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Sample records for hydrophobic acrylic intraocular

  1. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

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    Yunhai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  2. Comparison of the Retinal Straylight in Pseudophakic Eyes with PMMA, Hydrophobic Acrylic, and Hydrophilic Acrylic Spherical Intraocular Lens

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    Ya-wen Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the intraocular straylight value after cataract surgery. Methods. In this study, 76 eyes from 62 patients were subdivided into three groups. A hydrophobic acrylic, a hydrophilic acrylic, and a PMMA IOL were respectively, implanted in 24 eyes, 28 eyes, and 24 eyes. Straylight was measured using C-Quant at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively in natural and dilated pupils. Results. The hydrophilic acrylic IOLs showed significantly lower straylight values than those of the hydrophobic acrylic IOLs in dilated pupils at 1 week and 1 month after surgery (P0.05. Moreover, no significant difference was found in straylight between natural and dilated pupils in each group at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P>0.05. Conclusions. Although the hydrophobic acrylic IOL induced more intraocular straylight, straylight differences among the 3 IOLs were minimal. Pupil size showed no effect on intraocular straylight; the intraocular straylight was stable 1 week after surgery.

  3. Late postoperative opacification of a hydrophilic-hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens.

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    Bompastor-Ramos, Paula; Póvoa, João; Lobo, Conceição; Rodriguez, Alejandra E; Alió, Jorge L; Werner, Liliana; Murta, Joaquim N

    2016-09-01

    To report late postoperative opacification of a model of hydrophilic-hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) as well as the clinical consequences and laboratory characteristics. Department of Ophthalmology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed of patients with Lentis LS-502-1 IOL opacification reporting visual loss who had IOL explantation between November 2013 and March 2015. Patients were identified in the emergency room or during regular follow-up visits. Explanted IOLs were analyzed at the Ophthalmic Explants Biobank, Vissum, Spain, or at the John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, USA. Twenty opacified IOLs were explanted from 19 patients. The mean interval between cataract surgery and diagnosis of opacification was 29.15 months ± 9.57 (SD) (range 6 to 45 months). Opacification led to a statistically significant reduction in corrected distance visual acuity (mean 0.86 ± 0.76 logMAR; P diabetes, and glaucoma. All IOLs but 1 had a similar pattern of opacification, with yellowish diffuse opacification uniformly distributed and calcium deposits on the surface and/or subsurface of the optic and haptics and within the IOL material. Opacification of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic acrylic IOL was found in a significant number of patients and had a significant effect on their vision. The opacification was attributed to primary calcification. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Light scattering, straylight, and optical quality in hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with subsurface nanoglistenings.

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    Werner, Liliana; Stover, John C; Schwiegerling, Jim; Das, Kamal K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate forward light scattering and straylight in single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Acrysof) removed from cadaver eyes and design- and power-matched controls, as well as the effect of subsurface nanoglistenings on other optical quality and performance indicators. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Seventeen single-piece IOLs (11 blue light-filtering; 6 without blue-light filter) with subsurface nanoglistenings were removed from cadaver eyes. The Complete Angle Scatter Instrument scatterometer was used to measure the forward-scattered light; straylight values at various angles were calculated. The modulation transfer function (MTF) and Badal images were also obtained. Backscatter was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000) and light transmittance with a spectrophotometer (Lambda 35 UV-VIS) to confirm findings in previous studies. The mean straylight values at a scattered angle of 10 degrees were 1.06 ± 0.23 log(s) for blue light-filtering IOLs, 0.97 ± 0.28 log(s) for IOLs without a blue-light filter, and 0.22 ± 0.22 log(s) for controls. The MTF and Badal image contrast of IOLs removed from cadaver eyes were similar to control values (no subsurface nanoglistenings). Backscatter was significantly higher in IOLs from cadaver eyes, although light transmittance was similar to that of controls. Straylight in hydrophobic IOLs resulting from subsurface nanoglistenings was well below the value of straylight hindrance and would not cause noticeable visual impairments. Dr. Das is an employee of Alcon Laboratories, Inc. The Complete Angle Instrument scatterometer was developed by Dr. Stover at the Scatterworks, Inc. Neither of the other authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any method or material mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rotational stability of a single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens during removal of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices.

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    Hyon, Joon Young; Yeo, Hwan Eok

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effect of cohesive and dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) on intraoperative rotational stability of the intraocular lens (IOL) with single-piece hydrophobic acrylate platform. Prospective, comparative study. This institutional clinical study included 60 eyes of 60 patients who underwent phacoemulsifcation. The patients were equally divided into cohesive OVD (Healon GV; Abbott Medical Optics, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) group and dispersive OVD (Viscoat; Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) group. Image analysis from the captured digital image was used to measure intraoperative rotation of single-piece hydrophobic acrylate IOL (SA60AT or SA60NT) during OVD removal. Mean intraoperative rotation was 7.42 degrees +/- 4.16 (standard deviation) in dispersive OVD group and 13.08 degrees +/- 5.25 (standard deviation) in cohesive OVD group (P stability of IOL was greater with Viscoat than with Healon GV. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens with poly(ethylene glycol) by atmospheric pressure glow discharge: A facile approach

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    Lin Lin; Wang Yao; Huang Xiaodan [Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Xu Zhikang [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization (Ministry of Education), Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao Ke, E-mail: xlren@zju.edu.cn [Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China)

    2010-10-01

    To improve the anterior surface biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in a convenient and continuous way, poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) were immobilized by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) treatment using argon as the discharge gas. The hydrophilicity and chemical changes on the IOL surface were characterized by static water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the covalent binding of PEG. The morphology of the IOL surface was observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by adhesion experiments with platelets, macrophages, and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. The results revealed that the anterior surface of the PEG-grafted IOL displayed significantly and permanently improved hydrophilicity. Cell repellency was observed, especially in the PEG-modified IOL group, which resisted the attachment of platelets, macrophages and LECs. Moreover, the spread and growth of cells were suppressed, which may be attributed to the steric stabilization force and chain mobility effect of the modified PEG. All of these results indicated that hydrophobic acrylic IOLs can be hydrophilic modified by PEG through APGD treatment in a convenient and continuous manner which will provide advantages for further industrial applications.

  7. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes.

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    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Posterior Capsular Opacification with Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Acrylic Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens after Cataract Surgery

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    Abhay Karman Khurana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO is a type of membrane formation composed from pearls, fibrotic and Soemmering’s rings on the posterior capsule. It is a multifactorial physiological consequence of cataract surgery with Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens (PCIOL. Aim: To evaluate the difference in the incidence of PCO between hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic Intraocular Lens (IOL. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of 12 months and patients attending Department of Ophthalmology were incorporated in the study. A total of 112 eyes of 106 patients with age related cataract were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups, group I had 55 eyes which underwent cataract surgery with hydrophilic PCIOL and group II had 57 eyes which underwent cataract surgery with hydrophobic PCIOL. PCO analysis was done on subsequent follow-ups, at one month, three months and six months with the help of retroilluminated images taken with slit lamp guided anterior segment photography. Results: PCO grade 2 was seen to be most common among both Group I {31 (56.4%} and Group II {38 (66.7%} eyes. PCO grade 3 was seen among 20 (36.4% eyes in group I and 10 (17.5% eyes in group II which was 2.7 times more in group I as compared to group II. PCO grade 3 was also found to be more prevalent among young patients, diabetics and in patients with immature cataracts. Conclusion: The incidence of PCO is higher with the hydrophilic IOL. However, the increased incidence of PCO is also attributed to young age of patient, presence of diabetes mellitus and immature cataract grade. These are factors known to be associated with higher incidence of PCO.

  9. Safety and effectiveness of a glistening-free single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (enVista

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    Packer M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer,1 Luther Fry,2 Kevin T Lavery,3 Robert Lehmann,4 James McDonald,5 Louis Nichamin,6 Brian Bearie,7,† Jon Hayashida,8 Griffith E Altmann,8 Omid Khodai8 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health and Science University, Eugene, OR, USA; 2University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 4Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 5University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 6Laurel Eye Clinic, Brookville, PA, USA; 7Grand Rapids Eye Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA; 8Bausch & Lomb, Aliso Viejo, CA, USA †Brian Bearie passed away on March 9, 2011 Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL; enVista model MX60; Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA when used to correct aphakia following cataract extraction in adults. Methods: This was a prospective case series (NCT01230060 conducted in private practices in the US. Eligible subjects were adult patients with age-related cataract amenable to treatment with standard phacoemulsification/extracapsular cataract extraction. With follow-up of 6 months, primary safety and effectiveness end points included the rates of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-defined cumulative and persistent adverse events and the percentage of subjects who achieved best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 20/40 or better at final visit. To evaluate rotational stability, subjects were randomized (1:1:1:1 to have the lens implanted in one of four axis positions in 45° increments. Results: A total of 122 subjects were enrolled. The rate of cumulative and persistent adverse events did not significantly exceed historical controls, as per FDA draft guidance. At the final postoperative visit, all subjects (100% achieved a BCVA of 20/40 compared with the FDA historical control of 96.7%. Rotation of the IOL between the two final follow-up visits was ≤5° for 100% of eyes, and refractive

  10. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet capsulotomy rates after combined cataract surgery with implantation of a 4% water content hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens and vitrectomy

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    Kabata Y

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kabata,1 Genichiro Takahashi,1 Hiroshi Tsuneoka21Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Katsushika Medical Center, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates after combined cataract surgery with implantation of a three-piece 4% water content hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (X-70, Eternity® and vitrectomy, and compare diabetic retinopathy with nondiabetic retinopathy.Methods: Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates were evaluated for 72 eyes of 72 patients with diabetic retinopathy and 81 eyes of 81 patients with nondiabetic retinopathy (50 eyes with retinal detachment, 13 eyes with macular hole, nine eyes with epiretinal membrane, seven eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion, and two eyes with uveitis who underwent combined cataract surgery and vitrectomy and implantation of X-70.Results: Two years after combination surgery, four of 72 eyes (5.6% in the diabetic retinopathy group and four of 81 eyes (5.0% in the nondiabetic retinopathy group required Nd:YAG capsulotomies. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P=0.30, Mantel–Cox log-rank test.Conclusion: The rate of Nd:YAG capsulotomy did not significantly differ between diabetic retinopathy and nondiabetic retinopathy after combined cataract surgery with implantation of the X-70 and vitrectomy. X-70 is an acceptable intraocular lens for patients undergoing combined cataract surgery and vitrectomy.Keywords: Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates, combined surgery, diabetic retinopathy, hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens

  11. Pathology of 219 human cadaver eyes with 1-piece or 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses: capsular bag opacification and sites of square-edged barrier breach.

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    Ness, Peter J; Werner, Liliana; Maddula, Surekha; Davis, Don; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Burrow, Michael; Yeh, Oliver

    2011-05-01

    To assess capsular bag opacification and sites of initial posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in human cadaver eyes with square-edged 1-piece or 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Eyes were immersed in 10% formalin after enucleation and had anterior segment scanning with very-high-frequency ultrasound (Artemis). After the eyes were sectioned at the equator, gross examination of the anterior segment was performed from the posterior aspect to assess capsular bag opacification, anterior capsule coverage of the IOL edge, and IOL fixation. Selected eyes had histopathologic examination. One hundred nineteen eyes with 1-piece IOLs and 100 with 3-piece IOLs were included in the analyses of capsular bag opacification. There was no difference in central (P=.29) or peripheral (P=.76) PCO. In 63 of 84 eyes with a 1-piece IOL and peripheral PCO, the optic-haptic junction was the site of initiation. In eyes with a 3-piece IOL, initial peripheral PCO was observed at nearly the same rate whether there was full 360-degree anterior capsulorhexis overlap of the optic or no overlap (P=.13). In the latter, the site of PCO initiation was in areas lacking capsulorhexis coverage in 46% of eyes. There was no difference in central or peripheral PCO between 1-piece and 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. With 1-piece IOLs, PCO tended to start at the optic-haptic junctions. With 3-piece IOLs, full anterior capsule coverage did not produce a statistically significant benefit with respect to PCO prevention. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraindividual comparative analysis of capsule opacification after implantation of 2 single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses models: Three-year follow-up.

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    Kahraman, Guenal; Amon, Michael; Ferdinaro, Clara; Nigl, Karl; Walch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To compare the 3-year postoperative anterior (ACO) and posterior (PCO) capsule opacification and the level of anterior capsule retraction after implantation of 2 single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) models. Hospital of St. John of God, Vienna, Austria. Comparative randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. Eyes with bilateral cataract were evaluated. Each patient had an Acrysof SA60AT (interrupted optic edge) IOL implanted in 1 eye (Group A) and a Tecnis ZCB00 (continuous optic edge) IOL implanted in the fellow eye (Group B). One and 3 years postoperatively, PCO was evaluated using Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification software and the ACO level and capsule-retraction level were evaluated and graded subjectively. The study evaluated 100 eyes of 50 patients ranging from 61 to 80 years. Postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in PCO between Group A and Group B at 1 year (0.06 ± 0.12 [SD] and 0.07 ± 0.13, respectively; P = 4.35) or 3 years (0.23 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.32, respectively; P = .66). In Group A and Group B, ACO was present in 18.0% of eyes and 2.7% of eyes, respectively, at 1 year (P = .03) and in 92.0% and 24.0%, respectively, at 3 years (P Capsule phimosis (18.0% at 1 year; 30.0% at 3 years) and glistenings (66.0% at 1 year; 86.0% at 3 years) were observed in Group A only. Both IOLs had similarly low PCO rates 3 years postoperatively, although more ACO and capsule retraction were observed in eyes with the interrupted optic edge IOL. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

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    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  14. Retrospective study of ocular complication following phacoemulsification with intraocular acrylic lens implantation in dogs

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    T.G. Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze for 120 days, post-operative complications following bimanual phacoemulsification with implantation of hydrophilic or hydrophobic intraocular acrylic lens. The hospital records of 15 dogs were analyzed, and distributed in two groups, being Gfi and Gfo the hydrophilic intraocular lens and hydrophobic intraocular lens group, respectively. On the first day, both groups presented blepharospasm, conjunctival hyperemia and flare. On day 1, fibrin was slightly apparent in two and three eyes of Gfi and Gfo, and on day 7, present in one and two patients from Gfi and Gfo. Synechia was observed on day 1 in one eye from Gfi and Gfo. Two eyes from Gfi developed from 7 to 120 days, and in Gfo, one eye developed from 7 to 90 days, on day 120, two eyes formed them. The presence of posterior capsule opacity of the lens in all periods, there was no statistical significant between the groups. Only one eye, in Gfo, that had no opacity formation. The intraocular pressure of both groups remained within normal range. There was no statistical significance between hydrophilic and hydrophobic intraocular lens, the use of intraocular lens has led to satisfactory results in visual ability.

  15. Comparison of PMMA, foldable silicone and foldable acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses in combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy Comparação entre lentes intra-oculares de PMMA, lentes dobráveis de silicone e lentes acrílicas hidrofóbicas dobráveis em cirurgias combinadas de facoemulsificação e trabeculectomia

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    Ernani Serpa Junior; Wishart,Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative results of phacotrabeculectomy with implantation of PMMA, foldable silicone or foldable hydrofobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). SETTING: Glaucoma unit, The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom. METHODS: We studied a total of 124 eyes of three consecutive groups of patients with glaucoma and cataract that underwent phacotrabeculectomy with implantation of a PMMA (30 eyes), a foldable silicone (57 eyes) or a foldable acrylic (37...

  16. Equilibrium water content and glistenings in acrylic intraocular lenses.

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    Miyata, Akira; Yaguchi, Shigeo

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between temperature and water absorption in acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Laboratory setting, Miyata Eye Clinic, Hiroshima, Japan. The equilibrium water content (amount of water absorbed per weight of the resin x 100) in 2 hydrophobic acrylic IOLs (AcrySof MA60BM [Alcon] and Sensar AR40 [AMO]) was calculated at 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 50 degrees C. The 2 IOLs were also subjected to 3 changes in temperature: from 37 degrees C to 35 degrees C, 39 degrees C to 35 degrees C, and 41 degrees C to 35 degrees C. They were incubated in physiological saline at the higher temperature for 2 hours and at the lower temperature for 30 days before being examined for glistening formation. The water content was higher in the AR40 IOL than in the MA60BM IOL at all temperatures. A temperature-dependent increase in water content was seen in both IOLs, greater in the MA60BM. With a temperature change from 37 degrees C to 35 degrees C, glistening formation was not observed in either IOL. With a temperature change from 39 degrees C to 35 degrees C, glistenings were observed in the MA60BM IOL, and with a temperature change from 41 degrees C to 35 degrees C, they were observed in both IOLs. The change in the equilibrium water content caused by temperature changes between 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C is an important factor in glistening formation, and thus an IOL featuring less temperature-dependent water absorption is less likely to form glistenings.

