WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydropower site parameters

  1. Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

    1955-12-01

    An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

  2. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  3. 下坂地电站水轮机参数及机型选择%Selection of Water Turbine Parameters and Types for Xiabandi Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the specific conditions of Xiabandi Hydropower Station project. this paper determines main parameters and types of the water turbine through comprehensive comparisons and analysis, and provides technical references for selection of the mixed -flow water turbine for the middle and high water head.%针对下坂地水电站的具体工程特点,通过综合比较、分析,确定了下坂地水电站的水轮机主要参数和机型,为中高水头混流式水轮机的选型提供参考.

  4. Ranking of Sites for Installation of Hydropower Plant Using MLP Neural Network Trained with GA: A MADM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Shimray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every energy system which we consider is an entity by itself, defined by parameters which are interrelated according to some physical laws. In recent year tremendous importance is given in research on site selection in an imprecise environment. In this context, decision making for the suitable location of power plant installation site is an issue of relevance. Environmental impact assessment is often used as a legislative requirement in site selection for decades. The purpose of this current work is to develop a model for decision makers to rank or classify various power plant projects according to multiple criteria attributes such as air quality, water quality, cost of energy delivery, ecological impact, natural hazard, and project duration. The case study in the paper relates to the application of multilayer perceptron trained by genetic algorithm for ranking various power plant locations in India.

  5. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  6. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  7. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  8. US hydropower resource assessment for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Missouri.

  9. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  10. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  15. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  16. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Qin Fen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chalise, Dol Raj [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Centurion, Emma E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  17. Eco-friendly location of small hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hanley, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of locating small hydropower dams in an environmentally friendly manner. We propose the use of a multi-objective optimization model to maximize total hydropower production, while limiting negative impacts on river connectivity. Critically, we consider the so called “backwater effects” that dams have on power generation at nearby upstream sites via changes in water surface profiles. We further account for the likelihood that migratory fish and other aquatic species can s...

  18. Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

  19. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  20. Selection of Jinghe Dongzhuang Hydropowe Plant Turbine Parameter%泾河东庄水电站水轮机参数初选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光勉; 黄波

    2013-01-01

    东庄水库电站运行水头高、变幅宽,过机泥沙含量大,水轮机过流部件将遭到磨蚀破坏。借鉴已运行的黄河小浪底、西霞院、万家寨等多泥沙电站水轮机参数选择和抗磨措施,分析电站主要参数,从保障安全运行、减轻磨蚀破坏的角度初步选定东庄电站发电机组的额定比转速、比速系数、单位转速、单位流量等参数。原型水轮机参数如下:型号HL%Dongzhuang Reservoir Power Station operates with high water head and wide amplitude. The sediment concentration passing through the turbines is high and the wet components of the turbines will be suffered abrasion damage. Learning from the Yellow River Xiaolangdi,Xixiayuan, Wanjiazhai Hydropower Station and other heavy sediment turbine parameters,it selected and adopted the anti abrasion measures. It analyzed the main parameters of power station,from the guaranteeing safe operation and reducing abrasion damage point of view and initially selected Dong-zhuang Power Station turbines rated than speed,coefficient of speed ratio,unit speed,unit flow and other parameters. Prototype turbine parameters are as follows:Model:HL(114)-LJ-230;Rated output Nr =41. 1 MW;rated head Hr =181 m;runner diameter D1 =2. 3 m;rated flow Qr =25. 25 m3/ s;rated efficiency ηr =91. 5%;rated speed nr =375 r/min;suction height Hs = -5. 88 m;apparatus cavitation coefficient σZ =0. 083 3;specific speed ns =114 m·kW;Coefficient of speed ratio k=1 539.

  1. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocío Uría-Martínez, Patrick W. O’Connor, Megan M. Johnson

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  2. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  3. Hydropower annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL)

    2004-02-01

    This report describes hydropower activities supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2003 (October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003). Background on the program, FY03 accomplishments, and future plans are presented in the following sections.

  4. Real-Time Safety Risk Assessment Based on a Real-Time Location System for Hydropower Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchen Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern for workers’ safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM, the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  5. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  6. Hydropower Vision: Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-01

    Hydropower has provided clean, affordable, reliable, and renewable electricity in the United States for more than a century. Building on hydropower’s historical significance, and to inform the continued technical evolution, energy market value, and environmental performance of the industry, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has led a first-of-its-kind comprehensive analysis focused on a set of potential pathways for the environmentally sustainable expansion of hydropower (hydropower generation and pumped storage) in the United States.

  7. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

  8. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New Mexico.

  9. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  10. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  11. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  12. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

  13. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Oregon.

  14. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

  15. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  16. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

  17. Analysis on regulation strategies for extending service life of hydropower turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Norrlund, P.; Yang, J.

    2016-11-01

    Since a few years, there has been a tendency that hydropower turbines experience fatigue to a greater extent, due to increasingly more regulation movements of governor actuators. The aim of this paper is to extend the service life of hydropower turbines, by reasonably decreasing the guide vane (GV) movements with appropriate regulation strategies, e.g. settings of PI (proportional-integral) governor parameters and controller filters. The accumulated distance and number of GV movements are the two main indicators of this study. The core method is to simulate the long-term GV opening of Francis turbines with MATLAB/Simulink, based on a sequence of one-month measurements of the Nordic grid frequency. Basic theoretical formulas are also discussed and compared to the simulation results, showing reasonable correspondence. Firstly, a model of a turbine governor is discussed and verified, based on on-site measurements of a Swedish hydropower plant. Then, the influence of governor parameters is discussed. Effects of different settings of controller filters (e.g. dead zone, floating dead zone and linear filter) are also examined. Moreover, a change in GV movement might affect the quality of the frequency control. This is also monitored via frequency deviation characteristics, determined by elementary simulations of the Nordic power system. The results show how the regulation settings affect the GV movements and frequency quality, supplying suggestions for optimizing the hydropower turbine operation for decreasing the wear and tear.

  18. Hydropower RAPID Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit including its capabilities, features, and benefits.

  19. Technology Roadmap: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

  20. Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2006-06-01

    This data package was originally prepared to support a 2004 composite analysis (CA) of low-level waste disposal at the Hanford Site. The Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site (Kincaid et. al. 2004) identified the requirements for that analysis and served as the basis for initial preparation of this data package. Completion of the 2004 CA was later deferred, with the 2004 Annual Status Report for the Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site (DOE 2005) indicating that a comprehensive update to the CA was in preparation and would be submitted in 2006. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently decided to further defer the CA update and will use the cumulative assessment currently under preparation for the environmental impact statement (EIS) being prepared for tank closure and other site decisions as the updated CA. Submittal of the draft EIS is currently planned for FY 2008. This data package describes the facility-specific parameters (e.g. location, operational dates, etc.) used to numerically simulate contaminant flow and transport in large-scale Hanford assessments. Kincaid et al. (2004) indicated that the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Kincaid et al. 2000; Bryce et al. 2002; Eslinger 2002a, 2002b) would be used to analyze over a thousand different waste sites. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site/facility, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future). This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for large-scale Hanford assessments.

  1. Selection of Unit Parameters and Auxiliary Equipments of Lunzua Hydropower Station in Zambia%赞比亚LUNZUA水电站机组参数及附属设备选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓明; 逯鹏

    2013-01-01

    ∶为了合理选择赞比亚LUNZUA水电站的机组参数及其附属设备,在电站的基本参数的基础上做了一系列的比较和论证。通过详细的分析选定该电站水轮发电机组的主要参数和附属设备,为下一阶段的工作提供了依据。%The basic parameters of Lunzua hydropower station in Zambia are compared and demonstrated so as to reasonably select the unit parameters and the auxiliary equipments,which provides a reference for the next-stage work.

  2. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of

  3. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  4. LCOE Uncertainty Analysis for Hydropower using Monte Carlo Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is an important metric to evaluate the cost and performance of electricity production generation alternatives, and combined with other measures, can be used to assess the economics of future hydropower development. Multiple assumptions on input parameters are required to calculate the LCOE, which each contain some level of uncertainty, in turn affecting the accuracy of LCOE results. This paper explores these uncertainties, their sources, and ultimately the level of variability they introduce at the screening level of project evaluation for non-powered dams (NPDs) across the U.S. Owing to site-specific differences in site design, the LCOE for hydropower varies significantly from project to project unlike technologies with more standardized configurations such as wind and gas. Therefore, to assess the impact of LCOE input uncertainty on the economics of U.S. hydropower resources, these uncertainties must be modeled across the population of potential opportunities. To demonstrate the impact of uncertainty, resource data from a recent nationwide non-powered dam (NPD) resource assessment (Hadjerioua et al., 2012) and screening-level predictive cost equations (O Connor et al., 2015) are used to quantify and evaluate uncertainties in project capital and operations & maintenance costs, and generation potential at broad scale. LCOE dependence on financial assumptions is also evaluated on a sensitivity basis to explore ownership/investment implications on project economics for the U.S. hydropower fleet. The results indicate that the LCOE for U.S. NPDs varies substantially. The LCOE estimates for the potential NPD projects of capacity greater than 1 MW range from 40 to 182 $/MWh, with average of 106 $/MWh. 4,000 MW could be developed through projects with individual LCOE values below 100 $/MWh. The results also indicate that typically 90 % of LCOE uncertainty can be attributed to uncertainties in capital costs and energy production; however

  5. 某水电站坝址F41,F42断层泥化带工程特性研究%The Engineering Properties of F41 and F42 Fault Muddy Zone at the Dam Site of Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓争荣; 吴树良; 杨友刚; 雷世兵; 郑新; 曹道宁

    2012-01-01

    某峡谷区水电站坝址发育有区域性断裂穿越大坝河床近岸坝基(不属于活动断裂),将其分为碎裂岩带和F41,F42断层软弱构造岩带,其中F42为泥化带,系拟建水电站最大坝高200m级坝基最软弱部位.为了提供该水电站工程设计所需的工程地质资料,在查明F41,F42断层发育几何学特征的基础上,通过勘探技术、取样室内物理力学性质试验、平洞内现场原位力学性质试验、现场原状样渗透变形试验研究其工程特性,并以试验成果为基础,提出断层泥化带主要物理力学性质及渗透性参数建议值.研究结果表明:断层泥化带工程性状差,须采取工程处理措施.可为其它工程遇到类似断层时类比参考.%The dam site of a hydropower station planned to be built in a gorge area has developed inactive and regional fault passing through the river bankside dam foundation. The fault can be divided into cataclasite rock belt and F41, F42 weak tectonic fault zones, which, known as fault muddy zones, are the weakest part in the dam foundation of the above hydropower station whose maximum dam height is more than 200 m. To provide geological data for the hydro-power project design, we studied the engineering characteristics of the F41 and F42 fault muddy zones on the basis of their geometrical features by means of engineering investigation, indoor test on the physical and mechanical properties of samples , in - situ adit test on the mechanical properties , and seepage deformation test on undisturbed samples .According to the test results, we proposed the recommended values of main physico- mechanical properties and permeability parameters of the fault muddy zones. The research results indicate that treatments must be taken on the fault muddy zones owing to its weak engineering properties. It would provide reference for similar faults of other projects.

  6. cceptance tests on the turbine model for Feilaixia Hydropower Station and its parameter selection%飞来峡水电站水轮机模型验收试验与参数选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游赞培

    2001-01-01

    飞来峡水电站的水轮机参数选择,经过了几个设计阶段的变更最终选用了奥地利的伊林-奥钢联公司的贯流式机组,其参数为15 m水头段的国际领先水平。水轮机通过模型验收试验,其模型最高效率达93.77%,而高效率区范围广且变化平缓;超低水头飞逸泄流性能试验在水头0.53~3.31 m范围内泄流量为保证值的121%~179%;压力脉动试验在飞逸泄流时其值偏大,但绝对值仅为0.37 m,能量较小对安全稳定泄流不会构成太大影响;导水叶力矩具有自关闭特性,对机组防飞逸具有较好的效果。飞来峡水轮机的参数选择和模型验收试验都达到了满意的结果。%The selection of the turbine's parameters for Feilaixia Hydropower Station has been changed in different design stages. Finally, the tubular generating unit made in Austria was selected, because its parameters is up to the international advanced level in the scope of water head of 15 m. The acceptance tests showed that the model has the highest efficiency of 93.77% and has wide high-efficiency area and smooth in its change. The runaway releasing performance test under the condition of super-low water head showed that the releasing volume is 121%~179% of guaranteed value within the water head of 0.53~3.31 m. The pressure pulse tests showed that the runaway releasing value is in the high side but its absolute value is only 0.37 m, which could not bring big impact on safe and stable releasing water. The force moment of guiding water blade has self-close function, which can effectively protect the runaway of generating unit. The parameter selection and model acceptance test of the Feilaixia Hydropower Station all have reached satisfied results.

  7. Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hermansson, Hans-Peter [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and

  8. Techno-economical method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santolin, A., E-mail: alberto.santolin@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cavazzini, G., E-mail: giovanna.cavazzini@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pavesi, G., E-mail: giorgio.pavesi@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ardizzon, G., E-mail: guido.ardizzon@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Rossetti, A., E-mail: antonio.rossetti@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant was developed. {yields} The model was developed on the basis of the flow duration curve of the site. {yields} Seven techno-economical parameters were considered in the analysis. {yields} The influence of the design operating conditions on the parameters was analysed. {yields} The method allowed a proper choice of the optimal design operating conditions. -- Abstract: This paper presents a method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant on the basis of techno-economical analyses of the flow duration curve. Seven technical and economical parameters were considered: the turbine type, the turbine dimensions, the annual energy production, the maximum installation height to avoid cavitation inception, the machine cost, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). A proper model was proposed to study the effects of the design operating conditions on these parameters. The model, applied to the flow duration curve, allowed to analyse the feasibility, the profitability and the performance of the plant in the available flowing range of the site. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, three sites having different flow duration curves were analysed.

  9. Hydropower Development Programming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the speech delivered by Mr.Zhou Dabing,Deputy Manager General of China National Electric Power Corporation,on its hosted “Hydropower Developing Seminar”, during the national “10th Fivc-ynar Plan” and the “Farsight Program to 2015”, the installed capacity of hydropower shall be up to 75GW by 2000,

  10. SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-03-14

    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of

  11. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

  12. Hydropower: Partnership with the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This brochure provides useful information on types of hydroelectric facilities as well as general information on capacity, generation, environmental issues, and advanced conventional hydropower technology within the United States.

  13. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  14. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  15. Review of China s Hydropower Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China's hydropower equipment manufacturing technology has benef ited from the policy of reform and opening-up and the "Three Gorges Model." The latter means an approach of self-supply of hydropower equipment. Based on the foundations laid through independent research and development, by way of digesting, absorbing and innovating the technologies introduced from abroad for the Left Bank Station of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, domestic suppliers independently designed and manufactured large hydropower...

  16. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

  17. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

  18. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  19. Environmental Issues Related to Conventional Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-27

    Hydropower is the largest renewable electrical energy source in the world and has a total global capacity of approximately 1,010 GW from 150 countries. Although hydropower has many environmental advantages, hydropower dams have potential adverse ecological impacts such as fish passage, water quality, and habitat alterations.

  20. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Zhao, D.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Guan, D.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China b

  1. Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

    2010-09-15

    Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

  2. Review of China's Hydropower Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Weiyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's hydropower equipment manufacturing technology has benefited from the policy of reform and opening-up and the "Three Gorges Model. " The latter means an approach of self-supply of hydropower equipment. Based on the foundations laid through independent research and development, by way of digesting, absorbing and innovating the technologies introduced from abroad for the Left Bank Station of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, domestic suppliers independently designed and manufactured large hydropower units for the Right Bank Station of the Three Gorges and many other large hydropower stations in China.

  3. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  4. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling, Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  5. Site Earthquake Characteristics and Dynamic Parameter Test of Phase Ⅲ Qinshan Nuclear Power Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOV Nian-qing; ZHAO Zai-li; QIN Min

    2009-01-01

    The earthquake characteristics and geological structure of the site to sitting the Qinshan Nuclear Power Station are closely related. According to site investigation drilling, sampling, seismic sound logging wave test in single-hole and cross-hole, laboratory wave velocity test of intact rock, together with analysis of the site geological conditions, the seismic wave test results of the site between strata lithology and the geologic structure were studied. The relationships of seismic waves with the site lithology and the geologic structure were set up.The dynamic parameters of different grades of weathering profile were deduced. The results assist the seismic design of Phase Ⅲ Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, China.

  6. Time management challenges of major refurbishment projects : An analysis of 20 hydropower outages at Fortum

    OpenAIRE

    Nyqvist, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    While most western hydropower sites are already developed or protected by legislation, the aging hydropower park requires refurbishment actions. Especially to tackle the challenges of an increased fluctuation at the grid coming from the expansion of other renewable energy sources such as wind power. The company Fortum is carrying out a number of major refurbishment projects every year and want to enhance their time performance during the outage. Delayed projects are resulting in unexpected co...

  7. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eddlemon, Gerald K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  8. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  9. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  10. A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  11. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization. II. High Angular Resolution Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-08-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the design study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Macón range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments, and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A multiple aperture scintillation sensor (MASS) and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing, and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to estimate other important parameters, such as the coherence time of the wavefront and the overall parameter “coherence étendue,” additional information of vertical profiles of the wind speed was needed. Data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) archive. Ground wind speed was measured by automatic weather stations (AWS). More aspects of the turbulence parameters, such as their seasonal trend, their nightly evolution, and their temporal stability, were also obtained and analyzed.

  12. Soft Soil Site Characterization on the Coast of Yantai and Its Effect on Ground Motion Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Yuejun; Tang Rongyu; Peng Yanju

    2005-01-01

    According to the Chinese GB50011-2001 code and the recommended provisions of FEMANEHRP and EUROCODE 8, by using shear wave velocity and borehole data, the site classification is evaluated for a typical soft soil site on the Yantai seacoast. The site seismic ground motion effect is analyzed and the influence of the coastal soil on design ground motion parameters is discussed. The results show that the brief site classification can not represent the real conditions of a soft soil site; the soft soil on the coast has a remarkable impact on the magnitude and spectrum of ground motion acceleration. The magnification on peak acceleration is bigger, however, due to the nonlinear deformation of the soil. The magnification is reduced nonlinearly with the increase of input ground motion; the spectrum is broadened and the characteristic period elongated on the soft soil site.

  13. The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr−1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ−1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  14. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  15. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  16. Development of Hydropower Resources in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Zhongming; Wu Yun; Tong Mingdong; Xiao Jinyu

    2009-01-01

    @@ There is a boom of hydropower development in Southwest China recently because of the abundant hydropower resources there,especially in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces,which has attracted the attentions of various major power generation companies and private enterprises.Based on the situation of hydropower development in the Southwest and combined with the analysis of prospective receiving market and the capability of electrical and mechanical equipment's manufacturing,this paper discusses the main problems of the hydropower development in the Southwest and makes some suggestions for its orderly development and efficient utilization.

  17. Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer

  18. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  19. CORROSION MECHANISM OF ROCK MASS AT DAM SITE LEFT BANK OF GUANYINYAN HYDROPOWER STATION%观音岩水电站坝址区右岸岩体溶蚀发育机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦国; 周志芳; 陈松峰

    2011-01-01

    The Guanyinyan Hydropower Station locates in the upper reaches of Jinsha River. The dam type is a combination of concrete gravity dam and core rockfill dam. The stratum in the dam site is middle Shedian group of Jurassic. The lithology is mainly the calcareous ferruginous cemented conglomerate and the quartz sandstone. The main components of conglomerate are cryptite and biolithite. The large cystic cavities or holes are formed by corroded calcareous ferruginous under groundwater. The corroded calcareous cement in sandstone displays sand-like or sugar-like. So it affects the stability of dam foundation. On the basis of analyzing geological conditions and hydro-geological conditions in the right bank of the station, this paper investigates the groundwater-dynamic simulation, water-soluble element statistics and corrosion experiment of sampling for rock corrosion rules. It is found that the rock and tectonic control play a leading role for the rock corrosion. The solute reaction is developed intensely along strike direction of joints and fractures ,because of local-groundwater with quick circle and rapid flow rate. Notonly the agglutination of the sandy and gravelly rock is calcareous, but also 30% ~ 50% of the gravel is calcareous. So the dissolubility of the rock is strong. The fresh rock surface is easily corroded, and the corrosion rate is fast. The research results can serve as the foundation for antiskid, distortion and seepage stability evaluation. They also provide background information for the study to erosion-dissolution of rock with groundwater after impounded water.%观音岩水电站位于金沙江上游,坝型初拟混凝土重力坝和心墙堆石坝组合坝.坝址区分布有侏罗系中蛇店组(J2s)地层,岩性主要为钙质铁质胶结的砾岩、石英砂岩,其中砾石成分以泥晶灰岩和生物灰岩为主.在地下水作用下砾岩钙质溶蚀形成规模较大的囊状空腔或孔洞,砂岩则表现为钙质胶结物流失溶

  20. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  1. The water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world’s electricity supply. Although dams often have big environmental and social impacts, proponents of hydropower regard it as a comparatively clean, low-cost and renewable form of energy. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in

  2. Hydropower: Making Great Progress in Large Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Fengshan; Li Jialu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Brief review Before 1949, the hydropower equipment manufacturing in China was next to nothing. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China, it grew out of nothing and expanded from small to large with decades of hard work. In the 1980s, a complete modernized hydropower equipment manufacturing industry was initially set up.

  3. System dynamics in hydropower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuksrud, Dag Birger

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  5. The inversion of anelastic coefficient, source parameters and site respond using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 郑斯华; 黄玉龙

    2003-01-01

    It gradually becomes a common work using large seismic wave data to obtain source parameters, such as seismic moment, break radius, stress drop, with completingof digital seismic network in China (Hough, et al, 1999; Bindi, et al, 2001). These parameters are useful on earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis.Although the computation methods of source parameters are simple in principle and the many research works have been done, it is not easy to obtain the parameters accurately. There are two factors affecting the stability of computation results. The first one is the effect of spread path and site respond on signal. According to the research results, there are different geometrical spreading coefficients on different epicenter distance. The better method is to introduce trilinear geometrical spreading model (Atkinson, Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, Boore, 1995; WONG, et al, 2002). In addition, traditional site respond is estimated by comparing with rock station, such as linear inversion method (Andrews, 1982), but the comparative estimation will introduce some errors when selecting different stations. Some recent research results show that site respond is not flat for rock station (Moya, et al, 2000; ZHANG,. et al, 2001; JIN, et al, 2000; Dutta, et al, 2001). The second factor is to obtain low-frequency level and corner frequency fromdisplacement spectrum. Because the source spectrum model is nonlinear function,these values are obtained by eye. The subjectivity is strong. The small change of corner frequency will affect significantly the result of stress drop.

  6. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  7. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Mac\\'on range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to e...

  8. Environmental impacts assessment for hydropower development planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hongbin; Yu Weiqi; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduced China's law framework and technical standards related to environmental im-pacts assessment(EIA) for hydropower development, and the EIA developing process for hydropower development plan-ning. Authors summarized the working experiences about hydropower development planning EIA done in the recent years in China, discussed the considerations and methods of hydropower development planning EIA, and put forward the index system for hydropower development planning EIA initially.

  9. Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; De la Cruz, Idalmis; Stenberg, Kristofer; Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and K{sub d} values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

  10. Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejović, S.; Mazij, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

  11. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  12. Estimation of site-dependent spectral decay parameter from seismic array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Jeong; Lee, Jung Mo; Baag, Chang-Eob; Choi, Hoseon; Noh, Myunghyun

    2016-04-01

    The kappa (κ), attenuation of acceleration amplitude at high frequencies, is one of the most important parameters in ground motion evaluation and seismic hazard analysis at sites. κ simply indicates the high frequency decay of the acceleration spectrum in log-linear space. The decay trend can be considered as linear for frequencies higher than a specific frequency, fe which is starting point of the linear regression at the acceleration spectrum. The κ has been investigated using the data from seismic arrays in the south-eastern part of Korea in which nuclear facilities such as power plant and radiological waste depository are located. The seismic array consists of 20 seismic stations and it was operated from October in 2010 through March in 2013. A classical method by Anderson and Hough (1984) and a standard procedure recently suggested by Ktenidou et al. (2013) were applied for computation of κ. There have been just a few studies on spectral attenuation characteristics for Korean Peninsula so far and even those studies utilized small amount of earthquake events whose frequency range was lower than 25 Hz. In this study, the available frequency range is up to 60 Hz based on the sampling rate of 200 and instrument response. This allows us to use a large range of frequencies for κ computations. It is outstanding advantage that we couldn't obtain from earlier κ studies in Korea. In addition, we investigate the regional κ characteristics through calculating the κ using data of 20 seismic stations which are highly extensive seismic array. It allows us to find the more specific attenuation characteristics of high frequencies in study area. Distance and magnitude dependence of κ has also been investigated. Before calculating the κ, the corner frequency (f_c) has been checked so that the fe can lie to the right of fc to exclude source effects in the computation. Manually picked fe is generally in the range of 10 to 25 Hz. The resulting κR is 9.2e-06 and κ0 is 0

  13. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  14. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  15. Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies.

  16. SENSITIVITY OF STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO GROUND MOTION SOURCE AND SITE PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Brebbia, C.A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Designing structures to withstand earthquakes requires an accurate estimation of the expected ground motion. While engineers use the peak ground acceleration (PGA) to model the strong ground motion, seismologists use physical characteristics of the source and the rupture mechanism, such as fault length, stress drop, shear wave velocity, seismic moment, distance, and attenuation. This study presents a method for calculating response spectra from seismological models using random vibration theory. It then investigates the effect of various source and site parameters on peak response. Calculations are based on a nonstationary stochastic ground motion model, which can incorporate all the parameters both in frequency and time domains. The estimation of the peak response accounts for the effects of the non-stationarity, bandwidth and peak correlations of the response.

  17. The effects of differential injection sites of cold saline on transpulmonary thermodilution parameter values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wanjie Yang,1 Qingguo Feng,1 Youzhong An,2 Xuefeng Zhao,1 Kai Wei,1 Chang Li,1 Wei Wang,1 Hongyun Teng1 1Department of Critical Care, The Fifth Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Critical Care, The People’s Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Aim: To investigate the effects of differential sites for cold saline injection on transpulmonary thermodilution parameter values.Methods: This was a prospective study. Twelve patients were recruited for the following examinations: control condition (injection site at proximal injection end of the Swan-Ganz catheter, proximal end condition (injection site at sheath of the Swan-Ganz catheter, and distal end condition (injection site at PA end of the Swan-Ganz catheter. Sixty measurements were performed for each condition. The cardiac index, global end diastolic volume index (GEDI, and extravascular lung water index for the three different injection sites were recorded from each patient. In addition, the mean transmission time (MTt, downslope time, and area under the curve obtained from PiCCO-VoLEF-Win software were compared among different groups.Results: There were no differences in cardiac index and extravascular lung water index values among the three conditions (P>0.05. There were no differences in GEDI between the proximal end condition and control condition (P>0.05, while the GEDI was significantly lower for the distal end condition (493.33±254.65 mL/m2 than for the control condition (645.53±234.46 mL/m2 (P<0.05 and proximal end condition (717.96±321.63 mL/m2 (P<0.01. There were no differences in downslope time and area under the curve among the three conditions (P>0.05. There were no differences in MTt between the proximal end condition and control condition (P>0.05, while the MTt was significantly lower for distal end condition (40.22±16.37 seconds than for the control condition (42.91±17.93 seconds (P<0.05 and

  18. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar.

  19. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  20. Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  1. Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  2. High-frequency observations and source parameters of microearthquakes recorded at hard-rock sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranswick, Edward; Wetmiller, Robert; Boatwright, John

    1985-01-01

    We have estimated the source parameters of 53 microearthquakes recorded in July 1983 which were aftershocks of the Miramichi, New Brunswick, earthquake that occurred on 9 January 1982. These events were recorded by local three-component digital seismographs at 400 sps/component from 2-Hz velocity transducers sited directly on glacially scoured crystalline basement outcrop. Hypocentral distances are typically less than 5 km, and the hypocenters and the seven digital seismograph stations established all lie essentially within the boundaries of a granitic pluton that encompasses the faults that ruptured during the main shock and major aftershocks. The P-wave velocity is typically 5 km/sec at the surface and at least 6 km/sec at depths greater than about 1 km.The events have S-wave corner frequencies in the band 10 to 40 Hz, and the calculated Brune model seismic moments range from 1015 to 1018 dyne-cm. The corresponding stress drops are generally less than 1.0 bars, but there is considerable evidence that the seismic-source signals have been modified by propagation and/or site-effects. The data indicate: (a) there is a velocity discontinuity at 0.5 km depth; (b) the top layer has strong scattering/attenuating properties; (c) some source-receiver paths differentiate the propagated signal; (d) there is a hard-rock-site P-wave “fmax” between 50 and 100 Hz; and (e) some hard-rock sites are characterized by P-wave resonance frequencies in the range 50 to 100 Hz. Comparison of this dataset with the January 1982 New Brunswick digital seismograms which were recorded at sites underlain by several meters of low-velocity surface sediments suggests that some of the hard-rock-site phenomena listed above can be explained in terms of a layer-over-a-half-space model. For microearthquakes, this result implies that spectrally determined source dimension scales with site dimension (thickness of the layer). More generally, it emphasizes that it is very difficult to accurately observe

  3. Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

  4. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

  5. Microalgal diversity in relation to the physicochemical parameters of some Industrial sites in Mangalore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jyothi; Krishnakumar, G

    2015-11-01

    This study is undertaken to understand the microalgal species composition, diversity, abundance and their association with the polluted sites of an industrial area. The microalgae and the wastewater samples collected from these sites were preserved and analysed using standard methods. One hundred and eight species of the microalgae, belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceace and Desmidaceae, were identified. Of these, the members of Cyanophyceae formed the dominant flora. It was observed that the family Oscillatoriaceae was the most diverse family. In this family, the most diverse genus was found to be the Oscillatoria, with 13 species. Further, the abundance of Oscillatoria princeps indicated that these species are tolerant to the pollution and therefore considered as the 'marker species' of the habitat. The abundance of the Cyanophyceae in these sites was found to be due to the favourable contents of the oxidizable organic matter and the presence of the nutrients, such as the nitrates and the phosphates, in abundance, with less dissolved oxygen. The lesser percentage of the Bacillariophyceae (14%), and the negligible number of the euglenoids (2%) indicated that the sites were rich in the inorganic pollutants and poor in the organic pollutants. The range of Shannon diversity indices was found between 2.10 and 3.50, while the dominance index was found between 0.03 and 0.14, the species evenness between 0.73 and 0.93 and the Margalef index between 1.8 and 6.3. The diversity indices indicated that there is light to moderate level of pollution in the studied sites, with moderate diversity level. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical parameters identified the four possible groups, which were responsible for the data structure, explaining the 74% of the total variance of the data set. In the PCA performed using all the variables, the first principal component showed the positive correlation with the total

  6. Change of avalanching parameters in the near zone of explosion site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Mokrov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variations of avalanche formation parameters in the relation with the explosive mass and its location have been experimentally studied. The charges were installed in five locations: on the ground, in the snow layer at a height of 0.6 m above the ground, on the snow surface, at a height of 1 m and 2 m above the snow surface. Mass of explosive was 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kg. The experiments were in March 2012 on the Suoluayv plateau (600 m a.s.l. in Khibiny Mountains. Studies have shown that at explosion sites the disturbance of snow structure, its density and shear strength occurs throughout the whole depth of snow cover, depending on the structure and density of snow layers as well as the explosive mass and its location.

  7. Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

  8. Forecasting surface-layer atmospheric parameters at the Large Binocular Telescope site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Alessio; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we quantify the performance of an automated weather forecast system implemented on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site at Mt Graham (Arizona) in forecasting the main atmospheric parameters close to the ground. The system employs a mesoscale non-hydrostatic numerical model (Meso-Nh). To validate the model, we compare the forecasts of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity close to the ground with the respective values measured by instrumentation installed on the telescope dome. The study is performed over a large sample of nights uniformly distributed over 2 yr. The quantitative analysis is done using classical statistical operators [bias, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and σ] and contingency tables, which allows us to extract complementary key information, such as the percentage of correct detections (PC) and the probability of obtaining a correct detection within a defined interval of values (POD). The results of our study indicate that the model performance in forecasting the atmospheric parameters we have just cited are very good, in some cases excellent: RMSE for temperature is below 1°C, for relative humidity it is 14 per cent and for the wind speed it is around 2.5 m s-1. The relative error of the RMSE for wind direction varies from 9 to 17 per cent depending on the wind speed conditions. This work is performed in the context of the ALTA (Advanced LBT Turbulence and Atmosphere) Center project, whose final goal is to provide forecasts of all the atmospheric parameters and the optical turbulence to support LBT observations, adaptive optics facilities and interferometric facilities.

