The production LDW systems could have prevented

  10. MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATED FROM A FRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that drinking water, soil, and produce may be sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person. We sampled water from a large municipal drinking water distribution system in which surface source water is used. M...

  11. Comparison of electronic health record system functionalities to support the patient recruitment process in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiweis, Björn; Trinczek, Benjamin; Köpcke, Felix; Leusch, Thomas; Majeed, Raphael W; Wenk, Joachim; Bergh, Björn; Ohmann, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer; Dugas, Martin; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Reusing data from electronic health records for clinical and translational research and especially for patient recruitment has been tackled in a broader manner since about a decade. Most projects found in the literature however focus on standalone systems and proprietary implementations at one particular institution often for only one singular trial and no generic evaluation of EHR systems for their applicability to support the patient recruitment process does yet exist. Thus we sought to assess whether the current generation of EHR systems in Germany provides modules/tools, which can readily be applied for IT-supported patient recruitment scenarios. We first analysed the EHR portfolio implemented at German University Hospitals and then selected 5 sites with five different EHR implementations covering all major commercial systems applied in German University Hospitals. Further, major functionalities required for patient recruitment support have been defined and the five sample EHRs and their standard tools have been compared to the major functionalities. In our analysis of the site's hospital information system environments (with four commercial EHR systems and one self-developed system) we found that - even though no dedicated module for patient recruitment has been provided - most EHR products comprise generic tools such as workflow engines, querying capabilities, report generators and direct SQL-based database access which can be applied as query modules, screening lists and notification components for patient recruitment support. A major limitation of all current EHR products however is that they provide no dedicated data structures and functionalities for implementing and maintaining a local trial registry. At the five sites with standard EHR tools the typical functionalities of the patient recruitment process could be mostly implemented. However, no EHR component is yet directly dedicated to support research requirements such as patient recruitment. We

  12. Quality control: comparison of images quality with screen film system and digital mammography CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Frederico L.; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2008-01-01

    The mammography screen film system should be used as part of processing chemicals, revelation process, equipment and this system has have a progressive replacing by the digital technology Full Field Digital Mammography FFDM, Computed Radiography (CR) Mammography and hardcopy. This new acquisition process of medical images has improved radiology section; however it is necessary efficient means for evaluating of the quality parameters. It should be considered taking into account the adaptation of the existent equipment and that procedures adopted for the exam, as well the adaptation of the new mammography films, the radiologist view box constitutes a part of the quality control program. This program aims at obtaining radiography with good quality that allows obtaining more information for the diagnosis and decreases the patient dose. For evaluation the quality image, this article is focused on presenting the differences regarding the acquired images through simulator mammography radiographic PMMA (Poly methyl methacrylate) in CR Mammography system and screen film system. The tests were accomplished at the same equipment of Mammography with the Automatic Exposure Control using a tension of 28 kV for both systems. The quality tests evaluated the spatial resolution, the own structures of the phantom, artifacts, optical density and contrast with conventional and laser films by mammography system. The installation for the accomplishment of the test has a quality control program. The evaluation was based on the pattern developed by the competent organ of the State of Minas Gerais. In this study, it was verified that the suitable Phantom Mama used by the Brazilian School of Radiology for conventional mammography did not obtain satisfactory result for Spatial Resolution in the digital mammography system CR. The final aim of this work is to obtain parameters to characterize the reference phantom quality image in an objective way. These parameters will be used to compare

  13. Comparison of Direct and Indirect Gas Reactor Brayton Systems for Nuclear Electric Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Postlehwait; P DiLorenzo; S Belanger; J Ashcroft

    2005-01-01

    Gas reactor systems are being considered as candidates for use in generating power for the Prometheus-1 spacecraft, along with other NASA missions as part of the Prometheus program. Gas reactors offer a benign coolant, which increases core and structural materials options. However, the gas coolant has inferior thermal transport properties, relative to other coolant candidates such as liquid metals. This leads to concerns for providing effective heat transfer and for minimizing pressure drop within the reactor core. In direct gas Brayton systems, i.e. those with one or more Brayton turbines in the reactor cooling loop, the ability to provide effective core cooling and low pressure drop is further constrained by the need for a low pressure, high molecular weight gas, typically a mixture of helium and xenon. Use of separate primary and secondary gas loops, one for the reactor and one or more for the Brayton system(s) separated by heat exchanger(s), allows for independent optimization of the pressure and gas composition of each loop. The reactor loop can use higher pressure pure helium, which provides improved heat transfer and heat transport properties, while the Brayton loop can utilize lower pressure He-Xe. However, this approach requires a separate primary gas circulator and also requires gas to gas heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the trade-offs between the direct gas reactor Brayton system and the indirect gas Brayton system. It discusses heat exchanger arrangement and materials options and projects heat exchanger mass based on heat transfer area and structural design needs. Analysis indicates that these heat exchangers add considerable mass, but result in reactor cooling and system resiliency improvements

  14. An experimental study on the grape orchard: Effects comparison of two irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadbhane Sharad J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Table grape (Vitis vinifera cultivars is a major cash crop in the Nashik district of India, which requires irrigation water throughout the year as per demand instantly. Canal irrigation is the adopted irrigation systems in the study area, but canal irrigation has got several serious disadvantages, such as mismatching rotation schedules and crop water demands, water allotment system and restrictions on the use of efficient irrigation methods. The storing the canal water in the farm pond instead of directly applying to the field using the free flooding method is alternate solution to overcome the disadvantages of the canal irrigation system. Once the canal water storing in the pond, it increases the possibilities to use the advance irrigation system like drip, subsurface, sprinkler etc. to enhance water use efficiency. The comparative study between the canal water directly applying for the field and canal water storing in the farm pond then use for irrigation, executed through the field experiments carried out on the grape orchard during a period April 2013 to March 2016. Results have been evaluated based on grape yield, water-productivity, berry size, and biomass. Water productivity (kg·m-3 with respect to water delivery to crop through the pond irrigation method was found 37% higher than the canal irrigation method during the study period. Based on the results, this study recommended the use of the farm pond to store the canal water and use it as per crop demand using advance irrigation systems.