  17. Corrigendum: Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

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    Espandar L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Espandar L, Sikder S, Moshirfar M. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:65–70.There was an error in the reported optic size of Lenstec’s Softec HD intraocular lens, which was reported to be 5.5 mm in Espandar et al’s work, but is 5.75 mm.Please see the specifications on Lenstec’s Web site for further details (see http://www.lenstec.com/lenstec/hd_specs.html.Read the original article

  18. Visual performance of acrylic and PMMA intraocular lenses.

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    Gozum, N; Unal, E Safgonul; Altan-Yaycioglu, R; Gucukoglu, A; Ozgun, C

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of visual functions after cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with different lens materials and compare the results with age-matched subjects with clear phakic eyes. Control and pseudophakic groups involved individuals aged between 50 and 75 years, without any accompanying ocular or systemic disease. In all, 50 eyes implanted with foldable acrylic IOLs, and 41 eyes implanted with polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) IOLs were compared with 45 phakic eyes as controls. Visual functions were evaluated for contrast sensitivity function and glare disability. The results were compared statistically using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At high luminance levels, the difference among groups for contrast sensitivity was statistically significant for all spatial frequencies (P0.05). Glare disability scores were significantly higher in the PMMA-IOL group compared to the control and acrylic-IOL groups. The visual quality achieved in pseudophakic eyes was not as good as in clear phakic eyes in regard to contrast sensitivity and glare. However, acrylic IOLs fared better than PMMA IOLs.

  19. Mesopic visual quality after three kinds of aspheric acrylic monofocal intraocular lenses

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    Hai-Lun Ji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate best corrected visual acuity(BCVAand contrast sensitivity(CSunder mesopic condition with no glare in patients following implantation of three different kinds of aspheric acrylic monofocal intraocular lens(IOLs.METHODS: Seventy-seven cases(90 eyesof age-related cataract patients were selected, who were undergone phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation in our hospital during December 2011 to November 2012. Preoperatively, the patients were randomly divided into three groups: 30 eyes(25 caseswere implanted with hydrophobic yellow-tinted acrylic(HOYAIOLs in group 1; 30 eyes(28 caseswith hydrophilic acrylic IOLs(Raynerin group 2; 30 eyes(24 caseswith hydrophilic acrylic surface heparin processing IOLs(XOin group 3. All eyes were evaluated at 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. The BCVA and CS under mesopic condition without glare were measured and underwent statistical analysis.RESULTS: There was neither statistically significant difference in the BCVA(P>0.05, nor statistically significant difference in CS results(after standardization of contrast sensitivity value: lgCS(P>0.05between groups under mesopic condition, but the lgCS of the HOYA group decreased slightly. CONCLUSION: There were not marked differences of BCVA and CS between groups of patients at the follow-up intervals of 1 month and 3 months under mesopic condition. The blue-filter type artificial lens may protect the retina, thus, it is advisable to implant yellow-tinted filter blue artificial lens, especially for patients who are children or young persons.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PMMA, silicone, or acrylic intra-ocular lenses in cataract surgery in four European countries.

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    Smith, Andrew F; Lafuma, Antoine; Berdeaux, Gilles; Berto, Patrizia; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Magaz, Sol; Auffarth, Gerd K; Brezin, Antoine; Caporossi, Aldo; Mendicute, Javier

    2005-10-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of different intra-ocular lens (IOL) materials (Hydrophobic acrylic, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), Hydrophilic acrylic and Silicone) implanted after cataract surgery with reference to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy and Nd:YAG-related complications in four European countries (France, Italy, Germany and Spain). A retrospective review of 1,525 patients (eyes), aged 50 to 80 years, operated with phacoemulsification for cataract in 1996 or 1997 in 16 surgical centres (4 per country). The study was conducted using a cost-effectiveness approach. Medical charts were reviewed to collect retrospective information during the 3-year period following cataract surgery in order to identify patients who underwent Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy post-operatively. Clinical data were combined with unit costs assessed by experts for Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy and their complications. A cost-effectiveness ratio (cost per patient without Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy intervention) was estimated in relation to each IOL material used in each of the four European countries. Hydrophobic acrylic, specifically Acrysof, was the most cost-effective IOL material in all the countries except Germany where it was second. PMMA had the best ratio in Germany, was second in Spain and only third in Italy and France. Silicone was second in France and ranked third in the other countries, while hydrophilic acrylic had the worst ratio overall in all countries. Cost-effectiveness ratios of hydrophobic acrylic (Acrysof) were better than those of other types of IOL materials used in most of the countries. Sensitivity analyses were performed to vary the base case analysis to demonstrate the economic importance of the assumptions. In all cases, hydrophobic acrylic IOL material was shown to be a highly cost-effective option.

  1. RGD surface functionalization of the hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens material to control posterior capsular opacification.

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    Yi-Shiang Huang

    Full Text Available Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. Literature has shown that the incidence of PCO is multifactorial including the patient's age or disease, surgical technique, and IOL design and material. Reports comparing hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs have shown that the former has more severe PCO. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that the adhesion of LECs is favored on hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic materials. By combining these two facts and contemporary knowledge in PCO development via the EMT pathway, we propose a biomimetically inspired strategy to promote LEC adhesion without de-differentiation to reduce the risk of PCO development. By surface grafting of a cell adhesion molecule (RGD peptide onto the conventional hydrophilic acrylic IOL material, the surface-functionalized IOL can be used to reconstitute a capsule-LEC-IOL sandwich structure, which has been considered to prevent PCO formation in literature. Our results show that the innovative biomaterial improves LEC adhesion, while also exhibiting similar optical (light transmittance, optical bench and mechanical (haptic compression force, IOL injection force properties compared to the starting material. In addition, compared to the hydrophobic IOL material, our bioactive biomaterial exhibits similar abilities in LEC adhesion, morphology maintenance, and EMT biomarker expression, which is the crucial pathway to induce PCO. The in vitro assays suggest that this biomaterial has the potential to reduce the risk factor of PCO development.

  2. Comparison of PMMA, foldable silicone and foldable acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses in combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy Comparação entre lentes intra-oculares de PMMA, lentes dobráveis de silicone e lentes acrílicas hidrofóbicas dobráveis em cirurgias combinadas de facoemulsificação e trabeculectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Serpa Junior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative results of phacotrabeculectomy with implantation of PMMA, foldable silicone or foldable hydrofobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. SETTING: Glaucoma unit, The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom. METHODS: We studied a total of 124 eyes of three consecutive groups of patients with glaucoma and cataract that underwent phacotrabeculectomy with implantation of a PMMA (30 eyes, a foldable silicone (57 eyes or a foldable acrylic (37 eyes IOL. Postoperative Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP, and early and late complications were assessed. All data were analyzed by means of c² test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA/MANOVA tests or a combination whenever appropriate. RESULTS: In all three groups the early and late mean postoperative IOPs were significantly lower than the preoperative ones (p25 mmHg and hypotony (IOPOBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados pós-operatórios de facotrabeculectomias com implante de lentes intra-oculares de PMMA, dobráveis de silicone e acrílicas hidrofóbicas dobráveis. MÉTODOS: Estudo comparativo retrospectivo, realizado no Departamento de Glaucoma da "St. Paul's Eye Unit - The Royal Liverpool University Hospital", em Liverpool, Inglaterra, onde foram estudados um total de 124 olhos de três grupos consecutivos de pacientes com glaucoma e catarata que foram submetidos à cirurgia de facotrabeculectomia com implante de lentes intra-oculares (LIO de PMMA (30 olhos, dobráveis de silicone (57 olhos e acrílicas hidrofóbicas dobráveis (37 olhos. Foram registradas a visão e pressão intra-ocular (PIO pré e pós-operatória, assim como as complicações pós-operatórias precoces e tardias. Todos os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o teste c², teste exato de Fisher, teste de ANOVA/MANOVA ou uma combinação deles quando necessário. RESULTADOS: Nos três grupos as PIOs pós-operatórias precoces e tardias foram significativamente inferiores

  3. Results and complications of hydrophobic acrylic vs PMMA posterior chamber lenses in children under 17 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchle, Michael; Lausen, Berthold; Gusek-Schneider, Gabriele-Charlotte

    2003-08-01

    To compare results and complications of implantation of hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lenses in children with those of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses. In a retrospective study, we analyzed results of cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implantation in 30 eyes of 30 patients aged 1-16 years. In 10 eyes, acrylic (Alcon AcrySof) intraocular lenses, and in 20 eyes, single-piece PMMA posterior chamber lenses were implanted. Indications for cataract surgery (blunt or penetrating trauma, zonular cataract, cataracta polaris posterior, posterior lenticonus) and mean age at implantation were comparable in the two groups. Mean patient age at surgery was 8.6+/-4.6 years (range 3-16 years) for the acrylic vs 6.3+/-4.3 years (range 1-16 years) for the PMMA group. Mean follow-up was 1.0+/-0.7 years (range 0.1-2.2 years) in the acrylic group and 1.8+/-1.5 years (range 0.1-5.7 years) in the PMMA group. Primary anterior vitrectomy was performed in 7 eyes in the PMMA group and in 3 eyes in the acrylic group. In addition, one additional posterior capsulorhexis without anterior vitrectomy was performed in each group. Primary outcome measure was the occurrence of postoperative "complications" (fibrin, synechiae, posterior capsular opacification). For statistical evaluation, the Fisher exact test was used. When evaluating all complications together (at least one complication vs no complication), there were significantly less complications in the acrylic group (2 of 10 vs 15 of 20; p=0.007. For early complications (postoperative fibrin, synechiae) the difference was also significant (1 of 10 in the acrylic vs 11 of 20 in the PMMA group; p=0.02). The rate of posterior capsular opacification necessitating YAG capsulotomy was lower in the acrylic group (1 of 10 eyes) than in the PMMA group (7 of 20 eyes), but the difference did not reach statistical significance ( p=0.67). The postoperative time point of YAG capsulotomy was 21 months in the acrylic group

  4. Comparison of Nd : YAG capsulotomy rates following phacoemulsification with implantation of PMMA, silicone, or acrylic intra-ocular lenses in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffarth, Gerd U; Brezin, Antoine; Caporossi, Aldo; Lafuma, Antoine; Mendicute, Javier; Berdeaux, Gilles; Smith, Andrew F

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of Nd : YAG laser capsulotomy after cataract surgery according to the type of intra-ocular lens material (PMMA, silicone, hydrophilic acrylic, hydrophobic acrylic) implanted in four European countries (France, Italy, Germany, Spain). A retrospective record review. A review of 1525 patients (first operated eye), aged 50 to 80 years, operated on for cataract in 1996 or 1997 in 16 surgical centers (4 per country). The study employed a retrospective cohort design. Charts were reviewed to collect information during at least a three-year period following cataract surgery to identify patients who underwent Nd : YAG laser capsulotomy postoperatively. Data on the type of intra-ocular lens implanted was extracted from the patient notes, as was the date and outcome of the Nd : YAG laser intervention. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis with the time to Nd : YAG laser was performed on the data. RESULTS A total of 1525 patients (first operated eye) were available for the study (n = 294 for hydrophilic acrylic, n = 384 for PMMA, n = 421 for hydrophobic acrylic, n = 426 for silicone). There was a highly statistically significant difference between the IOL groups for the incidence of posterior capsule opacification (p PMMA (19.3%) and hydrophilic acrylic (31.1%), respectively. A low incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and Nd : YAG laser treatment was detected in hydrophobic acrylic IOLs in comparison to three other types of IOLs implanted in a large cohort of persons with age-related cataract. Choice of IOL type may reduce the need for Nd : YAG laser treatment, although further research on the reasons for this is needed.

  5. Comparison of Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Chung, Young Kwon; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Mee Yon; Lee, Young-Chun; Kim, Su-Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to compare Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses. Among 924 eyes of 762 patients who received cataract surgery, we selected the 303 patients (404 eyes) implanted with an SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) or a YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens (Hoya Co., Tokyo, Japan). For intraindividual comparison, we enrolled the 17 patients implanted with an SN60WF in 1 eye and a YA-60BBR in the contralateral eye. We compared Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses 24 months after the operation. Of the 404 eyes in this study, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in 20 of 268 eyes (7.5%) in the SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens group and 24 of 136 eyes (17.6%) in the YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .002). Among the 17 patients (34 eyes) who were implanted with 2 different inraocular lenses, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in only 2 eyes (12%) in the SN60WF group and 9 eyes (53%) in the YA-60BBR group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .020). The authors found a significantly greater incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in eyes who received 3-piece lenses compared with those who received 1-piece lenses. PMID:28682911

  6. Role of silicon contamination on calcification of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Hunter, Brian; Stevens, Scott; Chew, Jesse J L; Mamalis, Nick

    2006-01-01

    To verify the presence of the element silicon on hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted because of calcification. Interventional case series with clinicopathological correlation. Twenty explanted IOLs with surface deposits (MemoryLens), and 20 with deposits mostly within their optic substance (SC60B-OUV and Aqua-Sense; 10 each) were used. After gross, microscopic, and histochemical analyses to confirm the presence of deposits, the lenses underwent scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental composition, on the external surface of MemoryLens IOLs, and on the surface and internal substance of SC60B-OUV and Aqua-Sense IOLs. The weight percentage of the element silicon was obtained at the level of deposits, and at adjacent deposit-free areas in all lenses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS confirmed that the composition of the deposits was calcium/phosphate in all cases. The element silicon was found in all 40 lenses, on all areas analyzed. The silicon weight percentage was higher at the level of the deposits. The presence of aluminum on five MemoryLens IOLs, and in most of the SC60B-OUV and Aqua-Sense lenses might be related to scattering from the aluminum mounting stubs used for surface analyses. Silicone compounds have been implicated in the calcification of another hydrophilic acrylic design (Hydroview). They may also have a role in the calcification of other hydrophilic acrylic IOLs. Further investigation on the relationship between the presence of the element silicon and the silicone compounds found on calcified hydrophilic acrylic lenses is necessary.

  7. Comparison of Nd: YAG capsulotomy rate between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic intraocular lenses: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Chung, Young Kwon; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Mee Yon; Lee, Young-Chun; Kim, Su-Young

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to compare Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses. Among 924 eyes of 762 patients who received cataract surgery, we selected the 303 patients (404 eyes) implanted with an SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) or a YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens (Hoya Co., Tokyo, Japan). For intraindividual comparison, we enrolled the 17 patients implanted with an SN60WF in 1 eye and a YA-60BBR in the contralateral eye. We compared Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses 24 months after the operation. Of the 404 eyes in this study, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in 20 of 268 eyes (7.5%) in the SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens group and 24 of 136 eyes (17.6%) in the YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .002). Among the 17 patients (34 eyes) who were implanted with 2 different inraocular lenses, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in only 2 eyes (12%) in the SN60WF group and 9 eyes (53%) in the YA-60BBR group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .020).The authors found a significantly greater incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in eyes who received 3-piece lenses compared with those who received 1-piece lenses.

  8. Dysphotopsia outcomes analysis of two truncated acrylic 6.0-mm intraocular optic lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yian; Zabriskie, Norman; Olson, Randall J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the incidence of pseudophakic dysphotopsia complaints in patients successfully implanted with two 6.0-mm acrylic intraocular optic lenses (IOL) with treated edges: the Sensar AR-40-e (Advanced Medical Optics, Santa Ana, Calif., USA) and the SA-60AT (Alcon, Fort Worth, Tex., USA). A patient history and telephone survey at least 1 year after uncomplicated surgery at an academic eye hospital. Patients operated on for cataract with no pathology noted that the procedure could have an impact upon vision. At least 20/25 best corrected vision was documented after surgery, and patients were asked to rate specific dysphotopsia complaints. A single relevant case study is also presented. the patient had unremitting dysphotopsia with an SA-60AT IOL and had an AR-40-e implanted in the second eye. She went on to have the SA-60AT exchanged with an AR-40-e IOL with relief of symptoms. Main study: the survey showed both 6.0-mm optic acrylic IOL were similar, except there was significantly more midday dysphotopsia with the SA-60AT in a subgroup (p = 0.014). Both were generally superior to the MA-30 with the SA-30AT between the two extremes. The control group did better than all IOL in general, except in overall satisfaction where the AR-40-e and SA-60AT were better. Pseudophakia induces dysphotopsia which can be minimized by a 6.0-mm optic and treated IOL edge. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Objective assessment of the inflammatory reaction in foldable heparin surface-modified hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu1

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the inflammatory reaction in the anterior chamber after cataract surgery for the heparin surface modified foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens(HSM-IOLby laser flare-cell meter. METHODS: The test group consisted of 22 patients(22 eyesin whom a HSM-IOL was implanted in the capsular bag(HSM-IOL group. There was one control group including 21 patients(21 eyeswho received a normal foldable hydrophilic acrylic IOL(uncoated IOL group. Anterior chamber flare and cell values were measured, using laser flare-cell meter preoperatively and 1, 7, 28d postoperatively. RESULTS: In the HSM-IOL group, the flare and the cells values were significantly lower than those in the uncoated IOL group 1d and 7d postoperatively. Between the two groups, there were no significant differences in cells and the level of flare on the 28d postoperative. CONCLUSION: HSM-IOL can decrease inflammation in early postoperative stage, compared with the uncoated IOL. The laser flare-cell meter provides a safe and objective technique for measuring inflammation in anterior chamber.