  9. Hydropower in Sweden : An investigation of the implications of adding detail to the modelling of hydropower in OSeMOSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to generate a deeper understanding of the representation of hydropower in long-term models. This is done by mapping and modelling (cascading) hydropower in Sweden with the Open Source energy MOdelling SYStem (OSeMOSYS). The first part of the thesis builds on a literature review and provides an introduction to hydropower in Sweden. The second part focuses on implementing the storage equations in OSeMOSYS. These are applied by modelling hydropower at various levels...

  10. Hydropower potential of the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szydłowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimate analysis of the hydropower potential of the lower Vistula River from Warsaw to Gdańsk Bay. The calculations were made for a hydraulic model of the lower Vistula which takes into account potential development of barrages in a cascade system. Results obtained from the model simulations and from hydrological calculations were used to estimate the power of hydropower plants and the average annual energy output from the entire cascade system. The results of calculations indicate significant energy benefits resulting from the development of a cascade of hydropower plants in the lower Vistula. This study does not discuss the cascade project’s economic viability or other aspects of its development (inland waterways, flood control, etc..

  11. Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.

    2004-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

  12. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  13. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  14. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  15. Small hydropower plants standardization, between myth and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivescu, A. V.; Ahmad-Rashid, K.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.

    2017-01-01

    Many providers for small hydropower plants equipment have tried to standardize the components and even the entire equipment. So called “compact turbines” were launched on the market, ensuring the pre-designed solution of the modular components, but usually with lower efficiency then turbines specially designed for a certain site. For civil works it is possible to standardize some components, such as the powerhouse, the surge tank or the headrace, but not the intake and the weir. Part of the hydropower plants can be standardized, but not the entire project, because there are a lot of variables that influence the design. Among these, the dimension, materials and design of the canal and the penstock are given by the hydrology, topography and the geology of the project’s area. This paper presents an attempt at standardization by using different heads and different installed flows. The case study is made on the Lukosi River from Tanzania, because there is a good hydrological database on power and energy calculation. For the powerhouse, pressure tower and intake dimensioning, the assumptions and materials considered cover all challenges that could appear in the geological and topographical structure of the project’s area (worst case, most expensive). The study has highlighted African climatologic and hydrological conditions and the adapting of current technology to these conditions.

  16. Hydrodynamic parameters estimation from self-potential data in a controlled full scale site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidichimo, Francesco; De Biase, Michele; Rizzo, Enzo; Masi, Salvatore; Straface, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    A multi-physical approach developed for the hydrodynamic characterization of porous media using hydrogeophysical information is presented. Several pumping tests were performed in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory, a controlled full-scale site designed and constructed at the CNR-IMAA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Metodologia per l'Analisi Ambientale), in Marsico Nuovo (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), in order to obtain an intermediate stage between laboratory experiments and field survey. The facility consists of a pool, used to study water infiltration processes, to simulate the space and time dynamics of subsurface contamination phenomena, to improve and to find new relationship between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters, to test and to calibrate new geophysical techniques and instruments. Therefore, the Hydrogeosite Laboratory has the advantage of carrying out controlled experiments, like in a flow cell or sandbox, but at field comparable scale. The data collected during the experiments have been used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity ks [ms-1] using a coupled inversion model working in transient conditions, made up of the modified Richards equation describing the water flow in a variably saturated porous medium and the Poisson equation providing the self-potential ϕ [V], which naturally occurs at points of the soil surface owing to the presence of an electric field produced by the motion of underground electrolytic fluids through porous systems. The result obtained by this multi-physical numerical approach, which removes all the approximations adopted in previous works, makes a useful instrument for real heterogeneous aquifer characterization and for predictive analysis of its behavior.

  17. MCDA or MCDM Based Selection of Transmission Line Conductor: Small Hydropower Project Planning and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyabrata Adhikary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower projects are emerging as a solution for sustainable, green, environment friendly, long term and cost-effective source of renewable energy in India for the future. Selecting the appropriate small hydropower project and its parameters in which to invest is a critical task involving different factors and policies. Hence such decision-making can be viewed as a multiple criteria analysis problem with correlating criteria and alternatives. This task should take into consideration several conflicting aspects because of the increasing complexity of the social, technological, environmental, and economic factors. Traditional single criteria decision-making approaches cannot handle the complexity of such systems. Multi criteria methods provide a better and flexible tools. This paper aims to evaluate applicability of multi criteria decision aid to decision makers during the small hydropower project planning and development. To the best of the author’s knowledge this novel approach for application of MCDA or MCDM to small hydropower project planning and development scenario is absent in renewable energy literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  18. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  19. Relationship between environmental parameters and Pinus sylvestris L. site index in forest plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueis T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of forest productivity at early stages of stand development may help to define the most appropriate silviculture treatment to be applied for each stand. Site index (dominant height at a reference age is a useful tool for forest productivity estimation. The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict site index for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau by using soil (physical, chemical and biochemical, climatic and physiographic parameters. To meet this objective, data from 35 stands classified into three different site quality classes and 63 soil, climatic and physiographic parameters were examined in order to develop a discriminant model. After selecting 12 discriminant models which were biologically consistent and presented the higher cross-validated rate of correct classification, a model including four parameters (latitude, inorganic Al, porosity and microbial biomass carbon as predictors was chosen. The discriminant model classified 71% of cases correctly and no inferior-quality stands were misassigned to the highest quality class. Soil and physiographic parameters included in the above model are easily obtainable in the field or by simple laboratory analysis, thus our results can be easily integrated in operational forestry to determine site quality.

  20. [Influence of cascaded exploitation of small hydropower on phytoplankton in Xiangxi River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nai-cheng; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Shu-chan; Fu, Xiao-cheng; Jiang, Wan-xiang; Li, Feng-qing; Cai, Qing-hua

    2007-05-01

    With the five small hydropowers (SHPs) from up- to downstream of Xiangxi River as test objects, this paper studied the influence of SHPs cascaded exploitation on the phytoplankton in the river. The results showed that phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by diatoms, occupying 95.54% of the total number of species. Achnanthes linearis, A. lanceolata var. elliptica and Cocconeis placentula were the most abundant species, with the relative abundance being 23.96%, 18.62% and 12.48%, respectively. The average algal density at 25 sampling sites was 6.29 x 10(5) ind x L(-1), with the maximum of 1.81 x 10(6) ind x L(-1) and the minimum of 2.35 x 10(5) ind x L(-1). Two-way ANOVA indicated that water flow velocity was the main factor affecting the phytoplankton. The establishment of the cascaded SHPs on the river made the habitat of lower reach has a significant difference with the others, resulting in a dramatic change of many parameters including Margalef diversity index, species richness, generic richness, taxonomic composition, and the percentage of diatoms.

  1. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  2. Parameter Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Urban Surface Energy Balance Parameterization at a Tropical Suburban Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, S.; Roth, M.; Velasco, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting of the urban weather and climate is of great importance as our cities become more populated and considering the combined effects of global warming and local land use changes which make urban inhabitants more vulnerable to e.g. heat waves and flash floods. In meso/global scale models, urban parameterization schemes are used to represent the urban effects. However, these schemes require a large set of input parameters related to urban morphological and thermal properties. Obtaining all these parameters through direct measurements are usually not feasible. A number of studies have reported on parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis to adjust and determine the most influential parameters for land surface schemes in non-urban areas. Similar work for urban areas is scarce, in particular studies on urban parameterization schemes in tropical cities have so far not been reported. In order to address above issues, the town energy balance (TEB) urban parameterization scheme (part of the SURFEX land surface modeling system) was subjected to a sensitivity and optimization/parameter estimation experiment at a suburban site in, tropical Singapore. The sensitivity analysis was carried out as a screening test to identify the most sensitive or influential parameters. Thereafter, an optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed to calibrate the input parameter. The sensitivity experiment was based on the "improved Sobol's global variance decomposition method" . The analysis showed that parameters related to road, roof and soil moisture have significant influence on the performance of the model. The optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed using the AMALGM (a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective method) evolutionary algorithm. The experiment showed a remarkable improvement compared to the simulations using the default parameter set. The calibrated parameters from this optimization experiment can be used for further model

  3. Better estimation of protein-DNA interaction parameters improve prediction of functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Flanagan Ruadhan A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing transcription factor binding motifs is a common bioinformatics task. For transcription factors with variable binding sites, we need to get many suboptimal binding sites in our training dataset to get accurate estimates of free energy penalties for deviating from the consensus DNA sequence. One procedure to do that involves a modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment method designed to produce many such sequences. Results We analyzed low stringency SELEX data for E. coli Catabolic Activator Protein (CAP, and we show here that appropriate quantitative analysis improves our ability to predict in vitro affinity. To obtain large number of sequences required for this analysis we used a SELEX SAGE protocol developed by Roulet et al. The sequences obtained from here were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The resulting bioinformatic model characterizes the sequence specificity of the protein more accurately than those sequence specificities predicted from previous analysis just by using a few known binding sites available in the literature. The consequences of this increase in accuracy for prediction of in vivo binding sites (and especially functional ones in the E. coli genome are also discussed. We measured the dissociation constants of several putative CAP binding sites by EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay and compared the affinities to the bioinformatics scores provided by methods like the weight matrix method and QPMEME (Quadratic Programming Method of Energy Matrix Estimation trained on known binding sites as well as on the new sites from SELEX SAGE data. We also checked predicted genome sites for conservation in the related species S. typhimurium. We found that bioinformatics scores based on SELEX SAGE data does better in terms of prediction of physical binding energies as well as in detecting functional sites. Conclusion We think that training binding site detection

  4. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt

  5. Visualization aided system of hydropower engineering management%Visualization aided system of hydropower engineering management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yuan; Nie Miaojing; Yan Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of realizing the information visualization of hydropower engineering management, we construeted three kinds of graphics models sorted by hierarchy for system modelling, employed the construction simulation system to simulate the real-time construction behaviours, introduced the graphics rendering system to organize and update the virtual scene, and designed the interaction system to respond to the user-initiated and simulation-initiated events. So, the real-time, interactive visualization aided system of hydropower engineering management is developed. Eventually, the effectiveness and capabilities of the system are showed through the application examples in China.

  6. Ensemble data assimilation for ocean biogeochemical state and parameter estimation at different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharamti, M. E.; Tjiputra, J.; Bethke, I.; Samuelsen, A.; Skjelvan, I.; Bentsen, M.; Bertino, L.

    2017-04-01

    We develop an efficient data assimilation system that aims at quantifying the uncertainties of various biogeochemical states and parameters. We explore the use of four different ensemble estimation techniques for tuning poorly constrained ecosystem parameters using a one-dimensional configuration of the Ocean Biogeochemical General Circulation Model. The schemes are all EnKF-based operating sequentially in time but have different correction equations. The 1D model is used to simulate the biogeochemical cycle at three different stations in mid and high latitudes. We assimilate monthly climatological profiles of nitrate, silicate, phosphate and oxygen in addition to seasonal surface pCO2 data, between 2006 and 2010. We use the data to optimize eleven ecosystem parameters in addition to all state variables of the model, describing the dynamical processes of the water column. Our assimilation results suggest the following: (1) Among all tested schemes, the one-step-ahead smoothing-based ensemble Kalman filter (OSA-EnKF) is robust and the most accurate, providing consistent and reliable state-parameter ensemble realizations. (2) Given the large uncertainties associated with the ecosystem parameters, estimating only the state variables is generally inconclusive and biased. (3) The OSA-EnKF successfully recovers the observed seasonal variability of the ecosystem dynamics at all stations and helps optimizing the parameters, eventually reducing the prediction errors of the nutrients' concentrations. (4) The estimates of the parameters may have some temporally correlated features and they can also vary spatially between different regions depending on the magnitude of the bias in the observed variables and other factors such as the intensity of the bloom period. We further show that the presented assimilation system has the potential to be used in global models.

  7. Strength training's chronic effects on muscle architecture parameters of different arm sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Thiago; Simão, Roberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Spineti, Juliano; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Strength training generates alterations in muscle geometry, which can be monitored by imaging techniques as, for example, the ultrasound (US) technique. There is no consensus about the homogeneity of hypertrophy in different muscle sites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA) in 3 different sites (50, 60, and 70% of arm length) of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii after 12 weeks of strength training. Forty-nine healthy untrained men were divided into 2 groups: Training Group ([TG, n = 40] 29.90 ± 1.72 years; 79.53 ± 11.84 kg; 173 ± 0.6 cm) and Control Group (n = 9 25.89 ± 3.59 years; 73.96 ± 9.86 kg; 171 ± 6 cm). The TG underwent a strength training program during 12 weeks, which included exercises such as a free-weight bench press, machine lat pull-down, triceps extension in lat pull-down, and standing free-weight biceps curl with a straight bar. A US apparatus was used to measure the PA and MT at the 3 sites. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) test was conducted for each muscle group. After 12 weeks of training, a significant difference was observed between MT in biceps brachii, with an improvement of 12% in the proximal site, whereas the distal site increased by only 4.7% (p MVC increased significantly for both muscle groups. The results indicated that the strength training program was efficient in promoting hypertrophy in both muscles, but with dissimilar responses of the pennated and fusiform muscle architecture at different arm sites.

  8. Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, W. Matthew; Mathis, Melissa L.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40

  9. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  10. BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J.

    1998-09-30

    Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle`s King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels.

  11. Research on Dynamic Parameters of Soil Sites in the Dalian Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoping; Li Ya; Liu Yang; Jiang Hua; Zhang Yinlong; Huang Yimo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic soil parameters derived from Dalian area seismic risk assessment reports are collected. In this study, the measurement data is divided into 7 types, i.e. silty clay, muddy silty clay, clay, medium sand, rock fragments, backfill soil and fully- weathered slate. Statistics of the dynamic parameters of these soils are carried out to obtain the mean values of dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio. Typical drill holes are selected to establish dynamic soil models to investigate the seismic response for various cases. The dynamic parameters of the models are taken from the statistical values of this study, the standard values of code 94 (i. e. the dynamic soil parameters for Dalian seismic microzonation), and the recommended values by Yuan Xiaoming et al. (2000) respectively. The calculated results of peak ground acceleration are compared with the response spectral characteristics. The results show that the statistical values are approximate to the values recommended by Yuan Xiaoming, et al. (2000), but different greatly with the standard values in code 94.

  12. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  13. Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

    2011-12-01

    currently being studied. Typically these studies consider the inherent flexibility of hydropower technologies, but tend to fall short on details regarding grid operations, institutional arrangements, and hydropower environmental regulations. This presentation will focus on an analysis that Argonne National Laboratory is conducting in collaboration with the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The analysis evaluates the extent to which Western's hydropower resources may help with grid integration challenges via a proposed Energy Imbalance Market. This market encompasses most of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council footprint. It changes grid operations such that the real-time dispatch would be, in part, based on a 5-minute electricity market. The analysis includes many factors such as site-specific environmental considerations at each of its hydropower facilities, long-term firm purchase agreements, and hydropower operating objectives and goals. Results of the analysis indicate that site-specific details significantly affect the ability of hydropower plant to respond to grid needs in a future which will have a high penetration of variable resources.

  14. Automatic Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters in Boundary Sites of Mexico City under QA/QC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A.; Ramos, R.; Sánchez, A.; Retama, A.; Fentanes, O.; Muñoz, R.; Mar, B.; Ruiz, L. G.; Torres, R.; Torres, A.; Martínez, J.

    2007-05-01

    MILAGRO, an extensive air quality monitoring campaign, was conducted in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, in order to assess the air pollutants transport and their influence at regional and global scales. In support of this campaign a number of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters measurements were conducted in boundary sites of the MCMA in order to determine the surface conditions in these transition sites. The boundary sites were selected based on results from previous studies, information provided systematically by the Mexico City Ambient Air Monitoring Network (Sistema de Monitoreo Atmosférico, SIMAT), pollutants trends and meteorological and climatic factors that participate in the dispersion and transport under different ventilation scenarios. Seven mobile units and two fixed stations were deployed for the continuous determination of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters. In order to warranty the pollutants concentrations measurements' quality and comparability, calibrations and verifications were implemented at the designated monitoring sites. Data had been analyzed with statistical tools and comparisons were made against nearby SIMAT stations. Several interesting conclusions were achieved.

  15. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  16. Projected impact of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Huijuan, Cui

    2016-08-22

    In China, hydroelectric power is abundant, and half of hydropower potential is currently unexploited. Hydropower has been an important electrical energy during the past decades, and is still growing rapidly in China. However, hydropower is highly dependent on streamflow and is sensitive to climate change. It is of great interest to examine the impact of climate change on hydropower potential against the background within the context of the undergoing fast development of hydropower in China. Future changes in gross hydropower potential (GHP) of China are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Developed hydropower potential (DHP), based on existing reservoirs and installed hydropower capacity (IHC) in 2004, is also estimated by incorporating a hydropower module. Results show that GHP will generally decrease in southern China and increase in northern China; annual GHP would change by -1.7% to 2% in the near future (2020-2050), and increase by 3-6% of present GHP at the late 21st century (2070-2099). Annual DHP will decrease by about 2.2-5.4% (0.7-1.7% of total IHC) and 1.3%-4% (0.4-1.3% of total IHC) in 2020-2050 and 2070-2099, respectively, which are mostly contributed by the large DHP decrease in South Central China (SCC) and Eastern China (EC), where most reservoirs and large IHC are currently located. The hotspot region of hydropower in Southwest China, where many hydropower stations are under planning or construction, show increases of near 2-6% and 4-11% in annual GHP for the 2020-2050 and 2070-2099, respectively. In another hotspot region, Sichuan and Hubei provinces, DHP will decrease by 2.6-5.7% (0.46-0.97% of total IHC) and 0.8-5% (0.13-0.91% of total IHC) in the 2020-2050 and 2070-2099, respectively. This is mainly due to the significant reduction in discharge; meanwhile, increasing floods

  17. Multi-technique comparison of atmospheric parameters at the DORIS co-location sites during CONT14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Willis, Pascal; Deng, Zhiguo; Dick, Galina; Nilsson, Tobias; Soja, Benedikt; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric parameters, zenith delays and gradients, obtained by the DORIS, GPS, VLBI, and numerical weather models, ECMWF and NCEP, are compared at five DORIS co-located sites during the 15 days of the CONT14 campaign from 2014-05-06 until 2014-05-20. Further examined are two different solutions of GPS, VLBI and NCEP: for GPS, a network solution comparable to the TIGA reprocessing analysis strategy and a precise point positioning solution, for VLBI, a least squares and a Kalman filtered and smoothed solution, and for NCEP two spatial resolutions, 0.5° and 1.0°, are tested. The different positions of the antenna reference points at co-location sites affect the atmospheric parameters and have to be considered prior to the comparison. We assess and discuss these differences, tropospheric ties, by comparing ray-traced atmospheric parameters obtained at the positions of the various antenna reference points. While ray-traced ZHD and ZWD at the co-located antennas significantly differ, the ray-traced gradients show only very small differences. Weather events can introduce larger disagreement between atmospheric parameters obtained at co-location sites. The various weather model solutions in general agree very well in providing tropospheric ties. The atmospheric parameters are compared using statistical methods, such as the mean difference and standard deviations with repect to a weighted mean value. While GPS and VLBI atmospheric parameters agree very well in general, the DORIS observations are in several cases not dense enough to achieve a comparable level of agreement. The estimated zenith delays from DORIS, however, are competitive with the other space geodetic techniques. If the DORIS observation geometry is insufficient for the estimation of an atmospheric gradient, less than three satellites observed during the definition interval, the DORIS atmospheric parameters degrade and show small quasi-periodic variations that correlate with the number of observations

  18. Forecasts of the atmospherical parameters close to the ground at the LBT site in the context of the ALTA project

    CERN Document Server

    Turchi, Alessio; Fini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the abilities of an atmospherical mesoscale model in forecasting the classical atmospherical parameters relevant for astronomical applications at the surface layer (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site - Mount Graham, Arizona. The study is carried out in the framework of the ALTA project aiming at implementing an automated system for the forecasts of atmospherical parameters (Meso-Nh code) and the optical turbulence (Astro-Meso-Nh code) for the service-mode operation of the LBT. The final goal of such an operational tool is to provide predictions with high time frequency of atmospheric and optical parameters for an optimized planning of the telescope operation (dome thermalization, wind-dependent dome orientation, observation planning based on predicted seeing, adaptive optics optimization, etc...). Numerical simulations are carried out with the Meso-Nh and Astro-Meso-Nh codes, which were proven to give excellent results...

  19. Path Transmissibility Analysis Considering Two Types of Correlations in Hydropower Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vibration model is built by introducing the head-cover vibration transfer path based on a previous analysis of the vertical vibration model for hydropower station units and powerhouses. This research focuses on disturbance- and parameter-related transfer paths in a practical situation. In a complex situation, the application of the stochastic perturbation method is expanded using an algebra synthesis method the Hadamard product, and theoretical analyses, and numerical simulations of transfer paths in the new vibration model are carried out through the expanded perturbation method. The path transfer force, the path transmissibility, and the path disturbance ranges in the frequency domain are provided. The results indicate that the methods proposed in this study can efficiently reduce the disturbance range and can accurately analyze the transfer paths of hydraulic-source vertical vibration in hydropower stations.

  20. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution estimates of hydropower potential have been local, and have yet to be applied on a global scale. This study is the first to formally present a detailed evaluation of the hydropower potential of each location, based on slope and discharge of each river in the world. The gross theoretical hydropower potential is approximately 52 PWh/year divided over 11.8 million locations. This 52 PWh/year is equal to 33% of the annually required energy, while the present energy production by hydropower plants is just 3% of the annually required energy. The results of this study: all potentially interesting locations for hydroelectric power plants, are available online. PMID:28178329

  1. Report of the hydropower and climate change workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, B. (ed.)

    2006-07-01

    This workshop was held in response to a survey conducted to determine the hydropower industry's interest in adapting to climate change. The impacts of climate change and unusual weather events on the hydropower industry were reviewed. The workshop examined current levels of awareness about the potential impacts of climate change as well as hydropower sector vulnerability to climate change and its impact on the operation and planning of hydropower systems. Past and future changes in hydrologic regimes were examined, and regional climate model results were analyzed. Representatives shared experiences related to unusual weather events. A total of 20 papers were presented at the workshop. Presentations were followed by breakout sessions held to discuss vulnerabilities within the hydropower sector. 4 tabs.

  2. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  3. Project SHARE Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoliti Mochet, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    SHARE - Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems is a running project early approved and co funded by the European regional development fund in the context of the European Territorial Cooperation Alpine Space programme 2007 - 2013: the project is formally ongoing from August 2009 and it will end July 2012. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for electricity production in alpine areas: it has advantages for the global CO2 balance but creates serious environmental impacts. RES-e Directives require renewable electricity enhance but, at the same time, the Water Framework Directive obliges member States to reach or maintain a water bodies "good" ecological status, intrinsically limiting the hydropower exploitation. Administrators daily face an increasing demand of water abstraction but lack reliable tools to rigorously evaluate their effects on mountain rivers and the social and economical outputs on longer time scale. The project intends to develop, test and promote a decision support system to merge on an unprejudiced base, river ecosystems and hydropower requirements. This approach will be led using existing scientific tools, adjustable to transnational, national and local normative and carried on by permanent panel of administrators and stakeholders. Scientific knowledge related to HP & river management will be "translated" by the communication tools and spent as a concrete added value to build a decision support system. In particular, the Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) will be applied to assess different management alternatives where a single-criterion approach (such as cost-benefit analysis) falls short, especially where environmental, technical, economic and social criteria can't be quantified by monetary values. All the existing monitoring databases will be used and harmonized with new information collected during the Pilot case studies. At the same time, all information collected will be available to end users and actors of related

  4. Development of New Micro Hydropower Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Dousith, Phommachanh; Kurokawa, Junichi; Matsui, Jun; Choi, Young-Do

    2005-01-01

    There is a huge of available hydropower potential in the water supply system (WSS) that has been abandoned.Each time when we use a water faucet, the power of 10 to 80 watts is dissipated.In fact, this dissipated energy can be converted to useful energy by hydraulic turbine. Presently, there is not suitable turbine to use in WSS. Therefore, the new type turbine is needed to explore. In this study, Positive Displacement Turbine (PDT) is proposed. The main objective of this study is to develop n...

  5. Achievements and Prospects of China's Hydropower Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dabing

    2010-01-01

    @@ Outstanding achievements The scale of hydropower development con-tinuously expanding to a new level As a type of clean and renewable energy resource,water power takes an extremely important position in the energy layout of the world.The theoretic reservation of China's hydro energy is ranked the first in the world.But from the foundation of P.R.C.to the year of 1978(the year when the reform and opening-up took place),the hydro energy exploitation in the whole country was less than 10% of the reservation.

  6. Parameter estimation method and updating of regional prediction equations for ungaged sites in the desert region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently updating at-site flood frequency estimates for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the desert region of California. The at-site flood-frequency analysis is complicated by short record lengths (less than 20 years is common) and numerous zero flows/low outliers at many sites. Estimates of the three parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skew) required for fitting the log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distribution are likely to be highly unreliable based on the limited and heavily censored at-site data. In a generalization of the recommendations in Bulletin 17B, a regional analysis was used to develop regional estimates of all three parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skew) of the LP3 distribution. A regional skew value of zero from a previously published report was used with a new estimated mean squared error (MSE) of 0.20. A weighted least squares (WLS) regression method was used to develop both a regional standard deviation and a mean model based on annual peak-discharge data for 33 USGS stations throughout California’s desert region. At-site standard deviation and mean values were determined by using an expected moments algorithm (EMA) method for fitting the LP3 distribution to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge data. Additionally, a multiple Grubbs-Beck (MGB) test, a generalization of the test recommended in Bulletin 17B, was used for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in a flood series. The WLS regression found that no basin characteristics could explain the variability of standard deviation. Consequently, a constant regional standard deviation model was selected, resulting in a log-space value of 0.91 with a MSE of 0.03 log units. Yet drainage area was found to be statistically significant at explaining the site-to-site variability in mean. The linear WLS regional mean model based on drainage area had a Pseudo- 2 R of 51 percent and a MSE of 0.32 log units. The regional parameter

  7. 75 FR 65012 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...-Impact Hydropower Webinar October 13, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on November 10, 2010, from 12 noon to 1 p.m. Eastern Time. The webinar will be open to the public and advance registration is required. The purpose of this webinar is...

  8. 76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) will host a Small/ Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar on June 22, 2011, from 12 noon to 1 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The webinar will be open to the public and advance registration is required. The purpose of this webinar is to...

  9. 76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on January 25, 2012, from 12:00 noon to 1:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The webinar will be open to the public and advance registration is required. The purpose of this webinar is to...

  10. Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, M.F.; Bryan, J.B.; Thomsen, J.M.; Snell, C.M.

    1976-03-15

    The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus.

  11. Research on Dynamic Parameters of Soil Site in the Tianjin Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yanju; Lv Yuejun; Qian Haitao

    2011-01-01

    The Tianjin coastal area is a typical soft soil region, where the soil is a marine deposit of the late Quaternary. The soil dynamic parameters from seismic risk assessment reports are collected, and drilling of 15 holes was carried out to sample the soils and measure their dynamic characteristics. The data was divided into 7 types based on lithology, namely, muddy clay, muddy silty clay, silt, silty clay, clay, silty sand and fine sand. Statistics of the dynamic parameters of these soils are collected to obtain the mean values of dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio at different depths. Then, two typical drill holes are selected to establish the soil dynamic models to investigate the seismic response in different cases. The dynamic seismic responses of soil are calculated using the statistical values of this paper, and the values of Code (1994) and those recommended by Yuan Xiaoming et al. (2000), respectively. The applicability and pertinence of the statistical value obtained in this paper are demonstrated by the response spectrum shape, peak ground acceleration and response spectral characteristics. The results can be taken as a reference of the soil dynamic value in this area and can be used in the seismic risk assessment of engineering projects.

  12. Downscaling site rainfall from daily to 11.25-minute resolution: event, diurnal, seasonal and decadal controls on downscaling parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Neil; Shi, Shirley; Onof, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Downscaling site rainfall from daily to sub-daily resolution is often approached using the multiplicative discrete random cascade (MDRC) class of models, with mixed success. Questions in any application - for MDRCs or indeed other classes of downscaling model - is to what extent and in what way are model parameters functions of rainfall event type and/or large scale climate controls for example those linked to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These questions underlie the applicability of downscaling models for analysing rainfall and hydrological extremes, in particular for synthesising long-term historical or future sub-daily extremes conditional on historic or projected daily data. Coastal Queensland, Australia, is subject to combinations of multiple weather systems, including tropical cyclones, blocking systems, convective storms, frontal systems and ENSO influences. Using 100 years of fine resolution data from two gauges in central Brisbane, microcanonical MDRC models are fitted to data from 1 day to 11.25 minutes in seven cascade levels, each level dividing the time interval and its rainfall volume into two sub-intervals. Each cascade level involves estimating: the probabilities that all the rainfall observed in a time interval is concentrated in only the first of the two sub-intervals and that all the rainfall observed in a time interval is concentrated in only the second of the two sub-intervals; and also two beta distribution parameters that define the probability of a given division of the rainfall into both sub-intervals. These parameters are found to vary systematically with time of day, rainfall volume, event temporal structure, month of year, and ENSO anomaly. Reasonable downscaling performance is achieved (in terms of replicating extreme values of 11.25 minute rainfall given the observed daily data) by including the parameter dependence on the rainfall volume and event structure, although particular applications may justify development of more

  13. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  14. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  15. Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruland, O.

    2012-12-01

    Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these

  16. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

  17. Present Situation and Future Trends of River-Basin Cascade Hydropower Dispatch in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Hydropower resources in river basins are typically developed in a cascade manner. The cascade hydropower stations use water from the same river; in a sense, they form a cluster of hydropower stations which are linked together by the river stream. The dispatch and management of the cascade hydropower stations in a river basin differ from those of an ordinary single hydropower station. Without doubt, unified dispatch can facilitate the full harnessing of hydraulic resources and is in a better position to fulf...

  18. Forecasts of the atmospherical parameters close to the ground at the LBT site in the context of the ALTA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Alessio; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study the abilities of an atmospherical mesoscale model in forecasting the classical atmospherical parameters relevant for astronomical applications at the surface layer (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site - Mount Graham, Arizona. The study is carried out in the framework of the ALTA project aiming at implementing an automated system for the forecasts of atmospherical parameters (Meso-Nh code) and the optical turbulence (Astro-Meso-Nh code) for the service-mode operation of the LBT. The final goal of such an operational tool is to provide predictions with high time frequency of atmospheric and optical parameters for an optimized planning of the telescope operation (dome thermalization, wind-dependent dome orientation, observation planning based on predicted seeing, adaptive optics optimization, etc...). Numerical simulations are carried out with the Meso-Nh and Astro-Meso-Nh codes, which were proven to give excellent results in previous studies focused on the two ESO sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones (MOSE Project). In this paper we will focus our attention on the comparison of atmospherical parameters forescasted by the model close to the ground with measurements taken by the observatory instrumentations and stored in the LBT telemetry in order to validate the numerical predictions. As previously done for Cerro Paranal (Lascaux et al., 2015), we will also present an analysis of the model performances based on the method of the contingency tables, that allows us to provide complementary key information with the respect to the bias and RMSE (systematic and statistical errors), such as the percentage of correct detection and the probability to obtain a correct detection inside a defined interval of values.

  19. Accurate structure and dynamics of the metal-site of paramagnetic metalloproteins from NMR parameters using natural bond orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D Flemming; Westler, William M; Kunze, Micha B A; Markley, John L; Weinhold, Frank; Led, Jens J

    2012-03-14

    A natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of unpaired electron spin density in metalloproteins is presented, which allows a fast and robust calculation of paramagnetic NMR parameters. Approximately 90% of the unpaired electron spin density occupies metal-ligand NBOs, allowing the majority of the density to be modeled by only a few NBOs that reflect the chemical bonding environment. We show that the paramagnetic relaxation rate of protons can be calculated accurately using only the metal-ligand NBOs and that these rates are in good agreement with corresponding rates measured experimentally. This holds, in particular, for protons of ligand residues where the point-dipole approximation breaks down. To describe the paramagnetic relaxation of heavy nuclei, also the electron spin density in the local orbitals must be taken into account. Geometric distance restraints for (15)N can be derived from the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and the Fermi contact shift when local NBOs are included in the analysis. Thus, the NBO approach allows us to include experimental paramagnetic NMR parameters of (15)N nuclei as restraints in a structure optimization protocol. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and structure determination of oxidized rubredoxin using the experimentally obtained paramagnetic NMR parameters of (15)N. The corresponding structures obtained are in good agreement with the crystal structure of rubredoxin. Thus, the NBO approach allows an accurate description of the geometric structure and the dynamics of metalloproteins, when NMR parameters are available of nuclei in the immediate vicinity of the metal-site.

  20. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.