  15. A controlled comparison of the BacT/ALERT® 3D and VIRTUO™ microbial detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, H; Ullery, M; Spontak, J; Viray, J; Adamik, M; Katzin, B; Dunne, W M; Deol, P

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the next-generation BacT/ALERT® VIRTUO™ Microbial Detection System (VIRTUO™, bioMérieux Inc., Hazelwood, MO) was compared to the BacT/ALERT® 3D Microbial Detection System (3D, bioMérieux Inc., Durham, NC) using BacT/ALERT® FA Plus (FA Plus), BacT/ALERT® PF Plus (PF Plus), BacT/ALERT® FN Plus (FN Plus), BacT/ALERT® Standard Aerobic (SA), and BacT/ALERT® Standard Anaerobic (SN) blood culture bottles (bioMérieux Inc., Durham, NC). A seeded limit of detection (LoD) study was performed for each bottle type in both systems. The LoD studies demonstrated that both systems were capable of detecting organisms at nearly identical levels [detection (TTD) between the systems using a panel of clinically relevant microorganisms inoculated at or near the LoD with 0, 4, or 10 mL of healthy human blood. VIRTUO™ exhibited a faster TTD by an average of 3.5 h, as well as demonstrated a significantly improved detection rate of 99.9% compared to 98.8% with 3D (p-value <0.05).

  16. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.; Khalil, H.S.; Wade, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  17. Systematically In Silico Comparison of Unihormonal and Bihormonal Artificial Pancreas Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoteng Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated closed-loop control of blood glucose concentration is a daily challenge for type 1 diabetes mellitus, where insulin and glucagon are two critical hormones for glucose regulation. According to whether glucagon is included, all artificial pancreas (AP systems can be divided into two types: unihormonal AP (infuse only insulin and bihormonal AP (infuse both insulin and glucagon. Even though the bihormonal AP is widely considered a promising direction, related studies are very scarce due to this system’s short research history. More importantly, there are few studies to compare these two kinds of AP systems fairly and systematically. In this paper, two switching rules, P-type and PD-type, were proposed to design the logic of orchestrates switching between insulin and glucagon subsystems, where the delivery rates of both insulin and glucagon were designed by using IMC-PID method. These proposed algorithms have been compared with an optimal unihormonal system on virtual type 1 diabetic subjects. The in silico results demonstrate that the proposed bihormonal AP systems have outstanding superiorities in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia, smoothing the glucose level, and robustness with respect to insulin/glucagon sensitivity variations, compared with the optimal unihormonal AP system.

  18. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  19. Comparison of two heuristic evaluation methods for evaluating the usability of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajouei, Reza; Hajesmaeel Gohari, Sadrieh; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh

    2018-04-01

    In addition to following the usual Heuristic Evaluation (HE) method, the usability of health information systems can also be evaluated using a checklist. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of these two methods in identifying usability problems of health information systems. Eight evaluators independently evaluated different parts of a Medical Records Information System using two methods of HE (usual and with a checklist). The two methods were compared in terms of the number of problems identified, problem type, and the severity of identified problems. In all, 192 usability problems were identified by two methods in the Medical Records Information System. This was significantly higher than the number of usability problems identified by the checklist and usual method (148 and 92, respectively) (p information systems. The results demonstrated that the checklist method had significantly better performance in terms of the number of identified usability problems; however, the performance of the usual method for identifying problems of higher severity was significantly better. Although the checklist method can be more efficient for less experienced evaluators, wherever usability is critical, the checklist should be used with caution in usability evaluations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of desiccant air conditioning systems with different indirect evaporative air coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandelidis, Demis; Anisimov, Sergey; Worek, William M.; Drąg, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical study of desiccant air conditioning systems is presented. • The ε-NTU model is used for the analysis. • Different arrangements of the desiccant systems were compared. • The systems were compared under different operating conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical analysis of three desiccant air-conditioning systems equipped with different indirect evaporative air coolers: (1) the cross-flow Maisotsenko cycle heat and mass exchanger (HMX), (2) the regenerative counter-flow Maisotsenko cycle heat and mass exchanger and (3) the standard cross-flow evaporative air cooler. To analyze the desiccant wheel and the indirect evaporative air coolers, the modified ε-NTU-model was used. The simulations were performed under assumption that the desiccant wheel is regenerated with air heated to relatively low temperature values (50–60 °C), which can be produced with solar panels in typical moderate climatic conditions. It was established that the main advantage of the presented solutions is that they can provide comfort conditions even with less effective dehumidification. The different systems were compared under variable selected operational factors (i.e. inlet air temperature, humidity and regeneration air temperature). The analysis allowed establishing the advantages and disadvantages of presented solutions and allowed estimating their application potential.