  10. Anterior segment parameters: comparison of 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Hashemian, Hesam; Nazari, Rahman

    2010-10-01

    To compare anterior segment parameters between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs). Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Prospective randomized comparative case series. Eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification were randomized into 2 equal groups to receive a 1-piece (AcrySof SA60AT) or 3-piece (AcrySof MA60AC) foldable acrylic IOL. Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam) was used to measure anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and anterior chamber volume (ACV), preoperatively and 1 week and 3 months postoperatively. The study evaluated 125 eyes (123 patients). There was a statistically significant postoperative increase in ACD, ACA, and ACV at 1 week and 3 months in both IOL groups. Although the mean ACD was significantly higher in the 3-piece group at 1 week, there was no significant between-group difference in ACD, ACA, or ACV at 3 months. There was no significant change in anterior segment parameters from 1 week to 3 months in the 1-piece group; however, the 3-piece group had statistically significant decreases in ACD, ACA, and ACV. Refraction remained stable throughout the follow-up in the 1-piece group but showed a significant myopic shift from 1 week to 3 months in the 3-piece group. After phacoemulsification, the 1-piece acrylic foldable IOL showed little axial movement and provided stable refraction throughout the follow-up. The 3-piece IOL had significant forward movement and led to a myopic shift within 3 months postoperatively. Results indicate that spectacles can be prescribed earlier in eyes with a 1-piece IOL. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optically transparent super-hydrophobic thin film fabricated by reusable polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-S.; Park, J.-H.; Lee, D.-W.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple manufacturing method for producing an optically transparent super-hydrophobic polymer thin film using a reusable photo-curable polymer mold. Soluble photoresist (PR) molds were prepared with under-exposed and under-baked processes, which created unique hierarchical micro/nano structures. The reverse phase of the PR mold was replicated on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The unique patterns on the replicated PDMS molds were successfully transferred back to the UV curable polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) using a laboratory-made UV exposure system. Continuous production of the super-hydrophobic PDMS thin film was demonstrated using the reusable PUA mold. In addition, hydrophobic nano-silica powder was sprayed onto the micro/nano structured PDMS surfaces to further improve hydrophobicity. The fabricated PDMS thin films with hierarchical surface texturing showed a water contact angle  ⩾150°. Excellent optical transmittance within the range of visible light of wavelengths between 400–800 nm was experimentally confirmed using a spectrophotometer. High efficiency of the super-hydrophobic PDMS film in optical transparency was also confirmed using solar panels. The fabricated PUA molds are very suitable for use in roll-to-roll or roll-to-plate systems which allow continuous production of super-hydrophobic thin films with an excellent optical transparency.

  12. Clinical properties of a novel, glistening-free, single-piece, hydrophobic acrylic IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer,1 Mohan Rajan,2 Edoardo Ligabue,3 Peter Heiner4 1Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Rajan Eye Care Hospital Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India; 3Ophthalmology Department, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan, Italy; 4Bond University Medical School, Robina, QLD, Australia Abstract: A new, single-piece, hydrophobic acrylic lens – the first constructed with a lens optic and haptics comprised of a hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol phenyl ether acrylate–styrene copolymer, cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and labeled as "glistening-free" – was recently introduced globally. Glistenings have been a significant source of clinical concern with previous hydrophobic lens designs. This new monofocal lens provides enhanced, clear optics for lens-based surgery. The superior optical clarity of this lens is achieved through the elimination of glistenings, enhanced surface durability, high refractive index, a high Abbe number, and an aspheric design. Additionally, the lens design reduces the risk of developing posterior capsule opacification. Keywords: glistenings, monofocal hydrophobic acrylic, IOL, aspheric

  13. Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates after use of the AcrySof acrylic three piece and one piece intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, S I; Fahim, K; Marcovitch, A; Gada, H; Musch, D C; Sugar, A

    2005-11-01

    Acrylic lens size and shape may influence the rate of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and need for Nd:YAG capsulotomy. The aim of this study is to compare the Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate of the three piece acrylic/PMMA AcrySof MA series lens with the one piece acrylic AcrySof SA series lens. 434 eyes of 329 patients who had cataract extraction and implantation of one of four types of intraocular lenses (IOLs) were evaluated for rate of Nd:YAG capsulotomy. 176 eyes received the acrylic AcrySof MA30AC IOL, 71 eyes the acrylic AcrySof MA60AC IOL, 45 eyes the acrylic AcrySof SA30AL IOL, and 142 eyes the acrylic AcrySof SA60AT IOL. The rates of Nd:YAG capsulotomy with the three piece IOL (MA30AC/MA60AC) and the one piece IOL (SA30AL/SA60AT) were 1.2% and 2.1% at 6 months, 2.8% and 5.9% at 12 months, and 3.6% and 7.5% at 24 months, respectively. The incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy was higher in patients who received the one piece IOL (p=0.01, log rank test). There was no difference in Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates when comparing lens optic size, age, sex, history of pars plana vitrectomy, and diabetes mellitus. This study shows a greater incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in patients who receive one piece acrylic AcrySof lenses when compared to those who receive three piece acrylic AcrySof lenses.

  14. Microscopic analysis of an opacified OFT CRYL® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Vieira Ventura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 51-year-old patient underwent posterior vitrectomy with perfluoropropane gas injection, phacoemulsification, and implantation of an Oft Cryl® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL because of traumatic retinal detachment and cataract in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, gas was filling the anterior chamber because of patient's non-compliance in terms of head positioning, and was reabsorbed within one week. Eight months later, the patient returned complaining of a significant decrease in vision. IOL opacification was noticed by slit-lamp examination. The lens was explanted to undergo gross and light microscopic analysis. The lens was also stained with the alizarin red method for calcium identification. Light microscopic analysis confirmed the presence of granular deposits, densely distributed in an overall circular pattern in the central part of the lens optic. The granules stained positive for calcium. This is the first case of the opacification of this type of hydrophilic lens. Surgeons should be aware of this potential postoperative complication, and the use of hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided in procedures involving intracameral gas because of the risk of IOL opacification.

  15. Intraocular lens capture in combined cataract extraction and pars plana vitrectomy: comparison of 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnisky, Christopher J; Cheung, Joseph; Nanji, Jalal A

    2010-10-01

    To report and compare the incidence of pupillary capture and posterior synechiae formation after combined cataract extraction and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with a 1-piece versus a 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). Royal Alexandra Hospital Eye Clinic, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Comparative case series. Consecutive patients who had combined cataract extraction with PPV were retrospectively reviewed. The outcomes in patients who received a 1-piece acrylic IOL and those who received a 3-piece acrylic IOL were compared. The proportion of patients with pupillary IOL capture and/or posterior synechiae postoperatively was recorded. The cohort comprised 145 patients. All cases of IOL capture occurred in eyes with a 1-piece IOL (n = 7; 7.7%); the difference between the 1-piece IOL group and the 3-piece IOL group was statistically significant (P = .043). There was no significant difference between the 2 IOL types in the rate of posterior synechiae formation. Regression analysis showed that the odds of posterior synechiae formation were significantly higher in cases in which perfluoropropane (C(3)F(8)) (odds ratio [OR], 24.01; P = .006), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) (OR, 25.23; P = .007), or silicone oil (OR, 47.78; Ppiece IOL than after implantation of a 3-piece IOL during combined cataract extraction and PPV. Posterior synechiae formation was associated with the use of silicone oil, SF(6), or C(3)F(8). Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prótese intra-ocular de resina acrílica em cães e gatos Acrylic resin intraocular prosthesis in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Rahal

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Unesp - Campus de Botucatu, 11 animais (oito cães e três gatos, com alterações oftálmicas unilaterais graves que levaram à perda total da função ocular (protrusão de globo com injúria nervosa e estrutural, perfurações de córnea com perda de conteúdo intra-ocular e endoftalmites, entre outras. Os animais, com idades entre dois meses e 10 anos, foram submetidos à evisceração e posterior inclusão de esfera de resina acrílica (metilmetacrilato na capa córneo-escleral ou escleral. As esferas foram previamente confeccionadas e esterilizadas por autoclavagem. No pós-operatório foram utilizados antiinflamatórios e antibioticoterapia tópica combinada ou não a sistêmica. O período de observação variou de 2 meses a 3 anos e os aspectos avaliados foram secreção ocular, blefarospasmo, sinais de desconforto e estética. Obtiveram-se resultados satisfatórios em oito casos. Concluiu-se que a resina acrílica pode ser uma alternativa para uso como inclusão em cavidade anoftálmica.Eleven animals (eight dogs and three cats, aged between two months and ten years were referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - Unesp, Botucatu, Brazil. These animals presented severe unilateral ophthalmic changes that lead to a total loss of ocular function, such as prolapsed eyes with nervous and structural injury, corneal damage with loss of intraocular contents or endophthalmitis among others. They were submitted to evisceration followed by the insertion of an acrylic resin prosthesis (methylmethacrylate in the corneoscleral or scleral shell. The spheres were previously made and sterilized by autoclave. The postoperative medical therapy included topical and systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics for seven days and anti-inflammatory drugs. The follow-up time varied from two months to three years. The evaluated

  17. Hydrophobic modification of polymethyl methacrylate as intraocular lenses material to improve the cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bailiang; Lin, Quankui; Shen, Chenghui; Tang, Junmei; Han, Yuemei; Chen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    The development of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after intraocular lenses (IOL) implantation for dealing with cataract is mainly due to the severe loss of the human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) during surgery contact. A novel poly (hedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymer (allyl POSS-PMMA) was synthesized by free radical polymerization method to promote the adhesion of HLECs. FT-IR and (1)H NMR measurements indicated the existence of POSS cage in the product, which demonstrated the successful synthesis of allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer. Effect of allyl POSS in the hybrids on crystal structure, surface wettability and morphology, optical transmission, thermodynamic properties and cytocompatibility was investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction peaks at 2θ∼11° and 12° indicated that POSS molecules had aggregated and crystallized. Thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimeter and optical transmission measurements confirmed that the allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer had high glass transition temperatures (more than 100°C) and good transparency. The hydrophilicity and morphology of PMMA and copolymers surfaces were characterized by static water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The results revealed that the surface of the allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer displayed higher hydrophobicity and higher roughness than that of pure PMMA. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by morphology and activity measurement with HLECs in vitro. The results verified that the surface of allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer films had more HLECs adhesion and better spreading morphology than that of PMMA film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic diblock copolymers featuring poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) hydrophobic segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    ), and zwitterionic poly(3-(N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl)-N,N- dimethylammonio)propane sulfonate) (PDMAPS) blocks are constructed. mPEG, poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA), and poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA) macroinitiators are chain extended with 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA) employing copper-mediated atom...

  19. Pattern of posterior capsule opacification models 2 years postoperatively with 2 single-piece acrylic intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Don R; Woodcock, Michael G

    2010-06-01

    To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in eyes with 1 of 2 models of 1-piece acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Ambulatory surgery center. This paired-eye study evaluated patients who had implantation of a Tecnis AAB00 IOL with a continuous optic edge in 1 eye and an AcrySof SA60AT or SN60AT IOL with an interrupted optic edge in the fellow eye. Exclusion criteria were anterior capsule overlap onto the IOL optic of fewer than 360 degrees, neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy, postoperative time fewer than 24 months or more than 30 months, pseudoexfoliation, glaucoma, history of iritis, and surgical complications that would affect the assessment of PCO. Posterior capsule opacification was assessed using the Evaluation of Posterior Capsular Opacification (EPCO) system on a scale of 0 (none) to 4 (severe opacity with a darkening effect). In 13 of 14 patients, the eye with the interrupted-edge IOL had a higher EPCO score than the eye with the continuous-edge IOL. The mean EPCO score was 0.39 and 0.08, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P = .012). The PCO density was greater in eyes with the interrupted-edge IOL, with 35% having an EPCO score of 3 or 4; no eye with a continuous-edge IOL had a score that high. Eyes with an IOL with a continuous 360-degree square edge had significantly less PCO than eyes with an IOL with a square edge that was interrupted at the optic-haptic junction. (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates after use of the AcrySof acrylic three piece and one piece intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Mian, S I; Fahim, K; Marcovitch, A; Gada, H; Musch, D C; Sugar, A

    2005-01-01

    Background/aim: Acrylic lens size and shape may influence the rate of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and need for Nd:YAG capsulotomy. The aim of this study is to compare the Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate of the three piece acrylic/PMMA AcrySof MA series lens with the one piece acrylic AcrySof SA series lens.

  1. Natural aging of multilayer films containing hydrophobically modified poly(acrylate)s or their complexes with surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîfu, Ioana Cătălina; Maxim, Monica Elisabeta; Iovescu, Alina; Aricov, Ludmila; Simion, Elena Livia; Leontieş, Anca Ruxandra; Anastasescu, Mihai; Munteanu, Cornel; Anghel, Dan-Florin

    2017-08-01

    The paper reports the natural aging of polyelectrolyte multilayers containing sodium hydrophobically modified poly(acrylates) (PACnNa, n = 10 and 18) or complexes of PACnNa with alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (CxTAB, x = 10, 12, 14, 18) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). Wettability, thickness and surface morphology of aged multilayers are compared with those of freshly made. Contact angle (CA) increases with the alkyl chain length of the PACnNa and of the CxTAB in the complex with PACnNa. Wettability measurements unveil that only five bilayers of alternatively deposited PAC18Na-C18TAB and PDADMAC reach in 12 months the same CA as sixty freshly prepared bilayers. The PDADMAC outer layer gives higher CA and root mean square roughness than the negatively terminated multilayers. The results are significant for gaining new insight into the underlying mechanism of multilayers aging, saving materials, and improving the surface coatings for long term preservation.

  2. The use of dielectric spectroscopy for the characterisation of the precipitation of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic-acid) with divalent barium ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Vittrup; Keiding, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The use of dielectric spectroscopy as a monitor for coagulation processes was investigated. Hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic-acid) polymers were used as model macromolecules and coagulated with barium ions. The coagulation process was quantified using a photometric dispersion analyser, thereby...

  3. Potential contact and intraocular lenses based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zuppolini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline films of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS, a commercially available thermoplastic polymer, having a highly hydrophilic amorphous phase, were achieved by using a mild solid-state sulfonation procedure. Despite the used mild process conditions, an easy and uniform sulfonation of the phenyl rings of the amorphous phase is obtained. The crystallinity of the polymer was not affect by the sulfonation degree (S, at least at S less than 20%, and the obtained polymer films show the nanoporous crystalline form of s-PS. As widely reported in literature, the nanoporous nature of the polymer crystalline phase gives to these materials the ability to absorb and release organic molecules of appropriate size and polarity. This property, coupled to transparency, makes these materials potentially useful intraocular lens (IOLs and contact lens applications. Sulfonation procedure and sulfonated film samples characterization by using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy techniques and water sorption tests were reported. Furthermore, the biocompatibility study demonstrated no cytotoxicity and appropriate cell interaction properties for the specific applications.