    2016-10-11

    We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014) to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1), averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE) and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1)–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045) and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June). The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (±58.4 SE) and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m–3 h–1 (±0.13 SE) with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m–3 h–1) and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m–3 h–1), while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE) and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August). 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  1. Sensitivity of ground motion parameters to local site effects for areas characterised by a thick buried low-velocity layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Daniela; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Paolucci, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that earthquake damage at a particular site depends on the source, the path that the waves travel through and the local geology. The latter is capable of amplifying and changing the frequency content of the incoming seismic waves. In regions of sparse or no strong ground motion records, like Malta (Central Mediterranean), ground motion simulations are used to obtain parameters for purposes of seismic design and analysis. As an input to ground motion simulations, amplification functions related to the shallow subsurface are required. Shear-wave velocity profiles of several sites on the Maltese islands were obtained using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (H/V), the Extended Spatial Auto-Correlation (ESAC) technique and the Genetic Algorithm. The sites chosen were all characterised by a layer of Blue Clay, which can be up to 75 m thick, underlying the Upper Coralline Limestone, a fossiliferous coarse grained limestone. This situation gives rise to a velocity inversion. Available borehole data generally extends down till the top of the Blue Clay layer therefore the only way to check the validity of the modelled shear-wave velocity profile is through the thickness of the topmost layer. Surface wave methods are characterised by uncertainties related to the measurements and the model used for interpretation. Moreover the inversion procedure is also highly non-unique. Such uncertainties are not commonly included in site response analysis. Yet, the propagation of uncertainties from the extracted dispersion curves to inversion solutions can lead to significant differences in the simulations (Boaga et al., 2011). In this study, a series of sensitivity analyses will be presented with the aim of better identifying those stratigraphic properties which can perturb the ground motion simulation results. The stochastic one-dimensional site response analysis algorithm, Extended Source Simulation (EXSIM; Motazedian and Atkinson, 2005), was used to perform

  2. Loss of European silver eel passing a hydropower station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels; Aarestrup, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess escapement success of silver eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in a lowland river while passing a reservoir and a hydropower station. It was hypothesized that passage success would be lowest at the hydropower station and that survival and migration speed would...... that within the study period, only 23% of the tagged eels reached the tidal limit, mainly due to difficulties in passing the hydropower dam. With such high loss-rates, the escapement goals set in the management plan cannot be achieved...

  3. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  4. Forsmark Site: M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the hydrochemical parameters in Forsmark groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurban, Ioana (3D Terra (Canada))

    2008-08-15

    This work represents the stage 2.3 of the hydrochemical evaluation and modelling of the Forsmark data. This comprises M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the data along the boreholes. The following conclusions can be drawn: - M3 modelling helped to summarise and understand the data, by using as variables the major elements and the isotopes delta18O and deltaD. - Previous alternative models and the experience from Forsmark 1.2, 2.1 and 2.2, helped to clarify different previously unsolved issues such as: the use of variables, tests with different endmembers, the use of only groundwater data in order to build a bedrock hydrochemical model. - The visualisation of the mixing proportions along the boreholes helps to understand the distribution of the data in the domain and to check and compare the results of different models; and therefore to chose the model which best describes the measured data. - The different M3 modelling tests resulted in the following conclusions: a) When calculating mixing proportions only samples from the boreholes will be used, b) the altered meteoric end-member which best describes the more shallow groundwater compositions is defined by a representative upper bedrock sample; the Littorina end-member employed the existing modelled compositions; the Deep saline and glacial end-members compositions were tested by means of a feasibility study and employed in the modelling. - Three models were presented. All the models are good and can be used, but the best is to use the one that fits the conceptual model best and the hydrogeochemical understanding. - The use of Littorina, Glacial, Deep Saline and Altered Meteoric end-members makes possible the comparison of different sites such as Laxemar and Forsmark. - All the data used in the M3 modelling and the results of the modelling and visualisation along the boreholes are presented in SKB database SIMON. - The extended data do not affect the results of the modelling of the Forsmark 2.3 dataset (the

  5. Nepal as a Business Hub for Hydropower Industry : Introduction to Hydropower Industry of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shahi, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Nepal at present is suffering from the energy crisis due to the lack of enough production of electricity in the country. The main purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the present situation of electricity crisis in Nepal and provide the information to the foreign investors about the investment opportunities in hydropower sector in Nepal. The theoretical section gives the details about Nepal and electricity production scenario in Nepal. It also gives the detail about the demand and supply of e...

  6. S-wave velocity structure and site effect parameters derived from microtremor arrays in the Western Plain of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Te; Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Huang, Jyun-Yan; Chang, Shun-Chiang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, microtremor array measurements were conducted at 45 sites in the Western Plain of Taiwan. The arrays were approximately 30 m or 60 m in radius, depending on the site. The maximum-likelihood frequency-wavenumber method was adopted to obtain the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves, and then a genetic algorithm technique based on an inversion scheme of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves' dispersion curves was applied to calculate a preliminary S-wave velocity (Vs) profile at each site. Because a layer of thick sediment covers the bedrock in the Western Plain of Taiwan, microtremor arrays in this size range cannot estimate the structure of the entire sediment. Therefore, this study implemented further inversion of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of the microtremors to estimate the deeper structures up to the bedrock of Vs greater than 1000 m/s. Previously logged velocity profiles for different depths at or near our study sites were collected and compared with the Vs profiles derived from our microtremor array measurements; the results were found to be highly comparable. Therefore, we could delineate the depth distributions for the layer depths for Vs = 600 m/s and 1000 m/s in this region. The depth for Vs = 600 m/s is approximately 50 m in the piedmont area and approximately 300 m at the coastline; moreover, the depths for Vs = 1000 m/s increase from 200 m in the piedmont area to approximately 1000 m at the coastline. The depths for Vs = 1.0 km/s (Z1.0), which is an important parameter that accounts for the basin effect in recent ground motion prediction equations, are consequently available at the study sites. The distribution of Z1.0 as a function of Vs30 indicates higher similarity to that in Japan than in the San Francisco Bay area.

  7. Rethinking Pumped Storage Hydropower in the European Alps: A Call for New Integrated Assessment Tools to Support the Energy Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Björnsen Gurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps are well positioned to contribute significantly to the energy transition. In addition to sites with above-average potential for wind and solar power, the “water towers” of Europe provide flexible, low-carbon power generation as well as energy storage. In the future, hydropower systems are expected to become more than mere electricity generators, serving a key role as flexible complements to intermittent power generators and as providers of large-scale seasonal and daily energy storage. Energy transition on national and European scales can be facilitated by expanding the capacity of pumped storage hydropower (PSHP plants. Yet the extension of hydropower production, in particular PSHP, remains controversial, primarily due to environmental concerns. Focusing on 2 Alpine countries, Austria and Switzerland, this paper provides a system view of hydropower production and energy storage in the Alps. It discusses advantages and drawbacks of various assessment tools and identifies gaps and needs for the integrated assessment of PSHP plants. It concludes that instruments that evaluate the impacts and sustainability of PSHP projects need to be developed, elaborated, and applied in a participatory manner, in order to promote public dialogue, increase social acceptance, and, ideally, encourage energy consumers to become advocates of a sustainable energy future.

  8. Bridging the Information Gap: Remote Sensing and Micro Hydropower Feasibility in Data-Scarce Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marc Francois

    nature of rainfall, and proposes a novel geostatistical method to regionalize its parameters across the stream network. Although motivated by the needs of micro hydropower design in Nepal, these techniques represent contributions to the broader international challenge of PUB and can be applied worldwide. The economic drivers of rural electrification are then considered by presenting an econometric technique to estimate the cost function and demand curve of micro hydropower in Nepal. The empirical strategy uses topography-based instrumental variables to identify price elasticities. All developed methods are assembled in a computer tool, along with a search algorithm that uses a digital elevation model to optimize the placement of micro hydropower infrastructure. The tool---Micro Hydro [em]Power---is an open source application that can be accessed and operated on a web-browser (http://mfmul.shinyapps.io/mhpower). Its purpose is to assist local communities in the design and evaluation of micro hydropower alternatives in their locality, while using cost and demand information provided by local users to generate accurate feasibility maps at the national level, thus bridging the information gap.

  9. Hydropower Computation Using Visual Basic for Application Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wang; Hongliang, Hu

    Hydropower computation is essential to determine the operating conditions of hydroelectric station. Among the existing methods for hydropower computation, equal monthly hydropower output and dynamic programming are the most commonly used methods, but both of them are too complex in computation and hard to be finished manually. Taking the advantage of the data processing ability of Microsoft Excel and its attached Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program, the complex hydropower computation can be easily achieved. An instance was analyzed in two methods and all delt with VBA. VBA demonstrates its powerful function in solving problem with complex computation, visualizing, and secondary data processing. The results show that the dynamic programming method was more receptive than the other one.

  10. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

  11. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000). Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the following sections for all components of the Program. Program focus for FY 2000 was on (1) advanced turbine development, (2) basic and applied R&D, (3) environmental mitigation, (4) low head/low power hydropower technology, and (5) technology transfer.

  12. Hydropower's Contribution to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinbilek, D.; Abdel-Malek, R.; Devernay, J.M.; Gill, R.; Leney, S.; Moss, Terry; Schiffer, H.P.; Taylor, R.M.

    2007-07-01

    The role of hydropower within mixed power systems is analysed from the point of view of both quantitative and qualitative performance. Interrelationships with all other generation technologies are discussed and synergies identified. Resources, sustainability criteria and investment challenges are reviewed in the context of development. The objective of the paper is to define hydropower's contribution within the clean, clever and competitive markets of the future.

  13. Relationship among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index of Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif-Khouri, E.; Camara Obregon, M. A.; Oliveira-Prendes, J. A.; Gorgoso-Varela, J. J.; Canga-Libano, E.

    2010-07-01

    The relationships among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index were examined in Pinus radiata D. Don stands in a climatically homogeneous area of NW Spain. Thirty-eight even-aged stands, ranging from 10 to 54 years, were sampled. In each stand, a representative plot of 0.1 ha was selected and different stand variables and parent material were considered. The soils in the study area are strongly acidic, with high proportions of organic matter, high C/N ratios, and low exchangeable base cation and available P concentration extracted by Mehlich 3 method (PM3). Although foliar N was sufficient in every stand studied, widespread deficiencies of K, P and, to a lesser extent, Mg and Ca were diagnosed. The foliar concentrations of P were positively correlated with PM3 and effective cation exchange capacity. The SI values ranged between 9.5 and 28.8 m and were positively correlated with foliar P and extractable K in soil. In the stands developed on quartzite and sandstone lithologies, the SI was negatively correlated with slope and foliar N respectively. The results suggest the importance of site selection and fertilizer treatment in reforestation programmes. (Author) 63 refs.

  14. Assessing Optimal Flight Parameters for Generating Accurate Multispectral Orthomosaicks by UAV to Support Site-Specific Crop Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-Javier Mesas-Carrascosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to acquire remote images using a six-band multispectral sensor. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: three flight altitudes (60, 80 and 100 m, two flight modes (stop and cruising modes and two ground control point (GCP settings were considered to analyze the influence of these parameters on the spatial resolution and spectral discrimination of multispectral orthomosaicked images obtained using Pix4Dmapper. Moreover, it is also necessary to consider the area to be covered or the flight duration according to any flight mission programmed. The effect of the combination of all these parameters on the spatial resolution and spectral discrimination of the orthomosaicks is presented. Spectral discrimination has been evaluated for a specific agronomical purpose: to use the UAV remote images for the detection of bare soil and vegetation (crop and weeds for in-season site-specific weed management. These results show that a balance between spatial resolution and spectral discrimination is needed to optimize the mission planning and image processing to achieve   every agronomic objective. In this way, users do not have to sacrifice flying at low altitudes to cover the whole area of interest completely.

  15. Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

  16. Utilizing geological and geotechnical parameters to constrain optimal siting of Mid-Atlantic Bight offshore wind projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Alia

    As the offshore wind energy sector expands due to government mandates, a thorough understanding of the geologic setting of potential project sites becomes an essential component in the design process. Geophysical and geotechnical parameters yield vital information on the sediments and/or rocks that are present. The variable distribution of sediments, with concomitant variations in geotechnical properties, has significant implications for the selection (e.g., monopile, suction caisson, gravity base, jacket), design, location, installation, and subsequent scouring in the vicinity of wind turbine foundations. Identifying suitable sites based on sediment types allow for optimized engineering design solutions. Because foundations represent approximately 25% of total offshore wind project expenditures, reducing foundation costs with geologic suitability in mind could significantly decrease required initial investments, thereby expediting project and industry advancement. To illustrate how geological and geotechnical data can be used to inform site selection for foundations, geophysical data were analyzed and interpreted (chirp sub-bottom profiling, side-scan sonar, and multibeam bathymetry) from the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA). Side-scan sonar data from the WEA show three distinct acoustic intensities; each is correlated to a general bottom sediment grain size classification (muds, muddy and/or shelly sand, and sand with some gravel). Chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal the continuity and thicknesses of various depositional layers including paleochannel systems. Paleochannels consist of heterogeneous infill; creating undesirable conditions for foundation placement. This "desktop" study provides a suitability model for how the interpretation of geophysical and geotechnical data can be used to provide constraints on, and reduce uncertainties associated with, foundation location and type selection. Results from this study revealed 5 distinct subsurface units. The oldest

  17. The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Colbeck, I. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as `clean continental` during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  18. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  19. Hidroenergia 2010: International congress on small hydropower. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This conference, held in 2010 in Lausanne, Switzerland, gathered together the main stakeholders of the small hydropower community to debate about topics affecting the development of the sector, to exchange experience and to present new advances in the technological area. The two-day conference was held in a total of nine sessions, a poster session and a workshop. The first session was dedicated to water management in the Alps and covered new regulations, administrative procedures and finance issues. Contributions included a review of the present situation and the development of common guidelines to meet the challenge of conflicting technical and environmental objectives, the facilitation of small hydropower in Switzerland and the institutional frameworks involved, recent trends in small hydro project financing and the growing roles of venture capital, private equity and changing market dynamics. Finally the prospects for small hydropower in Serbia were discussed. In two parallel sessions the following topics were looked at: The promotion of small hydropower in Switzerland using various sources of water and remuneration for the power produced, small hydro in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, the use of karst groundwater for the underground production of power were looked at as well as the analysis of hydraulic facilities for combining pumped storage hydropower systems and wind power in Austria. The final presentation took a look at the new 'La Tzintre' hydropower project. The parallel session dealt with technical innovations and engineering solutions with presentations on the development of small diagonal turbines, the adaptation of propeller turbines to higher specific needs and the problems encountered in doing so. The use of centrifugal pumps as turbines, including a review of technology and applications were also dealt with. Two further parallel sessions looked at EU-funded projects and sustainability issues. The Sustainable Energy Europe project was

  20. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The paper gives a historical technical review of the development and installation of approximately 20 000 MW of hydraulic turbines in Norway after World War II. The non polluting production of electricity was consumed for lightening and heating for civil consume and the growing electric furnace industry in Norway in addition to export in rainy years. The paper is mainly based on the authors experience in the design of large turbines, and control systems for operation of Francis Turbines and Reversible Pump Turbines for high and medium heads and Pelton turbines for high heads. During the last 15 years the development of small hydro power plants has also given an increasing contribution to the power production. A brief discussion will be given on the choice of equipment for small hydro production with a very small winter production and overload during the summer. The possibility of operation of a small hydropower plants connected to an isolated grid will also briefly be presented. In addition to the general design of turbines and control systems for large hydro plants, a detailed description will be given of the stability analysis for the governing system which was developed for the large high head plants with long high pressure tunnels systems. A discussion will be included on the introduction of the air cushioned surge chambers for fast stable operation of power plants with long tunnels, connected to isolated grids. Also the principle of stabilizing unstable turbine governing system by means of pressure feed back systems, will be presented and discussed. A description of such system developed in 1992, will be given proving that stability could be obtained in a system with long conduits connected to the turbines. However, the 'governing speed' needed for isolated operation could not be fulfilled without a fast by pass pressure relieve system for Francis turbines, which was not installed in the case for the analysis. Finally a discussion will be

  1. Citizen Hydrology and Compressed-Air Hydropower for Rural Electrification in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    At the present time, only one in eight residents of Haiti has access to electricity. Two recent engineering and statistical innovations have the potential for vastly reducing the cost of installation of hydropower in Haiti and the rest of the developing world. The engineering innovation is that wind, solar and fluvial energy have been used to compress air for generation of electricity for only 20 per megawatt-hour, in contrast to the conventional World Bank practice of funding photovoltaic cells for 156 per megawatt-hour. The installation of hydropower requires a record of stream discharge, which is conventionally obtained by installing a gaging station that automatically monitors gage height (height of the water surface above a fixed datum). An empirical rating curve is then used to convert gage height to stream discharge. The multiple field measurements of gage height and discharge over a wide range of discharge values that are required to develop and maintain a rating curve require a manpower of hydrologic technicians that is prohibitive in remote and impoverished areas of the world. The statistical innovation is that machine learning has been applied to the USGS database of nearly four million simultaneous measurements of gage height and discharge to develop a new classification of rivers so that a rating curve can be developed solely from the stream slope, channel geometry, horizontal and vertical distances to the nearest upstream and downstream confluences, and two pairs of discharge - gage height measurements. The objective of this study is to organize local residents to monitor gage height at ten stream sites in the northern peninsula of Haiti over a one-year period in preparation for installation of hydropower at one of the sites. The necessary baseline discharge measurements and channel surveying are being carried out for conversion of gage height to discharge. Results will be reported at the meeting.

  2. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  3. Spatial and temporal characteristics of optimum process noise values of tropospheric parameters for kinematic analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sites in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yu'ichiro; Ohta, Yusaku

    2016-12-01

    Kinematic analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is useful for the extraction of crustal deformation phenomena occurring over short timescales ranging from seconds to 1 day, such as coseismic and postseismic deformation following large earthquakes. However, a fundamental challenge in kinematic GNSS analysis is to separate unknown parameters, such as site coordinate and tropospheric parameters, due to the strong correlation between them. In this study, we assessed the spatial and temporal characteristics of process noise for unknown tropospheric parameters such as zenith wet tropospheric delay and tropospheric gradient by means of kinematic precise point positioning analysis using Kalman filtering across the Japanese nationwide continuous GNSS network. We estimated kinematic site coordinate time series under different process noise combinations of zenith wet tropospheric delay and tropospheric gradient. The spatial distribution of the optimum process noise value for the zenith wet tropospheric parameter with vertical site coordinate time series clearly showed regional characteristics. In comparison with the wet tropospheric parameter, the spatial characteristics of the tropospheric gradient parameter are less well defined within the scale of the GNSS network. The temporal characteristics of the optimum process noise parameters for each site coordinate component at specific sites indicated a clear annual pattern in the tropospheric gradient parameter for the horizontal components. Finally, we assessed the effects on the kinematic GNSS site coordinate time series of optimizing tropospheric parameter process noise. Compared with recommended process noise values from previous studies, the use of estimated "common" optimum process noise values improved the standard deviation of coordinate time series for the majority of stations. These results clearly indicate that the use of appropriate process noise values is important for kinematic GNSS analysis

  4. Improving real-time inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

    2015-08-01

    Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. A complementary modelling framework presents an approach for improving real-time forecasting without needing to modify the pre-existing forecasting model, but instead formulating an independent additive or complementary model that captures the structure the existing operational model may be missing. We present here the application of this principle for issuing improved hourly inflow forecasts into hydropower reservoirs over extended lead times, and the parameter estimation procedure reformulated to deal with bias, persistence and heteroscedasticity. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an unalterable constant parameter conceptual model. This procedure is applied in the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead times up to 17 h. Evaluation of the percentage of observations bracketed in the forecasted 95 % confidence interval indicated that the degree of success in containing 95 % of the observations varies across seasons and hydrologic years.

  5. DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  6. Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

    2012-01-01

    By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

  7. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  8. 西藏地区水轮机选型设计的几个主要问题探讨%Selection of Hydraulic Turbine for Hydropower Stations in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修树

    2011-01-01

    介绍了在现有基础条件下西藏地区水电机组选型设计中需重视的几个问题,主要包括机组单机容量选择、机型确定、机组参数、现场加工等方面,并提出了相应的选型思路.%The selection of hydraulic turbine for the hydropower stations in Tibet need to be given close attention as the special conditions.The requirements on unit capacity, type, parameters and on-site processing of turbine are discussed and some ideas in turbine selection are suggested herein.

  9. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

  11. Exemplary Design Envelope Specification for Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Fernandez, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hydropower is an established, affordable renewable energy generation technology supplying nearly 18% of the electricity consumed globally. A hydropower facility interacts continuously with the surrounding water resource environment, causing alterations of varying magnitude in the natural flow of water, energy, fish, sediment, and recreation upstream and downstream. A universal challenge in facility design is balancing the extraction of useful energy and power system services from a stream with the need to maintain ecosystem processes and natural environmental function. On one hand, hydroelectric power is a carbon-free, renewable, and flexible asset to the power system. On the other, the disruption of longitudinal connectivity and the artificial barrier to aquatic movement created by hydraulic structures can produce negative impacts that stress fresh water environments. The growing need for carbon-free, reliable, efficient distributed energy sources suggests there is significant potential for hydropower projects that can deploy with low installed costs, enhanced ecosystem service offerings, and minimal disruptions of the stream environment.

  12. Projected impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Cui, Huijuan

    2016-08-01

    Hydropower is an important renewable energy source in China, but it is sensitive to climate change, because the changing climate may alter hydrological conditions (e.g., river flow and reservoir storage). Future changes and associated uncertainties in China's gross hydropower potential (GHP) and developed hydropower potential (DHP) are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs), including a large-scale reservoir regulation model, forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Results show that the estimation of the present GHP of China is comparable to other studies; overall, the annual GHP is projected to change by -1.7 to 2 % in the near future (2020-2050) and increase by 3 to 6 % in the late 21st century (2070-2099). The annual DHP is projected to change by -2.2 to -5.4 % (0.7-1.7 % of the total installed hydropower capacity (IHC)) and -1.3 to -4 % (0.4-1.3 % of total IHC) for 2020-2050 and 2070-2099, respectively. Regional variations emerge: GHP will increase in northern China but decrease in southern China - mostly in south central China and eastern China - where numerous reservoirs and large IHCs currently are located. The area with the highest GHP in southwest China will have more GHP, while DHP will reduce in the regions with high IHC (e.g., Sichuan and Hubei) in the future. The largest decrease in DHP (in %) will occur in autumn or winter, when streamflow is relatively low and water use is competitive. Large ranges in hydropower estimates across GHMs and GCMs highlight the necessity of using multimodel assessments under climate change conditions. This study prompts the consideration of climate change in planning for hydropower development and operations in China, to be further combined with a socioeconomic analysis for strategic expansion.

  13. Fish passage assessment of an advanced hydropower turbine and conventional turbine using blade-strike modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Dauble, D. D.; Ploskey, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected. (authors)

  14. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  15. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Acker, Thomas L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Northern Arizona State Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  16. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  17. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term product......Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short...

  18. Memorandum of Understanding for Hydropower Two-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    On March 24, 2010, the Department of the Army (DOA) through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps), the Department of Energy, and the Department of the Interior signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower. The purpose of the MOU is to “help meet the nation’s needs for reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable hydropower by building a long-term working relationship, prioritizing similar goals, and aligning ongoing and future renewable energy development efforts.” This report documents efforts so far.

  19. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ahlgrimm, James [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Acker, Tomas L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2004 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  20. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington

  1. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

  2. Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadus, C.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

  3. Environmental parameters linked to the last migratory stage of barnacle geese en route to their breeding sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, A.K.; Kölzsch, A.; Exo, K-M.; Nolet, B.A.; Griffin, L.; Stahl, J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The migration timing of birds can be controlled by endogenous parameters. However, little is known about how environmental parameters influence the timing of migration and which have the greatest influence at different stages of migration. In this study we identified the main environmental parameter

  4. Construction Claim Types and Causes for a Large-Scale Hydropower Project in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower construction projects are complex and uncertain, have long gestational periods and involve several parties. Furthermore, they require the integration of different components (Civil, Mechanical and Electrical to work together as a single unit. These projects require highly specialised designs, detailed plans and specifications, high-risk construction methods, effective management, skilful supervision and close coordination. Thus, claims are common in such projects. These claims are undesirable because they require significant time and resources to resolve and cause adversarial relationships among the parties involved. Therefore, it is in the common interest of all involved parties to prevent, minimise, or resolve claims as amicably as possible. Identifying common claim types and their causes is essential in devising techniques to minimise and avoid them in future projects. This report details a case study performed on a large-scale hydropower project in Bhutan. The findings of this case study indicate that differing site conditions are the major contributor of impact and change claims and 95% of total claims can be settled by negotiation, whereas 5% of claims can be settled by arbitration.

  5. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Hydropower has provided reliable and flexible base and peaking power generation in the United States for more than a century, contributing on average 10.5% of cumulative U.S. power sector net generation over the past six and one-half decades (1949–2013). It is the nation’s largest source of renewable electricity, with 79 GW of generating assets and 22 GW of pumped-storage assets in service, with hydropower providing half of all U.S. renewable power-sector generation (50% in 2014). In addition to this capacity, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified greater than 80 GW of new hydropower resource potential: at least 5 GW from rehabilitation and expansion of existing generating assets, up to 12 GW of potential at existing dams without power facilities, and over 60 GW of potential low-impact new development (LIND) in undeveloped stream reaches. However, despite this growth potential, hydropower capacity and production growth have stalled in recent years, with existing assets even experiencing decreases in capacity and production from lack of sustaining investments in infrastructure and increasing constraints on water use.

  6. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Randall Kahn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

  7. Simulation Modeling for Electrical Switching System of Hydropower Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran HU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simulation modeling method for the electrical switching system of hydropower station, which is a sub-topic for Hydropower Station Simulation Training System. The graphics model of commonly used electrical switch equipment is developed with a certain software. As vast and different types of Hydropower station circuit breakers and associated grounding switches, and each specific action of the switch process is not same, so the modular modeling method is described to solve the problem. According to the role and status in power plant, electrical switch system is divided into several sub modules, among which a number of small modules are sorted in. In each sub module, a common model is developed. Besides, the application method that the network topology analysis algorithm used in electrical switching system simulation logic judgment is introduced. With the ‘connecting line fusion’ technique, logic function expression member information table is automatically generated, thereby enhancing the suitability for the electrical switch simulation model. The methods mentioned above assure the real-time, typicality and flexibility in simulation, and have been successfully used in the development of a large hydropower station simulator.

  8. Lehigh River Basin, Hydropower Study. Stage 1. Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    products, poultry products, potatoes, alfalfa, corn, honey, eggs, cut flowers, wheat, and oats. Also thp area is one of the major national mushroom...This will be investigated during Stage 2. 109 i’: lght previously proposed p’imped-storage hydropower projects were :ons derd and round to be

  9. Requirements and benefits of flow forecasting for improving hydropower generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, X.; Dohmen-Janssen, C.M.; Booij, M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to identify the required lead time and accuracy of flow forecasting for improving hydropower generation of a reservoir, by simulating the benefits (in terms of electricity generated) obtained from the forecasting with varying lead times and accuracies. The benefit-l

  10. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  11. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  12. Experimental investigation of creep behavior of clastic rock in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fracture zones crossing the dam foundation of the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project in southwestern China. Clastic rock is the main media of the fracture zone and has poor physical and mechanical properties. In order to investigate the creep behavior of clastic rock, triaxial creep tests were conducted using a rock servo-controlling rheological testing machine. The results show that the creep behavior of clastic rock is significant at a high level of deviatoric stress, and less time-dependent deformation occurs at high confining pressure. Based on the creep test results, the relationship between axial strain and time under different confining pressures was investigated, and the relationship between axial strain rate and deviatoric stress was also discussed. The strain rate increases rapidly, and the rock sample fails eventually under high deviatoric stress. Moreover, the creep failure mechanism under different confining pressures was analyzed. The main failure mechanism of clastic rock is plastic shear, accompanied by a significant compression and ductile dilatancy. On the other hand, with the determined parameters, the Burgers creep model was used to fit the creep curves. The results indicate that the Burgers model can exactly describe the creep behavior of clastic rock in the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project.

  13. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  14. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

  15. The influence of soil organic carbon on interactions between microbial parameters and metal concentrations at a long-term contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlbachova, G. [Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Ruzyne (Czech Republic); Sagova-Mareckova, M., E-mail: sagova@vurv.cz [Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Ruzyne (Czech Republic); Omelka, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Dept. of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Prague 8, Karlin (Czech Republic); Szakova, J.; Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Life Sciences, Department of Agroenvironmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague 6, Suchdol (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and copper deposits on soil microbial parameters were investigated at a site exposed to contamination for over 200 years. Soil samples were collected in triplicates at 121 sites differing in contamination and soil organic carbon (SOC). Microbial biomass, respiration, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic quotient were determined and correlated with total and extractable metal concentrations in soil. The goal was to analyze complex interactions between toxic metals and microbial parameters by assessing the effect of soil organic carbon in the relationships. The effect of SOC was significant in all interactions and changed the correlations between microbial parameters and metal fractions from negative to positive. In some cases, the effect of SOC was combined with that of clay and soil pH. In the final analysis, dehydrogenase activity was negatively correlated to total metal concentrations and acetic acid extractable metals, respiration and metabolic quotient were to ammonium nitrate extractable metals. Dehydrogenase activity was the most sensitive microbial parameter correlating most frequently with contamination. Total and extractable zinc was most often correlated with microbial parameters. The large data set enabled robust explanation of discrepancies in organic matter functioning occurring frequently in analyzing of contaminated soil processes. - Highlights: • Soil organic carbon affected all interactions between metals and microorganisms. • Soil organic carbon adjustment changed correlations from positive to negative. • Ammonium nitrate extractable metals were the most influencing fraction. • Dehydrogenase activity was the most affected soil parameter. • Zinc was the most toxic metal among studied metals.

  16. Impacts of changes in flow in glacier fed river in Nepal on hydropower production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka Mishra, S.

    2014-12-01

    Variability of water flow in rivers due to change in temperature, precipitation and melting of glacier translates to change in water availability for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, and hydropower production impacting 1.5 billion people living downstream in India and Nepal. Previous studies ranked hydropower sector as the highest priority sector considering the urgency and severity of impacts in countries such as Nepal where hydropower shares 96 percentage of electricity production. In India, 45 per cent of hydroelectricity is generated from glacier fed rivers and hydropower shares 17 per cent of power generation. This study developed a framework to estimate the change in river flow attributed to global climate change and quantify its impact on hydropower generation in South Asian Mountains. The framework is applied on one of the major rivers Koshi River in Nepal with existing and proposed hydropower plants. The integrated assessment approach involved estimation of the change in flow in the river in the first part. Model was developed to estimate the change in flow that uses time series data on precipitation, temperature, remote sensing imagery on snow accumulation and ablation, and slope and surface hydrology. In the second part, another model was developed to investigate the impact of change in flow on hydropower production in various types of hydropower production plants. Data on flow, characteristics of hydropower plants and hydropower produced monthly from power plants in and outside of the river basin were used to model the flow and power generation from various categories of power plants. We will further discuss the results of the integrated assessments of potential changes in hydropower generation in various categories of hydropower plants based on Koshi River under various expected changes in flow and the implications for hydropower generation from other river systems in Nepal and India.

  17. Examination of methane ebullition in a Swiss hydropower reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelSontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; Eugster, W.; McGinnis, D. F.; Wehrli, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ebullition is one of the most important methane emission pathways from inland water bodies, yet the stochastic nature of ebullition complicates its monitoring. Therefore, a bubble-calibrated 120 kHz split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60, Kongsberg Maritime) was utilized to survey the active ebullition area of a small temperate hydropower reservoir (Lake Wohlen, Switzerland), which is known for intense methane bubble release in summer. The performed bubble size calibration agreed well with the literature and the presented hydroacoustic technique to estimate methane bubble flux in the presence of non-bubble targets was determined to be the most appropriate post-processing method for this reservoir. The acoustically-determined average methane ebullition flux from the sediment to the water column from seven campaigns was 580 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (range, 130 to 1450). Bubble size distribution, which mostly included 1 to 20 mm diameter bubbles, was strongly related to the magnitude of sediment ebullition flux. The bubble size distribution is an important consideration when calculating the resulting surface efflux using a bubble dissolution model. Using the Sauter mean diameter to represent the volume to surface area to volume ratio of the bubble size distribution in the bubble model resulted in an average atmospheric emission of 490 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatially-averaged data and the standard deviation from seven sampling campaigns revealed areas of 'high' and 'low' ebullition fluxes that seemed to correlate to geomorphology of the reservoir, which still contains the former river channel. The hydroacoustic flux estimates were compared with other methods of methane flux assessments used simultaneously: the traditional chamber method and the eddy covariance technique combined with spectrometer methane measurements (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos Research). Chamber measurements on all but one day were higher than the hydroacoustic survey results (but within the same order of

  18. The influence of soil organic carbon on interactions between microbial parameters and metal concentrations at a long-term contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbachova, G; Sagova-Mareckova, M; Omelka, M; Szakova, J; Tlustos, P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and copper deposits on soil microbial parameters were investigated at a site exposed to contamination for over 200 years. Soil samples were collected in triplicates at 121 sites differing in contamination and soil organic carbon (SOC). Microbial biomass, respiration, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic quotient were determined and correlated with total and extractable metal concentrations in soil. The goal was to analyze complex interactions between toxic metals and microbial parameters by assessing the effect of soil organic carbon in the relationships. The effect of SOC was significant in all interactions and changed the correlations between microbial parameters and metal fractions from negative to positive. In some cases, the effect of SOC was combined with that of clay and soil pH. In the final analysis, dehydrogenase activity was negatively correlated to total metal concentrations and acetic acid extractable metals, respiration and metabolic quotient were to ammonium nitrate extractable metals. Dehydrogenase activity was the most sensitive microbial parameter correlating most frequently with contamination. Total and extractable zinc was most often correlated with microbial parameters. The large data set enabled robust explanation of discrepancies in organic matter functioning occurring frequently in analyzing of contaminated soil processes.