  4. Release of a Poorly Soluble Drug from Hydrophobically Modified Poly (Acrylic Acid in Simulated Intestinal Fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Knöös

    Full Text Available A large part of new pharmaceutical substances are characterized by a poor solubility and high hydrophobicity, which might lead to a difference in drug adsorption between fasted and fed patients. We have previously evaluated the release of hydrophobic drugs from tablets based on Pemulen TR2 and showed that the release can be manipulated by adding surfactants. Here we further evaluate the possibility to use Pemulen TR2 in controlled release tablet formulations containing a poorly soluble substance, griseofulvin. The release is evaluated in simulated intestinal media that model the fasted state (FaSSIF medium or fed state (FeSSIF. The rheology of polymer gels is studied in separate experiments, in order to gain more information on possible interactions. The release of griseofulvin in tablets without surfactant varied greatly and the slowest release were observed in FeSSIF. Addition of SDS to the tablets eliminated the differences and all tablets showed a slow linear release, which is of obvious relevance for robust drug delivery. Comparing the data from the release studies and the rheology experiment showed that the effects on the release from the different media could to a large extent be rationalised as a consequence of the interactions between the polymer and the surfactants in the media. The study shows that Pemulen TR2 is a candidate for controlled release formulations in which addition of surfactant provides a way to eliminate food effects on the release profile. However, the formulation used needs to be designed to give a faster release rate than the tablets currently investigated.

  5. Folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel for site specific delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jisha Jayadevan; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar Theralikattu; Anto, Ruby John; Chithralekha, Devika Nandan; Narayanan, Ashwanikumar; Kumar, Gopalakrishnapillai Sankaramangalam Vinod

    2014-07-15

    The hydrogel based system is found to be rarely reported for the delivery of hydrophobic drug due to the incompatibility of hydrophilicity of the polymer network and the hydrophobicity of drug. This problem can be solved by preparing semi-interpenetrating network of cross-linked polymer for tuning the hydrophilicity so as to entrap the hydrophobic drugs. The current study is to develop a folic acid conjugated cross-linked pH sensitive, biocompatible polymeric hydrogel to achieve a site specific drug delivery. For that, we have synthesized a folic acid conjugated PEG cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel and investigated its loading and release of curcumin. The formed polymer hydrogel was then conjugated with folic acid for the site specific delivery of curcumin to cancer cells and then further characterized and conducted the cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). In this study, we synthesized folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs to the cancer site. Poly (ethyleneglycol) (PEG) diacrylate cross-linked acrylic polymer (PAA) was prepared via inverse emulsion polymerization technique and later conjugated it with folic acid (FA-CLAP). Hydrophobic drug curcumin is entrapped into it and investigated the entrapment efficiency. Characterization of synthesized hydogel was done by using Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Polymerization and folate conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The release kinetics of drug from the entrapped form was studied which showed initial burst release followed by sustained release due to swelling and increased cross-linking. In vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were conducted in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Results showed that curcumin entrapped folate conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel showed

  6. Effects of content and surface hydrophobic modification of BaTiO3 on the cooling properties of ASA (acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bo; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    For the field of cool material, barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) is still a new member that needs to be further studied. Herein, the effects of both content and surface hydrophobic modification of BT on the cooling properties of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA) were detailedly investigated, aiming to fabricate composited cool material. Butyl acrylate (BA) was employed to convert the surface of BT from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The addition of unmodified BT could significantly improve the solar reflectance of ASA, especially when the addition amount is 3 vol%, the near infrared (NIR) reflectance increased from 22.02 to 72.60%. However, serious agglomeration occurred when the addition amount increased to 5 vol% and therefore led to a relatively smaller increase in solar reflectance and an obvious decline in impact strength. After surface hydrophobic modification, the modified BT (M-BT) presented better dispersibility in ASA matrix, which contributed to the improvement of both solar reflectance and impact strength. In addition, the temperature test provided a more sufficient and intuitive way to evaluate the cooling effect of the composited cool materials, and a significant decrease (over 10 °C) could be achieved in the temperature test when M-BT particles were introduced.

  7. Topography, Wettability, and Electrostatic Charge Consist Major Surface Properties of Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Li, Xue-Dong; Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Qiu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Song; Kong, Jun

    2017-02-01

    To quantify potential relevant factors that affect the biocompatibility and functionality of intraocular lenses (IOLs) by analyzing the surface properties of various IOL materials. Eleven IOL models with the same dioptric power made by different manufacturers were studied. The IOLs were made of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), hydrophobic acrylate, hydrophilic acrylate, and silicone. The IOL surface topography was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface potential was measured by electric force microscopy (EFM). Surface wettability was assessed with the water contact angle using the sessile drop method. The PMMA IOLs had statistically significant surface irregularities with the highest surface roughness values while the silicone and hydrophilic acrylic IOLs had the lowest values. Surface potentials on IOLs revealed that all IOL models made of PMMA had positive charge. The hydrophobic acrylic IOL had a significantly higher positive charge (6.2v ± 0.1v), while the hydrophobic acrylic with blue blocker exhibited negative charge. Negative charge was also observed on hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (-72mv ± 5mv) and silicone IOLs (-5.06v ± 0.02v). Contact angle values of PMMA IOLs ranged from 49° to 64°. Heparin modification resulted in significant reduction of the contact angle value. IOL models made of hydrophobic acrylate had contact angle values between 78° and 89°. The silicone IOL appeared to be significantly hydrophobic with the highest mean value of 107°. The variance of the parameters of surface roughness, contact angle, and electrostatic charge on the surfaces of PMMA, hydrophobic acrylic, hydrophilic acrylic, and silicone IOLs is useful to the interpretation of the differences in clinical behaviors of these materials. The negative surface charge of silicone and hydrophilic IOLs might account for the occurrence of IOL calcification.

  8. Hydrophobic surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles for production of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate terpolymer/TiO2 composited cool materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Xiang, Bo; Tan, Wubin; Zhang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Hydrophobic surface modification of TiO2 was conducted for production of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) terpolymer/titanium dioxide (TiO2) composited cool materials. Different amount of 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS) was employed to change hydrophilic surface of TiO2 into hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic organosilane chains were successfully grafted onto TiO2 through Sisbnd Osbnd Ti bonds, which were verified by Fourier transformed infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The water contact angle of the sample added with TiO2 modified by 5 wt% MPS increased from 86° to 113°. Besides, all the ASA/TiO2 composites showed significant improvement in both solar reflectance and cooling property. The reflectance of the composites throughout the near infrared (NIR) region and the whole solar wavelength is increased by 113.92% and 43.35% compared with pristine ASA resin. Simultaneously, significant drop in temperature demonstrates excellent cooling property. A maximum decrease approach to 27 °C was observed in indoor temperature test, while a decrease around 9 °C tested outdoors is achieved.

  9. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  10. Incidência de opacificação de cápsula posterior em pacientes submetidos à facoemulsificação e implante de lentes intra-oculares acrílicas hidrofílicas expansíveis Incidence of posterior capsule opacification in patients submitted to phacoemulsification and expandable acrylic intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Arcoverde Gonçalves de Medeiros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar prospectivamente os resultados das lentes intra-oculares de polímeros expansíveis implantadas em pacientes submetidos à facoemulsificação, quanto à incidência de opacificação de cápsula posterior, levando em consideração a biocompatibilidade das lentes expansíveis. MÉTODOS: O grupo de estudo foi composto por 830 pacientes, 1.200 olhos, que foram submetidos a facoemulsificação, utilizando a mesma técnica, variando-se apenas o diâmetro da capsulorrexe, pelo mesmo cirurgião, no período de 1998 a 2002, com implante de lente intra-ocular hidrofílica expansível. O acompanhamento médio foi de 2,4 anos, variando de seis meses a quatro anos. RESULTADOS: O número total de opacificação de cápsula posterior foi de 54 casos. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de opacificação de cápsula posterior encontrada no grupo foi de 4,6%.PURPOSE: To evaluate prospectively the results of expandable acrylic intraocular lenses in patients submitted to phacoemulsification as regard posterior capsule opacification. METHODS: The study group consisted of 830 patients, 1,200 eyes that underwent phacoemulsification from 1998 to 2002, by the same surgeon, using the same technique but with different diameters of capsulorrhexis, with expandable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens implantation. The mean follow-up was 2.4 years, ranging from 6 months to 4 years. RESULTS: The total number of posterior capsule opacification was 54 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of posterior capsule opacification was 4.6% in these patients.

  11. Transparent fluorinate acrylic polyurethane with hydrophobicity obtained by crosslinking of hydroxyl-containing fluoroacrylate copolymer with HDI trimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl-containing fluoroacrylate copolymers with different fluorine and hydroxyl concentrations were synthesized via free-radical solution polymerization. Transparent fluorinated polyurethane (FPU films were prepared by curing the copolymers with HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate trimer. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results revealed introduction of fluorine both into the copolymer and polyurethane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses indicated that a gradient concentration of fluorine existed in the depth profile of the fluorinated polyurethane films. The highest contact angle (CA was obtained for the FPU film with fluoroacrylate monomer concentration of 22 wt.% because of fluorine present on the film surface. The surface topographies detected by SEM and AFM indicated that surface roughness contributed little to the film hydrophobicity. By increasing the fluoroacrylate monomer concentration, the decreasing of crosslinking degree of hard segment resulted in lowering the first degradation temperature, while more C-F groups in soft segment led to higher second degradation temperature. UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurements indicated that the FPU film with the fluoroacrylate monomer concentration of 16 wt.% still had a high transmittance of more than 90 % in the whole visible wavelength range.

  12. Ectopic intraocular lens: An unusual complication of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul A Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We wish to report an unusual complication of intraocular lens (IOL insertion following uneventful phacoemulsification. After successful phacoemulsification surgery, a hydrophobic acrylic IOL was loaded in the injector for insertion into the capsular bag. During insertion, the IOL inadvertently extended into the corneal stromal lamella. The complication was recognized at a late stage, and the foldable acrylic lens was retrieved and reinserted correctly in the bag. The anterior chamber was made viscoelastically taut and was maintained in this state for 10 min, followed by a routine viscoelastic wash and air bubble injection. Cornea was slightly edematous with stromal haze, and the corneal thickness was 908 μm. At the 1-month follow-up visit, the patient′s vision was 20/40, the stromal haze had subsided, the corneal thickness was 572 μm, and the patient was comfortable. Though it was unknown complication, following proper management patient recovered satisfactorily.

  13. Impact of fibronectin on surface properties of intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Andreas C; Lingenfelder, Christian; Seitz, Berthold; Grabowy, Udo; W Spraul, Christoph; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Herrmann, Mathias

    2009-09-01

    Physical properties of intraocular lens (IOL) surfaces determine biocompatibility. IOL hydrophobicity of commercially available IOLs with and without fibronectin (FN) coating can be determined by surface contact angle (SCA) measurements. SCA data of IOLs may allow for a rational selection of an IOL type as a function of underlying eye disease. University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg (Saar), Germany Thirteen IOL types were tested. IOLs were made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA), acrylate, or silicone. Select IOLs were surface modified by the manufacturer with heparin or a polysaccharide coating. SCA values of IOLs, either uncoated or precoated with FN, were determined using the sessile water drop method. SCA values ranged from 61.3 to 116.1 degrees for unmodified IOLs, with PMMA IOLs being more hydrophilic (median SCA, 74.1 degrees ), silicone IOLs more hydrophobic (median SCA, 113.3 degrees ), and acrylate IOLs intermediate (median SCA, 86.6 degrees ). Upon FN coating, all genuine acrylate lenses became significantly more hydrophilic while this effect was either nonsignificant or opposite on some PMMA and silicon IOLs. Heparin or polysaccharide surface modification resulted in significantly reduced SCA values. On acrylate IOLs, SCA values did not correlate with the aqueous content of the material. This study associates IOL materials, surface modifications, and the role of FN preadsorption with SCA values reflecting surface hydrophobicity versus hydrophilicity. It provides a rationale for specific IOL selection as a function of the clinical setting, and a basis for IOL development using tailored surface physicochemistry to enhance biocompatibility and to reduce susceptibility to implant infection.

  14. Long-term effect of surface light scattering and glistenings of intraocular lenses on visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Hirata, Akira; Yoshida, Motoaki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the long-term effect of surface light scattering and glistenings of various intraocular lenses (IOLs) on visual function and optical aberrations after cataract surgery. Case-control study. Thirty-five eyes that underwent implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic, silicone, or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) IOL more than 10 years ago were recruited. The scattering light intensity of the surface and internal matrix of the optic was measured using Scheimpflug photography. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using VA charts, and contrast VA and that with glare (glare VA) were examined using a contrast sensitivity tester. Ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were measured using a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Mean scattering light intensity of the surface and internal matrix of the optic was significantly higher in the acrylic group than in the silicone and PMMA groups (P ocular and internal optic HOAs in the acrylic group. At more than 10 years postoperatively, visual function, including contrast sensitivity, and ocular HOAs were comparable among eyes that received acrylic, silicone, and PMMA IOLs. Surface scattering and glistenings with the acrylic IOLs were not significantly correlated with visual function and optical aberrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide/acrylic Acid Copolymers for the Generation of Nanostructures at Mica Surfaces and as Hydrophobic Host Systems for the Porin MspA from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Pubudu; Basel, Matthew T; Lovell, Kimberly; Pokhrel, Megh Raj; Battle, Deletria; Ito, Takashi; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Niederweis, Michael; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2009-09-17

    The work presented here aims at utilizing poly-N-isopropyl-acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers to create nanostructured layers on mica surfaces by a simple spin-casting procedure. The average composition of the copolymers determined by elemental analysis correlates excellently with the feed composition indicating that the radical polymerization process is statistical. The resulting surfaces were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (magnetic AC-mode) at the copolymer/air interface. Postpolymerization modification of the acrylic acid functions with perfluoro-octyl-iodide decreased the tendency towards spontaneous formation of nanopores. Crosslinking of individual polymer chains permitted the generation of ultraflat layers, which hosted the mycobacterial channel protein MspA, without compromising its channel function. The comparison of copolymers of very similar chemical composition that have been prepared by living radical polymerization and classic radical polymerization indicated that differences in polydispersity played only a minor role when poly-N-isopropyl-acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers were spincast, but a major role when copolymers featuring the strongly hydrophobic perfluoro-octyl-labels were used. The mean pore diameters were 23.8+/-4.4 nm for P[(NIPAM)(95.5)-co-(AA)(4.5)] (PDI (polydispersity index)=1.55) and 21.8+/-4.2 nm for P[(NIPAM)(95.3)-co-(AA)(4.7)] (PDI=1.25). The depth of the nanopores was approx. 4 nm. When depositing P[(NIPAM)(95)-co-(AA)(2.8)-AAC(8)F(17 2.2)] (PDI=1.29) on Mica, the resulting mean pore diameter was 35.8+/-7.1 nm, with a depth of only 2 nm.

  16. UV solid state laser ablation of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, A.; Lagiou, D. P.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Commercially available intraocular lenses (IOLs) are manufactured from silicone and acrylic, both rigid (e.g. PMMA) and foldable (hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic biomaterials), behaving different mechanical and optical properties. Recently, the use of apodizing technology to design new diffractive-refractive multifocals improved the refractive outcome of these intraocular lenses, providing good distant and near vision. There is also a major ongoing effort to refine laser refractive surgery to correct other defects besides conventional refractive errors. Using phakic IOLs to treat high myopia potentially provides better predictability and optical quality than corneal-based refractive surgery. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of laser ablation on IOL surface shaping, by drilling circular arrays of holes, with a homemade motorized rotation stage, and scattered holes on the polymer surface. In material science, the most popular lasers used for polymer machining are the UV lasers, and, therefore, we tried in this work the 3rd and the 5th harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=355 nm and λ=213 nm respectively). The morphology of the ablated IOL surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fei - Innova Nanoscope) at various laser parameters. Quantitative measurements were performed with a contact profilometer (Dektak-150), in which a mechanical stylus scanned across the surface of gold-coated IOLs (after SEM imaging) to measure variations in surface height and, finally, the ablation rates were also mathematically simulated for depicting the possible laser ablation mechanism(s). The experimental results and the theoretical modelling of UV laser interaction with polymeric IOLs are discussed in relation with the physical (optical, mechanical and thermal) properties of the material, in addition to laser radiation parameters (laser energy fluence, number of pulses). The qualitative aspects of laser ablation at λ=213 nm reveal a

  17. Comparing the effect of two different intraocular lenses on optical aberrations in bilaterally operated eyes for cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan Tuzcu, Esra; Erkilic, Kuddusi; Bulut, Betul; Ilhan, Nilufer

    2013-07-01

    To assess high order and spherical aberrations results of hydrophobic acrylic AMO Sensar AR40E and hydrophobic acrylic Alcon AcrySof SA60AT intraocular lenses after implantation in cases with bilateral cataract. Cases diagnosed as bilateral cataract were included in the study and preoperative aberration measurements were recorded by using Nidek OPD SCAN-ARK 1000. Groups were created by implanting AMO Sensar AR40E to one eye of the patients, while Alcon AcrySof SA60AT into the other in a prospective and randomized manner. Aberration measurements were recorded after one and two months of surgery. Overall, 40 eyes in 20 patients (11 women and 9 men) were included in the study. All patients underwent bilateral phacoemulsification surgery due to cataract. There were 20 eyes in both groups. Mean age was 62.4 (range: 31-82) years. There was no significant difference in aberrations recorded before surgery and one and two months after surgery in both groups. (p<0.05). There was no difference among spherical intraocular lenses used in this study.