  19. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  20. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  1. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested

  2. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  3. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  4. Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

  5. Integrating Economic and Ecological Benchmarking for a Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch; Moritz Schillinger; Katharina Appoloni; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Hannes Weigt

    2016-01-01

    Hydropower reservoirs play an increasingly important role for the global electricity supply. Reservoirs are anthropogenically-dominated ecosystems because hydropower operations induce artificial water level fluctuations (WLF) that exceed natural fluctuations in frequency and amplitude. These WLF have detrimental ecological effects, which can be quantified as losses to ecosystem primary production due to lake bottoms that fall dry. To allow for a sustainable development of hydropower, these “e...

  6. Decision-making model for risk management of cascade hydropower stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In a medium-term electricity market,in order to reduce the risks of price and inflow uncertainties, the cascade hydropower stations may use the options contract with electricity supply companies. A profit-based model for risk management of cascade hydropower stations in the medium-term electricity market is presented. The objective function is profit maximization of cascade hydropower stations. In order to avoid the risks of price and inflow uncertainties, two different risk-aversion constraints: a minimum ...

  7. Study on Sustainable Development of Small Hydropower in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeZhou

    2005-01-01

    China bears a high relief in thewest and low in the east, with complex topography, totaling 2/3 ofthe whole country's area for mountains, hilly regions and zigzag plateaus. Therefore the hydraulic resources are abundant, with potential hydraulic amount of about 680000MW, of which, small hydropower resource is very rich too and has great exploitable potential. According to general investigation in early 1980s,the exploitable amount reached 87000MW, ranking the top in the world.

  8. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    James Randall Kahn; Carlos Edwar Freitas; Miguel Petrere

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate signif...

  9. Hydropower versus irrigation—an analysis of global patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruijie; Cai, Ximing; Ringler, Claudia; Zhu, Tingju

    2017-03-01

    Numerous reservoirs around the world provide multiple flow regulation functions; key among these are hydroelectricity production and water releases for irrigation. These functions contribute to energy and food security at national, regional and global levels. While reservoir operations for hydroelectricity production might support irrigation, there are also well-known cases where hydroelectricity production reduces water availability for irrigated food production. This study assesses these relationships at the global level using machine-learning techniques and multi-source datasets. We find that 54% of global installed hydropower capacity (around 507 thousand Megawatt) competes with irrigation. Regions where such competition exists include the Central United States, northern Europe, India, Central Asia and Oceania. On the other hand, 8% of global installed hydropower capacity (around 79 thousand Megawatt) complements irrigation, particularly in the Yellow and Yangtze River Basins of China, the East and West Coasts of the United States and most river basins of Southeast Asia, Canada and Russia. No significant relationship is found for the rest of the world. We further analyze the impact of climate variables on the relationships between hydropower and irrigation. Reservoir flood control functions that operate under increased precipitation levels appear to constrain hydroelectricity production in various river basins of the United States, South China and most basins in Europe and Oceania. On the other hand, increased reservoir evaporative losses and higher irrigation requirements due to higher potential evaporation levels may lead to increased tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower due to reduced water availability in regions with warmer climates, such as India, South China, and the Southern United States. With most reservoirs today being built for multiple purposes, it is important for policymakers to understand and plan for growing tradeoffs between key

  10. Development and Prospect of Installation Technology of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment in Hydropower Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanchu

    2005-01-01

    The hydropower installed capacity in China exceeded 100 GW by the end of 2004. With the develop-ment of hydropower construction cause, the contingents of electrical and mechanical installation also grew steadily.The installation and debugging techniques made great strides in aspects of different conventional hydrogeneratorsets, reversible pumped-storage units and their rotor spiders, runners, bearings, penstocks as well as controlequipment, such as computerized governors, intelligent monitoring devices. Major technical innovations werebrought about in the electrical and mechanical installation. For an arduous task to construct hydropower projectsof over 50 GW confronts hydropower installation enterprises at the beginning of 21 st century, the installationtechnologies will certainly develop around the projects.

  11. Sensitivity of Regional Hydropower Generation to the Projected Changes in Future Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power systems. With the projected change in the future watershed hydrology, including shift of snowmelt timing, increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation, and change in drought frequencies, there is a need to investigate how the regional hydropower generation may change correspondingly. To evaluate the sensitivity of watershed storage and hydropower generation to future climate change, a lumped Watershed Runoff-Energy Storage (WRES) model is developed to simulate the annual and seasonal hydropower generation at various hydropower areas in the United States. For each hydropower study area, the WRES model use the monthly precipitation and naturalized (unregulated) runoff as inputs to perform a runoff mass balance calculation for the total monthly runoff storage in all reservoirs and retention facilities in the watershed, and simulate the monthly regulated runoff release and hydropower generation through the system. The WRES model is developed and calibrated using the historic (1980-2009) monthly precipitation, runoff, and generation data, and then driven by a large set of dynamically- and statistically-downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections to simulate the change of watershed storage and hydropower generation under different future climate scenarios. The results among different hydropower regions, storage capacities, emission scenarios, and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  12. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  13. Power Authority calls for wise investment in hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yould, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Wise investment in hydropower is one of the most valuable long-term economic actions the state of Alaska can take. A review of the hydro projects shows that investigations needed for construction of the Susitna hydroelectric project will be initiated, while Green Lake and Solomon Gulch projects at Sitka and Valdez will enter their second construction season. Swan Lake and Terror Lake hydropower construction for Ketchikan and Kodiak will also be initiated in 1980 followed by Tyee Lake hydropower for Petersburg and Wrangell. Projects still under investigation which may prove feasible for construction in the future are at Cordova, Homer, Seward, Bristol Bay, the Tlingit-Haida area, the lower Kuskokwim and Yukon area, and at some smaller rural communities. Other communities may be able to develop wood or peat fueled generation, wile still others might be able to develop small tidal or wind power generation. The Alaska Power Authority is attempting to expedite these projects, and the end result should be a significant degree of electrical energy independence by the end of the next decade.

  14. When and how to activate large new hydropower reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Water resources system planners are increasingly required to address multiple long and short-term management objectives and the trade-offs these imply. Expansion planning in hydropower reservoir systems, where assets either temporarily or permanently reduce each other's performance, is a complex and potentially conflictual task requiring attention to multiple impacts. This paper proposes a multi-criteria scheduling approach considering many objectives and their associated uncertainties. The method considers the coordination and flexibility of reservoir operation in different expansion stages. The impact of abstraction (i.e., during filling of new reservoirs) and regulation of inflows by upstream reservoirs, is represented by simultaneously optimizing the storage size of reservoirs. Sensitivity analysis of performance given financial uncertainty and hydrological variability reveals which expansion schedules are robust to a wide range of future conditions. This informs how alternative designs compare in multiple performance dimensions and can serve stakeholders with differing attitudes towards risk and opportunity. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoirs to find efficient new dam activation schedules considering energy revenues, downstream release requirements, and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents asset choices, size, activation date, and filling period reservoir operating rules. The results help explore the complex planning and management issues involved in the Blue Nile and demonstrate a possible approach to negotiate the design, filling and coordinated use of hydropower reservoirs.

  15. Scaling-up parameters for site restoration process using surfactant-enhanced soil washing coupled with wastewater treatment by Fenton and Fenton-like processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandala, Erick R; Cossio, Horacio; Sánchez-Lopez, Adriana D; Córdova, Felipe; Peralta-Herández, Juan M; Torres, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of scaling-up parameters for a site restoration process using a surfactant-enhanced soil washing (SESW) process followed by the application of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton and photo-Fenton) was performed. For the SESW, different parameters were varied and the soil washing efficiency for pesticide (2,4-D) removal assessed. The resulting wastewater was treated using the Fenton reaction in the absence and presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for pesticide removal. Results showed that agitation speed of 1550 rpm was preferable for the best pesticide removal from contaminated soil. It was possible to wash contaminated soils with different soil concentrations; however the power drawn was higher as the soil concentration increased. Complete removal of the pesticide and the remaining surfactant was achieved using different reaction conditions. The best degradation conditions were for the photo-Fenton process using [Fe(II)] = 0.3 mM; [H2O2] = 4.0 mM where complete 2,4-D and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) removal was observed after 8 and 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. Further increase in the hydrogen peroxide or iron salt concentration did not show any improvement in the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters, i.e. reaction rate constant and scaling-up parameters, were determined. It was shown that, by coupling both processes (SESW and AOPs), it is possible the restoration of contaminated sites.

  16. Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Latsoucabe

    2010-09-15

    Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

  17. Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and particulate phase mercury (Hgp were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF, marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI, and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hgo, RGM, and Hgp and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hgo and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hgo at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hgo. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and Hgp was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and Hgp increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and Hgp through deposition. RGM and Hgp levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. In the coastal region relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment

  18. Effects of Soil Bulk Density on Gas Transport Parameters and Pore-Network Properties across a Sandy Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masis Melendez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Chamindu, T K K Deepagoda

    2015-01-01

    The gas diffusion coefficient, air permeability, and their interrelations with air-filled porosity are crucial for characterization of diffusive and convective transport of gases in soils. Variations in soil bulk density can affect water retention, air-filled pore space, pore tortuosity...... to quantify gas transport and water retention processes across the field. Results revealed significant negative correlations between all six parameters and soil bulk density. Areas with higher bulk density exhibited reduced air-filled porosity and lower diffusivity- and air permeability-based connectivity...... and connectivity, and hence control gas diffusion and air permeability. Considering 86 undisturbed core samples with variable bulk density that were extracted on a grid from the top layer of a sandy field, the effects of soil bulk density on gas transport parameters and the soil water characteristic were...

  19. The performance of the Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) in a hydropower affected meandering river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähly, Severin; Bourqui, Pierre; Franca, Mario J.; Robinson, Christopher; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the Swiss electricity is produced by hydropower. Large price fluctuations cause severe hydropeaking flow regimes due to corresponding production fluctuations, which undisputedly have a negative impact on aquatic biota. Water diversion due to dams on the other hand imposes downstream residual flow regimes. The absence of flood events and regular sediment supply disrupts sediment dynamics and disconnects floodplains, which are habitats of high value, from its main channel. The residual-flow controlled reach at the Sarine river in western Switzerland is the subject of the present study. The Sarine meanders strongly and the river reach under analysis has a bed incision of locally more than 100 m. Its incision provokes the isolation of the river which is consequently minimally touched by human structures and shows a natural geomorphology. Since the construction of a dam upstream this reach in 1948, aiming at the water abstraction to hydropower, vegetation could establish and the active floodplain decreased its area, as airborne images show. Nevertheless, it is classified as a floodplain of national importance and it has been under protection since 1992. It is supposed to be a valuable habitat for a wide range of organisms. The Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) is a simple tool for quantifying the habitat richness in a river reach, taking into account the mean values and the variation of water depth and flow velocity. For channelized rivers, HMID values from up to 5 are expected, while morphological pristine sites with a high spatial variability of water depth and velocity show values of 9 or higher. For the residual flow of the Sarine River, flow depth and velocity were measured using ADCP and ADV. The results are compared with a nearby natural reference river and the outcome of a 2D numerical simulation. Finally, the behaviour and limitations of the HMID, in a hydropower affected river, are discussed. In the close future an artificial flood

  20. Comparison of binding parameters of sigma 1 and sigma 2 binding sites in rat and guinea pig brain membranes: novel subtype-selective trishomocubanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V H; Kassiou, M; Johnston, G A; Christie, M J

    1996-09-12

    Comparisons of binding parameters of [3H](+)-pentazocine and [3H]1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) at sigma binding sites in guinea pig and rat brain membranes demonstrated that [3H](+)-pentazocine binds to a single high-affinity site, whereas [3H]DTG binds to two high-affinity sites in both species. The Kd values of the radioligands were similar in both types of membranes. However, the density of sigma 1 sites in guinea pig was significantly higher than that of rat. Novel trishomocubanes were tested for their affinities at sigma 1 and sigma 2 binding sites in guinea pig brain membranes using [3H](+)-pentazocine and [3H]DTG as the radioligands. N-(4-Phenylbutyl)-3-hydroxy-4- azahexacyclo[5.4.1.0(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9).0(8,11)]dodecane (ANSTO-14) showed the highest affinity for the sigma 1 site (Ki = 9.4 nM) and 19-fold sigma 1/sigma 2 selectivity, as a result of increasing the alkyl chain between the cubane moiety and the aromatic ring. N-(3'-Fluorophenyl)methyl- 3-hydroxy-4-azahexacyclo[5.4.1.0(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9).0(8,11]dodeca ne (ANSTO-19), displayed the highest affinity for sigma 2 sites (Ki = 19.6 nM) and 8-fold sigma 2/sigma 1 selectivity due to a fluoro substitution in the meta position of the aromatic ring. These represent structurally novel lead compounds, especially for the development of selective sigma 2 receptor ligands.

  1. Relationship Between Precipitation Chemistry and Meteorological Parameters at a Urban Site in the North of Queretaro State

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Martínez, R.; Hernández, G.; Solis, S.; Torres, M. D.; Padilla, H.; Báez, A.

    2010-12-01

    A total of 50 wet precipitation samples were collected per event at the Juriquilla site from mid-May 2009 to the end of May 2010. The Juriquilla sampling site was located on the roof of the Geoscience Building, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, at the Juriquilla Campus in the city of Querétaro located at 20°41'58"N and 100°27'28" W, at 1920 meters above sea level (masl). Sampling was done in passive collectors that consisted of a high density polyethylene funnel connected to a 2-liter polyethylene bottle, supported by a rod 1.5 m above the roof. One of the collectors was used to take samples for trace metals. The analysis was done in soluble and insoluble fractions. Al, Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite furnace accessory. The other collector was used to measure pH and major ions (SO4-2, Cl-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4+) in the soluble fractions, because it was assumed that these ions are completely soluble in rainwater. The major ions SO4-2, Cl-, and NO3-, were analyzed by a Varian Model 2010 ion chromatograph; Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and NH4+ by a UV spectrophotometer. In this study, synoptic maps were used to analyze the transport of air masses before rainfall, enabling back trajectories to be used to estimate the source region of pollutants. To understand the variety of synoptic weather conditions, data were associated with the corresponding air mass back trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). Back trajectory models have very simple advection schemes to calculate the previous position of an air parcel by using estimated wind speed and direction for the time period prior to arrival at the selected site. In this study, the origin of the air mass for an event was evaluated by a three-day back-trajectory before arrival to Queretaro. Mass back

  2. Development of a Speckle Interferometer and the Measurement of Fried's Parameter $(r_{o})$ at the Telescope Site

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K; Chandra, A U; Chinnappan, V

    1999-01-01

    A new optical speckle interferometer for use at the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope (VBT), at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India, has been designed and developed. Provisions have been made for observation both at the prime focus (f/3.25), as well as at the Cassegrain focus (f/13) of the said telescope. The technical details of this sensitive instrument and the design features are described. An interface between the telescope and the afore-mentioned interferometer is made based on a concept of eliminating the formation of eddies due to the hot air entrapment. The performances of this instrument has been tested both at the laboratory, as well as at the Cassegrain end of the telescope. It is being used routinely to observe the speckle-grams of close-binary (separation $<$1 arc second) stars. The size of the Fried's parameter, r$_{o}$, is also measured.

  3. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  4. Improving inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-10-01

    Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead-time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. We present here a new approach for issuing hourly reservoir inflow forecasts that aims to improve on existing forecasting models that are in place operationally, without needing to modify the pre-existing approach, but instead formulating an additive or complementary model that is independent and captures the structure the existing model may be missing. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an un-alterable constant parameter conceptual model, the models being demonstrated with reference to the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead-times up to 17 h. Season based evaluations indicated that the improvement in inflow forecasts varies across seasons and inflow forecasts in autumn and spring are less successful with the 95% prediction interval bracketing less than 95% of the observations for lead-times beyond 17 h.

  5. 76 FR 75542 - Porcupine Dam Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Porcupine Dam Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... Dam Hydropower Project to be located on the East Fork of the Little Bear River near the town of...

  6. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

    2012-08-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  7. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040. Current hydropower production is estimated based on historic available data while future energy production is deduced from the maximum available water in the catchment, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin, were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000 and topographical characteristics of the area.

    Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called Vapidro-Aste released by the Research on Energy System (Italy. The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering that first the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served and than hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  8. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  9. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding o

  10. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understandin

  11. Valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Xu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower development can be considered as a kind of trade-offs of ecosystem services generated by human activity for their economic and energy demand, because it can increase some river ecosystem services but decrease others. In this context, an ecosystem service trade-off framework in hydropower development was proposed in this paper. It aims to identify the ecological cost of river ecosystem and serve for the ecological compensation during hydropower development, for the hydropower services cannot completely replace the regulating services of river ecosystem. The valuing trade-offs framework was integrated by the influenced ecosystem services identification and ecosystem services valuation, through ecological monitoring and ecological economic methods, respectively. With a case study of Pondo hydropower project in Tibet, China, the valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development was illustrated. The typical ecological factors including water, sediment and soil were analyzed in this study to identify the altered river ecosystem services by Pondo hydropower project. Through the field monitoring and valuation, the results showed that the Lhasa River ecosystem services value could be changed annually by Pondo hydropower project with the increment of 5.7E+8CNY, and decrement of 5.1E+7CNY. The ecological compensation for river ecosystem should be focus on water and soil conservation, reservoir dredging and tributaries habitat protection.

  12. Combining forces--the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery, soil parameter information, and multiplex PCR to detect Coccidioides immitis growth sites in Kern County, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Lauer

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI. Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1 We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m × 750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2 We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3 We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp.

  13. Combining forces--the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery, soil parameter information, and multiplex PCR to detect Coccidioides immitis growth sites in Kern County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Antje; Talamantes, Jorge; Castañón Olivares, Laura Rosío; Medina, Luis Jaime; Baal, Joe Daryl Hugo; Casimiro, Kayla; Shroff, Natasha; Emery, Kirt W

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI). Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1) We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m × 750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2) We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3) We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp.

  14. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2007-07-30

    This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow

  15. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  16. Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office

  17. Meteorological parameters contributing to variability in 222Rn activity concentrations in soil gas at a site in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sakamoto, Keita; Imanishi, Tsukushi; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Sawamura, Sadashi; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2006-10-15

    Continuous (222)Rn monitoring in soil gas since November 22, 2004 has revealed variability in activity concentration with time in the semi-natural woods on the campus of Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. Among various factors affecting soil radon levels and variability, temperature was found to be dominant during three seasons when activity concentrations of (222)Rn showed a diurnal high and nocturnal low with a boundary around 10 o'clock in the morning. This pattern was disturbed by low pressure fronts with occasional rain. The activity gradually decreased as soil temperatures decreased from late November to mid-December. After the ground surface was completely covered with snow, soil radon levels became low with a small fluctuation. There were several peaks of (222)Rn on the time-series chart in winter. Those peaks appearing in early winter and early spring may be interpreted by considering meteorological parameters. In a few cases, the radon activity suddenly increased with increasing pressure in the soil at a depth of 10 cm, which may be associated with subsurface events such as seismic activity in the area.

  18. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on downstream flow, stage, and sediment transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.C.L.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Williams, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCoy, J.; Palmer, C. [USDOE Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in Utah, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage. These changes can in turn affect sediment transport and ecologic resources below the dam. To evaluate these effects, four hydropower operational scenarios with varying degrees of hydropower-release fluctuations were examined. This study demonstrates that the combined use of river-flow routing, water-surface profile, and sediment-transport models can provide useful information for evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower-operations on ecological and other resources downstream of the dam. Study results show that flow fluctuations may or may not persist for a long distance, depending on the initial magnitude of fluctuation and the duration of hydropower peaking. Stage fluctuations depend not only on flow fluctuations but also on river channel characteristics, such as channel width and longitudinal slope.

  19. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) -battery-hydropower microgrids can be considered to enhance electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. However, the coexistence of different renewable energy sources with different inertias and control strategies may affect system stability. In this paper......, a hierarchical controller for hybrid PV-battery-hydropower microgrid is proposed in order to achieve the parallel operation of hydropower and PV-battery system with different rates, and to guarantee power sharing performance among PV voltage controlled inverters, while the required power to hydropower...... is derived to analyze the system stability of the hybrid microgrid. The simulation results show system frequency and voltage stability for a hybrid microgrid demonstration which includes 2 MWp PV installations, a 15.2 MWh battery system, and a 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Experimental results on a small...

  20. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  1. Present Situation and Future Trends of River Basin Cascade Hydropower Dispatch China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Guangjing; Cai Zhiguo

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hydropower resources in river basins are typically developed in a cascade manner.The cascade hydropower stations use water from the same river;in a sense,they form a cluster of hydropower stations which are linked together by the river stream.The dispatch and management of the cascade hydropower stations in a river basin differ from those of an ordinary single hydropower station.Without doubt,unified dispatch can facilitate the full harnessing of hydraulic resources and is in a better position to fulfill the objectives in the development of river basin.As a result,more and more river-basin cascade power stations around the world implement unified dispatching.

  2. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  3. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  4. The role of glaciers for Swiss hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In Switzerland, hydropower represents over 50% of the total annual electricity production. Given the Alpine setting of the country, this hydropower production (HPP) strongly relies on the natural storage of discharge in form of ice and snow over months to decades. The sensitivity of glacier-fed HPP systems with respect to climate change depends on how the today's production and the infrastructure design relies on the seasonal streamflow delay expected from the natural storage effect of snow and ice. For low-head run-of-river HPP plants built on large lowland rivers, the ongoing glacier retreat (resulting in strong summer melt) currently sustains higher flows during summer months, an effect that will certainly be reduced once the glaciers will have reached a critical size. This effect will also modify the inflow to the large storage HPP plants that have been designed to shift large amounts of meltwater inflows from summer to winter. The management of these reservoirs will certainly have to be adapted to future inflow patterns. An interesting case are high-head run-of-river plants (with heads from 100 to 1100 m) that short-circuit a given river reach. Future regime shifts with less sustained summer flow and more concentrated spring melt flows might critically reduce the annual production due to intake overflow during spring and reduced flow during summer. In this work, we discuss the role of glaciers for these different HPP types in detail, including an overview of how glacier retreat might influence their production. This comprehensive study synthesizes up-to-date estimations of glacier mass change since the 1980s and its influence on high Alpine discharge regimes and state-of-the art simulations of potential future glacier discharge regimes. We also attempt an extrapolation to the country level based on a hydropower GIS database that has been developed for economic purposes. Ongoing Swiss research on sediment production and management might complete this picture

  5. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  6. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2003 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Testing of the Alden/NREC pilot scale runner, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Biological Design Criteria, Computer and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Wind/Hydro Integration Studies and Technical Support and Outreach); and (4) Engineering and Analysis (Innovative Technology Characterization).

  7. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [M.J. Sale and Associates, Hanson, MA (United States); Shih-Chieh, Kao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ashfaq, Moetasim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kaiser, Dale P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Cindy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wei, Yaxing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower. Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This is a formal Department of Energy report to Congress. It outlines the findings of an assessment directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities.

  9. The impacts of climate change on a Norwegian high-head hydropower plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernet, Haregewoin Haile; Alfredsen, Knut; Killintveit, Aanund

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Norway relies on hydropower for 99 percent of the electricity production and thus Hydropower is important for Norway today and in the future energy system. The work presented in this paper shows how a high-head hydropower system in Norway will be affected in the future climate. The Aurland Hydropower system, operated by E-Co Vannkraft, Norway is the test case for the study. The Aurland hydropower system has many reservoirs and transfer systems and is considered to be one of the complex systems in Norway, but also a typical example of a Norwegian high head system. The nMAG Hydropower simulation model, which has been developed at the Norwegian Hydro technical Laboratory, is used to simulate the hydropower system. Historical and future inflow series were transposed from the neighbouring catchment Flaamselvi using scaling based on area and specific runoff, as there is no discharge station in Aurland catchment with long unregulated inflow series to set up the model and to be used for developing future climate scenarios. To generate the future inflow series for the analysis, the HBV hydrological model is calibrated for the Flaamselvi catchment. The model is then used to generate future inflow series of using the Hadley GCM (HADAm3) and A2, B2 climate scenarios. The operation of the hydropower system is then simulated for the period 2071 -2100 to see how future power production is affected by the change in the inflow conditions. The HBV model is also used to see how snow accumulation will be affected in the future as snow melt is important for Norwegian reservoir and hydropower systems. The Hydrologic scenarios under climate change imply an average increase in runoff for the system. Snow accumulation will decrease with sooner snow melt and more winter precipitation as rain. The hydropower simulation results show that associated with the increase in runoff there is an increase in energy generation with 10-20% under the current reservoir operation strategies

  10. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be

  11. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2001. The program’s focus for FY 2002 was on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research was to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these were tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners (e.g., work by Alden Research Laboratory and Concepts NREC) to modifications to existing designs (e.g., Voith Siemens work on Minimum Gap Runners). Biological criteria have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria were combined with computational design tools to locate and eliminate damaging areas inside turbine systems.

  12. DOE/PSU Graduate Student Fellowship Program for Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimbala, John M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2014-03-30

    The primary objective of this project is to stimulate academic interest in the conventional hydropower field by supplying research support for at least eight individual Master of Science (MS) or Doctoral (PhD) level research projects, each consisting of a graduate student supervised by a faculty member. We have completed many of the individual student research projects: 2 PhD students have finished, and 4 are still working towards their PhD degree. 4 MS students have finished, and 2 are still working towards their MS degree, one of which is due to finish this April. In addition, 4 undergraduate student projects have been completed, and one is to be completed this April. These projects were supervised by 7 faculty members and an Advisory/Review Panel. Our students and faculty have presented their work at national or international conferences and have submitted several journal publications. Three of our graduate students (Keith Martin, Dan Leonard and Hosein Foroutan) have received HRF Fellowships during the course of this project. All of the remaining students are anticipated to be graduated by the end of Fall Semester 2014. All of the tasks for this project will have been completed once all the students have been graduated, although it will be another year or two until all the journal publications have been finalized based on the work performed as part of this DOE Hydropower project.

  13. Blasting Test and Study on Dam Filling with Moraine Gravel in Jiangpinghe Hydropower Station%江坪河水电站堆石坝冰渍砾岩筑坝料爆破试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严匡柠; 邹文明; 朱贤博

    2011-01-01

    Concrete face rockfill dam is adopted in Jiangpinghe Hydropower Station. The height of dam is 219m, which is filled with moraine gravel. In view of the special property of moraine gravel, tentative blasting parameters are decided. Then a completed blasting test has been continued for optimizing blasting parameters to improve the gradation of dam filling combining with blasting construction on site.%江坪河水电站采用混凝土面板堆石坝,坝体高度219m,用冰渍砾岩填筑高面板堆石坝.鉴于冰渍砾岩的特殊性,在已有爆破试验成果的基础上,初拟爆破参数.结合现场爆破开采施工试验成果,进一步深入研究,优化了可改善坝料级配的爆破参数.

  14. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  15. Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

  16. Development and practical testing of an action plan for the environmentally compatible use of hydropower; Erarbeitung und Praxiserprobung eines Massnahmenplanes zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Wasserkraftnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The use of rivers for generating electric power and the efforts to conserve important ecological habitats mark a classic conflict between two different aims of society. While passing hydropower plants migrating fish risk injuries and death. This affects the development of fish populations, particularly of diadromous fish populations in river basins. The aim of this study was to find conditions for serving a self sustaining fish population in the Weser basin. The influence of the river continuity and the quality of spawning and nursery habitats were varied. The survival rates of the diadromous species salmon and eel were modeled on the basis of literature data and additional data from own investigations. A self-reproducing salmon population would require the upstream and downstream passibility at each obstacle. Especially the protection at hydropower plants in the tributaries is of major importance. In addition, the hydro-morphological conditions of the spawning habitats have to be improved and further losses (such as predation or fishing) must be decreased. The survival rate of 40%, required by the EC Regulation on European eel can be achieved by the establishment of upstream continuity at all sites and by protective measures at the hydropower plants in the tributaries of the Weser. (orig.)

  17. Changing currents in Norwegian hydropower governance? The challenge of reconciling conflicting interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Joergen Kjetil; Ruud, Audun

    2011-06-15

    The present report focuses on the potential for reconciling energy and environmental policy concerns when phasing in new renewable electricity production. In order to identify the potential for a better reconciliation for Norwegian hydropower, the report assesses the governance of the sector, focusing on the licensing of hydropower production along two dimensions: (1) horizontally, looking at the level of governance related to the degree of coordination between relevant policy domains and sectors - with related objectives, plans and regulations, as well as interests, actors and institutions; and (2) vertically, focusing on the interaction between different levels of governance (international/national/regional/local). In addition, perspectives from research and documentation of assumed effects and impacts of hydropower will also be viewed as a crucial part of the licensing processes. In sum, main political and regulatory drivers and barriers impacting upon the current and future hydropower development in Norway are quite complex and fragmentary, and there is currently no overall target providing a general direction for hydropower development. Given the lack of an overall, coherent approach, the interaction between the different levels of governance does not demonstrate a specific, coherent pattern. At the same time the interest for further expansion of hydropower production is growing. Knowledge and documentation stand out as crucial in two major ways: (1) A need to reinforce the accessibility and transparency of the licensing process; and (2) complementary and updated research and documentation on how to meet the challenges raised by the renewed interest in, and further demand for, hydropower. (Author)

  18. Optimal Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Generation using Non-linear Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.

    2012-05-01

    Hydropower generation is one of the vital components of reservoir operation, especially for a large multi-purpose reservoir. Deriving optimal operational rules for such a large multi-purpose reservoir serving various purposes like irrigation, hydropower and flood control are complex, because of the large dimension of the problem and the complexity is more if the hydropower production is not an incidental. Thus optimizing the operations of a reservoir serving various purposes requires a systematic study. In the present study such a large multi-purpose reservoir, namely, Koyna reservoir operations are optimized for maximizing the hydropower production subject to the condition of satisfying the irrigation demands using a non-linear programming model. The hydropower production from the reservoir is analysed for three different dependable inflow conditions, representing wet, normal and dry years. For each dependable inflow conditions, various scenarios have been analyzed based on the constraints on the releases and the results are compared. The annual power production, combined monthly power production from all the powerhouses, end of month storage levels, evaporation losses and surplus are discussed. From different scenarios, it is observed that more hydropower can be generated for various dependable inflow conditions, if the restrictions on releases are slightly relaxed. The study shows that Koyna dam is having potential to generate more hydropower.

  19. EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, T. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world.

  20. Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

    2014-04-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

  1. EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

  2. The Role of Hydropower in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Berga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is a clean, renewable, and environmentally friendly source of energy. It produces 3930 (TW.h.a−1, and yields 16% of the world’s generated electricity and about 78% of renewable electricity generation (in 2015. Hydropower and climate change show a double relationship. On the one hand, as an important renewable energy resource, hydropower contributes significantly to the avoidance of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and to the mitigation of global warming. On the other hand, climate change is likely to alter river discharge, impacting water availability and hydropower generation. Hydropower contributes significantly to the reduction of GHG emissions and to energy supply security. Compared with conventional coal power plants, hydropower prevents the emission of about 3 GT CO2 per year, which represents about 9% of global annual CO2 emissions. Hydropower projects may also have an enabling role beyond the electricity sector, as a financing instrument for multipurpose reservoirs and as an adaptive measure regarding the impacts of climate change on water resources, because regulated basins with large reservoir capacities are more resilient to water resource changes, less vulnerable to climate change, and act as a storage buffer against climate change. At the global level, the overall impact of climate change on existing hydropower generation may be expected to be small, or even slightly positive. However, there is the possibility of substantial variations across regions and even within countries. In conclusion, the general verdict on hydropower is that it is a cheap and mature technology that contributes significantly to climate change mitigation, and could play an important role in the climate change adaptation of water resource availability. However, careful attention is necessary to mitigate the substantial environmental and social costs. Roughly more than a terawatt of capacity could be added in upcoming decades.

  3. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower contributes significantly to meeting the world's energy demand, accounting for at least 16% of total electrical output. Its role as a mature and cost competitive renewable energy source is expected to become increasingly important as the world transits to a low-carbon economy. A key component of hydropower production is runoff, which is highly dependent on precipitation and other climate variables. As such, it becomes critical to understand how the drivers of climate variability impact hydropower production. One globally-important driver is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). While it is known that ENSO influences hydrological processes, the potential value of its associated teleconnection in design related tasks has yet to be explored at the global scale. Our work seeks to characterize the impact of ENSO on global hydropower production so as to quantify the potential for increased production brought about by incorporating climate information within reservoir operating models. We study over 1,500 hydropower reservoirs - representing more than half the world's hydropower capacity. A historical monthly reservoir inflow time series is assigned to each reservoir from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. Reservoir operating rules are designed using stochastic dynamic programming, and storage dynamics are simulated to assess performance under the climate conditions of the 20th century. Results show that hydropower reservoirs in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and Eastern China are strongly influenced by ENSO episodes. Statistically significant lag correlations between ENSO indicators and hydropower production demonstrate predictive skill with lead times up to several months. Our work highlights the potential for using these indicators to increase the contribution of existing hydropower plants to global energy supplies.

  4. LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-08-06

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  5. The use of hydropower in South Tyrol; Wasserkraftnutzung in Suedtirol. Ausgangsvoraussetzungen, Bedeutung und Akteure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, W. [Orizzonti, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-03

    The Autonomous Province of Bolzano in the north of Italy is richly endowed with water ressources, which provided an essential basis for industrial development in the last century. Even today electricity production, exceeding consumption figures of the Province, is almost entirely based on hydropower. At the main river Adige and its tributaries there are currently about 850 hydropower plants in operation. Nearly 85% of the installed power are owned by only four electric utilities. The Region Trentino-Alto Adige shows a higher capacity per inhabitant and per surface of electricity generation from hydropower than Austria, internationally renowned for her exploitation of this ressource. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  7. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Sale, M.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  9. Safety requirements to the operation of hydropower plants; Sicherheit beim Betrieb von Wasserkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Employers have to take into account various safety and health requirements relating to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. Especially the diversity of the hydropower plant components requires the consideration of different safety and health aspects. In 2011 the ''Fachausschuss Elektrotechnik'' (expert committee electro-technics) of the institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention presented a new ''BG-Information'' dealing with ''Safe methods operating hydropower plants''. The following article gives an introduction into the conception and the essential requirements of this new BG-Information. (orig.)

  10. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  11. Research on reform schemes of control methods of inlet gate in Jiaxin Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The simple gate control system which is made of traditional manual or proximity switch cannot meet the requirements of connecting with the computer monitoring system of hydropower station, it must be reformed. On the basis of the integrated analysis for small hydropower station, the paper discussed the singlechip as the core to realize the methods of gate automatic control system in small hydropower station. The designs for hardware and software of gate control system were introduced. And the control system was reformed from customary manual control to computer automatic control. The simulation experiment shows that this scheme is feasible.

  12. Assessment of diffusion parameters of new passive samplers using optical chemical sensor for on-site measuring formaldehyde in indoor air: experimental and numerical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignau-Laulhere, Jane; Mocho, Pierre; Plaisance, Hervé; Raulin, Katarzyna; Desauziers, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    New passive samplers using a sensor consisting of a sol-gel matrix entrapping Fluoral-P as sampling media were developed for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air. The reaction between Fluoral-P and formaldehyde produces a colored compound which is quantified on-site by means of a simple optical reading module. The advantages of this sensor are selectivity, low cost, ppb level limit of detection, and on-site direct measurement. In the development process, it is necessary to determine the sampling rate, a key parameter that cannot be directly assessed in the case of diffusive samplers using optical chemical sensor. In this study, a methodology combining experimental tests and numerical modeling is proposed and applied at five different radial diffusive samplers equipped with the same optical chemical sensor to assess the sampled material flows and sampling rates. These radial diffusive samplers differ in the internal volume of the sampler (18.97 and 6.14 cm(3)), the position of sensor inside the sampler (in front and offset of 1.2 cm above the membrane) and the width of the diffusion slot (1.4 and 5.9 mm). The influences of these three parameters (internal volume, position of sensor inside the sampler, and width of the diffusion slot) were assessed and discussed with regard to the formaldehyde sampling rate and water uptake by sensor (potential interference of measure). Numerical simulations based on Fick's laws are in agreement with the experimental results and provide to estimate the effective diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde through the membrane (3.50 × 10(-6) m(2) s(-1)). Conversion factors between the sensor response, sampled formaldehyde mass and sampling rate were also assessed.

  13. Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are

  14. Report on the use of stability parameters and mesoscale modelling in short-term prediction[Wind speed at wind farm sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, J.; Giebel, G.; Guo Larsen, X.; Skov Nielsen, T.; Aalborg Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Henrik; Toefting, J.

    2007-06-15

    In this report investigations using atmospheric stability measures to improve wind speed predictions at wind farm sites are described. Various stability measures have been calculated based on numerical weather prediction model output. Their ability to improve the wind speed predictions is assessed at three locations. One of the locations is in complex terrain. Mesoscale modelling has been carried out using KAMM at this location. The characteristics of the measured winds are captured well by the mesoscale modelling. It can be seen that the atmospheric stability plays an important role in determining how the flow is influence by the terrain. A prediction system employing a look-up table approach based on wind class simulations is presented. The mesoscale modelling results produced by KAMM were validated using an alternative mesoscale model called WRF. A good agreement in the results of KAMM and WRF was found. It is shown that including a stability parameter in physical and/or statistical modelling can improve the wind speed predictions at a wind farm site. A concept for the inclusion of a stability measure in the WPPT prediction system is presented, and the testing of the concept is outlined. (au)

  15. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo;

    2016-01-01

    is expressed in terms of mean wind speed and Weibull distribution shape-parameter profiles. The consequences of the carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) threshold-value choice on the wind-lidar observations are revealed as follows. When the wind-lidar CNR is lower than a prescribed threshold value, the observations......Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites...... are often filtered out as the uncertainty in the wind-speed measurements increases. For a pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidar, use of the traditional –22 dB CNR threshold value at all measuring levels up to 600 m results in a ≈7 % overestimation in the long-term mean wind speed over land, and a ≈12...

  16. Modelling the impact of large dams on flows and hydropower production of the Sekong, Sesan and Srepok Rivers in the Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piman, T.; Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    from energy production of the seven large proposed dams (33.0 GWh/day) are less than half compared to the cumulative benefits of the exiting and ongoing projects. In total, potential energy production of all dams is 129.1 GWh/day. Cascade dam simulations, under an independent operation regime, result in high electricity production of downstream dams, particularly of small storage dams. Hourly flow alterations, however, can be significant due to intra daily reservoir operations and warrant further study as well as impact of climate change on flows and hydropower operation. Strategic site selection and coordinated reservoir operations between countries and dam operators are necessary to achieve an acceptable level of energy production in the basin and mitigate negative impacts to seasonal flow patterns which sustain downstream ecosystem productivity and livelihoods.

  17. Development of Site-Specific Mg(2+)-RNA Force Field Parameters: A Dream or Reality? Guidelines from Combined Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Lorenzo; Palermo, Giulia; Abdurakhmonova, Nodira; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2017-01-10

    The vital contribution of Mg(2+) ions to RNA biology is challenging to dissect at the experimental level. This calls for the integrative support of atomistic simulations, which at the classical level are plagued by limited accuracy. Indeed, force fields intrinsically neglect nontrivial electronic effects that Mg(2+) exerts on its surrounding ligands in varying RNA coordination environments. Here, we present a combined computational study based on classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, aimed at characterizing (i) the performance of five Mg(2+) force field (FF) models in RNA systems and (ii) how charge transfer and polarization affect the binding of Mg(2+) ions in different coordination motifs. As a result, a total of ∼2.5 μs MD simulations (100/200 ns for each run) for two prototypical Mg(2+)-dependent ribozymes showed remarkable differences in terms of populations of inner-sphere coordination site types. Most importantly, complementary DFT calculations unveiled that differences in charge transfer and polarization among recurrent Mg(2+)-RNA coordination motifs are surprisingly small. In particular, the charge of the Mg(2+) ions substantially remains constant through different coordination sites, suggesting that the common philosophy of developing site-specific Mg(2+) ion parameters is not in line with the physical origin of the Mg(2+)-RNA MD simulations inaccuracies. Overall, this study constitutes a guideline for an adept use of current Mg(2+) models and provides novel insights for the rational development of next-generation Mg(2+) FFs to be employed for atomistic simulations of RNA.

  18. Ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting for early warning of floods and scheduling of hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvang Johansen, Stian; Steinsland, Ingelin; Engeland, Kolbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Running hydrological models with precipitation and temperature ensemble forcing to generate ensembles of streamflow is a commonly used method in operational hydrology. Evaluations of streamflow ensembles have however revealed that the ensembles are biased with respect to both mean and spread. Thus postprocessing of the ensembles is needed in order to improve the forecast skill. The aims of this study is (i) to to evaluate how postprocessing of streamflow ensembles works for Norwegian catchments within different hydrological regimes and to (ii) demonstrate how post processed streamflow ensembles are used operationally by a hydropower producer. These aims were achieved by postprocessing forecasted daily discharge for 10 lead-times for 20 catchments in Norway by using EPS forcing from ECMWF applied the semi-distributed HBV-model dividing each catchment into 10 elevation zones. Statkraft Energi uses forecasts from these catchments for scheduling hydropower production. The catchments represent different hydrological regimes. Some catchments have stable winter condition with winter low flow and a major flood event during spring or early summer caused by snow melting. Others has a more mixed snow-rain regime, often with a secondary flood season during autumn, and in the coastal areas, the stream flow is dominated by rain, and the main flood season is autumn and winter. For post processing, a Bayesian model averaging model (BMA) close to (Kleiber et al 2011) is used. The model creates a predictive PDF that is a weighted average of PDFs centered on the individual bias corrected forecasts. The weights are here equal since all ensemble members come from the same model, and thus have the same probability. For modeling streamflow, the gamma distribution is chosen as a predictive PDF. The bias correction parameters and the PDF parameters are estimated using a 30-day sliding window training period. Preliminary results show that the improvement varies between catchments depending

  19. Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the smoke spreading in the transport passage under different mechanical exhaust rates, and the same smoke spreading processes are simulated using FDS. By comparing the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and FDS simulations, it is showed that the mechanical exhaust rate prescribed in the regulation of China is adequate for the transport passage of main transformer under a main transformer hall fire.

  20. Improving the global efficiency in small hydropower practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razurel, P.; Gorla, L.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global increase in energy production from renewable sources has seen river exploitation for small hydropower plants to also grow considerably in the last decade. River intakes used to divert water from the main course to the power plant are at the base of such practice. A key issue concern with finding innovative concepts to both design and manage such structures in order to improve classic operational rules. Among these, the Minimal Flow Release (MFR) concept has long been used in spite of its environmental inconsistency.In this work, we show that the economical and ecological efficiency of diverting water for energy production in small hydropower plants can be improved towards sustainability by engineering a novel class of flow-redistribution policies. We use the mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to define non-proportional dynamic flow-redistribution rules, which broadens the spectrum of dynamic flow releases based on proportional redistribution. The theoretical background as well as the economic interpretation is presented and applied to three case studies in order to systematically test the global performance of such policies. Out of numerical simulations, a Pareto frontier emerges in the economic vs environmental efficiency plot, which show that non-proportional distribution policies improve both efficiencies with respect to those obtained from some traditional MFR and proportional policies. This picture is shown also for long term climatic scenarios affecting water availability and the natural flow regime.In a time of intense and increasing exploitation close to resource saturation, preserving natural river reaches requires to abandon inappropriate static release policies in favor of non-proportional ones towards a sustainable use of the water resource.

  1. Study on reservoir operation optimization of Ertan Hydropower Station considering GFS forecasted precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The medium-term runoff forecasting provided new information for forecast of medium and long term runoff and optimal hydroelectric power generation.According to the actual runoff and hydropower generating characteristics of Ertan Hydropower Station,we studied the decade runoff quantitatively and grade forecast model based on Global Forecasting System(GFS) precipitation forecast information in wet season,then used the posteriori runoff transition probability and measurable probability of runoff forecast to research the uncertain runoff description based on runoff forecast;finally on the basis of the runoff description and the grading forecast accuracy of GFS-based next 10 days’total forecast precipitation,we studied the uncertain optimal operating model of Ertan Hydropower Station considering runoff forecast.The results showed that the runoff forecast considering GFS forecast precipitation and uncertainty has significantly improved the existing runoff description and operating optimization model,and obviously raised the hydropower generation efficiency of Ertan Reservoir.

  2. A Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); McKeown, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Zimmerman, Gregory P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology (MYRP) presents a strategy for specifying, designing, testing, and demonstrating the efficacy of standard modular hydropower (SMH) as an environmentally compatible and cost-optimized renewable electricity generation technology. The MYRP provides the context, background, and vision for testing the SMH hypothesis: if standardization, modularity, and preservation of stream functionality become essential and fully realized features of hydropower technology, project design, and regulatory processes, they will enable previously unrealized levels of new project development with increased acceptance, reduced costs, increased predictability of outcomes, and increased value to stakeholders. To achieve success in this effort, the MYRP outlines a framework of stakeholder-validated criteria, models, design tools, testing facilities, and assessment protocols that will facilitate the development of next-generation hydropower technologies.

  3. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  4. Finding Multiple Optimal Solutions to Optimal Load Distribution Problem in Hydropower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhao Jiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimal load distribution (OLD among generator units of a hydropower plant is a vital task for hydropower generation scheduling and management. Traditional optimization methods for solving this problem focus on finding a single optimal solution. However, many practical constraints on hydropower plant operation are very difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled, and the optimal solution found by those models might be of limited practical uses. This motivates us to find multiple optimal solutions to the OLD problem, which can provide more flexible choices for decision-making. Based on a special dynamic programming model, we use a modified shortest path algorithm to produce multiple solutions to the problem. It is shown that multiple optimal solutions exist for the case study of China’s Geheyan hydropower plant, and they are valuable for assessing the stability of generator units, showing the potential of reducing occurrence times of units across vibration areas.

  5. Climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Larijani, Kaveh

    The high-elevation hydropower system in California, composed of more than 150 hydropower plants and regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), supplies 74 percent of in-state hydropower. The system has modest reservoir capacities and has been designed to take advantage of snowpack. The expected shift of runoff peak from spring to winter as a result of climate warming, resulting in snowpack reduction and earlier snowmelt, might have important effects on hydropower operations. Estimation of climate warming effects on such a large system by conventional simulation or optimization methods would be tedious and expensive. This dissertation presents a novel approach for modeling large hydropower systems. Conservation of energy and energy flows are used as the basis for modeling high-elevation high-head hydropower systems in California. The unusual energy basis for reservoir modeling allows for development of hydropower operations models to estimate large-scale system behavior without the expense and time needed to develop traditional streamflow and reservoir volume-based models in absence of storage and release capacity, penstock head, and efficiency information. An Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) is developed to facilitate a practical climate change study based on the historical generation data high-elevation hydropower plants in California. Employing recent historical hourly energy prices, energy generation in California is explored for three climate warming scenarios (dry warming, wet warming, and warming-only) over 14 years, representing a range of hydrologic conditions. Currently, the high-elevation hydropower plants in California have to renew their FERC licenses. A method based on cooperative game theory is developed to explore FERC relicensing process, in which dam owners negotiate over the available instream water with other interest groups downstream. It is discussed how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long

  6. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  7. Economic perspectives and social acceptance of possible increase in the small scale hydropower plants in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Dewandelaere, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are to study the possibilities for increasing small scale hydropower in Finland, by studying the social acceptance and economical perspectives. It contains general information about the electricity market, production and consumption, as well as information collected about social acceptance and economical perspectives related to small scale hydropower plants. This thesis was conducted in Finland. The goals of this study are to determine why small scale hydropo...

  8. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, John S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  9. Static and Dynamic Damage Analysis of Mass Concrete in Hydropower House of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震岳; 张存慧

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes a 3D numerical model for 15# hydropower house of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) and performs a nonlinear static and dynamic damage analysis. In this numerical model, a coupling model of finite and infinite elements for simulating infinite foundation of hydropower station is adopted. A plastic-damage model based on continuum damage mechanics, which includes the softening and damage behavior under tension is considered for the concrete material. The dynamic equilibrium equations of moti...

  10. Hydropower at High Tide:Unprecedented Input and Appeal for Top Closing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; Chu Xue

    2006-01-01

    @@ After four years' extensively scrambling rivers' exploitation rights by power companies, the countable hydropower resources are almost shared up. In water-abundant southwestern region, five large generation groups delimited their own spheres on large rivers. Sharp private enterprises availed themselves of every opportunity to grasp the targets on small and medium rivers. As numerous investors swarmed, hydropower construction entered a real high tide period.

  11. Experiments on optimization and standardising of turbines for small-scale hydro-power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of small scale hydropower plants in the field of power generation increases worldwide. For an economic power generation a standard program for small scale turbines has been developed. Exhaustive test results were the basis for optimizing those turbines hydraulically. Simple, mature and well proven designs ensure troublefree and maintenancefree operation. The advantages of standardization in connection with available hydraulic test results and experience in design make the use of small and even smallest hydropower plants economically efficient.

  12. Optimization of cascade hydropower system operation by genetic algorithm to maximize clean energy output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tayebiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reservoir systems have been constructed for hydropower generation around the world. Hydropower offers an economical source of electricity with reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, it is such a clean and renewable source of energy. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue. Yet, reservoir systems are inefficiently operated and manage according to policies determined at the construction time. It is worth noting that with little enhancement in operation of reservoir system, there could be an increase in efficiency of the scheme for many consumers. Methods: This research develops simulation-optimization models that reflect discrete hedging policy (DHP to manage and operate hydropower reservoir system and analyse it in both single and multireservoir system. Accordingly, three operational models (2 single reservoir systems and 1 multi-reservoir system were constructed and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA. Maximizing the total power generation in horizontal time is chosen as an objective function in order to improve the functional efficiency in hydropower production with consideration to operational and physical limitations. The constructed models, which is a cascade hydropower reservoirs system have been tested and evaluated in the Cameron Highland and Batang Padang in Malaysia. Results: According to the given results, usage of DHP for hydropower reservoir system operation could increase the power generation output to nearly 13% in the studied reservoir system compared to present operating policy (TNB operation. This substantial increase in power production will enhance economic development. Moreover, the given results of single and multi-reservoir systems affirmed that hedging policy could manage the single system much better than operation of the multi-reservoir system. Conclusion: It can be summarized that DHP is an efficient and feasible policy, which could be used

  13. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Hydropower Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  14. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  15. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system.

  16. Clean development mechanism and off-grid small-scale hydropower projects: evaluation of additionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanwar, N. [Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh (India). Department of Civil Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The global climate change mitigation policies and their stress on sustainable development have made electrification of rural mountainous villages, using small hydro, an attractive destination for potential clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This invariably involves judging the additionality of such projects. The paper suggests a new approach to judge the additionality of such stand-alone small hydropower projects. This has been done by breaking up additionality into two components: external and local. The external additionality is project developer dependent. For determining the local additionality, the paper takes into account the probability of a village getting electrified over a period of time, which is kept equal to the possible crediting period. This is done by defining an electrification factor (EF) whose value depends on the degree of isolation, financial constraints and institutional constraints encountered while electrifying a mountainous village. Using this EF, the additionality of a CDM project can be judged in a much easier and accurate way. The paper is based on the data and inputs gathered during site visits to many isolated villages located in the eastern Indian Himalayas. (author)

  17. Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

  18. Assessment of small hydropower potential for the Olanesti River using advanced software techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, A.; Galie, A.; Moldoveanu, M.; Popa, F.; Tica, E.; Popa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of small hydropower potential for rivers is essential for the Renewable Energy Sources Directive implementation, in order to identify and analyze opportunities for new small hydropower developments. As the Water Framework Directive requirement is the non-deterioration of the status of the river water bodies, the aspects regarding the consistency of a flow regime downstream hydropower plant and the environmental objectives are important. The paper presents a case study, the Olanesti River (Romania), using software techniques dedicated to the assessment of small hydropower potential. The hydropower potential of the river was assessed considering the heads based on the Digital Terrain Model and the mean flow. In addition, the environmental flow was considered for the installed capacity assessment, in order to cope with the Water Framework Directive requirements. The harnessed hydropower potential, the optimal distance between the water intake and power plant location, their optimum positions along the river sector, installed capacity and electricity production, calculated at an average lifetime, are the outcomes of the software. The applicability of the tool might be extended on a regional scale in order to support the decision making authorities, taking into account the increasing demand for energy as well as the environmental issues.

  19. Prediction of available power being generate in small hydropower system at Sungai Perting Bentong Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous studied had been conducted on small hydropower system based on run-of-river schemes as an alternative renewable energy. Small hydropower system can be classified based on electricity generated between 1MW to 10MW. This system is normally being applied in rural area for providing the consumer electricity demand. Basically the researches to date are more focusing on the large scale of hydropower rather than the small scale hydropower technology. Therefore, this study is aimed to focus on predicting the available power generated by the small hydropower system specifically for the river stream in peninsular Malaysia. The water flow rate is measured by using ultrasonic level sensor located at the intake of the small hydropower system. The water flow rate is important data to be used in predicting the power output of the power house. The result shows that, the power outputs are depending on the fluctuation of water flow rate and the electricity being generated is more than 1MW. This finding can be used as the benchmark for daily and monthly monitoring process of the system efficiency or target output.

  20. Integrating Economic and Ecological Benchmarking for a Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower reservoirs play an increasingly important role for the global electricity supply. Reservoirs are anthropogenically-dominated ecosystems because hydropower operations induce artificial water level fluctuations (WLF that exceed natural fluctuations in frequency and amplitude. These WLF have detrimental ecological effects, which can be quantified as losses to ecosystem primary production due to lake bottoms that fall dry. To allow for a sustainable development of hydropower, these “ecological costs” of WLF need to be weighed against the “economic benefits” of hydropower that can balance and store intermittent renewable energy. We designed an economic hydropower operation model to derive WLF in large and small reservoirs for three different future energy market scenarios and quantified the according losses in ecosystem primary production in semi-natural outdoor experiments. Our results show that variations in market conditions affect WLF differently in small and large hydropower reservoirs and that increasing price volatility magnified WLF and reduced primary production. Our model allows an assessment of the trade-off between the objectives of preserving environmental resources and economic development, which lies at the core of emerging sustainability issues.

  1. Relationships between microbial communities and environmental parameters at sites impacted by mining of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A.L.; Munk, L.; Koski, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stillings, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The relations among geochemical parameters and sediment microbial communities were examined at three shoreline sites in the Prince William Sound, Alaska, which display varying degrees of impact by acid-rock drainage (ARD) associated with historic mining of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Microbial communities were examined using total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), a class of compounds derived from lipids produced by eukaryotes and prokaryotes (bacteria and Archaea); standard extraction techniques detect FAMEs from both living (viable) and dead (non-viable) biomass, but do not detect Archaeal FAMEs. Biomass and diversity (as estimated by FAMEs) varied strongly as a function of position in the tidal zone, not by study site; subtidal muds, Fe oxyhydroxide undergoing biogenic reductive dissolution, and peat-rich intertidal sediment had the highest values. These estimates were lowest in acid-generating, intertidal zone sediment; if valid, the estimates suggest that only one or two bacterial species predominate in these communities, and/or that Archeal species are important members of the microbial community in this sediment. All samples were dominated by bacterial FAMEs (median value >90%). Samples with the highest absolute abundance of eukaryotic FAMEs were biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides from shallow freshwater pools (fungi) and subtidal muds (diatoms). Eukaryotic FAMEs were practically absent from low-pH, sulfide-rich intertidal zone sediments. The relative abundance of general microbial functional groups such as aerobes/anaerobes and gram(+)/gram(-) was not estimated due to severe inconsistency among the results obtained using several metrics reported in the literature. Principal component analyses (PCAs) were performed to investigate the relationship among samples as separate functions of water, sediment, and FAMEs data. PCAs based on water chemistry and FAMEs data resulted in similar relations among samples, whereas the PCA based on sediment chemistry

  2. 设代参建国外水利水电工程的特点与建议%Characteristics and Suggestions of Design Representatives Participating in Foreign Water Conservancy and Hydropower Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2014-01-01

    A large number of water conservancy and hydropower enterprises provide assistant construction in foreign countries or participate in construction of water conservancy and hydropower projects in foreign countries with the continuous development of China 's water conservancy and hydropower industry. Meanwhile, many construction site design representatives (design representatives)correspondingly go abroad to construct projects in foreign countries.They should combine characteristics of foreign water conservancy and hydropower projects to improve their business skills and personal qualities as design engineers,thereby meeting the requirements of foreign project construction on design representatives. Conditions and features of design representatives participating in foreign water conservancy and hydropower projects are combined for describing and proposing experience and suggestions in the paper,which is provided as reference for design engineers,especially design representatives.%随着我国水利水电行业的不断发展,大量水利水电企业走出国门援建或参与建设国外水利水电工程,同时工地现场设计代表人员(设代)也相应大量走出去参建国外工程。作为设计工程师,应结合国外水利水电工程的特点相应提高自身的业务能力和个人素养,满足国外工程建设对设代的要求。本文对设代参建国外水利水电工程的情况和特点加以阐述并提出经验与建议,供设计工程师特别是设代参考。

  3. Atmospheric aerosols parameters behavior and its association with meteorological activities variables over western Indian tropical semi-urban site i.e., Udaipur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, B. M.; Saxenna, Abhishek; Panwar, Chhagan

    2016-05-01

    The present study has been focused to the identify the role of meteorological processes on changing the monthly variation of AOD at 550nm, Angstrom Exponent Coefficient (AEC, 440/670nm) and Cloud Effective Radius (CER, μm) measured during January, 2005 to December 2013 over western Indian location i.e., Udaipur (24.6° N, 73.7° E, 560 m amsl). The monthly variation of AOD 550nm, AEC and during entire study period have shown the strong combined influence of different local surface meteorological parameters in varying amplitude with different nature. The higher values of wind speed, ambient surface temperature, planetary boundary layer, and favorable wind direction coming from desert and oceanic region (W and SW) may be recognize as some of possible factor to exhibit the higher aerosols loading of bigger aerosol size particles in pre-monsoon. These meteorological factors seem also to be plausible responsible factors for drastically reducing the cloud effective radius in pre-monsoon season. In contrary to this, in winter, lower atmospheric aerosols burden and more abundance of fine size particles along with increasing the CER sizes also seem to be influenced and governed by the adverse nature of meteorological conditions such lowering the PBL, T, WS as well as with air pollutants transportation by wind from the N and NE region, of high aerosols loading of fine size particles as anthropogenic aerosols located far away to the observing site.

  4. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Y. K. Loyeung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site.

  5. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial

  6. Regional assessment of the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) face a constant shortage of energy supply, which limits sustained economic growth. Currently there are about 50 operational hydropower plants and about 40 more are under construction or refurbishment. The potential for future hydropower development - especially for small-scale plants in rural areas - is assumed to be large, but exact data are missing. This study supports the energy initiatives of the "ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency" (ECREEE) by assessing the hydropower potential of all rivers in West Africa. For more than 500,000 river reaches the hydropower potential was computed from channel slope and mean annual discharge. In large areas there is a lack of discharge observations. Therefore, an annual water balance model was used to simulate discharge. The model domain covers 5 Mio km², including e.g. the Niger, Volta, and Senegal River basins. The model was calibrated with observed data of 410 gauges, using precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data as inputs. Historic variations of observed annual discharge between 1950 and 2010 are simulated well by the model. As hydropower plants are investments with a lifetime of several decades we also assessed possible changes in future discharge due to climate change. To this end the water balance model was driven with bias-corrected climate projections of 15 Regional Climate Models for two emission scenarios of the CORDEX-Africa ensemble. The simulation results for the river network were up-scaled to sub-areas and national summaries. This information gives a regional quantification of the hydropower potential, expected climate change impacts, as well as a regional classification for general suitability (or non-suitability) of hydropower plant size - from small-scale to large projects.

  7. Scenario Analysis on Global Hydropower Development Paths and Their Contribution to GHG Mitigation Utilizing a Dynamic CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for 16% of the worldwide electricity power supply and 86% of the total renewable electricity energy source due to its low cost, low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and relatively high reliability. It is well known that the global hydropower has not yet been fully developed, but the future paths of development and corresponding contribution to GHG mitigation in each region combined with socioeconomic activities are less known. Here we investigated following three questions. How much will hydropower generation increase in the future? Will hydropower generation reach the economically exploitable capability (EEC)? If this will be the case, when and where will it occur? How much GHG emission will be reduced by adding new hydropower? In order to address these questions, we used the AIM/CGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to quantify the global hydropower development paths and corresponding GHG mitigation contribution for 17 regions in the world associated with a socio-economic scenario termed SSP2. We compared two scenarios with different assumptions on EEC. One is BAU which takes EEC from the report of "World Energy Resources", the other is FIX_BAU which fix EEC at the current hydropower generation amount throughout the research period (2005-2100) or no additional installation of hydropower plants. The comparison between two scenarios indicated that promoting hydropower development contributed to GHG emission reduction globally but the magnitude varied by region. For example we found that in North Africa, hydropower development grew fast because of the rapid economic development, but it reached EEC as soon as in 2040 because of limitation in EEC due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Conversely, in Brazil, it grew steadily and did not reach its abundant EEC. Consequently, GHG mitigation contribution of North Africa is far less than Brazil. This research provides important information for policy makers to

  8. Factors influencing particle number concentrations, size distributions and modal parameters at a roof-level and roadside site in Leicester, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Emily L; Young, David T; Lingard, Justin J N; Smalley, Robert J; Tate, James E; Goodman, Paul S; Tomlin, Alison S

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of urban particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 5-1000 nm were taken at elevated (roof-level) and roadside sampling sites on Narborough Road in Leicester, UK, along with simultaneous measurements of traffic, NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene concentrations and meteorological parameters. A fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of up to five modal groups present in the particle size distributions. All particle modal concentrations peaked during the morning and evening rush hours. Additional events associated with the smallest mode, that were not observed to be connected to primary emissions, were also present suggesting that this mode consisted of newly formed secondary particles. These events included peaks in concentration which coincided with peaks in solar radiation, and lower concentrations of the larger modes. Investigation into the relationships between traffic flow and occupancy indicated three flow regimes; free-flow, unstable and congested. During free-flow conditions, positive linear relationships existed between traffic flow and particle modal number concentrations. However, during unstable and congested periods, this relationship was shown to break-down. Similar trends were observed for concentrations of the gas phase pollutants NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene. Strong linear relationships existed between NO(x), CO, 1,3-butadiene concentrations, nucleation and Aitken mode concentrations at both sampling locations, indicating a local traffic related emission source. At the roadside, both nucleation and Aitken mode are best represented by a decreasing exponential function with wind speed, whereas at the roof-level this relationship only occurred for Aitken mode particles. The differing relationships at the two sampling locations are most likely due to a combination of meteorological factors and distance from the local emission source.

  9. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, L. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  10. Hydropower reservoirs: cytotoxic and genotoxic assessment using the Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Cassiano Lazarotto; Zanotelli, Patrícia; Dalegrave, Daniela; De Nez, Dinara; Szczepanik, Jozimar; Carazek, Fábio; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Siebel, Anna Maria; Magro, Jacir Dal

    2017-02-17

    Hydropower offers a reliable source of electricity in several countries, and Brazil supplies its energy needs almost entirely through hydropower plants. Nevertheless, hydropower plants comprise large buildings and water reservoirs and dams, resulting in huge ecological disruptions. Here, we analyzed the impact of four hydropower reservoirs construction in metals and pesticides incidence and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of sediment elutriate of rivers from southern Brazil. Our analyses have evidenced the elevated incidence of different metals (lead, iron, cadmium, and chrome) and pesticides (methyl parathion, atrazine, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). We showed that Allium cepa exposed to sediment elutriates did not change the seed germination rate and mitotic index. However, roots from Allium cepa exposed to reservoirs sediment elutriates showed increased occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities. Therefore, the results obtained in our study indicate that sediment from reservoirs present elevated concentration of metals and pesticides and a significant genotoxic potential. Taken together, our data support that hydropower reservoirs represent an environmental scenario that could impact surrounding wildlife and population.

  11. Estimating the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower and Power Marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently preparing an assessment of the effects of climate change on federal hydropower, as directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the Secure Water Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-11). This paper describes the assessment approach being used in a Report to Congress currently being prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The 9505 assessment will examine climate change effects on water available for hydropower operations and the future power supplies marketed from federal hydropower projects. It will also include recommendations from the Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) on potential changes in operation or contracting practices that could address these effects and risks of climate change. Potential adaption and mitigation strategies will also be identified. Federal hydropower comprises approximately half of the U.S. hydropower portfolio. The results from the 9505 assessment will promote better understanding among federal dam owners/operators of the sensitivity of their facilities to water availability, and it will provide a basis for planning future actions that will enable adaptation to climate variability and change. The end-users of information are Congressional members, their staff, the PMAs and their customers, federal dam owners/operators, and the DOE Water Power Program.