  18. Intraocular lenses and clinical treatment in paediatric cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ribeiro Koch Pena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cataract is the most common treatable cause of blindness in children. Prevalence, etiology and morphology vary with the socioeconomic development. The treatment goal is to reduce amblyopia, being difficult management especially in unilateral cases. The decision on aphakia or primary intraocular lens should be individualized as well as correction with contact lens or spectacles. The intraocular lens single-piece hydrophobic acrylic are the most implanted in children and the preferably is in the capsular bag. The Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T stressing that is described as more predictable, following Holladay I and SRK II and the recommendation is to under correction +6.0 or +8.0 dioptrias expecting the growth of the eye. The posterior capsule opacity is the most frequent complication and varies with the material choice of the lens. Glaucoma is the most serious postoperative complication and depends on the timing of the surgery, primary lens implantation and time of post surgical follow-up. The adherence to occlusion therapy with patching is critical to the visual prognosis and is determined by the child’s age and laterality of the cataract. There was significant improvement in the surgery and in IOLs, however the final visual prognosis is still not desirable.

  19. Comparison of preoperative target ametropia and postoperative refraction for three types of lenses and intra-ocular differences (one pliable acrylic, one pliable PMMA-copolymer and one non-pliable PMMA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hubaille, C; De Groot, V; Tassignon, M J

    2001-01-01

    .... According to our criteria, after 6 month, we have respectively for the non foldable PMMA lens, the PMMA-copolymere foldable and the acrylic foldable lens: 78%, 72% and 78% of good results; 13%, 28% and 9...

  20. [Comparison of preoperative target ametropia and postoperative refraction for three types of lenses and intra-ocular differences (one pliable acrylic, one pliable PMMA-copolymer and one non-pliable PMMA) ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubaille, C; De Groot, V; Tassignon, M J

    2001-01-01

    In this retrospective study we compared the preoperative target ametropia, calculated with the SRK-T formula, with the postoperative refraction after extracapsular extraction by phacoemulsification and implantation of different posterior chamber lenses. The results show, for all 3 types of lenses, a postoperative refraction stability after the first month. According to our criteria, after 6 month, we have respectively for the non foldable PMMA lens, the PMMA-copolymere foldable and the acrylic foldable lens: 78%, 72% and 78% of good results; 13%, 28% and 9% of mild results and 9%, 0% and 13% of bad results. According to our criteria, the acrylic foldable lens has a tendency to move slightly backwards and the foldable PMMA-copolymere lens to move slightly frontwards. The non foldable lens gives pretty good results, however it is difficult to compare this lens with the 2 other lenses because of the large size of the incision.

  1. [Sutureless scleral intraocular lens fixation: report of nine cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayoun, Y; Petitpas, S; Turki, K; Adenis, J-P; Robert, P-Y

    2013-10-01

    To report the results of a technique of sutureless intrascleral fixation of a three-piece foldable hydrophobic acrylic posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) in the absence of capsular support and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. We report a single-center (Limoges University Medical Center) retrospective series of nine patients with deficient posterior capsular support who underwent sutureless sulcus fixation of a hydrophobic acrylic Tecnis Aspheric(®) model ZA9003 (AMO, Inc.) PCIOL using permanent incarceration of the haptics in scleral tunnels parallel to the limbus, between November 2010 and November 2011. All patients were evaluated for surgical indications, pre- and postoperative refractive status (visual acuity and corneal cylinder), and intra- and postoperative complications. We included six men and three women with post-traumatic subluxed IOL's in three cases and lack of iris and capsular support secondary to traumatic corneoscleral wounds in six cases. Mean age was 63.22 ± 18.79 years. Posterior vitrectomy was performed in all cases. Mean 3-month postoperative visual acuity was 0.42 ± 0.16 LogMAR, and mean corneal postoperative astigmatism was 1.39 ± 0.78 diopters. Complications included IOL decentration of 1.5mm in one case, haptic rupture requiring intraoperative IOL exchange in one case, and transitory postoperative macular edema in two cases. Artificial intraocular lens implantation in the absence of capsular support is always a surgical challenge. Currently, the two most widely used approaches include fixation to the iris by suturing or iris claw, and fixation to the sclera with sutures. However, these techniques require wide corneal or scleral incisions resulting in significant postoperative astigmatism. Furthermore, iris fixation is impossible in cases of significant iris trauma, and scleral sutures are often technically difficult and expose the patient to late IOL dislocation or tilt. Sutureless intrascleral

  2. Intraocular Lens Fragmentation Using Femtosecond Laser: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Chandra; Shi, Jeffrey; Meades, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    To transect intraocular lenses (IOLs) using a femtosecond laser in cadaveric human eyes. To determine the optimal in vitro settings, to detect and characterize gasses or particles generated during this process. A femtosecond laser was used to transect hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic lenses. The settings required to enable easy separation of the lens fragment were determined. The gasses and particles generated were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and total organic carbon analyzer (TOC), respectively. In vitro the IOL fragments easily separated at the lowest commercially available energy setting of 1 μJ, 8-μm spot, and 2-μm line separation. No particles were detected in the 0.5- to 900-μm range. No significant gasses or other organic breakdown by products were detected at this setting. At much higher energy levels 12 μJ (4 × 6 μm spot and line separation) significant pyrolytic products were detected, which could be harmful to the eye. In cadaveric explanted IOL capsule complex the laser pulses could be applied through the capsule to the IOL and successfully fragment the IOL. IOL transection is feasible with femtosecond lasers. Further in vivo animal studies are required to confirm safety. In clinical practice there are a number of large intraocular lenses that can be difficult to explant. This in-vitro study examines the possibility of transecting the lasers quickly using femtosecond lasers. If in-vivo studies are successful, then this innovation could help ophthalmic surgeons in IOL explantation.

  3. In vitro biofilm distribution on the intraocular lens surface of different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoteras, Paloma; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo Pedro

    2015-09-01

    To study the disposition of bacterial adhesion to intraocular lens (IOL) biomaterials depending on the material and region of the optic IOL surface: center or peripheral edge. School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Experimental study. For the in vivo study, IOLs were explanted from donor ocular globes without clinical symptoms of endophthalmitis. Biofilm formation was qualitatively studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the in vitro study, 5 IOL biomaterials (hydrophilic acrylic, hydrophobic acrylic, poly[methyl methacrylate] [PMMA], heparinized PMMA, and silicone) were contaminated with a biofilm-producing strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial densities were quantitatively (colony-forming units per area) compared by SEM and direct counting of viable adherent bacteria, according to the biomaterial, region of the IOL optic surface, and time of incubation. For SEM, bacterial adhesion was also qualitatively classified according to the characteristics of biofilm observed: structure, cocci per cluster, homogeneity of cluster distribution, and extracellular matrix production. At 3 hours of incubation, bacterial counts for hydrophilic acrylic and PMMA IOLs were significantly lower, but at 72 hours there were no statistically significant differences among biomaterials. A higher density of bacteria was observed at the periphery of the IOL's optic of assayed biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo studies. Biofilm formation and the presence of extracellular matrix were predominantly restricted to the edges of IOL optic surface. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm development on the IOL optic surface depended on the region and biomaterial of the IOL. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Biofilm Formation Capacities of Two Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus Epidermidis with and without icaA and icaD Genes on Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Kılıç, Volkan; Güllülü, Gülay; Özmen, Ahmet Tuncer

    2017-04-01

    To compare biofilm formations of two Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) isolates with known biofilm formation capacities on four different intraocular lenses (IOL) that have not been studied before. Two isolates obtained from ocular surfaces and identified in previous studies and stored at -86 °C in 15% glycerol in the microbiology laboratory of the Anadolu University Department of Biology were purified and used in the study. The isolates were S. epidermidis KA 15.8 (ICA+), a known biofilm producer isolate positive for icaA, icaD and bap genes, and S. epidermidis KA 14.5 (ICA-), known as a non-biofilm producer isolate negative for icaA, icaD and bap genes. The biofilm formation capacities of the 2 isolates on 4 different IOLs were compared. Two of the IOLs were acrylic (UD613 [IOL A], Turkey; SA60AT [IOL B], USA), and the other two were polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (B60130C [IOL C], India; B55125C [IOL D], India). Bacterial enumeration and optical density measurements were done from biofilms that formed on the IOLs. Biofilms were imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Mean bacterial counts on the IOLs were 7.1±0.4 log10 CFU/mL with the ICA+ isolate, and 6.7±0.8 log10 CFU/mL with the ICA- isolate; there were no statistically significant differences. Biofilm formation was lower with acrylic lenses than PMMA lenses with both isolates (p=0.009 and p=0.013). The highest biofilm production was obtained on IOL C (PMMA) (p<0.001) and the lowest was obtained on IOL A (hydrophilic acrylic) (p<0.001). Bacterial counts after biofilm formation were lower on acrylic lenses, especially hydrophilic acrylic with hydrophobic properties. Further animal and in vivo studies are required to support the findings of this study.

  5. Comparison of Biofilm Formation Capacities of Two Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus Epidermidis with and without icaA and icaD Genes on Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Argun Kıvanç

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare biofilm formations of two Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis isolates with known biofilm formation capacities on four different intraocular lenses (IOL that have not been studied before. Materials and Methods: Two isolates obtained from ocular surfaces and identified in previous studies and stored at -86 °C in 15% glycerol in the microbiology laboratory of the Anadolu University Department of Biology were purified and used in the study. The isolates were S. epidermidis KA 15.8 (ICA+, a known biofilm producer isolate positive for icaA, icaD and bap genes, and S. epidermidis KA 14.5 (ICA-, known as a non-biofilm producer isolate negative for icaA, icaD and bap genes. The biofilm formation capacities of the 2 isolates on 4 different IOLs were compared. Two of the IOLs were acrylic (UD613 [IOL A], Turkey; SA60AT [IOL B], USA, and the other two were polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA (B60130C [IOL C], India; B55125C [IOL D], India. Bacterial enumeration and optical density measurements were done from biofilms that formed on the IOLs. Biofilms were imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Mean bacterial counts on the IOLs were 7.1±0.4 log10 CFU/mL with the ICA+ isolate, and 6.7±0.8 log10 CFU/mL with the ICA- isolate; there were no statistically significant differences. Biofilm formation was lower with acrylic lenses than PMMA lenses with both isolates (p=0.009 and p=0.013. The highest biofilm production was obtained on IOL C (PMMA (p<0.001 and the lowest was obtained on IOL A (hydrophilic acrylic (p<0.001. Conclusion: Bacterial counts after biofilm formation were lower on acrylic lenses, especially hydrophilic acrylic with hydrophobic properties. Further animal and in vivo studies are required to support the findings of this study.

  6. Restructuration kinetics of amphiphilic intraocular lenses during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortolano, Lionel; Saunier, Johanna; Hammami, Senda; Manerlax, Katia; Matmati, Houssem; Do, Bernard; Jubeli, Emile; Fattal, Elias; Yagoubi, Najet

    2018-01-01

    Photooxidation and hydrolysis are the two primary aging factors of intraocular lenses. Opacifications, dislocations, glistening and yellowing of the implanted acrylic lenses, which are due to chain scissions and depolymerization, are the consequences of aging from the clinical perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequence of the aging of intraocular lenses on chemical and surface properties. Acrylic lenses made of poly acrylic-co-polystyrene polymer were artificially aged by photooxidation and hydrolysis from 2 to 20 years. Degradation products were observed by Reverse-phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography RP-HPLC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface, which was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fibronectin adhesion kinetics, was chosen as an indicator of intraocular biocompatibility. Low-molecular-weight degradation products (LMWP) result from chain scission under both hydrolysis and photooxidation. The osmotic effects of water enable degradation products to migrate through the polymer. A portion of the degradation products exudate in the surrounding center, whereas a portion link with lateral chains of the polymer. At the same time, the surface roughness evolves to externalize the most hydrophilic chains. As a result, the fibronectin adhesion level decrease with time, which indicates the existence of a biocompatible kinetic for implanted intraocular lenses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biocompatibility of Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Özyol

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an intraocular lens is determined by several factors such as the surgical technique, surgical complications, intraocular lens biomaterial and design, and host reaction to the lens. The factor indicating the biocompatibility of an intraocular lens is the behavior of inflammatory and lens epithelial cells. Hence, the biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials is assessed in terms of uveal biocompatibility, based on the inflammatory foreign-body reaction of the eye against the implant, and in terms of capsular biocompatibility, determined by the relationship of the intraocular lens with residual lens epithelial cells within the capsular bag. Insufficient biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials may result in different clinical entities such as anterior capsule opacification, posterior capsule opacification, and lens epithelial cell ongrowth. Intraocular lenses are increasingly implanted much earlier in life in cases such as refractive lens exchange or pediatric intraocular lens implantation after congenital cataract surgery, and these lenses are expected to exhibit maximum performance for many decades. The materials used in intraocular lens manufacture should, therefore, ensure long-term uveal and capsular biocompatibility. In this article, we review the currently available materials used in the manufacture of intraocular lenses, especially with regard to their uveal and capsular biocompatibility, and discuss efforts to improve the biocompatibility of intraocular lenses.

  8. Fibronectin fixation on poly(ethyl acrylate)-based copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, N; Antolinos-Turpin, C M; Alió, J; Garagorri, N; Ribelles, J L Gómez; Gómez-Tejedor, J A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the adhered fibronectin (FN; by adsorption and/or grafting) and the exposure of its cell adhesive motifs (RGD and FNIII7-10) on poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) copolymers whose chemical composition has been designed to increase wettability and to introduce acid functional groups. FN was adsorbed to PEA, poly(ethyl acrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid), and poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers, and covalently cross-linked to poly(ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) and poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers. Amount of adhered FN and exhibition of RGD and FNIII7- 10 fragments involved in cell adhesion were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Even copolymers with a lower content of the hydrophilic component showed a decrease in water contact angle. In addition, FN was successfully fixed on all surfaces, especially on the hydrophobic surfaces. However, it was demonstrated that exposure of its cell adhesion sequences, which is the key factor in cell adhesion and proliferation, was higher for hydrophilic surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of acrylic and polymethyl methacrylate lenses in a pediatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Aasuri Murali; Fernandes Merle; Pathan Padmaja

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the intra-patient incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and their post operative course, in children with bilateral cataract, following implantation of acrylic (Group 1) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Group 2) intraocular lenses (IOLs). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, interventional intra-patient case series. Twenty-five children with bilateral cataract, 5 years and older, underwent cataract surgery and implantation of an acrylic (AcryS...

  10. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  11. Acrylates in contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Acrylates are plastic materials that are formed by the polymerization of monomers derived from acrylic or methacrylic acid. They have found numerous applications in paints, varnishes and adhesives, in the printing industry, in the medical and dental professions, and in artificial nails. Beginning in the 1950s, many reports of occupational and nonoccupational allergic contact dermatitis to (meth)acrylate monomers have been published. These molecules are strong irritants, and patch testing can induce active sensitization. When patch tested, acrylate-allergic patients often display multiple positive tests. These reactions may represent cross-reactions, or concomitant reactions due to the presence, in the products responsible for sensitization, of impurities not disclosed in material safety data sheets. (Meth)acrylates are volatile and unstable chemicals, as demonstrated by their rapid disappearance from commercially available patch test allergens when exposed to air for more than a few hours.