  12. Value of ecosystem hydropower service and its impact on the payment for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Wang, Y K; Xu, P; Yan, K; Li, M

    2014-02-15

    Hydropower is an important service provided by ecosystems. We surveyed all the hydropower plants in the Zagunao River Basin, Southwest China. Then, we assessed the hydropower service by using the InVEST (The Integrated Value and Tradeoff of Ecosystem Service Tools) model. Finally, we discussed the impact on ecological compensation. The results showed that: 1) hydropower service value of ecosystems in the Zagunao River Basin is 216.29 Euro/hm(2) on the average, of which the high-value area with more than 475.65 Euro/hm(2) is about 750.37 km(2), accounting for 16.12% of the whole watershed, but it provides 53.47% of the whole watershed service value; 2) ecosystem is an ecological reservoir with a great regulation capacity. Dams cannot completely replace the reservoir water conservation function of ecosystems, and has high economic and environmental costs that must be paid as well. Compensation for water conservation services should become an important basis for ecological compensation of hydropower development. 3) In the current PES cases, the standard of compensation is generally low. Cascade development makes the value of upstream ecosystem services become more prominent, reflecting the differential rent value, and the value of ecosystem services should be based on the distribution of differentiated ecological compensation.

  13. 长距离胶带机在水电工程砂石料系统工程中的应用%Application of Long-distance Rubber Belt Conveyor in Aggregate & Sand Processing System of Hydropower Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    文章从长距离胶带机的设计、施工要求及在国内外各个工地的砂石料生产中的应用等方面,对长距离胶带机的使用进行综合性比较,论证了长距离胶机在水电工程中应用的推广意义。%Application of the long-distance rubber belt conveyor is comprehensively compared, and the development significance of the conveyor in the hydropower projects is demonstrated in terms of its design, construction requirements and its applications in the aggregate&sand processing operation on the hydropower projects site both at home and abroad.

  14. Small hydropower station Duennern Olten, Switzerland; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Munzingerareal, Duennern Olten. Vorprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, P.

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Olten, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to build a new hydropower installation on the Duennern stream in which the approximately 10 metres difference in height is to be used to generate around 1.6 GWh of power annually using a 345 kW turbine. The present situation is described as far as the existing channelled stream, water quantities and concessions, land ownership etc. are concerned. Four variants for the realisation of the new hydropower installation are presented and discussed. The report recommends a single variant that should be further studied and lists details of the project, including plans and cost estimates.

  15. Prediction for supersaturated total dissolved gas in high-dam hydropower projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The supersaturated total dissolved gas(TDG)generated during high dam spills may cause gas bubble disease for fish and ultimately endanger their existence.As more and more high-dam hydropower projects have been constructed in China,the environmental assessment of the supersaturated TDG is becoming more and more important.It is of great importance for quantitative impact assessment of the supersaturated TDG of high dams and for the construction of ecological friendly high-dam hydropower projects.Based on the conceptual summarization of the TDG production process,the TDG prediction model for high-dam projects,in which the ski-jump energy dissipation is adopted,is developed in the paper.The model is validated by field data and employed in the TDG prediction of a high-dam hydropower project to be built in southwest China.

  16. Estimating the future ice sheet hydropower potential in Paakitsoq, Ilulissat, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Mottram, R.H.; Nielsen, C.

    2008-01-01

    long-term investment for an Arctic community of modest population. Here we present a new bedrock and surface map of the Paakitsoq/Swiss Camp part of the Greenland ice sheet and a prediction of the future discharge up to 2080 AD using regional climate model output, dynamic ice sheet modelling......Meltwater running off the Greenland ice sheet yield significant hydropower potentials in catchments bordering the ice sheet, especially in West and South Greenland. Hydropower has been chosen as the most desired source of energy by the Greenland Home Rule, but recent changes in the Greenland ice...... sheet has emphasized the risk of sudden changes in catchment supply. In this study, we present a thorough investigation of hydropower feasibility at the Paakitsoq basin, near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The catchment is completely dominated by the Greenland ice sheet which provides large quantities...

  17. 浅析期权理论在水利水电工程中的应用%Analysis on the application of Option Theory in Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代冰

    2012-01-01

    对期权理论进行了较为详细的论述,分析了水利水电工程项目实物期权的种类以及解释了B-S公式涉及到的参数在金融期权、实物期权、水利水电项目中实际含义,然后,重点针对水利水电工程方案经济评价,在理论上探讨增长期权如何具体运用,并构建出增长期权模型,对模型中参数的求取作出量化说明。%This paper discussed the option theory in detail, and analyzed the types of real options in Hydropower Projects, and explained B-S formula and its actual meaning of its related parameters in the financial options, real options, water conservancy and hydropower project; then, it explored how to grow option specific application, and build a growth options model to quantify the parameters calculation in the model, focusing on economic Evaluation of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering program in theory.

  18. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  19. A methodology to quantify and optimize time complementarity between hydropower and solar PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Szabó, Sándor; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Huld, Thomas; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower and solar energy are expected to play a major role in achieving renewable energy sources' (RES) penetration targets. However, the integration of RES in the energy mix needs to overcome the technical challenges that are related to grid's operation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to explore approaches where different RES will operate under a synergetic approach. Ideally, hydropower and solar PV systems can be jointly developed in such systems where their electricity output profiles complement each other as much as possible and minimize the need for reserve capacities and storage costs. A straightforward way to achieve that is by optimizing the complementarity among RES systems both over time and spatially. The present research developed a methodology that quantifies the degree of time complementarity between small-scale hydropower stations and solar PV systems and examines ways to increase it. The methodology analyses high-resolution spatial and temporal data for solar radiation obtained from the existing PVGIS model (available online at: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/) and associates it with hydrological information of water inflows to a hydropower station. It builds on an exhaustive optimization algorithm that tests possible alterations of the PV system installation (azimuth, tilt) aiming to increase the complementarity, with minor compromises in the total solar energy output. The methodology has been tested in several case studies and the results indicated variations among regions and different hydraulic regimes. In some cases a small compromise in the solar energy output showed significant increases of the complementarity, while in other cases the effect is not that strong. Our contribution aims to present these findings in detail and initiate a discussion on the role and gains of increased complementarity between solar and hydropower energies. Reference: Kougias I, Szabó S, Monforti-Ferrario F, Huld T, Bódis K (2016). A methodology for

  20. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  1. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Bonnet Acosta, Marisol [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Mobley, Miles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  2. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are an important source of renewable energy for many countries in Europe. In Switzerland, for instance, they represent the most important domestic source of renewable energy (around 55%). However, future hydropower production may be threatened by unprecedented challenges, such as a decreasing water availability, due to climate change (CC) and associated glacier retreat, and uncertain operating conditions, such as future power needs and highly fluctuating demand on the energy market. This second aspect has gained increasingly relevance since the massive introduction of solar and wind generating systems in the portfolios of many European countries. Because hydropower systems have the potential to provide backup storage of energy to compensate for fluctuations that are typical, for instance, of solar and wind generation systems, it is important to investigate how the increased demand for flexible operation, together with climate change challenge and fluctuating markets, can impact their operating policies. The Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (www.sccer-soe.ch) has been recently established to explore new potential paths for the development of future power generation systems. In this context, we develop modelling and optimization tools to design and assess new operation strategies for hydropower systems to increase their reliability, flexibility, and robustness to future operation conditions. In particular, we develop an advanced modelling framework for the integrated simulation of the operation of hydropower plants, which accounts for CC-altered streamflow regimes, new demand and market conditions, as well as new boundary conditions for operation (e.g., aquatic ecosystem conservation). The model construction consists of two primary components: a physically based and spatially distributed hydrological model, which describes the relevant hydrological processes at the basin scale, and an agent based decision model, which

  3. Role of hydropower development for improving energy mix with reference to India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, P.C.

    2010-09-15

    With more than 70% of the electricity requirement in India being contributed from thermal sources and various issues and problems such as peaking shortage, low PLF operation of many thermal generating stations etc., there is an urgent need to review the prevailing energy mix. Hydropower potential is abundantly available to the tune of about 148,700 MW and more than 75% of which remaining untapped and with all the inherent advantages associated with hydropower, the energy mix can be improved by the development of the balance huge potential.

  4. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    analysis is presented based on small signal models of the hybrid PV-HP microgrid, including 2 MWp PV station, 15.2 MWh battery storage system, and 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Simulation results of the microgrid and experimental results on a scaled-down laboratory prototype verify the effectiveness......Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources...

  5. Application of Standard Penetration Test(SPT)in Hydro-power Projects in Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang xiaoqiang; Wanglei

    2010-01-01

    For the Past two years,our institute has accomplished the Geo-technical investigation of Kajbar,Shereik,Sabaloka,Dal,Dagash,and Mograt Hydro-power Project etc.in Republic of Sudan.Based on the experiences in Dagash Hydro-power Project,this article elaborates on the operation & application of SPT in above mentioned 6projects and points out the differences from domestic operation of the test,by which,we hope to contribute to the sharing and communication of knowledge.[Kew Words]Sudan,Dam,Standard Penetration Test(SPT),differences.

  6. Development of New, Low-Head Hydropower Turbine - Modeling & Laboratory Test DE-EE0005426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krouse, Wayne [Hydro Green Energy, Westmont, IL (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Hydro Green Energy, LLC (HGE) will complete the design, fabrication and laboratory testing of a scaled, vertically stackable, low-head hydropower turbine called the Modular Bulb Turbine (MBT). HGE will also complete a summary report that includes the laboratory testing results and analysis of the tests. Project Goals: Design, model and test modular bulb turbine for installation in numerous HGE low-head hydropower projects at non-powered USACE dams. Project Results: The sub-scale prototype was tested successfully at a leading US hydraulic laboratory. Laboratory data results agreed well with predicted results from numerical modeling.

  7. Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, Byman H.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is

  8. Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, Byman H.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is

  9. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  10. Hydropower research programme 2008 - 2011; Forschungsprogramm Wasserkraft 2008 - 2011. Schlussbericht zur Entwicklung eines Forschungsprogramms. Aktualisierte Fortschreibung vom September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    2007-07-01

    This revised final report on the development of a research programme for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the proposals for the development of a concept for Swiss hydropower research activities for the period 2008 - 2011. According to the authors, the new research programme will not only include activities in the small hydropower area, but rather all aspects of hydropower usage, including dams and large hydropower stations. The results of a survey made concerning research and further education in the hydropower area are discussed. These results formed the basis of the new concept. The report also presents a review of the present situation with regard to hydrological questions and dams as well as mechanical and electrical equipment. The education and training of professionals is looked at and national and international co-operation in the hydropower area is also discussed. Future developments are looked at, as are the economic aspects of the use of hydropower. Measures to be taken in the research area are proposed.

  11. Evaluation of Power Generation Efficiency of Cascade Hydropower Plants: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Wei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of scarce water resources has presented a significant challenge to respond to the needs created by rapid economic growth in China. In this study, the efficiency of the joint operation of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba cascade hydropower plants in terms of power generation was evaluated on the basis of a precise simulation-optimization technique. The joint operation conditions of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba hydropower plants between 2004 and 2010 were utilized in this research in order to investigate the major factors that could affect power output of the cascade complex. The results showed that the current power output of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba cascade complex had already reached around 90% of the maximum theoretical value. Compared to other influencing factors evaluated in this study, the accuracy of hydrological forecasts and flood control levels can have significant impact on the power generating efficiency, whereas the navigation has a minor influence. This research provides a solid quantitative-based methodology to assess the operation efficiency of cascade hydropower plants, and more importantly, proposes potential methods that could improve the operation efficiency of cascade hydropower plants.

  12. Cascade 1 Hydropower Station Implemented on Woka River in Tibet of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On October 12,2000 the representatives from all sides formally signed at the acceptance test for implementing cascade 1 hydropower station on Woka River in Tibet, which marks that the second largest one of China's national 62 assisting-Tibet projects is fully succeeded.

  13. Dilemmas of hydropower development in Vietnam : between dam-induced displacement and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ty, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to explain the controversies related to hydropower development in Vietnam in order to make policy recommendations for equitable and sustainable development. This book focuses on the analysis of emerging issues, such as land acquisition, compensation for losses, displacement

  14. Scenario based learning regarding contested articulations of sustainability: The example of hydropower and Sweden's energy future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.F.; Petrik, O.; Parandian, A.; Grondahl, F.

    2012-01-01

    Providing electricity from renewable sources is of key importance both to reduce depletion of fossil fuels and reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses. Many of the renewable energy technologies are not ideal for electricity networks. Reservoir hydropower is one of the most ideal renewable sources as i

  15. Assessing Climate Impacts on Hydropower Production: The Case of the Toce River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ravazzani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study is to assess the impacts of climate change on hydropower production of the Toce Alpine river basin in Italy. For the meteorological forcing of future scenarios, time series were generated by applying a quantile-based error-correction approach to downscale simulations from two regional climate models to point scale. Beside a general temperature increase, climate models simulate an increase of mean annual precipitation distributed over spring, autumn and winter, and a significant decrease in summer. A model of the hydropower system was driven by discharge time series for future scenarios, simulated with a spatially distributed hydrological model, with the simulation goal of defining the reservoirs management rule that maximizes the economic value of the hydropower production. The assessment of hydropower production for future climate till 2050 respect to current climate (2001–2010 showed an increase of production in autumn, winter and spring, and a reduction in June and July. Significant change in the reservoir management policy is expected due to anticipation of the date when the maximum volume of stored water has to be reached and an increase of the reservoir drawdown during August and September to prepare storage capacity for autumn inflows.

  16. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  17. Hydropower-induced land use change in Fincha's watershed, werstern Ethiopia: analysis and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.O.; Sterk, G.

    2008-01-01

    The present article analyzes the land use dynamics caused by hydropower dam construction in 1973 in the Fincha'a watershed (1318 km2), a tributary of the Blue Nile. Aerial photos (1957 and 1980) and an ASTER satellite image of 2001 were used to make 3 land use maps of the watershed using a geographi

  18. The degree of rationality in actual bidding of hydropower at Nord Pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Erik Nicholas; Grøndahl, Roger; Fleten, Stein-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's generation in day-ahead auctions. We analyse bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profi...

  19. 78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 5, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice...

  20. 78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 3, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice...

  1. Hydropower Production in Future Climate Scenarios; the Case for the Zambezi River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byman H. Hamududu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change remains a threat to water resources projects in southern Africa where impacts resulting from changes in climate are projected to be negative and worse than in most other regions of the world. This work presents an assessment of the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower production potential in the Zambezi River Basin. Future climate scenarios projected through the five General Circulation Model (GCM outputs are used as input in the impact assessment. The future projected climate scenarios are downscaled to find local and regional changes, and used in the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV hydrological model to assess climate change impacts on water resources in the river basin. According to the simulations, air temperature and potential evaporation are projected to increase, while rainfall is projected to decrease. The Zambezi hydropower system is likely to be affected negatively as a result of future climate changes. Increasing air temperature leading to increased evaporation, and reduced rainfall, both contribute to a decrease in resulting river flows and increased reservoir evaporation. Consequently, the decrease in water resources will lead to decreased hydropower production potential, by 9% in 2020s, 18% in 2050s and 28% in 2080s in the hydropower system, for a medium emission scenario, A1B.

  2. Lessons for the fragility of Canadian hydropower components under seismic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Adams, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Geophysics Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the vulnerability of hydropower components in Canada to earthquake excitations. The failure of a dam would have serious consequences to people, community structures and the environment. In addition, damage to electric power components would result in a disruption of power supply, resulting in indirect economic losses. The components considered in this study were the dam, power plant, switchyards and transmission towers. Each component was characterized by different damage potential represented by fragility curves. The components of each system were assumed to have the same seismic hazard and soil condition as the dam. The seismic vulnerability for a given hydropower component was estimated by combining the probabilities of different levels of the seismic hazard at the component location, with the damage probabilities of the component corresponding to the seismic hazard levels considered. The most recent seismic hazard model developed by the Geological Survey of Canada was used in the calculation of the seismic hazard. The seismic vulnerability for each component was expressed by the damage probability as a function of peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the seismic motions. The most vulnerable components of a hydropower system, when subjected to seismic motions, were found to be the switchyards and the power plants, particularly when PGA was between 0.1g and 0.35g. The damage probabilities expressed as a function of PGA were appropriate values for the vulnerability ranking of hydropower systems. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  4. Mini and Small Hydropower in Europe——Development and Market Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoachimLeckscheidt; TjarintoS.Tjaroko

    2004-01-01

    For centuries, Small HydroPower (SHP) has been an importantsource of energy in all Europeancountries possessing waterpotentials. With the invention of moresophisticated turbines in the twenti-eth century, mini and small hydroplants were used for electricity gen-eration and became the main source

  5. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  6. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  7. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously to water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close to natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  8. The Second Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ashfaq, Moetasim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Naz, Bibi S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rastogi, Deeksha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mei, Rui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jager, Yetta [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Samu, Nicole M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the US renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power system. Ensuring the sustainable operation of existing hydropower facilities is of great importance to the US renewable energy portfolio and the reliability of electricity grid. As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act (SWA) of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, has prepared a second quinquennial report on examining the potential effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Technical Memorandum, referred to as the 9505 assessment, describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SWA. To evaluate the potential climate change effects on 132 federal hydropower plants across the entire US, a spatially consistent assessment approach is designed to enable an interregional comparison. This assessment uses a series of models and methods with different spatial resolutions to gradually downscale the global climate change signals into watershed-scale hydrologic projections to support hydropower impact assessment. A variety of historic meteorological and hydrologic observations, hydropower facility characteristics, and geospatial datasets is collected to support model development, calibration, and verification. Among most of the federal hydropower plants throughout the US, the most important climate change effect on hydrology is likely to be the trend toward earlier snowmelt and change of runoff seasonality. Under the projections of increasing winter/spring runoff and decreasing summer/fall runoff, water resource managers may need to consider different water use allocations. With the

  9. Socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development on the Yibin-Chongqing section, upper reaches of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Liu, Yu; Wang, Hao; Yan, Deng Hua; Lv, Ying Kang; Yang, Zhaohui

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development to reflect its positive functions from multiple perspectives and dimensions. By applying the multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to a case study of the Yibin-Chongqing section along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, the analysis shows that hydropower development has outstanding benefits for the regional economy and livelihood improvement, as proved by various indicators including consumption, investment, GDP, employment, and income. Meanwhile, application of the CGE model provides an effective way to quantitatively assess the socioeconomic impact of hydropower and other clean energy development.

  10. Bifurcation analysis of hydro-turbine regulating system with saturation nonlinearity for hydropower station with upstream and downstream surge chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. P.; Yang, J. D.; Guo, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    A nonlinear mathematical model of hydraulic turbine regulating system is applied to describe hydropower stations with upstream and downstream surge chambers. This model features saturation nonlinearity including pipeline system and turbine regulating system used in stability analysis. First, the existence conditions and direction of Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Second, based on the algebraic criteria for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation, the stability domain is drawn in a coordinate system, where the proportional gain Kp is the abscissa and the integral gain Ki is the ordinate. Third, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a regulating system with different state parameters are analyzed, and the variations of the system stability around the two sides of the bifurcation point are numerically calculated. Based on this work we conclude that the Hopf bifurcation of system is supercritical. The bifurcation parameters that are far from the bifurcation point would be advantageous to the rapid system regulation needed to sustain equilibrium. Furthermore, it is established that using a PID controller is more conducive to stability than a PI controller. The unit stability regulation gets worse by taking into account the saturation nonlinearity.

  11. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  12. Short duration, perennial grasses in low rainfall sites in Montana: Deriving growth parameters and simulating with a process-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland grasses in the arid western U.S. must grow quickly, set seed, and senesce in a relatively short timeframe in order to survive and reproduce when the limited soil moisture is available. In addition, rangeland management in arid sites can benefit from process-based simulation tools to optim...

  13. Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in soil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) to specific parameters of the observation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.; Gujer, E.; Zennegg, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bucheli, T. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Soils are natural sinks for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Being lipophilic compounds, these contaminants adsorb to the organic carbon of the soil, and due to the low mobility and high persistence, they accumulate in the soil. Soil therefore represents rather a long-term archive for the atmospheric deposition than an indicator for the actual input of these compounds. In 1986, on demand of the Swiss ordinance of 9 June 1986 relating to hazardous substances in the soil, a national soil monitoring network (NABO) was set up in Switzerland aiming at monitoring the soil pollution. Sites were selected to reflect typical land use, vegetation, land management, air quality, and soil conditions in Switzerland. 50% of the sites are located on agricultural land, 30% in forests, and 20% on open land with extensive farming (alpine pastures, etc.); two sites are situated in urban parks. The sites are distributed throughout Switzerland including rural/remote areas as well as urban, urban fringe and industrial regions. Soil samples are taken every 5 years and are analysed for eight heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, chromium, cobalt, and mercury) as well as fluorine. So far, organic pollutants (PAH and PCB) have been determined in isolated samples only, and there is no data on PCDD/F concentrations so far. The present program was set up to fill this knowledge gap. A subset of 23 sites representing locations where contaminant immissions above average were expected was selected for PCDD/F and PCB analysis.

  14. Magnetic properties of lithium rare-earth fluorides: Ferromagnetism in LiErF4 and LiHoF4 and crystal-field parameters at the rare-earth and Li sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. E.; Johansson, Torben; Nevald, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    was observed, but extrapolation indicates that below 0.5 K it will be ferromagnetic with the magnetic moments in the crytalline ab plane. From the susceptibilities the crystal-field parameters Bnm with (n, m)=(2, 0), (4, 0), (4, 4), (6, 0), (6, 4) have been extracted giving for Er3+ in LiErF4: 430., -985......-order crystal-field parameters at the Li site: q=0.0363, 0.0354, and 0.0343 Å-3 for the Er, Ho, and Tb compound, respectively. The crystal-field parameters are compared to values calculated from point charges, showing agreement at the Li sites but not at the rare earth sites.......Single crystals of LiErF4 and LiHoF4 have been grown and their magnetic properties measured from 1.3 K to 300 K. LiHoF4 turned out to be a nearly ideal Ising ferromagnet with TC=1.30±0.05 K and a saturation magnetization along the crystalline c axis of (6.98±0.02)μB. In LiErF4 no ordering...

  15. A theoretical study on the characteristics of the intermolecular interactions in the active site of human androsterone sulphotransferase: DFT calculations of NQR and NMR parameters and QTAIM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, Elahe K; Heshmati, Emran; Chen, Chun-Jung; Hadipour, Nasser L

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical study at the level of density functional theory (DFT) was performed to characterize noncovalent intermolecular interactions, especially hydrogen bond interactions, in the active site of enzyme human androsterone sulphotransferase (SULT2A1/ADT). Geometry optimization, interaction energy, (2)H, (14)N, and (17)O electric field gradient (EFG) tensors, (1)H, (13)C, (17)O, and (15)N chemical shielding (CS) tensors, Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) analysis, and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis of this active site were investigated. It was found that androsterone (ADT) is able to form hydrogen bonds with residues Ser80, Ile82, and His99 of the active site. The interaction energy calculations and NBO analysis revealed that the ADT molecule forms the strongest hydrogen bond with Ser80. Results revealed that ADT interacts with the other residues through electrostatic and Van der Waals interactions. Results showed that these hydrogen bonds influence on the calculated (2)H, (14)N, and (17)O quadrupole coupling constants (QCCs), as well as (1)H, (13)C, (17)O, and (15)N CS tensors. The magnitude of the QCC and CS changes at each nucleus depends directly on its amount of contribution to the hydrogen bond interaction.

  16. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  17. Two-Phased Approach to Synchronize the FERC-USACE Processes for Authorizing Non-Federal Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-01

    Publication summarizing how the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Federal Regulatory Energy Commission (FERC) have developed a two-phased, coordinated approach to regulating non-federal hydropower projects.

  18. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  19. Failures during Load-Frequency Control Maneuvers in an Upgraded Hydropower Plant: Causes, Identification of Causes and Solution Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I. Pérez-Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the cause of several unexpected high amplitude oscillations that occurred in the surge tank water level of a real hydropower plant during secondary load-frequency control (LFC maneuvers, after the replacement of the turbine runner, and to propose solutions that allow the power plant to continue providing secondary LFC in a safe and reliable manner. For this purpose, a simulation model has been developed and calibrated from data gathered during several on-site tests. Two different solutions are proposed in order to cope with the observed problem: using a state-dependent load change rate limiter or modifying the hydro turbine governor gains; the turbine governor remains the same as before the runner replacement. The proposed solutions are tested against a set of realistic secondary LFC signals by means of simulations and compared to each other as a function of the probability that the surge tank water level descends below a minimum safe level and the quality of the secondary LFC response. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the validity of the methodology proposed to determine the state-dependent ramp limit, as well as its effectiveness to prevent the surge tank drawdown and to provide clear insight into the trade-off between response quality and power plant safety.

  20. Hydropower assessment of Bolivia—A multisource satellite data and hydrologic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Pervez, Shahriar; Cushing, W. Matthew

    2016-11-28

    This study produced a geospatial database for use in a decision support system by the Bolivian authorities to investigate further development and investment potentials in sustainable hydropower in Bolivia. The study assessed theoretical hydropower of all 1-kilometer (km) stream segments in the country using multisource satellite data and a hydrologic modeling approach. With the assessment covering the 2 million square kilometer (km2) region influencing Bolivia’s drainage network, the potential hydropower figures are based on theoretical yield assuming that the systems generating the power are 100 percent efficient. There are several factors to consider when determining the real-world or technical power potential of a hydropower system, and these factors can vary depending on local conditions. Since this assessment covers a large area, it was necessary to reduce these variables to the two that can be modeled consistently throughout the region, streamflow or discharge, and elevation drop or head. First, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission high-resolution 30-meter (m) digital elevation model was used to identify stream segments with greater than 10 km2 of upstream drainage. We applied several preconditioning processes to the 30-m digital elevation model to reduce errors and improve the accuracy of stream delineation and head height estimation. A total of 316,500 1-km stream segments were identified and used in this study to assess the total theoretical hydropower potential of Bolivia. Precipitation observations from a total of 463 stations obtained from the Bolivian Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (Bolivian National Meteorology and Hydrology Service) and the Brazilian Agência Nacional de Águas (Brazilian National Water Agency) were used to validate six different gridded precipitation estimates for Bolivia obtained from various sources. Validation results indicated that gridded precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

  1. 精密修复工艺在喜河水电站的应用%Application of Precise Remedy Technology in Xihe Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新

    2015-01-01

    针对喜河水电站机组接力器在运行过程中出现的损坏漏油现象,客观地分析了活塞杆损坏的原因,提出了运用精密修复工艺现场修复的方法,提高了工作效率,降低了成本。%Concerning oil leakage of servomotor during operation in Xihe Hydropower Plant, causes for the rod damage are analyzed objective-ly.The precise remedy technology is proposed for repair at site.This improves work efficiency and reduces cost.

  2. 水电机组一次调频性能优化研究%Optimization of Primary Frequency Control Performance of Hydropower Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓光; 李小军; 唐戢群

    2016-01-01

    为满足电网对水电机组一次调频的要求,对水电机组一次调频典型问题及影响因素进行了分析。提出了一种水电机组一次调频性能的优化方法,详细分析了水轮机调速器开度控制模式和功率控制模式下的 PID 参数优化方法,提出根据偏差变化自行调整 PID 参数大小,并改变一次调频计算死区,同时针对一次调频和 AGC 协调控制策略提出了合理建议。研究结果表明:以功率调节作为优先控制模式,可保证一次调频与 AGC 的有机统一;通过调速系统硬件改造及内部程序实现,可完成一次调频性能优化和改进。经600 MW 水电机组实际工程验证,一次调频性能得到改善,对水电机组一次调频性能优化有一定的借鉴意义。%In order to meet power grid’s requirement of primary frequency regulation (PFR) of hydropower unit, we analyze the typical problems and influencing factors of PFR , and present a method of optimizing the PFR perform -ance of hydropower unit.The method of optimizing PID parameters of hydraulic turbine governor is analyzed in de -tail.We propose to adjust the PID parameters according to the range of the deviation , and to change the dead band of the PFR calculation.Furthermore, we put forward some suggestions for PFR and AGC (Automation generator control) coordination control.Power regulation mode used as a priority control mode could guarantee the coordina -tion between PFR and AGC.Through hardware modification and internal program of governor , the PFR performance is optimized and improved.The method is applied to a hydropower unit of 600MW for verification, and the result suggests that the PFR performance is improved .

  3. The Influence of Earth Temperature on the Dynamic Characteristics of Frozen Soil and the Parameters of Ground Motion on Sites of Permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanmin; Zhang Dongli; Wu Zhijian; Ma Wei; Li Xiaojun

    2004-01-01

    Earth temperature is one of the most important factors influencing the mechanical properties of frozen soil. Based on the field investigation of the characteristics of ground deformation and ground failure caused by the Ms8.1 earthquake in the west of the Kuniun Mountain Pass,China, the influence of temperature on the dynamic constitutive relationship, dynamic elastic modulus, damping ratio and dynamic strength of frozen soil was quantitatively studied by means of the dynamic triaxial test. Moreover, the characteristics of ground motion on a permafrost site under different temperatures were analyzed for the four profiles of permafrost along the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Railway using the time histories of ground motion acceleration with 3 exceedance probabilities of the Kunlun Mountains area. The influences of temperature on the seismic displacement, velocity, acceleration and response spectrum on permafrost ground were studied quantitatively. A scientific basis was presented for earthquake disaster mitigation for engineering foundations, highways and underground engineering in permafrost areas.

  4. Transient Simulations in Hydropower Stations Based on a Novel Turbine Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most accidents in hydropower stations happened during transient processes; thus, simulation of these processes is important for station design and safety operation. This study establishes a mathematical model of the transient process in hydropower stations and presents a new method to calculate the hydraulic turbine boundary based on an error function of the rotational speed. The mathematical derivation shows that the error function along the equal-opening characteristic curve is monotonic and has opposite signs at the two sides, which means that a unique solution exists to make the error function null. Thus, iteration of the transient simulation is unique and monotonous, which avoids iterative convergence or false solution and improves the solution efficiency compared with traditional methods. Simulation of an engineering case illustrates that the results obtained by the error function are reasonable. Then, the accuracy and feasibility of the mathematical model using the proposed solution are verified by comparison with model and field tests.

  5. Sustainable hydropower in Lower Mekong Countries: Technical assessment and training travel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through their partnership with the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), requested the support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide specialized technical assistance as part of the Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong (SIM) Program in Thailand. Introduced in July 2013 by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, SIM is a U.S. Government Inter-Agency program that provides Lower Mekong partner countries with targeted, demand-driven technical and scientific assistance to support environmentally sound, climate conscious and socially equitable infrastructure, clean energy development, and water resources optimization. The U.S. Government is committed to supporting sustainable economic development within the region by providing tools, best practices, technical assistance, and lessons learned for the benefit of partner countries. In response to a request from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), a SIM project was developed with two main activities: 1) to promote hydropower sustainability and efficiency through technical assessment training at two existing hydropower assets in Thailand, and 2) the design and implementation of one national and two or three regional science and policy workshops, to be co-hosted with EGAT, to build common understanding of and commitment to environmental and social safeguards for Mekong Basin hydropower projects. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the technical assessment (Activity 1), and has contracted ORNL to provide expert technical assistance focused on increasing efficiency at existing projects, with the goal of increasing renewable energy generation at little to no capital cost. ORNL is the leading national laboratory in hydropower analysis, with a nationally recognized and highly qualified team of scientists addressing small to large-scale systems (basin-, regional-, and national-scale) energy generation optimization analysis for DOE. The

  6. New seismic array solution for earthquake observations and hydropower plant health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovskaya, Galina N.; Kapustian, Natalya K.; Moshkunov, Alexander I.; Danilov, Alexey V.; Moshkunov, Konstantin A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the novel fusion of seismic safety monitoring data of the hydropower plant in Chirkey (Caucasus Mountains, Russia). This includes new hardware solutions and observation methods, along with technical limitations for three types of applications: (a) seismic monitoring of the Chirkey reservoir area, (b) structure monitoring of the dam, and (c) monitoring of turbine vibrations. Previous observations and data processing for health monitoring do not include complex data analysis, while the new system is more rational and less expensive. The key new feature of the new system is remote monitoring of turbine vibration. A comparison of the data obtained at the test facilities and by hydropower plant inspection with remote sensors enables early detection of hazardous hydrodynamic phenomena.

  7. Water Power: The “Hydropower Discourse” of China in an Age of Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-ching Bellette Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As the world searches for renewable energy in the face of climate change and China attempts to expand its power supply to further its economic development, hydroelectricity has moved to the top of the country’s energy agenda. This has given rise to a new form of  “hydropower discourse” in China. The discourse is underpinned by the ideas of environmental protection and sustainable development, which are widely perceived as unobjectionable in view of the current availability of resources. This article argues that the apparent ethical pursuit of renewable energy by building dams to generate electricity masks relations of dominance and helps to enable large energy companies, political leaders, and regional decision makers to pursue their interests against those who have limited or no access to the knowledge and capital employed in the development process. It will examine the ideological assumptions and institutional rootedness of hydropower discourse, and the power relations embedded in it.

  8. Providing security for automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Y. S.; Zegzhda, P. D.; Zegzhda, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    This article suggests the concept of a cyberphysical system to manage computer security of automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities. According to the authors, this system consists of a set of information processing tools and computer-controlled physical devices. Examples of cyber attacks on power engineering facilities are provided, and a strategy of improving cybersecurity of hydropower engineering systems is suggested. The architecture of the multilevel protection of the automated process control system (APCS) of power engineering facilities is given, including security systems, control systems, access control, encryption, secure virtual private network of subsystems for monitoring and analysis of security events. The distinctive aspect of the approach is consideration of interrelations and cyber threats, arising when SCADA is integrated with the unified enterprise information system.

  9. Hydropower potential in the Neckar river basin; Potenziale der Wasserkraft im Einzugsgebiet des Neckars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, Johannes [Buero am Fluss e.V., Wendlingen am Neckar (Germany); Dussling, Uwe [Buero Gewaesser und Fisch, Eriskirch (Germany); Heimerl, Stephan [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The state of Baden-Wuerttemberg commissioned a study on how the existing and further use of hydropower within the Neckar river basin could be harmonised with ecological upgrading. The method adopted took account oft he environmental objectives embodied in the European Water Framework Directive on water policy and used a wide range of ecological, hydrological and technical data. All potentia Is of at least 8 kW were identified. The economic efficiency was also studied based on current remuneration rates under the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). The additional technical/economic/ecological hydropower potential in the Neckar river basin amounts to between 27 and 25 MW, equal to additional annual energy of between around 121 to 103 GWh/a. Around ten per cent of this amount is probably economically attractive. (orig.)

  10. Projecting hydropower production under future climates: a review of modelling challenges and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is a pillar for renewable electricity production in almost all world regions. The planning horizon of major hydropower infrastructure projects stretches over several decades and consideration of evolving climatic conditions plays an ever increasing role. This review of model-based climate change impact assessments provides a synthesis of the wealth of underlying modelling assumptions, highlights the importance of local factors and attempts to identify the most urgent open questions. Based on existing case studies, it critically discusses whether current hydro-climatic modelling frameworks are likely to provide narrow enough water scenario ranges to be included into economic analyses for end-to-end climate change impact assessments including electricity market models. This will be completed with an overview of not or indirectly climate-related boundary conditions, such as economic growth, legal constraints, national subsidy frameworks or growing competition for water, which might locally largely outweigh any climate change impacts.

  11. EVACUATION SYSTEMS OF SCREW-TYPE WATER TURBINES IN SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evacuation solutions of hydroelectric power set applied in a screw-type turbine in Small Hydropower Plant (SHP. The article compares the solutions applied in Poland and other European countries in the yield of green energy from the water sector. Innovative solutions of the turbine safety problem in hydro building development in case of flood waters of rivers in Poland.

  12. Stream Classification Tool User Manual: For Use in Applications in Hydropower-Related Evironmental Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Troia, Matthew J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Samu, Nicole M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Stream classifications are an inventory of different types of streams. Classifications help us explore similarities and differences among different types of streams, make inferences regarding stream ecosystem behavior, and communicate the complexities of ecosystems. We developed a nested, layered, and spatially contiguous stream classification to characterize the biophysical settings of stream reaches within the Eastern United States (~ 900,000 reaches). The classification is composed of five natural characteristics (hydrology, temperature, size, confinement, and substrate) along with several disturbance regime layers, and each was selected because of their relevance to hydropower mitigation. We developed the classification at the stream reach level using the National Hydrography Dataset Plus Version 1 (1:100k scale). The stream classification is useful to environmental mitigation for hydropower dams in multiple ways. First, it creates efficiency in the regulatory process by creating an objective and data-rich means to address meaningful mitigation actions. Secondly, the SCT addresses data gaps as it quickly provides an inventory of hydrology, temperature, morphology, and ecological communities for the immediate project area, but also surrounding streams. This includes identifying potential reference streams as those that are proximate to the hydropower facility and fall within the same class. These streams can potentially be used to identify ideal environmental conditions or identify desired ecological communities. In doing so, the stream provides some context for how streams may function, respond to dam regulation, and an overview of specific mitigation needs. Herein, we describe the methodology in developing each stream classification layer and provide a tutorial to guide applications of the classification (and associated data) in regulatory settings, such as hydropower (re)licensing.

  13. Small Hydropower Contributes to Poverty Reduction and Rural Integrated Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXIALEI

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 50 add years, outstanding achievements have been made in the development of rural small hydropower (SLIP) and electrification in China. By the end of 2003,42,221 SHP plants with a total installed capacity of 28,489 MW have been constructed and under operation.Half of the country's territory, and one quarter of population of the whole nation are now accessible to SHP.

  14. Managing sustainable development conflicts: the impact of stakeholders in small-scale hydropower schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S; Williams, Ian D; Harwood, Ian A

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development.

  15. Managing Sustainable Development Conflicts: The Impact of Stakeholders in Small-Scale Hydropower Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S.; Williams, Ian D.; Harwood, Ian A.

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development.

  16. Operation Analysis on T&D Equipment in Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the Yangtze Three Gorges water conservancy complex. It describes the power transmission and distribution equipment in the Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station, especially large high-voltage distribution devices. It elaborates the measures for suppressing GIS over-voltage and the tests on VFTO, besides technical measures to ensure safety and stability of power system in the station. It also makes some analyses and summaries about the problems encountered in operation of the equipment.

  17. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  18. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  19. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  20. Enhancing Development Benefits to Local Communities from Hydropower Projects : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The World Bank began a three-year pilot initiative to develop a framework for enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects. There has been a wide array of approaches in the past two decades that all have in common the objective of designing and implementing means and mechanisms to ensure local communities a more equitable share of project benefits. The World B...

  1. Impact assessment of Norwegian hydropower on freshwater fish species - an LCA approach

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for the total environmental impacts associated with energy technologies are becoming increasingly important due to large scale development of renewable resources. In order to assess the trade-offs between large scale development of various technologies, there needs to exist a transparent and efficient quantitative method for such analysis. The goal of this thesis has been to develop an impact assessment of Norwegian hydropower, by constructing a characterization factor that models ...

  2. Pressure tubes as GRP coiled pipes in hydropower constructions; Druckrohre als GFK-Wickelrohre im Wasserkraftwerksbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-06-15

    The times when steel was the material of choice in power plant construction are long gone. GFRP is a high-tech material for pipe construction which had a lightning career in hydropower engineering during the past few years. It has excellent construction and performance characteristics and is a good supplement or replacement material for steel. The GFRP coiled pipe system (FLOWTITE) produced by Amitech Germany at Mochau is a special type of pipe which is described in this article. (orig.)

  3. Influences of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Projects on Runoff in Qingjiang River Upstream Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Sun; Junwei Wan; Songyuan Yang; Xinghua Xue; Kun Huang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Hydrological data on the Upper Qingjiang River from 1960 to 2012 document trends of runoff caused by hydropower engineering projects and long-term changes in rainfall. Annual runoff correlates strongly with annual precipitation, but is significantly reduced after reservoir construction compared to earlier values. Comparisons of intense, pre-and post-construction rainfall events suggest that the Chebahe and Dalongtan reservoir projects respectively clips the magnitude of the flood peaks and delays runoff delivery.

  4. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coutant, Charles C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, Richard R. [Leavenworth, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  5. Trade-offs of water use for hydropower generation and biofuel production in the Zambezi basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, Philipp; Kling, Harald; Nicholson, Kit

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the most important energy source in Mozambique, as in many other southern African countries. In the Zambezi basin, it is one of the major economic resources, and substantial hydropower development is envisaged for the next decades. In Mozambique, the extension of the large Cahora Bassa hydropower plant and the construction of several new facilities downstream are planned. Irrigated agriculture currently plays a minor role, but has a large potential due to available land and water resources. Irrigation development, especially for the production of biofuels, is an important government policy goal in Mozambique. This contribution assesses interrelations and trade-offs between these two development options with high dependence on water availability. Potential water demand for large-scale irrigated agriculture is estimated for a mix of possible biofuel crops in three scenarios with different irrigated area sizes. Impacts on river discharge and hydropower production in the Lower Zambezi and its tributaries under two projected future climates are simulated with a hydrological model and a reservoir operation and hydropower model. Trade-offs of increasing biofuel production with decreasing hydropower generation due to diminished discharge in the Zambezi River are investigated based on potential energy production, from hydropower and biofuels, and resulting gross revenues and net benefits. Results show that the impact of irrigation withdrawal on hydropower production is rather low due to the generally high water availability in the Zambezi River. In simulations with substantial irrigated areas, hydropower generation decreases by -2% as compared to a scenario with only small irrigated areas. The economic analyses suggest that the use of water for cultivation of biofuel crops in the Zambezi basin can generate higher economic benefits than the use of water for hydroelectric power production. If world oil prices stay at more than about 80 USD/barrel, then the

  6. Opportunities for Energy Development in Water Conduits: A Report Prepared in Response to Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Reiser, Sonya L. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy LLC, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bailey, Andrea C. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Frank, Anthony [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2014-09-01

    In Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act (HREA) of 2013 (P.L. 113-23), Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an analysis of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States and to present case studies that describe the potential energy generation from these types of hydropower projects. Those analyses have been included in a new DOE report to Congress, and this ORNL/TM provides additional technical details supporting that report. Conduit hydropower offers important new ways to enhance renewable energy portfolios in the United States, as well as to increase the energy efficiency of water delivery systems. Conduit hydropower projects are constructed on existing water-conveyance structures, such as irrigation canals or pressurized pipelines that deliver water to municipalities, industry, or agricultural water users. Although water conveyance infrastructures are usually designed for non-power purposes, new renewable energy can often be harvested from them without affecting their original purpose and without the need to construct new dams or diversions. Conduit hydropower differs from more conventional hydropower development in that it is generally not located on natural rivers or waterways and therefore does not involve the types of environmental impacts that are associated with hydropower. The addition of hydropower to existing water conduits can provide valuable new revenue sources from clean, renewable energy. The new energy can be used within the existing water distribution systems to offset other energy demands, or it can be sold into regional transmission systems.

  7. The Future of Hydropower: Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change, Energy Prices and New Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudard, Ludovic; Madani, Kaveh; Romerio, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The future of hydropower depends on various drivers, and in particular on climate change, electricity market evolution and innovation in new storage technologies. Their impacts on the power plants' profitability can widely differ in regards of scale, timing, and probability of occurrence. In this respect, the risk should not be expressed only in terms of expected revenue, but also of uncertainty. These two aspects must be considered to assess the future of hydropower. This presentation discusses the impacts of climate change, electricity market volatility and competing energy storage's technologies and quantifies them in terms of annual revenue. Our simulations integrate a glacio-hydrological model (GERM) with various electricity market data and models (mean reversion and jump diffusion). The medium (2020-50) and long-term (2070-2100) are considered thanks to various greenhouse gas scenarios (A1B, A2 and RCP3PD) and the stochastic approach for the electricity prices. An algorithm named "threshold acceptance" is used to optimize the reservoir operations. The impacts' scale, and the related uncertainties are presented for Mauvoisin, which is a storage-hydropower plant situated in the Swiss Alps, and two generic pure pumped-storage installations, which are assessed with the prices of 17 European electricity markets. The discussion will highlight the key differences between the impacts brought about by the drivers.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  9. Hydropower Production in Future Climate Scenarios: The Case for Kwanza River, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byman H. Hamududu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world and remains a threat to water resources projects in southern Africa. The likely negative impacts of changes in Africa may be worse than in most other regions of the world. This study is an evaluation of the possible impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower production potential in Kwanza River Basin, Angola. The regional climate data, the basis for future climate scenarios, is used in the hydrological model HBV to assess climate change impacts on water resources in the Kwanza River Basin. Evaluation of changes in hydropower production potential is carried out using an energy model. The simulations show that annual rainfall in 2080 would increase by approximately 16% with increasing inter-annual variability of rainfall and dry season river flow and later onset of the rainy season. The simulation results show that for the Kwanza River Basin the effects as a result of changes in the future climate, in general, will be positive. Consequently, the increase in water resources will lead to increased hydropower production potential in the basin by up to 10%.

  10. Operation safety risk analysis method of hydropower project considering time-dependent effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sherong; Yan Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to consider the time-dependent characteristic of risk factors of hydropower project, the method of stochastic process simulating structure resistance and load effect is adopted. On the basis of analyzing the structure characteristics and mode of operation, the operation safety risk rate assessment model of hydropower project is established on the comprehensive application of the improved analytic hierarchy process, the time-dependent reliability theory and the risk rate threshold. A scheme to demonstrate the time-dependent risk rate assessment method for an example of the earth-rock dam is particularly implemented by the proposed approach. The example shows that operation safety risk rate is closely related to both the service period and design standard ; considering the effect of time-dependent, the risk rate increases with time and the intersection of them reflects the technical service life of structures. It could provide scientific basis for the operation safety and risk decision of the hydropower project by predicting the trend of risk rate via this model.

  11. Impacts on Tocantins River aquatic ecosystems resulting from the development of the hydropower potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damasio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the obvious success of using hydropower plants to supply energy for economic development, they may result in several environmental and social impacts with different levels of severity on the aquatic ecosystems and on the human communities living in the region. The objective of this study was to identify environmental problems and impacts to the aquatic ecosystems in Tocantins river related to the development of its hydropower potential and contribute to the target of balancing of energy generation with biodiversity and genetic flux preservation. The scenario considered the hydropower plants Peixe Angical and São Salvador. The Causal Chain Analysis (CCA was used to identify the environmental impacts and their immediate, sectarian and root causes. The impacts were ranked according to the characterization matrix, having the fish communities as the main indicators. The most relevant impacts were: (i degradation of water resources, (ii loss and changes in habitats, (iii changes in the ecosystems stability, (iv reduction of fish stocks, (v interference with benthic communities and microorganism’s populations, (vi changes in the food-chain and (vii interference with the dispersion of fishes and mammals.

  12. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  13. Study of Attenuation Characteristics,Site Response and Seismic Source Parameters of the Pubugou Reservoir Region%瀑布沟水库库区介质衰减、台站响应和震源参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔慧珍; 张永久

    2014-01-01

    利用数字地震台网2007年1月到2011年12月记录到的瀑布沟水库及邻区地震波形资料,采用 Atkinson 方法计算了库区介质品质因子;并利用 Moya 方法计算了台站场地响应;在获得介质品质因子和台站场地响应的基础上联合反演计算了瀑布沟库区67次构造地震和208次爆破地震的震源波谱参数,同时讨论了它们的时空特征。结果表明:瀑布沟库区 Q 值与频率的关系为 Q (f )=47.1*f 0%On the basis of digital seismograms recorded by the Pubugou reservoir digital seismic network,we obtained the nonelastic coefficient of Pubugou reservoir area by using the method proposed by Atkinson.The site response of each station was obtained by using the Moya method. The frequency-dependent Q (f )at the reservoir area is estimated as Q (f )=47.1 *f 0 .92 ;the site response of each station is approximately 1.0,showing little amplification.On the basis of the Q (f )and the site responses,we detected approximately 67 tectonic earthquakes and 208 source pa-rameters of blasting shocks by using the Atkinson inversion method.The results show obvious differences in the source parameters of the tectonic earthquakes and blast shocks.The parameters near the reservoir dam area and Hanyuan County were lower because of the blasting vibration.

  14. Tapping hidden hydropower potential in Swiss Alpine catchments in the context of the planned nuclear power phase out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Schleiss, Anton; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In its Energy Strategy 2050, Switzerland is revising its energy perspectives with a strong focus on renewable sources of energy and in particular hydropower. In this context, the Swiss Government funded a number of competence centers for energy research (SCCERs), including one on the Supply of Energy (SCCER-SoE), which develops fundamental research and innovative solutions in geoenergies and hydropower . Hydropower is already the major energy source in Switzerland, corresponding to approximately 55% of the total national electricity production (which was 69 TWh in 2014). The Energy Strategy 2050 foresees at least a net increase by 1.53 TWh/year in average hydrological conditions, in a context were almost all major river systems are already exploited and a straightforward application of recent environmental laws will impact (reduce) current hydropower production. In this contribution, we present the roadmap of the SCCER-SoE and an overview of our strategy to unravel currently non-exploited hydropower potential, in particular in river systems that are already used for hydropower production. The aim is hereby to quantify non-exploited natural flows, unnecessary water spills or storage volume deficits, whilst considering non-conventional approaches to water resources valuation and management. Such a better understanding of the current potential is paramount to justify future scenarios of adaptation of the existing hydropower infrastructure combining the increase of storage capacity with new connections between existing reservoirs, heightening or strengthening existing dams, increasing the operational volume of natural lakes (including new glacier lakes), or by building new dams. Tapping hidden potential shall also require operational changes to benefit from new flow patterns emerging under an evolving climate and in particular in the context of the ongoing glacier retreat. The paper shall present a broad view over the mentioned issues and first conclusions of ongoing

  15. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  16. Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement; Perspektiven fuer die Wasserkraftwerke in der Schweiz. Langfristige Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit und moegliche Verbesserungspotenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippini, M.; Banfi, S. [Istituto di Microeconomia e Economia Pubblica, MecoP, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Luchsinger, C.; Wild, J.; Balmer, M.; Grand, D.; Henkels, L.; Semadeni, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Gnansounou, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de systemes energetiques (LASEN), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that

  17. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  18. Microseismic monitoring and numerical simulation on the stability of high-steep rock slopes in hydropower engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun’an Tang; Lianchong Li; Nuwen Xu; Ke Ma

    2015-01-01

    abstract For high-steep slopes in hydropower engineering, damage can be induced or accumulated due to a series of human or natural activities, including excavation, dam construction, earthquake, rainstorm, rapid rise or drop of water level in the service lifetime of slopes. According to the concept that the progressive damage (microseismicity) of rock slope is the essence of the precursor of slope instability, a microseismic monitoring system for high-steep rock slopes is established. Positioning accuracy of the monitoring system is tested by fixed-position blasting method. Based on waveform and cluster analyses of micro-seismic events recorded during test, the tempo-spatial distribution of microseismic events is analyzed. The deformation zone in the deep rock masses induced by the microseismic events is preliminarily delimited. Based on the physical information measured by in situ microseismic monitoring, an evaluation method for the dynamic stability of rock slopes is proposed and preliminarily implemented by combining microseismic monitoring and numerical modeling. Based on the rock mass damage model obtained by back analysis of microseismic information, the rock mass elements within the microseismic damage zone are automatically searched by finite element program. Then the stiffness and strength reductions are performed on these damaged elements accordingly. Attempts are made to establish the correlation between microseismic event, strength deterioration and slope dynamic instability, so as to quantitatively evaluate the dynamic stability of slope. The case studies about two practical slopes indi-cate that the proposed method can reflect the factor of safety of rock slope more objectively. Numerical analysis can help to understand the characteristics and modes of the monitored microseismic events in rock slopes. Microseismic monitoring data and simulation results can be used to mutually modify the sensitive rock parameters and calibrate the model. Combination

  19. Reconnaissance Report for Hydropower, Lock and Dam 8, Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Cl ~ S- C r rC - .. CJ -- C -L L -- - - .-: 3:) cc; uCL :3 Uv - _c S . .3 ( C9 Z .C .) - C rz LL:> -4---- - - - - -9 - ’ - ’-9-;--r- C -~ o - n >-z...usual forest is dominated by black willow and cottonwood. On open sites near the up- land edge of the wet ground, river birch or swamp oak are the...usual dominants. As both of these types mature, they are invaded by silver maple and American elm. A summary of the vegetation composition (in acres) of

  20. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  1. Discussion on Water Conservancy and Hydropower Technology Construction%水利水电施工技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗宇

    2015-01-01

    随着我国工程建设的大规模扩建和发展,水利水电工程取得了很大的成果。水利水电工程作为社会主义现代化工程建设的主体部分,其工程建设中的施工技术甚是重要。为了能够确保水利水电工程建设质量,发挥其最大的作用,对水利水电工程施工技术进行探讨具有重要意义。%With the large-scale expansion and development of our country engineering construction, water conservancy and hydropower project has achieved great results. Water conservancy and hydropower project as the main part of the socialist modernization construction, construction technology in project construction is very important. In order to ensure the quality of water conservancy and hydropower project, give play to its biggest role in the construction of water conservancy and hydropower project, it is important to explore the construction technology in water conservancy and hydropower project.

  2. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  3. A light left in the dark: The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Mattijs, E-mail: mattijs.smits@gmail.co [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney (Australia); Bush, Simon R. [Environmental Policy Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key actors in the government, multilateral organisations and the private sector which show an often simplified and overly negative attitude towards pico-hydropower. Based on empirical research carried out in three upland districts and the capital, Vientiane, the paper critically investigates the apparent disjuncture between policy and practice by placing pico-hydropower within the broader political context of rural electrification in the Lao PDR. It is argued that the neglect of pico-hydropower and other off-grid household electrification technologies is a result of an endemic lack of information on which to base policy decisions, the orientation of the government to facilitate large scale foreign investment in large hydropower dams, the universal applicability of solar home systems, and the broader state agenda of centralisation and control over service provision to remote upland areas.

  4. A light left in the dark. The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Mattijs [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney (Australia); Bush, Simon R. [Environmental Policy Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key actors in the government, multilateral organisations and the private sector which show an often simplified and overly negative attitude towards pico-hydropower. Based on empirical research carried out in three upland districts and the capital, Vientiane, the paper critically investigates the apparent disjuncture between policy and practice by placing pico-hydropower within the broader political context of rural electrification in the Lao PDR. It is argued that the neglect of pico-hydropower and other off-grid household electrification technologies is a result of an endemic lack of information on which to base policy decisions, the orientation of the government to facilitate large scale foreign investment in large hydropower dams, the universal applicability of solar home systems, and the broader state agenda of centralisation and control over service provision to remote upland areas. (author)

  5. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  6. Design of Energy Dissipation Structures, Luogu Hydropower Project%洛古水电站泄洪消能建筑物设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞晨; 吴春鸣; 吴关叶

    2013-01-01

    In Luogu Hydropower Project, three surface outlets are arranged centrally and two bottom outlets on both sides.The surface outlet is with the energy dissipation structure consisting of X-type flaring pier, WES curve, step weir surface and stilling basin.The bot-tom outlet is with the energy dissipation structure consisting of pressure chute within dam, ogee and stilling basin.Both surface and bot-tom outlets share the same stilling basin.Verified by model test, the layout of the energy dissipation structures of Luogu Hydropower Pro-ject well accommodate both the geological and topographical conditions at the dam site, satisfy requirements of flood discharge and energy dissipation, and achieve excellent energy dissipation.%洛古水电站采用3表孔集中布置、2底孔分列两侧的孔口布置方案,表孔采用“X”型宽尾墩+WES曲线+台阶堰面+消力池的消能方式,底孔采用坝内有压式流道+反弧+消力池的消能方式,表底孔共用1个消力池。通过模型试验验证,洛古水电站泄洪消能建筑物的布置型式很好地适应了坝址的地形地质条件,能够满足泄洪消能要求,消能效果良好。

  7. Forecasting Models for Hydropower Unit Stability Using LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM approach for forecasting stability parameters of Francis turbine unit. To achieve training and testing data for the models, four field tests were presented, especially for the vibration in Y-direction of lower generator bearing (LGB and pressure in draft tube (DT. A heuristic method such as a neural network using Backpropagation (NNBP is introduced as a comparison model to examine the feasibility of forecasting performance. In the experimental results, LS-SVM showed superior forecasting accuracies and performances to the NNBP, which is of significant importance to better monitor the unit safety and potential faults diagnosis.

  8. A methodology to constrain the parameters of a hydrogeological discrete fracture network model for sparsely fractured crystalline rock, exemplified by data from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Sven; Hartley, Lee; Rhén, Ingvar; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steven; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben

    2014-03-01

    The large-scale geological structure of the crystalline rock at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden, has been classified in terms of deformation zones of elevated fracture frequency. The rock between deformation zones was divided into fracture domains according to fracture frequency. A methodology to constrain the geometric and hydraulic parameters that define a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for each fracture domain is presented. The methodology is based on flow logging and down-hole imaging in cored boreholes in combination with DFN realizations, fracture connectivity analysis and pumping test simulations. The simulations suggest that a good match could be obtained for a power law size distribution where the value of the location parameter equals the borehole radius but with different values for the shape parameter, depending on fracture domain and fracture set. Fractures around 10-100 m in size are the ones that typically form the connected network, giving inflows in the simulations. The report also addresses the issue of up-scaling of DFN properties to equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) bulk flow properties. Comparisons with double-packer injection tests provide confidence that the derived DFN formulation of detailed flows within individual fractures is also suited to simulating mean bulk flow properties and their spatial variability.

  9. Identification of variables for site calibration and power curve assessment in complex terrain. Task 8, a literature survey on theory and practice of parameter identification, specification and estimation (ISE) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Leendertse, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-04-01

    This document presents the literature survey results on Identification, Specification and Estimation (ISE) techniques for variables within the SiteParIden project. Besides an overview of the different general techniques also an overview is given on EU funded wind energy projects where some of these techniques have been applied more specifically. The main problem in applications like power performance assessment and site calibration is to establish an appropriate model for predicting the considered dependent variable with the aid of measured independent (explanatory) variables. In these applications detailed knowledge on what the relevant variables are and how their precise appearance in the model would be is typically missing. Therefore, the identification (of variables) and the specification (of the model relation) are important steps in the model building phase. For the determination of the parameters in the model a reliable variable estimation technique is required. In EU funded wind energy projects the linear regression technique is the most commonly applied tool for the estimation step. The linear regression technique may fail in finding reliable parameter estimates when the model variables are strongly correlated, either due to the experimental set-up or because of their particular appearance in the model. This situation of multicollinearity sometimes results in unrealistic parameter values, e.g. with the wrong algebraic sign. It is concluded that different approaches, like multi-binning can provide a better way of identifying the relevant variables. However further research in these applications is needed and it is recommended that alternative methods (neural networks, singular value decomposition etc.) should also be tested on their usefulness in a succeeding project. Increased interest in complex terrains, as feasible locations for wind farms, has also emphasised the need for adequate models. A common standard procedure to prescribe the statistical

  10. Development of the cycloidal propeller StECon as a new small hydropower plant for kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J.; Jensen, J.; Wieland, J.; Lohr, W.; Metzger, J.; Stiller, H.-L.

    2016-11-01

    The StECon (Stiller Energy Converter) is a promising new small hydropower plant for kinetic energy. It is an invention of Mr. Hans-Ludwig Stiller and has several advantages compared to the technologies for the use of hydropower known for millennia. It runs completely submerged forwards and backwards, with horizontal or vertical axis and has a compact design by using a single or a double-sided planetary gear with optimum alignment to the flow direction. The possible applications include mobile and stationary tide and current generators as well as hybrid solutions, either as a generator or as a propulsion system. The high expectations have to be confirmed in a research project StEwaKorad at the University of Siegen. Aim of this research project is to investigate the performance and characteristics of the StECon as an energy converter for producing renewable energy from hydropower with low fall heights including sea currents.

  11. The calculation interest for administration of hydropower in the long-term; Kalkulasjonsrenta for vannkraftforvaltning paa lang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    A review of important findings in newer, economic literature on discount rate in the long term is presented. Based on this review, two questions relating to the administration of Norwegian hydropower resources are briefly discussed. Firstly, which discount rate should be used as basis when valuating the existent Norwegian hydropower plants? Secondly, how should the socio-economic discount rate for investments in hydro projects be determined compared relatively to other types of investments in the power sector? The main conclusion is that the existing rate for administration of hydropower need not be substituted. Neither theory nor empiricism provides a conclusive answer. Certain relevant aspects that may be further investigated are put forth (ml)

  12. Preliminary study for the 'Stroppel' residual-water hydropower installation; Vorprojektstudie fuer ein Dotierkraftwerk Stroppel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A. [Hydrelec AG fuer Energietechnik, Burgdorf, Mandach (Switzerland); Zimmermann, D. [Hydrelec Ingenieure, Affoltern (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the replacement of an old weir that controls the flow of residual water with a small hydropower turbine. The present situation and installations on the river Limmat near Untersiggenthal in northern Switzerland is described. The local geology, hydro-geology and topography are discussed. Six different variants for the use of the hydropower potential are discussed. The variant chosen for recommendation is described in detail. Apart from the normal technical details, the study provides details on flood-water protection and describes a fish by-pass that has already been built. Environmental aspects are discussed that are to be considered when the hydropower installation is built. The calculations for investment and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the power station is discussed.

  13. NURBS reconstruction of digital terrain for hydropower engineering based on TIN model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denghua Zhong; Jie Liu; Mingchao Li; Caiwei Hao

    2008-01-01

    Digital terrain model (DTM) has played an important role in 3D designing, visual analysis and 3D geological modeling in large-scale hydropower engineering. As the pivotal base of 3D visualization and modeling, DTM should be characterized by high precision, less storage and well interactivity during graphic operation. Considering the diversity of data source and taking advantage of two data structures, triangulated irregular network (TIN) and non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), a novel methodology is presented for reconstructing engineering terrain of hydropower project. With integration of multi-source data, enhanced Delaunay algorithm is introduced to rebuild the TI NDTM, which is a terrain surface in TIN and a faithful depiction of complex topography but in low-memory efficiency. Based on the TIN model, applying section scanning sampling and linear interpolation, the transformation from discrete, irregular and diverse data to continuous and regular sampling cross-sectional curve sequence, is realized. The appropriate compression of the sampling data is also imposed to be performed for guaranteeing the following reconstruction work. Eventually, employing the NURBS technique and skinning method, the NURBS-DTM, which represents a NURBS surface and satisfies the requirement after precision assess with weighted errors, is reconstructed with the intermediate data. Meanwhile, there is another achievement that two databases of terrain data, one from initial data and the other from sampling data, are established for repeatable reconstruction with different demands. With the successful application of the presented method, a stable foundation is laid for 3D engineering geological modeling, visual designing and analysis of the hydropower projects.

  14. Creating a potential $5 million revenue gain from hydropower turbines using computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, B.

    2001-07-01

    By modifying the runner at the blade trailing edge in the draft tube elbow Hydro-Quebec was able to improve the efficiency of hydropower turbines and through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations achieve revenue gains of between $200,000 and $500,000 per year for each of twelve turbines at one of its plants. The revenue gains were made possible by these modifications, validated by simulations. Power output was raised by 7.8 MW and weighted turbine efficiency by 1.6 per cent. The FIDAP CFD code from Fluent Incorporated, Lebanon, New Hampshire, was used as one of the modeling and analysis tools. This software package uses the finite element approach, and has the advantage of using non-structured grids which provide greater flexibility in modeling the complex and irregular geometries involved in hydropower turbines. The presence of a large eddy in the draft tube elbow was discovered and considered to be the cause of the less than expected hydraulic efficiency of the twelve identical hydro turbines. Water flow between the runner and the draft tube was improved by modification of the runner outlet and the design of a new trailing edge. Significant increase in efficiency at all operating conditions was the result which was confirmed by parametric study on the draft tube flow. This application of CFD simulations provides an excellent illustration of how CFD can identify hydropower problems and help develop alternatives to improve machine performance. The revenue gains resulting from the modifications to reduce the eddy in the runner and the draft tube elbow have been validated in one turbine and the design changes are in the process of being implemented on the other eleven turbines for a combined potential revenue gain in the order of $5 million per year. 3 figs.

  15. The worst moment of superposed surge wave in upstream series double surge tanks of hydropower station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Yang, J. D.; Guo, W. C.; Chen, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    It is a consensus to consider the superposed working conditions when calculating the surge wave in surge tank of hydropower station with long diversion tunnel. For the hydropower station with single surge tank, the method of determining the worst superposed moment is mature. However, for the hydropower station with upstream series double surge tanks, research in this field is still blank. Based on an engineering project, this paper investigated the worst moments and the control superposed working conditions about the maximum surge level and the minimum surge level of upstream series double surge tanks using numerical simulation. In addition, the incidence relations between the worst moment of superposed surge wave and the different areal array and distance between the two surge tanks are also carried out. The results showed that: With the decrease of the distance between auxiliary surge tank and upstream reservoir, the maximum values of the highest surge levels in the two surge tanks always reach close to but a little earlier than the bigger one time when the inflowing discharges of the two surge tanks reach the maximum. It is similar to the minimum values of lowest surge levels in the two surge tanks which also reach close to but a little later than the bigger one time when the outflowing discharges of the two surges reach the maximum. Moreover, the closer the area of auxiliary surge tank to the area of main surge tank is, the closer the worst moment to the bigger one time when inflow or outflow of the two surges reach the maximum will become.