  12. Hydrophilic surface modification of acrylate-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal-Pastor, M; Comín-Cebrián, S; Martínez-Ramos, C; Monleón Pradas, M; Vallés-Lluch, A

    2016-04-01

    Acrylic polymers have proved to be excellent with regard to cell adhesion, colonization and survival, in vitro and in vivo. Highly ordered and regular pore structures thereof can be produced with the help of polyamide templates, which are removed with nitric acid. This treatment converts a fraction of the ethyl acrylate side groups into acrylic acid, turning poly(ethyl acrylate) scaffolds into a more hydrophilic and pH-sensitive substrate, while its good biological performance remains intact. To quantify the extent of such a modification, and be able to characterize the degree of hydrophilicity of poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate) was treated with acid for different times (four, nine and 17 days), and compared with poly(acrylic acid) and a 90/10%wt. EA/AAc copolymer (P(EA-co-AAc)). The biological performance was also assessed for samples immersed in acid up to four days and the copolymer, and it was found that the incorporation of acidic units on the material surface was not prejudicial for cells. This surface modification of 3D porous hydrophobic scaffolds makes easier the wetting with culture medium and aqueous solutions in general, and thus represents an advantage in the manageability of the scaffolds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  14. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola, Rodrigo França de; Santhiago, Marcony Rodrigues de; Kara-Júnior, Newton

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL) on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes) received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes) received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted) IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD]) investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens) difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens) under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  15. Incision sizes with 5.5 mm total optic, 3-piece foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, T

    2000-12-01

    To determine incision sizes for 5.5 mm total optic, foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) made of silicone or hydrophobic acrylic. Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Ophthalmology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In a prospective randomized clinical study including 40 cataract procedures with a temporal limbal tunnel approach, incision sizes for 5.5 mm optic, 3-piece foldable IOLs were measured before and after phacoemulsification and before and after IOL implantation using calipers. Three 5.5 mm optic, 3-piece foldable IOLs were used: 2 silicone (Pharmacia CeeOn 912, Allergan SI-55NB) and 1 hydrophobic acrylic (Alcon AcrySof MA30BA). Ten lenses of each model were implanted with a forceps, and 10 SI-55NB IOLs were implanted with the AMO Unfolder injector. Measurements of the tunnel incisions at various times were statistically evaluated using an analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. Mean tunnel width before and after implantation, respectively, was 3.32 mm+/- 0.06 (SD) and 3.42+/- 0.06 mm for the CeeOn 912 using a Nichamin implantation forceps, 3.28+/- 0.09 mm and 3.42+/- 0.09 mm for the AcrySof MA30BA using a Buratto implantation forceps, 3.00+/- 0.07 mm and 3.10+/- 0.05 mm for the SI-55NB using a Fine Universal II Folder, and 2.66+/- 0.08 mm and 2.81+/- 0.11 mm for the SI-55NB using the AMO Unfolder. Incision sizes before and after implantation were statistically different between 2 IOLs (CeeOn 912 and MA30BA) and the SI-55NB groups. Implantation of the SI-55NB with the Unfolder was associated with significantly smaller incision sizes before and after implantation than implantation with the Fine folder. Incisions sizes of 2.8 to 3.4 mm were associated with 5.5 mm total optic, 3-piece foldable IOLs. The Allergan SI-55NB high-refractive-index silicone IOL implanted with the AMO Unfolder system provided the smallest postimplantation incision; however, the refractive optic of this IOL is 5.0 mm versus 5.5 mm for of the CeeOn 912

  16. Poly(meth)acrylates obtained by cascade reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Keul, Helmut; Moeller, Martin

    2011-04-04

    Preparation, purification, and stabilization of functional (meth)acrylates with a high dipole moment are complex, laborious, and expensive processes. In order to avoid purification and stabilization of the highly reactive functional monomers, a concept of cascade reactions was developed comprising enzymatic monomer synthesis and radical polymerization. Transacylation of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with different functional alcohols, diols, and triols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and glycerol) in the presence of Novozyme 435 led to functional (meth)acrylates. After the removal of the enzyme by means of filtration, removal of excess (meth)acrylate and/or addition of a new monomer, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate the (co)polymerization via free radical (FRP) or nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP) resulted in poly[(meth)acrylate]s with predefined functionalities. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as ionic repeating units were assembled within the copolymer. The transacylation of MA and MMA with diols and triols carried out under mild conditions is an easy and rapid process and is suitable for the preparation of sensitive monomers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Towards customized intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In the eye there are two refractive components that make light focus on the retina and let you see: the cornea and the lens. When a eye develops cataract the lens becomes caractarous and is removed and replaced with a synthetic intraocular lens during a cataract surgery procedure. Although there was only one general intraocular lens used when this procedure was first developed, nowadays the properties of the lens can be specified to correct the sphere of the eye and in some cases even the cyl...

  18. Towards customized intraocular lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In the eye there are two refractive components that make light focus on the retina and let you see: the cornea and the lens. When a eye develops cataract the lens becomes caractarous and is removed and replaced with a synthetic intraocular lens during a cataract surgery procedure. Although there was

  19. Intraocular Lenses for the Treatment of Age-Related Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    . Accommodating IOLs are designed to move with ciliary body contraction during accommodation and, therefore, offer a continuous range of vision (i.e. near, intermediate and distant vision) without the need for glasses. Purported advantages over multifocal IOLs include the avoidance of haloes and no reduction in contrast sensitivity. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was the first material used in the fabrication of IOLs and has inherent ultraviolet blocking abilities. PMMA IOLs are inflexible, however, and require a larger incision for implantation compared with newer foldable silicone (hydrophobic) and acrylic (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) lenses. IOLs can be further sub-classified as being either aspheric or spheric, blue/violet filtered or non-filtered or 1- or 3-piece. Methods of Evidence-Based Analysis A literature search was conducted from January 2003 to January 2009 that included OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment/Centre for Review and Dissemination. Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria adult patients with age-related cataractssystematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs)primary outcomes: distance visual acuity (best corrected distance visual acuity), near visual acuity (best distance corrected near visual acuity)secondary outcomes: contrast sensitivity, depth of field, glare, quality of life, visual function, spectacle dependence, posterior capsule opacification. studies with fewer than 20 eyesIOLs for non-age related cataractsIOLs for presbyopiastudies with a mean follow-up <6monthsstudies reporting insufficient data for analysis Comparisons of Interest The primary comparison of interest was accommodative vs. multifocal vs. monofocal lenses. Secondary comparisons of interest included: tinted vs. non-tinted lenses aspheric vs. spheric lenses multipiece vs. single piece lenses

  20. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  1. Hyperbranched urethane-acrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Srba

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization and UV-curing of hyperbranched urethaneacrylates (HB-UA were investigated in this study. They were evaluated as oli-gomers in model UV curable coatings. HB-UAs were synthesized by reaction of an aliphatic hyperbranched polyester of the second generation (HBRG2 and an isocyanate adduct, obtained by the reaction of isophoronediisocyana-te and different hydroxy alkyl acrylates. Their thermal properties and viscosities depend on the degree of modification of HBRG2 and the type of hydroxy alkyl acrylate used. The introduction of a flexible alkoxylated spacer between the HBP core and acrylate end groups reduces steric hindrance by moving the cross linkable acrylate groups away from the HBP core and increase its reactivity. Due to the presence of abstractable H-atoms in the α-position to the ether links, HB-UAs based on poly(ethylene oxide monoacrylate are very reactive and do not show oxygen inhibition. The obtained coatings combine a high cross linking density with flexible segments between the cross links, which results in a good compromise between hardness and flexibility and have the potential to be used in different UV-curing applications.

  2. Comparison of posterior capsule opacification development with 2 single-piece intraocular lens types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydolt, Christina; Schartmüller, Daniel; Schwarzenbacher, Luca; Schranz, Markus; Schriefl, Sabine; Menapace, Rupert

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the differences in the incidence of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and visual and optical performance between 2 hydrophobic acrylic single-piece sharp-edged intraocular lenses (IOLs) over 3 years. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Prospective randomized case series. Patients with bilateral cataract were prospectively randomized to receive an Eyecee One IOL (IOL A) or an Acrysof SN60WF IOL (IOL B) and were followed for 36 months. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and IOL decentration and tilt were measured. The PCO was quantified by analysis of standardized retroillumination images. The study comprised 160 eyes of 80 patients. The PCO incidence was low for both IOLs at all follow-up visits. Three years postoperatively, the median objective PCO score was 1.4 (range 0 to 5.6) for IOL A and 1.5 (range 0 to 5.0) for IOL B (P = .67). The neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) capsulotomy rate 3 years after surgery was 16.4% and 6.0% (P = .06), respectively. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity outcomes were also comparable at all follow-up visits. Both IOLs showed good capsular bag performance and low PCO rates 3 years after surgery. Both IOLs also showed comparable results for visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, decentration and tilt, PCO score, slitlamp examination, and Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance with...

  4. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  5. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  6. Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed Alhalafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood–ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates, albumin, poly-μ-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and

  7. Thin film of Poly(acrylic acid-co-allyl acrylate as a Sacrificial Protective Layer for Hydrophilic Self Cleaning Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jānis Lejnieks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(acrylic acid-co-allyl acrylate statistical copolymers were synthesized in a controlled manner in two steps: first tert.butyl acrylate and allyl acrylate were polymerized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and afterwords the tert.butyl protective groups were removed via hydrolysis. Samples of self cleaning glass (SCG were coated with thin films of poly(acrylic acid-co-allyl acrylate and cross-linked afterwards by UV irradiation (in the presence of a photoinitiator and an accelerator. Solution cast thin films were transparent and homogeneous before and after UV cross-linking. The irradiated samples were found to be hydrophilic (Θ < 20° and water insoluble. The coating prevented the spontaneous hydrophobization of the SCG by residual silicon exhaled from the sealing material. The TiO2 photocatalyst that covers the glass surface was found to strip the protective coating. The rate of the photooxidation process was measured by IR spectroscopy. The real field performance of the protective coating was also tested.

  8. Cross-sensitization patterns in acrylate allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, W P

    1975-01-01

    Five subjects developed allergic contact dermatitis to one or more acrylate components used in a commercial adhesive tape. Patch testing to acrylic monomers was performed to examine their cross-reaction patterns. Two subjects with broad cross-reactions to acrylates did not react to methyl methacrylate or the alkyl methacrylate that corresponded to the acrylate which induced the sensitization. Methyl methacrylate may not be adequate as a screen for many acrylates used commercially.

  9. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    BACKGROUND: Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. OBJECTIVES: (i) To investigate

  10. Refractive change caused silicone oil adhesion to the intraocular lens following Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Rah, Sang-Hoon; Yoon, Ie-Na

    2009-12-01

    A 32-year-old female who had undergone the silicone oil removal procedure presented with visual disturbance in her left eye. Several months previous, she had cataract surgery in a private clinic, and a month later she had a Nd:YAG laser procedure for posterior capsulotomy. The slit-lamp examination revealed silicone oil droplets that had adhered to the intraocular lens where the posterior capsulotomy was performed. She had experienced high myopia as a manifestation of the resulting refractive changes. We replaced the previous intraocular lens with a new acrylic intraocular lens with resulting improvement to her vision. Here we report the case of a female patient with a history of silicone oil removal surgery where the resulting silicone bubbles had not been removed thoroughly and remained in the vitreous cavity. These bubbles subsequently adhered to the intraocular lens following YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, resulting in refractive changes. We recommend that implanting a silicone intraocular lens in anyone with a history of the silicone oil removal procedure or who has a possible history of silicone oil use should be avoided.

  11. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. OBJECTIVES: (i) To investigate whether it is relevant to add isobornyl acrylate to the (meth)acrylate test series. (ii) To report patients with (meth)acrylate contact allergy at an occupational dermatology clinic. PATIENTS/MATER...

  12. Hydrophobicity and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Fabian

    Two different types of smart surfaces that are able to change their hydrophobicity by different stimuli are presented. In both types, the self assembled mono-layers have mixtures of hydrophobic moieties with active ligands. In the first, with biotin being the ligand, wetting changes induced by streptavidin binding onto the biotin were demonstrated and evaluated for different biotin concentrations on the surface and streptavidin concentrations in solution. In the second, aminated silanes allow wetting to be sensitive to pH changes and, by choosing their appropriate proportion of amines on the surface, can be made to switch hydrophobicity at a desired pH. Wetting of hydrophobic porous substrates induced by pressure, surfactants and pH was also studied for the pore diameters in the range 20-200 nm. Different mechanisms of wetting by amphiphiles were identified for high cmc and low cmc cases. In the latter, represented by phospholipids of the cell membrane, wetting occurs only in contact between the hydrophobic pores and the membrane, as was experimentally illustrated. It led to formulation of a new concept of drug delivery using hydrophobicity switching by membrane amphiphiles. Hydrophobic nanocontainers with dual release mechanism combining hydrophobicity switching by amphiphiles and by pH were explored as a potential new drug delivery system.

  13. Scleral fixation of one piece intraocular lens by injector implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Can

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: With an ab-interno technique of transscleral suturing of current one-piece posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs by injector implantation in the absence of capsular support, we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of the implantation of one-piece acrylic PC IOLs that might be produced in the future for only scleral fixation through small clear corneal incision. Materials and Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: This procedure has been performed in eight aphakic eyes with four different types of IOLs. Good centration was achieved with minimal technical effort. All patients had well-centered and stable lenses postoperatively during 9-18 months follow-up. Conclusion: We managed to decrease the risks of surgical trauma and intricate surgical maneuvers requirement. With this technique, excessive fluid leakage and consecutive hypotony can be minimized.

  14. Multifocal intraocular lenses: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Jorge L; Plaza-Puche, Ana B; Férnandez-Buenaga, Roberto; Pikkel, Joseph; Maldonado, Miguel

    Multifocal intraocular lenses are increasingly used in the management of pseudophakic presbyopia. After multifocal intraocular lens implantation, most patients do not need spectacles or contact lenses and are pleased with the result. Complications, however, may affect the patient's quality of life and level of satisfaction. Common problems with multifocal lenses are blurred vision and photic phenomena associated with residual ametropia, posterior capsule opacification, large pupil size, wavefront anomalies, dry eye, and lens decentration. The main reasons for these are failure to neuroadapt, lens dislocation, residual refractive error, and lens opacification. To avoid patient dissatisfaction after multifocal intraocular lens implantation, it is important to consider preoperatively the patient's lifestyle; perform an exhaustive examination including biometry, topography, and pupil reactivity; and explain the visual expectations and possible postoperative complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bonding auto-polymerising acrylic resin to acrylic denture teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagle, Susan

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of an auto-polymerising acrylic resin cured to acrylic denture teeth. The surface treatments included a combination of grit-blasting and\\/or wetting the surface with monomer. Samples were prepared and then stored in water prior to shear testing. The results indicated that the application of monomer to the surface prior to bonding did not influence the bond strength. Grit blasting was found to significantly increase the bond strength.

  16. 21 CFR 886.4270 - Intraocular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular gas. 886.4270 Section 886.4270 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4270 Intraocular gas. (a) Identification. An intraocular gas is a device consisting of a gaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to place pressure...

  17. Electrohydrodynamics near hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduar, S R; Belyaev, A V; Lobaskin, V; Vinogradova, O I

    2015-03-20

    We show that an electro-osmotic flow near the slippery hydrophobic surface depends strongly on the mobility of surface charges, which are balanced by counterions of the electrostatic diffuse layer. For a hydrophobic surface with immobile charges, the fluid transport is considerably amplified by the existence of a hydrodynamic slippage. In contrast, near the hydrophobic surface with mobile adsorbed charges, it is also controlled by an additional electric force, which increases the shear stress at the slipping interface. To account for this, we formulate electrohydrodynamic boundary conditions at the slipping interface, which should be applied to quantify electro-osmotic flows instead of hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Our theoretical predictions are fully supported by dissipative particle dynamics simulations with explicit charges. These results lead to a new interpretation of zeta potential of hydrophobic surfaces.

  18. Amphiphilic photosensitive dextran-g-poly(o-nitrobenzyl acrylate) glycopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Soliman Mehawed Abdellatif; Colombeau, Ludovic; Nouvel, Cécile; Babin, Jérôme; Six, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-20

    Among all photosensitive monomers reported in the literature, o-nitrobenzyl acrylate (NBA) was selected in this present study. Two strategies were compared to produce azido-terminated poly(o-nitrobenzyl acrylate) (PNBA) using controlled Single Electron Transfer-Living Radical Polymerization (SET-LRP). In a parallel way, dextran (Dex) was modified by the introduction of several alkynyl-terminated hydrophobic chains. Finally, an Huisgen-type Copper (I)-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) click-chemistry was carried out to produce amphiphilic Dex-g-PNBA glycopolymers with different number and length of PNBA grafts. 2D DOSY (1)H NMR was used to prove the formation of such glycopolymers. Preliminary study on Dex-g-PNBA self-assembly was done by measuring the critical water content (CWC) above which Dex-g-PNBA started to auto-organize themselves to produce nano-objects. Finally, under UV irradiation, PNBA grafts turn into poly(acrylic acid) ones giving light-sensitive properties to such amphiphilic Dex-g-PNBA. Such properties were evaluated and compared with those of PNBA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. Isobornyl acrylate contact allergy: Rare or underdiagnosed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, W.A.; Coenraads, P.J.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic contact dermatitis to isobornyl acrylate has been reported in only two cases in literature. Therefore, isobornyl acrylate is not part of a (meth) acrylates patch test series. At our department an industrial worker presented with therapy-resistant hand eczema and sensitizations

  1. PATTERN OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manoeuver, forced blinking, intraocular inflammation, ocular trauma, ocular surgery, retinal or choroidal detachment, restriction, arid systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders.“ Procedures such as retrobulbar anaesthesia, general anaesthesia, external pressure on the eyeball, topical eye drops ...