  16. Assessment of risks due to climate change for the Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses significant challenges to hydropower development and management in mountainous basins. This study examined the impact of climate change, and the associated risks, on the energy production of the Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project, which is located in the Tamakoshi basin of Nepal. The outputs of three GCMs—namely MIROC-ESM, MRI-CGCM3, and MPI-ESM-M—under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP scenarios were used for the projection of precipitation and temperature in the future. The minimum and maximum temperatures of the basin are projected to increase by 6.33 °C and 3.82 °C, respectively, by 2100. The projected precipitation varies from −8% to +24.8%, which is expected to alter the streamflow by −37.83% to +47% in the future. Based on the streamflow output, the risk for energy production was calculated with respect to the baseline energy production of 1963 GW h and 2281 GW h. Using the three GCMs, the risk associated with annual hydropower production under altered runoff was analyzed. The risk percentage in the future periods shows a mild risk varying from 0.69% to 6.63%. MPI-ESM-M GCM projects a higher percentage of risk for energy production during the same future periods, as compared to the baseline energy production of 1963 GW h. A mild to moderate risk, ranging from 2.73% to 13.24% can be expected when energy production in the future is compared to the baseline energy production of 2281 GW h.

  17. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on the fishes of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Aerial videography and modeling were used to evaluate the impacts of four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, on trout and native fishes in the Green River, Utah and Colorado. The four operational scenarios studied were year-round high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. Impacts on trout were evaluated by examining differences among scenarios in the areas of inundated substrates that serve as spawning and feeding habitat. All scenarios would provide at least 23 acres per mile of habitat for spawning and food production; seasonally adjusted operations would provide additional areas during periods of sustained high release. Seasonally adjusted high fluctuations would increase inundated areas by 12 to 26% for a short period in winter and spring, but food production and reproduction would not be expected to increase. Seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations and steady flows would produce similar increases in area, but the longer period of inundation could also result in increased food production and provide additional spawning sites for trout. Impacts on native fishes were assessed by examining daily changes in backwater nursery areas. Compared with year-round high fluctuations, the daily changes in backwater area would decrease by about 47, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. Similarly, daily stage fluctuations during the nursery period would decrease by 72, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. These reductions in daily fluctuations in backwater area and stage would improve conditions in nursery habitats and could in turn improve recruitment and overwinter survival. Introduced fish species could also benefit from the seasonally adjusted operational scenarios.

  18. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Nestmann, F.

    2016-09-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project " Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. This karst area, widely known as " Java's poorhouse", is located on the southern coast of Java Island and distinctly suffers from the mentioned constraints. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the conceptual and technical achievements of the "IWRM Indonesia" joint research project are characterized by a high potential for multiplication not only for karst areas but also for non-karst regions. One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. Referring to the plant's innovative character and the demanding conditions on-site, the implementation was a highly iterative process leading to today's autonomous operation by an Indonesian public authority. Based on the experiences gained during design, construction, operation and monitoring phase, this paper introduces an implementation approach for adapted technologies as well as a comprising technical and economical assessment of the plant's operation.

  19. Water balance estimation with the Budyko method to assess the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Small and medium hydropower has a large potential for future development in West Africa, a region that is facing a constant shortage of energy supply and thereby limiting economic growth. The river reaches suitable for small and medium hydropower development are usually located in headwater areas. Mean annual discharge (along with slope) is a key variable for assessing the hydropower potential of a river reach. As discharge gauges are typically located at larger, downstream rivers a regionalization of flow is required. In this study we use the Budyko method to establish the spatially distributed mean annual water balance for whole West Africa (appr. 5 Mio km²), including the basins of e.g. Niger, Volta, and Senegal rivers. The spatially distributed inputs of mean annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are used to compute actual evapotranspiration and thus runoff. Runoff is aggregated along the river network to compute discharge. Due to the impact of different soils and vegetation cover the Budyko curve is calibrated with observed discharge data of about 100 basins covering a wide range of humid to semi-arid conditions. A framework is developed to properly account for the distinctive decadal variations of rainfall (and discharge) in West Africa. Specific challenges are (a) apparently biased discharge measurements at some gauges and (b) uncertainties in the precipitation data (station-based and satellite-based). The results of this study will give (1) an overview about the hydropower potential in each West African country and (2) the theoretical hydropower potential of about 100,000 river reaches. The results will be published on a website with interactive maps to enable the selection of regions of interest for further, detailed assessment of small and medium hydropower development.

  20. Initiatives in the Hydro Sector Post-World Commission on Dams – The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Locher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD has called for developers, governments, civil society, etc. to use its Strategic Priorities as a starting point for dialogue and initiatives to address issues regarding the development of dams. One very notable follow-up initiative has been led by the hydropower industry. The International Hydropower Association developed Sustainability Guidelines (IHA, 2004 and a Sustainability Assessment Protocol (IHA, 2006, and most recently has been involved in a two-year process with governments, NGOs and the finance sector to develop a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool based on review and update of the IHA Sustainability Assessment Protocol. This cross-sectoral process, known as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF, has drawn on the knowledge base and many of the findings and recommendations of the World Commission on Dams, as well as a number of other developments in the last ten years. A fundamental premise of the work of the Forum is that an industry-driven and -owned initiative has far-reaching potential to influence performance in the hydropower sector. At the same time, the potential for the use of a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool for hydropower by those in other sectors is well recognised and aspired to by the Forum. This paper describes the work of the Forum up to August 2009 and the contents of the Draft Protocol released publicly in August 2009, and considers some of the commonalities and points of departure between this process and the WCD. The Forum’s work on the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is a work in progress, so this paper can describe but not give a full analysis of the work while it is in train.

  1. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  2. The hydropower potential in Salzburg, Austria; Das Wasserkraftpotenzial des Bundeslandes Salzburg in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, Michael-Marcus; Mader, Helmut [Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Hydrologie und Konstruktiven Wasserbau

    2010-07-01

    Due to typical revitalization measures, up-to-date utilization and the connection to a public electricity network, 442 existing hydropower schemes in the Austrian province Salzburg with capacities <5 MW could increase the today's production so as to +85% (450 GWh/a). The multifunctional utilization of wells in drinking water supply systems with drinking water turbines could produce 13.4 GWh/a if the consent water volume is used. With existing ponds for the production of artificial snow, 1 400 GWh/a of peak- and regulation energy could be provided for the European electricity grid. (orig.)

  3. Developing hydropower in Washington state. Volume 2: An electricity marketing manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. W.; McCoy, G. A.

    1982-03-01

    An electricity marketing manual for the potential small and micro-hydroelectric project developer within the state of Washington is presented. Public utility regulatory policies (PURPA) requires electric utilities to interconnect with and pay a rate based on their full avoided costs for the purchase of electrical output from qualifying small power production facilities. The determination of avoided costs, as business organizational considerations, utility interface concerns, interconnection requirements, metering options, and liability and wheeling are discussed. The utility responses are summarized, legislation which is of importance to hydropower developers and the powers and functions of the authorities responsible for enforcing the mandate of PURPA are described.

  4. Private Participation in Small Hydropower Development in China——Comparison with International Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoJianda; ZhuXiaozhang

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, Chinese private investment in SHP (small hydropower) has been booming like mushrooms after rain. Globally,many developing countries have formulated a series of incentive policies to encourage the mobilization of private capital for SHP, but the recent enforcement is far from meeting expectation. This article overviews private enterprises investing in SHP domestically, analyzes similarities and differences between China and international communities, as well as the comparability and mutual referential values, and also explores some approaches for improvement Furthermore, this article presents several particular issues in this respect, with a hope to further promote the sound development of SHP privately financed. Attached here are 2 tables and 2 figures.

  5. Study on the Construction Scale of Pumped-Storage Hydropower in Northeast Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Nan; Bai Jianhua; Li You; Gu Xiaoguang; Li Chunshan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Peak regulation in the Northeast power grid is going from bad to worse. This stimulates the need to pumped-storage hydropower for its role in this respect. Based on the status of power sources and the load forecast in the system, the author puts forward a minimum construction scale of pumped-storage stations by the end of 2020 from technical feasibility, and an economic scale from economy. The analysis and comparison on the two schemes can be regarded as a reference for reasonably planning pumped-storage stations in the northeastern part of China.

  6. Viewpoint – The Role of the German Development Cooperation in Promoting Sustainable Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Seeger

    2010-06-01

    Germany’s engagement in the promotion of participatory processes on dam-related issues is building on the WCD and follow-up processes, as outlined in this article. On the global level, BMZ, represented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, is currently part of the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF. On the national level, one example of support is the contribution to and interaction with the Ghana Dam Dialogue, which is facilitated through two local partners: the International Water Management Institute (IWMI and the Volta Basin Development Foundation (VBDF.

  7. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...... the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the installation capacity of an HPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing HPP named ‘‘Bookan” (located in the westnorth of Iran); the capacity of 30 MW is obtained....

  8. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 2 to 4; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 2 bis 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration contains the appendices 2 to 4 to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. Appendix 2 reports on the fundamentals for the design of fish bypass facilities, fish protection and fish migration facilities, minimum outflow in discharge lines, water ecologic evaluation, determination of less generation of hydroelectric power plants. Appendix 3 contains illustrations. Appendix 4 presents an extract from the final report.

  9. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the

  10. Efficient Parallelization of the Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming Algorithm Applied to Hydropower Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Helseth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP has become a popular algorithm used in practical long-term scheduling of hydropower systems. The SDDP algorithm is computationally demanding, but can be designed to take advantage of parallel processing. This paper presents a novel parallel scheme for the SDDP algorithm, where the stage-wise synchronization point traditionally used in the backward iteration of the SDDP algorithm is partially relaxed. The proposed scheme was tested on a realistic model of a Norwegian water course, proving that the synchronization point relaxation significantly improves parallel efficiency.

  11. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  12. Managing Mekong Mud and its Impact on Fish, Hydropower and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the Upper Mekong Basin in China (where it is called the Lancang Jiang) to the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) in Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, before discharging into the South China Sea. The river has remained largely unaltered for much of its history, but today hydropower reservoirs are being designed and developed at a rapid pace. Some 60 million people living in the basin have depended on the basin's ecosystems to produce much of their food and income. The health and productivity of the ecosystems are dependent upon the river's natural flow and sediment regimes, both of which could be significantly altered by the rapid construction of dams. This presentation focuses on the potential impacts of dam development and alternative sediment management options, where feasible, including flushing, sluicing, bypassing, and density current venting. We evaluate whether these techniques can improve reservoir sediment outflows without damaging the environmental system we are attempting to preserve. We also evaluate the accompanying losses in hydropower production necessary to achieve the improved sediment passage. This study focuses on dams in China, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, both on the mainstream Mekong River and on its tributaries. A sediment simulation model was developed specifically to conduct these evaluations. This model implements a daily time-step mass-balance simulation of flow and sediment to predict the spatial and temporal accumulation, depletion, and distribution of sediment in river reaches and in reservoirs under different flow and sediment management policies. Results of simulations suggest that more benign (with regard to sediment) alternatives to the currently proposed locations and designs of dams exist and should be considered. While sediment management alternatives have the potential to increase sediment loads discharged downstream, careful attention must be paid to the

  13. Problems of the climate and environment protection complicate the use of hydropower; Klimaproblematik und Umweltschutz erschweren Wasserkraftnutzung. Stromerzeugung in Suedtirol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, W. [Orizzonti, Verona (Italy)

    2008-01-07

    Since the year 2000 warming and dryness have led to a strong reduction of electricity production from hydropower in Southern Tyrol. However, due to the attractive ''Green Certificates''-Scheme, there is still a strong interest in further developing hydropower activities. Such pressing must find its limits in nature conservation, particularly important for Southern Tyrol as a tourist area. The design of a detailed Water Use Plan of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano pleads clearly for restriction regarding the construction of new plants. This signals an opportunity for Southern Tyrol to further explore the development of its new renewable energy sources. (orig.)

  14. Cost base for hydropower plants : with a generating capacity of more than 10 000 kw : price level 1 January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapgaard, Jan

    2012-07-25

    This manual has been prepared as a tool for calculation of average foreseeable contractor costs (civil works) and supplier costs (mechanical and electrical equipment) for large hydroelectric power plants with an early phase generating capacity of more than 10 000 kw. These costs will depend on a number of conditions which may vary from plant to plant, and this requires that the user to have a sound technical knowledge. This applies in particular to the civil works associated with the hydropower plant. The manual is a supplement to our cost base for smaller hydropower projects (Manual No. 2/2010)(au)

  15. WAYS OF STABILIZATION THE ENERGY OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnikov A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic methods of stabilizing voltage generators for small hydroelectric power plants. It shows a block diagram of the implementation and analysis of the characteristics of the work; it reveals the advantages and disadvantages. The authors explain the features of the work of the functional circuits voltage regulators with discrete ballast, with phase control and management of the load current. It is shown, that to improve the performance of small hydroelectric power plants considerably we have to use contactless generators in their construction: asynchronous generators with capacitive excitation and synchronous generators with permanent magnets. The functional scheme of the voltage regulator, the construction of which has an additional field winding, simplifies the system voltage stabilization of the synchronous generator with permanent magnets, as well as a functional scheme of an asynchronous generator voltage regulator, made using step-up transformers, which significantly reduces the weight of the capacitors providing excitation of the generator and compensation of reactive power load. We have discussed the methods and devices for stabilization of voltage generators which will improve the effectiveness of pre-design work on the creation of new devices of stabilization of parameters of electric power generators for small hydroelectric power plants with improved operational and technical specifications

  16. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  17. Electricity vs Ecosystems - understanding and predicting hydropower impact on Swedish river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, B.; Lindström, G.

    2014-09-01

    The most radical anthropogenic impact on water systems in Sweden originates from the years 1900-1970, when the electricity network was developed in the country and almost all rivers were regulated. The construction of dams and changes in water flow caused problems for ecosystems. Therefore, when implementing the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) hydro-morphological indicators and targets were developed for rivers and lakes to achieve good ecological potential. The hydrological regime is one such indicator. To understand the change in flow regime we quantified the hydropower impact on river flow across Sweden by using the S-HYPE model and observations. The results show that the average redistribution of water during a year due to regulation is 19 % for the total discharge from Sweden. A distinct impact was found in seasonal flow patterns and flow duration curves. Moreover, we quantified the model skills in predicting hydropower impact on flow. The median NSE for simulating change in flow regime was 0.71 for eight dams studied. Results from the spatially distributed model are available for 37 000 sub-basins across the country, and will be used by the Swedish water authorities for reporting hydro-morphological indicators to the EU and for guiding the allocation of river restoration measures.

  18. The Dynamic Analysis of Hydropower House and Unit System in Coupled Hydraulic-mechanical-electric Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MA, Z. Y.; Wu, Q. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A hydraulic-mechanical-electric and structures coupled model of hydropower station system including subsystem models of the penstock, hydro-turbine model, speed governor, synchronous generator as well as grid, rotor-bearing system and powerhouse structure is established. This model is used to simulate the small fluctuation transient process of 10% load-up in the part load condition for hydropower station. Mechanical eccentric force, unbalanced magnetic pull and vortex pressure fluctuation at inlet of draft tube are considered in the numerical calculation. The interaction between hydraulic-mechanical-electric coupled factors and structural vibration properties during the small fluctuation transient process is studied. The results indicate that the speed regulation for turbine has very litter impact on the transient process of generator. In the process of small fluctuation with loading method in this paper, structure of powerhouse is greatly influenced by vortex pressure pulse in the draft tube, and the vibration of unit is excited by loads which caused by itself rotating.

  19. PROSPECTS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS IN THE PIEDMONT AND MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the advantages of low energy in comparison with other renewable energy sources. It is shown that broad prospects are visible for small (100 - 1000 kW and micro hydropower plants (up to 100 kW when used in the foothill and mountain areas. At the same time, the construction of hydropower plants of sleeve-type has improved the operational and technical characteristics, among other types of small-scale power plants. The article presents main analytical expressions for calculating hydroelectric power generator and it has built graphic dependences for the power generator of pressure and water flow. To improve the performance of small hydroelectric power plants we have proposed using unregulated water turbine and non-contact induction generator in their construction, thus, we could stabilize voltage and frequency directly by the frequency converter. Depending on the requirements of consumers to power supply reliability and electricity quality, we have offered several options for structural and circuit solutions of autonomous systems of electrosupply, made using small hydroelectric power plants. Thus, we can greatly enhance the efficiency of such systems if they are used with other types of renewable sources, such as windfarms or solar power plants

  20. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean W. D.; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strongly influences the global climate system, affecting hydrology in many of the world’s river basins. This raises the prospect of ENSO-driven variability in global and regional hydroelectric power generation. Here we study these effects by generating time series of power production for 1593 hydropower dams, which collectively represent more than half of the world’s existing installed hydropower capacity. The time series are generated by forcing a detailed dam model with monthly-resolution, 20th century inflows—the model includes plant specifications, storage dynamics and realistic operating schemes, and runs irrespectively of the dam construction year. More than one third of simulated dams exhibit statistically significant annual energy production anomalies in at least one of the two ENSO phases of El Niño and La Niña. For most dams, the variability of relative anomalies in power production tends to be less than that of the forcing inflows—a consequence of dam design specifications, namely maximum turbine release rate and reservoir storage, which allows inflows to accumulate for power generation in subsequent dry years. Production is affected most prominently in Northwest United States, South America, Central America, the Iberian Peninsula, Southeast Asia and Southeast Australia. When aggregated globally, positive and negative energy production anomalies effectively cancel each other out, resulting in a weak and statistically insignificant net global anomaly for both ENSO phases.

  1. Long-term stability analysis of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; Qiang Yang; Yaoru Liu

    2016-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station has a major influence on the normal operation and long-term safety of the hydropower station. To solve this problem, a geomechanical model containing various faults and weak structural planes is established, and numerical simulation is conducted under normal water load condition using FLAC3D, incorporating creep model proposed based on thermodynamics with internal state variables theory. The creep deformations of the left bank abutment slope are obtained, and the changes of principal stresses and deformations of the dam body are analyzed. The long-term stability of the left bank abutment slope is evaluated ac-cording to the integral curves of energy dissipation rate in domain and its derivative with respect to time, and the non-equilibrium evolution rules and the characteristic time can also be determined using these curves. Numerical results show that the left bank abutment slope tends to be stable in a global sense, and the stress concentration is released. It is also indicated that more attention should be paid to some weak regions within the slope in the long-term deformation process.

  2. Use of the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model to assess hydropower licensing negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Lamb, B.L.; Garcia de Jalon, D.; Sabaton, C.; Souchon, Y.; Tamai, N.; Robinette, H.R.; Waddle, T.J.; Brinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is responsible for issuing or renewing licenses for hydropower projects owned and operated by power companies. During the licensing process, these companies are required to consult with agencies and other parties that are affected by project operating regimes. Typical participants include state and federal fish and wildlife agencies, environmental interest groups, and the FERC. One of the most difficult tasks facing participants is to reach agreement about what kinds of environmental conditions should be placed on license. Researchers at the United States Geological Survey developed a model to analyze the institutional context of natural resource disputes. The Legal-Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) is a computerized model that allows an analyst to determine the likely behavior of each organization in a conflict. The model also analyzes the types and levels of negotiating power held by each organization. Researchers at the USGS have used the model in several cases involving hydropower license applications. To use the model, they facilitate workshops for stakeholder groups in order to develop a shared understanding of the likely obstacles and opportunities for successful resolution of the issues. This allows a systematic workshop analyses to develop strategies for successful negotiations, because they are able to better understand the negotiation problem and work more effectively with both their allies and their competitors.

  3. Ergonomics program management in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant.

  4. Importance of hydropower for the global power generation; Bedeutung der Wasserkraft fuer die weltweite Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; RWE AG, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The renewable energy sources have in the last ten years - not only in Germany, but also worldwide - can post disproportionately strong growth rates. This is especially true in the electricity production. Especially the new renewable energies have a stable, strong growth and gain as compared to the conventional generation ever more ground. Nevertheless, hydropower remains by far the most important source of renewable energy in electricity generation. An analysis shows that hydropower can make significant contributions to sustainable and climate-friendly energy supply by 2050, if it is possible to raise their still unused potential. [German] Die erneuerbaren Energien haben in den letzten zehn Jahren - nicht nur in Deutschland, sondern auch weltweit - ueberproportional starke Zuwachsraten verbuchen koennen. Dies gilt insbesondere in der Stromerzeugung. Gerade die neuen erneuerbaren Energien weisen ein bestaendiges, starkes Wachstum auf und gewinnen so gegenueber der konventionellen Erzeugung immer weiter an Boden. Trotzdem ist die Wasserkraft unveraendert die mit Abstand bedeutendste erneuerbare Energiequelle in der Stromerzeugung. Eine Analyse zeigt, dass die Wasserkraft bis 2050 signifikante Beitraege zu einer nachhaltigen und klimaschonenden Energieversorgung leisten kann, wenn es gelingt, ihre noch ungenutzen Potenziale zu heben.

  5. Simulation modeling of hydropower impacts on dissolved oxygen in the upper Ohio river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S.F.; Jager, H.I.

    1988-09-01

    A model has been developed to assess the impacts of hydropower development at navigation dams on dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the upper Ohio River basin. Field data were used to fit statistical models of aeration at each dam. The Streeter-Phelps equations were used to model DO concentrations between dams. Input data sources were compiled, and the design conditions used for assessment of hydropower impacts were developed. The model was implemented both as Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets and as a FORTRAN program. This report contains users' guides for both of these implementations. The sensitivities and uncertainty of the model were analyzed. Modeled DO concentrations are sensitive to water temperature and flow rates, and sensitivities to dam aeration are relatively high in reaches where dam aeration rates are high. Uncertainty in the model was low in reaches dominated by dam aeration and higher in reaches with low dam aeration rates. The 95% confidence intervals for the model range from about /+-/ 0.5 mg/L to about /+-/ 1.5 mg/L.

  6. Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.; Huacuz, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico). Energias No Convencionales

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the ''Presidente Benito Juarez'' dam in Jalapa del Marques, Oaxaca, Mexico. The other hypothetical facility is a wind farm located near ''La Venta's', an area in Juchitan, Oaxaca, Mexico. The wind-hydro-power system is a combined wind and hydro power plant in a region that is rich in both resources. The model shows that the hybrid plant could provide close to 20 MW of firm power to the electrical distribution system. On a techno-economic basis, we obtain the levelized production cost of the hybrid system. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, figures for levelized production cost are developed. (author)

  7. Short-Term Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Production and Marketing under Meteorological Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty represented by a probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with multi-dimensional distance metrics. The short-term management approach adapts to this forecast uncertainty and its resolution by the use of multi-stage stochastic optimization. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. It is used to quantify the operational flexibility of the hydropower system and to propagate the forecast uncertainty through the system. Objectives and constraints enable the operating staff to shape and direct the system such that variability remains in the hydropower system or gets absorbs by the energy market.

  8. Flow Regime Changes: From Impounding a Temperate Lowland River to Small Hydropower Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Punys

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the environmental issues facing small hydropower plants (SHPs operating in temperate lowland rivers of Lithuania. The research subjects are two medium head reservoir type hydro schemes considered within a context of the global fleet of SHPs in the country. This research considers general abiotic indicators (flow, level, water retention time in the reservoirs of the stream that may affect the aquatic systems. The main idea was to test whether the hydrologic regime has been altered by small hydropower dams. The analysis of changes in abiotic indicators is a complex process, including both pre- and post-reservoir construction and post commissioning of the SHPs under operation. Downstream hydrograph (flow and stage ramping is also an issue for operating SHPs that can result in temporary rapid changes in flow and consequently negatively impact aquatic resources. This ramping has been quantitatively evaluated. To avoid the risk of excessive flow ramping, the types of turbines available were evaluated and the most suitable types for the natural river flow regime were identified. The results of this study are to allow for new hydro schemes or upgrades to use water resources in a more sustainable way.

  9. Study on anti-corrosion of penstock of Kozjak Hydropower Station in Macedonia%马其顿科佳水电站压力钢管防腐问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 赵春; 刘景运

    2012-01-01

    During the construction of Kozjak Hydropower Station in Macedonia contracted by a Chinese company, a largeramount of air bubble occurs on the surface of the anti-corrosion layer of the penstock of the underground headrace tunnel, and then not only the construction quality is seriously impacted, but the construction progress is also restricted. Through the analysis on the causation of the problem, a scheme of project alternation is put forward herein, and it is successfully implemented on the basis of the relevant site test and adoption of the mature technologies concerned The result shows that a better effect is obtained with this construction scheme and the hydropower station is ensured to be put into operation in time.%中国公司承接的马其顿科佳水电站工程在施工过程中,地下隧洞的钢管防腐层出现了大量表面气泡,严重影响工程质量和制约工程进度.通过对问题发生原因进行分析,基于现场试验并采用成熟技术,提出了工程变更方案并成功进行了实施.结果表明,本文提出的施工方案取得了良好的效果,保障了该水电站的如期发电.

  10. Analyses on De-excitation Temporal Logic of Excitation System in Xiluodu Hydropower Station%溪洛渡水电站励磁系统灭磁逻辑和时序分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜泉; 陈小明; 毕欣颖

    2013-01-01

    针对溪洛渡水电站励磁系统灭磁回路的主要设备,对其逻辑及时序进行了简要分析.现场试验表明,灭磁设备动作逻辑及时序正确.溪洛渡水电站励磁系统采用双磁场断路器冗余配置,设计合理,完全满足溪洛渡水电站励磁系统的灭磁需要.%The main components of de-excitation circuits in Xiluodu Hydropower Station are introduced and the de-excitation temporal logics of excitation systems are analyzed.On-site testes show that the temporal logics of de-excitation equipment action are correct.The excitation systems in Xiluodu Hydropower Station are redundantly configured with dual-magnetic circuit breaker.The design of excitation systems is reasonable and can fully meet the requirements of station on de-excitation of excitation system.

  11. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  12. 76 FR 2359 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ..., Madison, WI 53719; Telephone (608) 273-6380. i. FERC Contact: Janet Hutzel, Telephone (202) 502-8675, or by e- mail at janet.hutzel@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing motions to intervene and protests... following facilities: (1) A new 796-foot-long by 46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower...

  13. 75 FR 35786 - White River Minimum Flows-Addendum to Final Determination of Federal and Non-Federal Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...-Federal hydropower resulting from the loss of renewable energy under the state renewable energy standard... or energy loss at the non-Federal project. As part of its review of the impacts that the average pool... state renewable energy standard passed in Missouri in November 2008. The Missouri Public...

  14. 76 FR 4097 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... License. b. Project No.: 2713-082. c. Date Filed: December 30, 2010. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard... Contact: Jon Elmer, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P, 800 Starbuck Ave., Suite 802, Watertown, New York... generation, while the Heuvelton and Eel Weir developments typically operate in a run-of-river mode. With...

  15. A light left in the dark: The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key act

  16. 枕头坝一级水电站对峡谷视觉景观影响分析%Visual Impact of the Construction of Zhentouba Hydropower Station on Dadu River Canyon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海洋; 孙显春; 张虎成; 王海磊

    2012-01-01

    The construction of hydropower stations and dams will inevitably change the visual landscape of river valley. By adopting a series of measurable parameters, including the loss of vision, the visual impact range of dam and the loss of discrepancy in elevation, and by using GIS, the visual impact of the construction of Zhentouba Hydropower Station on the landscape of Dadu River Canyon are analyzed. The results show that the visual impact of Zhentouba Project on canyon's landscape is very small.%水电站大坝建设不可避免地会改变峡谷视觉景观.为此,通过采用可视域损失、大坝视觉影响范围、高差损失等一系列景观测度参数,并利用地理信息系统(GIS)进行模拟,分析枕头坝一级水电站建设对大渡河峡谷整体和局部景观的视觉影响.结果表明,处于典型高山峡谷区的枕头坝一级水电站对整个大峡谷视觉景观影响很小.

  17. Integrating hydropower and intermittent climate-related renewable energies: a call for hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Anquetin, Sandrine; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjorn; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Hingray, Benoit; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Raynaud, Damien; Renard, Benjamin; Sauquet, Eric; Sauterleute, Julian-Friedrich; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the debate about the role of hydropower as energy storage and balancing energy source in context of high intermittency and variability of solar and wind energy exposes hydrologists to new challenges. There is a common consensus that a high penetration of wind and solar energies can only be achieved if the issues to their intermittent power outputs are solved - issues which can be at least partially approached by means of hydropower systems. Indeed, unlike wind and solar energies which are only produced when wind and sun are available, hydro resources can be stored in reservoirs for later use. Finally, the energy production should balance the energy demand which is to a large degree, controlled by weather variables, especially temperature. However, despite substantial work on the space-time variability of each individual hydro-meteorological variable, advances on the joint analysis of the processes that are underlying this integration are more limited. In this commentary, we analyze three specific challenges dedicated to the hydrological community. They aim to improve the integration of hydropower with solar and wind energy sources to make more effective the use of renewable energy and water resources. These challenges are: i) the need to provide a new hydro-meteorological framework for the analysis of the space-time co-fluctuations between runoff regimes and solar, wind and temperature variables; ii) understanding how processes like land-use and climate change affect the nature of these co-fluctuations; and iii) the need to develop means for a quantitative analysis of interactions between the use of water for power generation and other water uses including the preservation of aquatic ecosystems. In some way, the success of climate change mitigation policies based on high intermittent energy integration will depend on how these different challenges have been achieved by hydrologist community. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX

  18. Modeling Alpine hydropower reservoirs management to study the water-energy nexus under change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Fumagalli, E.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) were already observed over the last few years and produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system, Italy. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series.. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e.g. expansion of the electric vehicle sector, load

  19. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian;

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set...

  20. Articulatory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 16 parameters hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for linguistic phonetic specifications. Suggests seven parameters affecting tongue shapes, three determining the positions of the lips, one controlling the position of the velum, four varying laryngeal actions, and one controlling respiratory activity. (RL)

  1. Corporate social responsibility: Benefits for youth in hydropower development in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent hydropower investment in central Laos illustrates how policy, implementation and follow-up can lead to benefits for local communities in the impacted area of the Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP). Programmes include both support for and improvement of existing government education programmes, employment opportunities and specific programmes for youth. They have been designed to mitigate possible negative effects of the influx of workers and rapid socio-economic change in the affected area. Young people continue to have a central role in the implementation of these programmes as peer educators under the supervision of project staff and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  2. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  3. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has...... been developed to analyse energy calculation and estimation of the most important economic indices of an MHPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of an MHPP with a specified load duration curve...... using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, com- paring the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the optimal installation capacity of an MHPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing MHPP named "Bookan( located in the west-north of Iran); the optimal capacity of 30...

  4. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Hosseini, S.M.H.; Vakilian, M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Sincea large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments,however it is possible...... to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer(BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through aneconomic evaluation based on different percentage of investments...... of private sector in providing the expenses of small and mediumhydro-power plants (S&M-HPP) (e.g. MHPP in ‘‘Bookan, Iran’’ and SHPP in ‘‘Nari, Iran’’), demonstrates that by increasing thepercentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially...

  5. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  6. Brazilian monitoring system of hydropower dams; Monitoramento hidrologico de reservatorios hidreletricos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Alexandre Cernach; Silva, Jose Jorge da; Rodrigues, Mauro Silvio; Moreira, Rodrigo de Matos; Coimbra, Roberto Moreira; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos de [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Estudos e Informacoes Hidrologicas]. E-mail: cernach@aneel.gov.br; jorgej@aneel.gov.br; maurol@aneel.gov.br; rodrigom@aneel.gov.br; rcoimbra@aneel.gov.br; mfreitas@aneel.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    The Brazilian energetic sector goes by a deep restructuring process, reaching all the involved agents. Thus, the Federal Government, in December 26, 1996, instituted the National Agency of Electric Energy - ANEEL, through the Law nr. 9.427, to establish the regulation of the production, transmission, distribution and commercialization of electric energy service, and to guarantee electric services. To obtain consistent data in operation of the reservoirs that subsidize the decision related to the inspection activities, regulation and mediation and to guarantee the hydrologic information associated to hydroelectric enterprises, ANEEL published in December 4, 1998, the Resolution ANEEL nr. 396 in order to establish the conditions for implementation, maintenance and operation of hydrological stations. This paper shows the beginning of the implementation of the Brazilian Monitoring System of Hydropower Dams. (author)

  7. Modeling alternatives for basin-level hydropower development: 1. Optimization methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Railsback, Steven F.; Sale, Michael J.

    1992-10-01

    Development of multiple hydroelectric projects at navigation dams on large river systems can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a method for generating hydropower development alternatives for evaluation by planners by quantifying the trade-offs between water quality and power generation. This method employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO and the bounded implicit enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production. A portion of the upper Ohio River basin was selected to illustrate the methodology. The results indicate that various alternatives that meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently. These alternatives are nearly optimal solutions with respect to the modeled objectives but are different with respect to decision variables.

  8. Tomils, Switzerland: new drinking-water hydropower station; Gemeinde Tomils (GR) - Neubau Trinkwasserkraftwerk - Bauprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadient, N.; Scherrer, I.

    2008-10-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the construction project for the realisation of a hydropower installation that uses the water of the drinking-water mains to generate electricity. Figures are presented on the head of water available, the proposed electrical power to be installed, the investments necessary, annual production as well as financing which is to be obtained via the Swiss cost-covering remuneration scheme for energy from renewable resources. The history behind the project, which includes refurbishment of existing springs and sources of drinking water, is discussed. Figures are presented on the water quantities available and technical details of this multi-stage drinking-water s