  2. Intraocular lenses for the treatment of age-related cataracts: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    accommodation and, therefore, offer a continuous range of vision (i.e. near, intermediate and distant vision) without the need for glasses. Purported advantages over multifocal IOLs include the avoidance of haloes and no reduction in contrast sensitivity. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was the first material used in the fabrication of IOLs and has inherent ultraviolet blocking abilities. PMMA IOLs are inflexible, however, and require a larger incision for implantation compared with newer foldable silicone (hydrophobic) and acrylic (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) lenses. IOLs can be further sub-classified as being either aspheric or spheric, blue/violet filtered or non-filtered or 1- or 3-piece. METHODS OF EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: A literature search was conducted from January 2003 to January 2009 that included OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment/Centre for Review and Dissemination. Inclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteriaadult patients with age-related cataractssystematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) distance visual acuity (best corrected distance visual acuity), near visual acuity (best distance corrected near visual acuity) contrast sensitivity, depth of field, glare, quality of life, visual function, spectacle dependence, posterior capsule opacification.studies with fewer than 20 eyesIOLs for non-age related cataractsIOLs for presbyopiastudies with a mean follow-up reporting insufficient data for analysis COMPARISONS OF INTEREST: The primary comparison of interest was accommodative vs. multifocal vs. monofocal lenses. Secondary comparisons of interest included: tinted vs. non-tinted lensesaspheric vs. spheric lensesmultipiece vs. single piece lensesbiomaterial A (e.g. acrylic) vs. biomaterial B (e.g. silicone) lensessharp vs. round edged lensesThe quality of the studies was

  3. Aderência in vitro do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes em lentes intra-oculares In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2006-06-01

    used in the experiment. Four of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, four of silicone, four of hidrogel and two of acrylic. Eight intraocular lenses were placed in eight test tubes containing 4 ml of Pseudomonas alcaligenes suspension, and six intraocular lenses were placed in six test tubes containing 4 ml of Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension. The bacterial suspension used for adherence tests was 10(8 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL which corresponds to 0.5 in the scale of McFarland. The lenses were incubated at 37° for two hours. After this, intraocular lenses were removed from the test tubes and dried twice with the use of distilled and sterile water. The material was spread on blood-agar for cultivation at 35-37°C and was evaluated every 24 hours up to 72 hours. In the samples where there was bacterial growth, the colonies were counted using the conventional laboratory methods. All assays were performed in duplicate. RESULTS: Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to PMMA intraocular lenses was lower than to hydrogel and silicone intraocular lenses. Adherence of Pseudomonas alcaligenes to hydrogel intraocular lenses was lower than to PMMA, acrylic and silicone intraocular lenses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to intraocular lenses is influenced by type of material of the lens and by microorganism species. Bacterial adherence may play a role in the pathogenesis of some forms of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. More in vitro and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes cause endophthalmitis.

  4. Comparison of acrylic and polymethyl methacrylate lenses in a pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasuri Murali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the intra-patient incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO and their post operative course, in children with bilateral cataract, following implantation of acrylic (Group 1 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA (Group 2 intraocular lenses (IOLs. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, interventional intra-patient case series. Twenty-five children with bilateral cataract, 5 years and older, underwent cataract surgery and implantation of an acrylic (AcrySof MA30BA, Alcon, Fortworth, TX in one eye and PMMA (Indo Am IAB 203, Ocular Vision, Inc. IOL in the other eye of each patient. They were followed up for an average of 11.1 ± 9.5 months to assess the incidence of clinically significant PCO and occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: Twenty-three children (46 eyes, were included in this study. Post-operatively, 22(95.6% patients with acrylic IOLs and 20 (86.9% patients with PMMA IOLs, either maintained or improved their vision. In the acrylic and PMMA IOL groups respectively, the incidence of clinically significant PCO was 21% (4 and 75% (12 ( P =0.002, with a median onset at 2.9 months and 0.7 months. Other complications included pupillary capture in 2 (8.7% eyes and uveal prolapse in 1 (4.3% eye in the acrylic group and increased uveal inflammation in 6 (26.1% eyes and presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis in 2 (8.7% eyes in the PMMA group. Conclusion: Incidence of PCO and post operative uveal inflammation is significantly less with acrylic lenses and were safe to use in pediatric eyes.

  5. Comparison of acrylic and polymethyl methacrylate lenses in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasuri, Murali K; Fernandes, Merle; Pathan, Padmaja Preetam

    2006-06-01

    To compare the intra-patient incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and their post operative course, in children with bilateral cataract, following implantation of acrylic (Group 1) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Group 2) intraocular lenses (IOLs). This was a prospective, interventional intra-patient case series. Twenty-five children with bilateral cataract, 5 years and older, underwent cataract surgery and implantation of an acrylic (AcrySof MA30BA, Alcon, Fortworth, TX) in one eye and PMMA (Indo Am IAB 203, Ocular Vision, Inc.) IOL in the other eye of each patient. They were followed up for an average of 11.1 +/- 9.5 months to assess the incidence of clinically significant PCO and occurrence of postoperative complications. Twenty-three children (46 eyes), were included in this study. Post-operatively, 22(95.6%) patients with acrylic IOLs and 20 (86.9%) patients with PMMA IOLs, either maintained or improved their vision. In the acrylic and PMMA IOL groups respectively, the incidence of clinically significant PCO was 21% (4) and 75% (12) ( P =0.002), with a median onset at 2.9 months and 0.7 months. Other complications included pupillary capture in 2 (8.7%) eyes and uveal prolapse in 1 (4.3%) eye in the acrylic group and increased uveal inflammation in 6 (26.1%) eyes and presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis in 2 (8.7%) eyes in the PMMA group. Incidence of PCO and post operative uveal inflammation is significantly less with acrylic lenses and were safe to use in pediatric eyes.

  6. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2013-08-01

    Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. (i) To investigate whether it is relevant to add isobornyl acrylate to the (meth)acrylate test series. (ii) To report patients with (meth)acrylate contact allergy at an occupational dermatology clinic. Our patch test database was screened for positive reactions to (meth)acrylates between 1993 and 2012. A selected group of 14 patients was tested with an isobornyl acrylate dilution series: 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.033%, and 0.01%. Readings were performed on D2, D3, and D7. One hundred and fifty-one patients were tested with our (meth)acrylate series; 24 had positive reactions. Most positive reactions were to 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and diethyleneglycol diacrylate. Hypothetical screening with 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate identified 91.7% of the 24 patients. No positive reactions were observed in 14 acrylate-positive patients tested with the isobornyl acrylate dilution series. The 0.3% isobornyl acrylate concentration induced irritant reactions in 3 patients. We report a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. However, this study provides insufficient support for isobornyl acrylate to be added to a (meth)acrylate series. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Surface characterization of polymer-drug modified vascular stents and intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elachchabi, Amin

    human coronary smooth muscle cell growth in vitro whereas dexamethasone exhibited no similar effect. A second major subject of this research was a series of studies concerning the properties of foldable hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) which have not previously been investigated. Most IOLs implanted today in the U.S. and the western world are foldable. The goal of this research was to conduct new surface characterization studies on the surfaces of several different foldable lenses in clinical use. Atomic force microscopy showed that these IOLs have different morphologies and that hydration greatly altered the surface morphology of these implants. Contact angle goniometry studies indicated that water contact angles varied significantly from one lens to the other and that prolonged hydration led to a reduction of the water contact angle. Nanoindentation experiments yielded new information on the surface mechanical properties of IOLs and a new methodology was developed to analyze nanoindent data to determine the surface modulus and hardness of foldable IOLs and low modulus polymers in general. The novel surface properties studies reported here can be important in guiding the design and the development of new ocular implants.

  8. Overlooked retained intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić-Zečević Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most common cause for litigation against ophthalmologists in a trauma case is a missed intraocular foreign body (IOFB. IOFBs cause internal eye damage, but some will come to rest in the posterior segment of the eye. Case report. We presented a 57-year-old male who was referred to the ophthalmologist due to decreased visual acuity in his left eye. Slit lamp examination of his left eye showed no pathological findings. Goldmann contact lens examination showed IOFB which was lying in the vitreous body in the inferior-temporal region. Retinal rupture was noticed at 7 o’clock. The optical coherence tomography (OCT examination was performed and it showed atrophic macular area as well as decreased peripapillar retinal fiber layers thickness. Ultrasound showed the IOFB in vitreous body cavity. History revealed that the patient had an accidental trauma, 48 years ago, when an old bomb from World War II (WWII exploded. Due to the decrease in visual acuity and fibrosis of the vitreous body surgical intervention was performed on his left eye (phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, pars plana vitrectomy and instrumental extraction of foreign body. Conclusion. The intraocular foreign body (IOFB was asymptomatic for 48 years. Symptoms depend on material and localization of the foreign body and the type of injury.

  9. Latex imaging by environmental STEM: application to the study of the surfactant outcome in hybrid alkyd/acrylate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, José M

    2009-09-01

    Among other uses, latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase. However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this location. This article aims at the imaging of these surfactant molecules in two hybrid latexes with different hydrophobicity level of the alkyd resin. A first part of this paper is dedicated to the understanding of the contrast provided by the surfactant in environmental STEM imaging of latexes. Then, the influence of surfactant-polymer affinity on the surfactant location after film-forming of those hybrid alkyd/acrylate latexes is studied by this technique. It is shown that in the hybrid latex with an alkyd shell (obtained with the most hydrophilic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to remain buried in the alkyd phase. Conversely, in the hybrid latex with an acrylate shell (in the case of the most hydrophobic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to gather into islands like in pure acrylate latex films.

  10. Surface Structure of Acrylate Polymer Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Freiberg, Stephan; Leblanc, Claude; Hore, Dennis K

    2017-02-28

    Total internal reflection infrared (IR) absorption and visible-IR sum-frequency spectroscopies were used to study the role of acrylic acid in the evolution of surface structure in a poly(butyl acrylate)-based pressure-sensitive adhesive during the drying process. By monitoring these spectral responses and calculating the heterospectral correlation coefficients, we established that acrylic acid alters the nature of the molecular interactions at the surface. In the absence of acrylic acid, butyl acrylate orientation is driven by the packing of the polymer as the water evaporates. When acrylic acid is present, a rapid ordering of the copolymer takes place as a result of favorable hydrogen-bonding interactions with the surface.

  11. Hydrophobic interactions and chemical reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    2003-01-01

    This perspective describes how kinetic studies of organic reactions can be used to increase our understanding of hydrophobic interactions. In turn, our understanding of hydrophobic interactions can be used as a tool to influence chemical reactions.

  12. METHACRYLATE AND ACRYLATE ALLERGY IN DENTAL STUDENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Lyapina; Assya Krasteva; Maria Dencheva; Mariana Tzekova; Angelina Kisselova-Yaneva

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth) acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming t...

  13. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  14. On the stability of the polymer brushes formed by adsorption of ionomer complexes on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.M.; Spruijt, E.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effect of normal forces and shear forces on the stability and functionality of a polymer brush layer formed upon adsorption of polymeric micelles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The micelles consist of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte blocks (poly(acrylic acid) and

  15. On the stability of the polymer brushes formed by adsorption of Ionomer Complexes on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A. M.; Spruijt, E.; de Keizer, A.; Stuart, M. A. Cohen; Norde, W.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effect of normal forces and shear forces on the stability and functionality of a polymer brush layer formed upon adsorption of polymeric micelles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The micelles consist of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte blocks (poly(acrylic acid) and

  16. [Comparison of tilt and decentration of four different kinds of aspheric intraocular lenses implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-jie; Tang, Xin; Song, Hui; Li, Wei-wei

    2010-04-01

    To measure tilt and decentration of four different kinds of aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) with Scheimpflug imaging systems after cataract surgery. One hundred and thirty eyes undertaken cataract surgery and IOLs implantation, including four different kinds of aspheric IOLs [1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (Akreos AO, Bausch & Lomb); 3-piece acrylic IOLs (Tecnis9003, AMO); 1-piece acrylic IOLs (SN60WF, Alcon) and 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (920H, Rayner)] and 3-piece acrylic spherical IOLs (AR40e, AMO), were retrospectively reviewed. Tilt and decentration of IOLs were measured using Scheimpflug system (Pentacam, Oculus) and analyzed with Image-pro plus 6.0 software. Except tilt of AR40e group, the vertical and horizontal tilt and decentration for other groups did not differ significantly. The mean IOL tilt in AO, Z9003, IQ, 920H, AR40e was 2.08 degrees, 2.58 degrees, 1.72 degrees, 1.81 degrees, and 3.22 degrees, respectively, which showed statistically significant differences (F = 4.511, P = 0.003). The mean IOL decentration in AO, Z9003, IQ, 920H and AR40e was 0.04, 0.24, 0.25, 0.19 and 0.18 mm, respectively, which showed significant difference in vertical direction (F = 4.162, P = 0.047). The average tilt significantly correlated with amount of decentration in Z9003 IOL (r = -0.517, P = 0.034). In different types of aspheric IOL implanted within the capsule, tilt and decentration in 1-piece and 4-point haptic IOL are less than those in 3-piece and 2-point haptic IOL.

  17. Contact dermatitis from acrylics in a histology laboratory assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luciana; Amado, Antoine; Mattei, Peter L; Taylor, James S

    2009-01-01

    The use of acrylics has expanded enormously, resulting in a vast range of products for both occupational and non-occupational purposes. Acrylics reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis in histology technicians are 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethel acrylate.

  18. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    plasma system[4]. The system named SoftPlasma™ is equipped with unique three-phase pulsed AC voltage. Low energy plasma polymerization has almost no thermal load for sensitive polymer materials[5]. Plasma polymerized coatings are highly cross-linked, pin-hole free and provide hydrophilic or hydrophobic...... synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)[3]. This enabled a surface segregation of the more hydrophilic block to the polymer/air interface and enrichment of the surface with PMEA. Here we present another way to modify a surface with this material - plasma polymerization in a low energy...... properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  19. Phakic intraocular lenses and their special indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pineda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phakic intraocular lenses revolutionize refractive surgery and continue to serve as an excellent option for vision correction in patients who are not ideal candidates for laser vision correction. This article will review special indications of phakic intraocular lenses in the clinical practice.

  20. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Radical Semi-Batch Copolymerization of Butyl Acrylate and 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan E S Schier; David Cohen-Sacal; Owen R Larsen; Robin A Hutchinson

    2017-01-01

    The radical copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated under batch and semi-batch operations, with a focus on the influence of hydrogen-bonding on acrylate backbiting...

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorinated Hydrophobic UV-Crosslinkable Thiol-Ene Polyurethane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The polyurethane prepolymer terminated with a double bond was synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB, 1,4-butanediol (BDO, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA. Then, a series of innovative UV-curable polyurethane coatings were prepared by blending ene-terminated polyurethane, fluoroacrylate monomer, and multifunctional thiol crosslinker upon UV exposure. The incorporation of fluoroacrylate monomer and multifunctional thiols into polyurethane coatings significantly enhanced the hydrophobic property, mechanical property, pencil hardness, and glossiness of the polyurethane coatings. This method of preparing UV crosslinkable, hydrophobic polyurethane coatings based on thiol-ene chemistry exhibited numerous advantages over other UV photocuring systems.

  2. Occupational contact allergy to (meth)acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukens, S; Goossens, A

    2001-03-01

    Among 13,833 patients suspected of contact dermatitis examined during the years 1978-1999, occupational contact allergy to (meth)acrylates was diagnosed in 31 patients. The 3 most common sensitizers were ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (17 positive patch tests), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (14) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (6). The aim of this report was to assess the different occupations and industries responsible for occupational sensitization to (meth)acrylates. 14 of the 31 patients work in the dental sector, either as a dentist or as a student of dental technology, where (meth)acrylate-containing dental prostheses and dental composites are mainly responsible for allergy to (meth)acrylates. An increasing trend in dermatological problems related to the expansion of the use of (meth)acrylates is clearly reflected in the patient population of our dermatology department.

  3. Hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens opacification after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Norouzpour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In an eye with UZS and iatrogenic aniridia, IOL opacification may result from direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air. Aniridia can be a risk factor for development of IOL opacification after DSAEK. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Shape Memory (Meth)Acrylate Co-Polymers and their Cytocompatibility In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Hu, Wang; Wang, Guojie; Zhang, Hongbin; Niu, Guoguang; Cao, Hui; Yang, Huai; Zhu, Siquan

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel transparent shape memory co-polymers, made from (meth)acrylate monomers, intended to be used as intraocular lens, was synthesized. The thermo-mechanical properties, shape memory properties and optical properties of the co-polymers could be adjusted by using monomers with various alkyl chain lengths. The cytocompatibility of the prepared co-polymers to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblasts was demonstrated in vitro, and the co-polymers exhibited favorable cytocompatibility, supporting cell viability and proliferation. This study showed that the prepared co-polymers, which exhibited good flexibility, adjustable shape memory properties, high transparency and favorable cytocompatibility, could find great promising applications as intraocular lens.

  5. Reverse Optic Capture to Stabilize a Toric Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard V. Gimbel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a technique for stabilizing a rotationally unstable toric intraocular lens (IOL. Method: Case report and literature review. Results: Surgical technique and long-term follow-up for a patient who underwent repositioning and stabilization of a mobile 1-piece acrylic toric IOL using reverse optic capture (ROC are described. This patient presented with early, more than 70° off-axis rotation. The IOL was repositioned but was very mobile within the bag and tended to rotate off-axis; hence, it was stabilized in the desired position by capturing the optic through the anterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, leaving the haptics in the bag. The immediate and 2-year postoperative follow-up revealed a stable and on-axis IOL with no visual, refractive or ocular complications. Conclusions: ROC is a useful and safe technique to address the problem of toric IOLs that tend to rotate at the time of surgery or are not stable postoperatively.

  6. INTRAOCULAR LENS POSITION IN COMBINED PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND VITREORETINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozates, Serdar; Kiziltoprak, Hasan; Koc, Mustafa; Uzel, Mehmet Murat; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2017-10-09

    To assess the decentration and angle of tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) according to the intravitreal tamponade types used in combined phacoemulsification and vitreoretinal surgery. This prospective and randomized clinical study involved 73 eyes of 69 patients who underwent combined vitreoretinal surgery. Eyes with intravitreal tamponades formed the study group and eyes without intravitreal tamponades formed the control group. The study group was further divided into silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups. Cross-sectional IOL images were captured using a Pentacam HR (Oculus, Germany) and tilt and decentration were calculated with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, CA). The mean angle of tilt and decentration at the vertical meridian were significantly higher in both tamponade groups than in the control group (P 0.05). When comparing the silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups, no significant differences were noted on the position of IOL at both meridians (P > 0.05 for all). Intravitreal tamponades have an important effect on the position of IOL in combined vitreoretinal surgery. Silicone oil and gas tamponades may induce postoperative tilt and decentration of one-piece acrylic IOLs.

  7. Single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarangumeli, Alper; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Kural, Gulcan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results of single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses (IOL) in eyes with sufficient residual capsular support. The results of IOL repositioning by single-suture scleral fixation in 6 eyes of 6 patients with IOL subluxation were included. All subluxated IOLs were single-piece hydrophilic acrylic. Subluxation resulted from posterior capsule tears in 3 eyes, zonular dialyses in 2 eyes, and zonular dialysis with a capsulorhexis tear in 1 eye. A similar technique was used in all eyes in which one haptic was externalized through a superior clear corneal incision and tied with a Pair-PAK 10-0 polypropylene suture, and was finally retracted and fixated behind the iris close to the ciliary sulcus at the 12:00 meridian. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuities ranged between finger counting and 20/70 (mean logMAR 1.02±0.64) preoperatively, and between 20/100 and 20/20 (mean logMAR 0.22±0.26) at the final postoperative visit. All IOLs remained centered and no significant postoperative complications were encountered except for an IOL tilt which resulted in a considerable oblique astigmatism in one eye. Subluxated foldable IOLs may safely be repositioned and secured with a single scleral fixation suture in selected cases with adequate amount of capsular remnants.

  8. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cleveland, B. T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario P3Y 1N2 Canada and Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  9. Poly(meth)acrylate-based coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica

    2013-12-05

    Poly(meth)acrylate coatings for pharmaceutical applications were introduced in 1955 with the launch of EUDRAGIT(®) L and EUDRAGIT(®) S, two types of anionic polymers. Since then, by introducing various monomers into their polymer chains and thus altering their properties, diverse forms with specific characteristics have become available. Today, poly(meth)acrylates function in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and/or release the drug in a time-controlled manner. This article reviews the properties of various poly(meth)acrylates and discusses formulation issues as well as application possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraocular lens exchange through a 3.2-mm corneal incision for opacified intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubaloglu Anil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate visual and refractive results and complications of intraocular lens (IOL exchange through a 3.2 mm corneal incision for opacified IOLs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised 33 eyes of 32 patients with IOL opacification requiring an IOL exchange between July 2003 and March 2007. Exchange surgery was performed through a 3.2-mm temporal clear corneal incision followed by implantation of a new foldable hydrophobic IOL. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, topographical astigmatism, and refractive cylinder were evaluated. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA was calculated and complications were recorded. Results: Opacification was observed in 25 eyes (76% with Aqua-Sense, 3 eyes (9% with Hydroview, 3 eyes (9% with MemoryLens IOLs, and 2 eyes (6% with DgR. The mean follow-up period was 36.54 months. An uneventful IOL exchange was achieved in 18 eyes (55%. Zonular dehiscence occurred in 9 eyes (27%, and posterior capsule tear developed in 4 eyes (12%. The mean preoperative BSCVA (mean ± standard deviation, decimal scale was 0.13 ± 0.08 (mean: 20/150, range 20/2000 to 20/60 and improved to 0.63 ± 0.18 (mean: 20/32, range 20/60 to 20/20, P < 0.001. The mean SIA was 0.70 D. Seven eyes (21% had 0.5 D or lower SIA. Conclusion: IOL exchange is a technically challenging procedure with potential risks of reversing the advantages of a prior small-incision cataract surgery. The use of a small corneal incision for IOL exchange could preserve the advantages of modern phacoemulsification surgery with acceptable SIA related to the procedure.

  11. Latex Imaging by Environmental STEM: Application to the Study of the Surfactant Outcome in Hybrid Alkyd/Acrylate Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaille, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Among other uses. latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase, However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this loca...

  12. Cold-plasma assisted grafting of cellulose fibres by acrylic monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiolas, Carla; Amaral, Maria Emilia; Costa, Ana Paula; Santos Silva, Manuel José; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2012-07-01

    Additive-free hand sheet paper samples were activated by cold-plasma in the presence of acrylic acid (AAc), acrylamide (AAm), methyl acrylate (MAc) and methyl methacrylate (MMa). The characterisation of the modified substrates showed that there grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by weight gain and FTIR spectroscopy. The contact angle measurement were carried out, as a function of pH and showed that the deposition of a drop of water at the surface of the tested samples formed 55° for unmodified substrate to 87°, for MMa-treated papers, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to check the grafting efficiency.

  13. Utilization of recycled polypropylene-acrylate grafted nonwoven for the removal of oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoning; Wei, Junfu; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ao; Yang, Hang; Nie, Yuexia

    2012-09-01

    To solve water pollution caused by oil spillage, a new sorbent was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization. Acrylate monomer was introduced to polypropylene nonwoven and hydrophobic groups were introduced by the grafting method. The grafting degree of sorbent was determined as a function of monomer concentration and solvent solubility for monomer. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and static contact angle measurements were used to characterize the chemical changes of the polypropylene nonwoven surface. The grafted sorbent showed a fast sorption rate and a maximum sorption capacity of 13.56 g/g for diesel oil, while the original polypropylene nonwoven was only 7.48 g/g. In addition, retention measurement and the reusability test were conducted to evaluate the suitability of the polypropylene-acrylate grafted nonwoven for the treatment of oil spillage.

  14. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An... the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a...

  15. Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Springelkamp, Henriët; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross...

  16. Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and intraocular pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, B; Weinreb, R N; Wheeler, D T; Klauber, M R

    1990-01-01

    Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy is a stroke syndrome of the distal optic nerve, characterised by disc oedema and optic nerve dysfunction--loss of central vision, loss of colour vision, a relative afferent pupillary defect, and nerve fibre layer field loss. We prospectively evaluated the changes of intraocular pressure throughout the day in 16 patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and 15 normal control subjects of similar age and race. The peak intraocular pressur...

  17. Necrotic intraocular retinoblastoma associated with orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcı, Hilal; Gündüz, Kaan; Erden, Esra

    Orbital cellulitis associated with retinoblastoma is uncommon and is characterized by noninfectious inflammation of the periorbital structures. The underlying mechanism is thought to be necrosis of the intraocular tumor, leading to intraocular and periorbital inflammation. We report 2 retinoblastoma patients who presented with an orbital cellulitis-like picture and discuss clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  19. Attempted eyelid closure affects intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P D; Gürses-Ozden, R; Liebmann, J M; Ritch, R

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of attempted eyelid closure on intraocular pressure measurement. Normal subjects underwent intraocular pressure measurement in both eyes using Goldmann applanation tonometry and Tono-pen XL (Mentor, Inc, Norwell, Massachusetts) by the same examiner holding the eyelids open, both with and without the subject simultaneously attempting forced eyelid closure. Subjects were seated during all measurements and waited 5 minutes between measurements with each instrument; the order of measurement was randomized. Thirty eyes of 15 subjects (six men, nine women) were enrolled. Mean age was 30.5 +/- 5.2 years (range, 24 to 40 years). With Goldmann applanation tonometry, intraocular pressure increased in both eyes with attempted eyelid closure by a mean of 1.5 +/- 2.0 mm Hg (P =.0002, paired t test; range, -2 to 8 mm Hg). With the Tono-pen XL, intraocular pressure also increased in both eyes with attempted eyelid closure by a mean of 1.9 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (P =.0002, paired t test; range, -2 to 9 mm Hg). Tono-pen XL mean intraocular pressure values in both eyes (14.4 +/- 2.3 mm Hg) consistently overestimated those of Goldmann applanation tonometry (13.0 +/- 2.2 mm Hg) by a mean of 1.4 +/- 2.3 mm Hg. Attempted forced eyelid closure is a common and statistically significant source of error in routine outpatient measurement of intraocular pressure and could influence clinical management of glaucoma.

  20. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J J; Cameron, S M; Runyan, D A; Craft, D W

    1999-02-01

    During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal surfaces of acrylic resins. Four groups of acrylic resin were incubated in an experimental model to simulate the oral environment over time. Specimens were treated in 2 groups, disinfected and not disinfected, and then further grouped by breaking and not breaking. Analysis was performed with microbial colony counts, SEM, and statistical analyses. Viable microorganisms still remain on the internal and external surfaces of treated resins. Chlorine dioxide reduces, but does not eliminate, viable microorganisms on these dental prostheses.

  1. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  2. Diagnosis of intraocular lesions using vitreous humor and intraocular perfusion fluid cytology: Experience with 83 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Yuri, Takashi; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of vitreous humor and/or intraocular perfusion fluid (IPF) from pars plana vitrectomy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for intraocular diseases. The cytologic findings with respect to the clinical data, the anatomical findings, and the final diagnosis in 83 cases that underwent intraocular cytologic examinations at the Kansai Medical University Takii Hospital were evaluated. For cytologic examination, the Papanicolaou stain, Giemsa stain, and in some cases, molecular biology and immunocytochemical techniques were used. Most of the clinical diagnoses were uveitis or endophthalmitis. Sixty-eight cases (81.9%) were negative on cytodiagnosis, while 15 cases (18.9%) were positive or suspicious for malignancy. Negative cases included infections and intraocular sarcoidosis (IOS), and all of the positive or suspicious cases were intraocular lymphomas. Some of these latter cases were also diagnosed using immunocytochemical staining or molecular biological procedures as ancillary techniques, performed using vitreous body cytology from IPF. An early diagnosis and treatment of intraocular diseases is necessary to maintain an acceptable degree of quality of life. For an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to understand the anatomy of the eye. Giemsa staining is recommended in addition to Papanicolaou staining for cytologic diagnostic evaluation of intraocular diseases. Furthermore, for the diagnosis of clonality in intraocular lymphomas, it is often necessary to use ancillary molecular biological procedures, using vitreous fluid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sleeping posture and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa Hsing Yi; Lai, Annie Hiu On; Singh, Mandeep; Chew, Paul Tec Kuan

    2013-03-01

    This prospective observational case series aimed to determine whether the lateral decubitus position, which is commonly adopted during sleep, has an effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal controls. Patients without glaucoma were recruited from those visiting outpatient clinics for non-glaucomatous conditions. The left eye of each patient was included. IOP was first measured using Tono-Pen® XL applanation tonometer in the supine position, following which a second measurement was immediately obtained for the left lateral head position. Measurements were obtained with the patient lying on one soft and one hard pillow for each position, and patients remained awake during these measurements. One tonometry reading was obtained for each position. Readings were recorded only when the average of four independent readings produced a statistical confidence index of 5%. Results were analysed using the paired Student's t-test for comparison of the means. IOP in the left lateral decubitus position (17.48 ± 3.18 mmHg) was significantly higher than in the supine position (14.48 ± 3.09 mmHg) when using soft pillows (p IOP in the left lateral decubitus position also exceeded that measured in the supine position (16.65 ± 3.54 mmHg vs. 13.65 ± 3.58 mmHg; p IOPs measured for the same position when different kinds of pillows were used. The lateral decubitus position adopted during sleep is associated with changes in IOP in healthy volunteers.

  5. Digital palpation of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbach, C D; Leen, M M

    1998-09-01

    Previous studies investigating the accuracy of digital palpation through the eyelids to estimate intraocular pressure (IOP) have shown disappointing results. In this study, the accuracy of digital assessment of IOP by palpation of the bare cornea is investigated. The IOP of a cadaveric eye model was varied from 5 to 40 mm Hg in increments of 5 mm Hg. Two examiners, one experienced and one inexperienced, digitally palpated the corneas and estimated IOP. The results were compared before and after a 1-hour training session. Prior to the training session, the experienced examiner guessed correctly 46% of the time and was correct within 5 mm Hg 100% of the time. The inexperienced examiner guessed correctly 21% of the time and was within 5 mm Hg 62% of the time. After the training session, the experienced examiner's score did not significantly (38% correct, 88% within 5 mm Hg, P = .05. Digital assessment of IOP by palpation of bare cornea is accurate when performed by experienced individuals. A minimal amount of training using the eye model may improve one's accuracy.

  6. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  7. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tunç

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  8. Bilateral spontaneous anterior dislocation of intraocular lens with the capsular bag in a patient with pseudoexfoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral spontaneous anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL dislocation in a 75-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation (PXF. He underwent uneventful phacoemulsification in both eyes with in-the-bag IOL implantation 9 years back. In the right eye, single piece poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA IOL (+19 D and in the left eye, single piece acrylic foldable IOL (+19 D were implanted. An attempt at pharmacological IOL repositioning was unsuccessful. The dislocated IOLs were explanted and exchanged with scleral suture fixated PMMA IOLs. Vision improved to 20/30 in both eyes following surgery, without any associated ocular morbidity. We believe that zonular weakness secondary to PXF, capsular contraction, and myopia together were the predisposing factors for partial anterior dislocation of IOLs and IOL exchange with scleral suture fixation of IOL is a safe and effective treatment option.

  9. Thermo-super-hydrophobic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2012-02-01

    Super-hydrophobic effect involves capture of gas bubbles in pores of solid wall. These bubbles separate moving liquid from the solid surface resulting in a substantial reduction of shear drag experienced by the liquid. The super-hydrophobic effect requires presence of two phases and thus drag reduction can be accomplished only for liquids. Thermo-super-hydrophobic effect takes advantage of the localized heating to create separation bubbles and thus can work with single phase flow systems. Analysis of a simple model problem shows that this effect is very strong in the case of small Re flows such as those found in micro-channels and can reduce pressure drop down to 50% of the reference value if the heating pattern as well as the heating intensity are suitable chosen. The thermo-super-hydrophobic effect becomes marginal when Re increases above a certain critical value.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S K; Shaw, S

    1999-05-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized.

  11. Hydrophobic repulsion and its origin

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental role of hydrophobic interactions in nature and technology has motivated decades long research aimed at measuring the distance-dependent hydrophobic force and identifying its origin. This quest has nevertheless proved more elusive than anticipated and the nature of the interaction at distances shorter than 2-3 nanometers, or even its sign, have never been conclusively determined. Employing an ultra-high resolution frequency-modulation atomic force microscope (FM-AFM) we succeed...

  12. Wear resistance of hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, MA; Abenojar, J.; Pantoja, M.; López de Armentia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Nature has been an inspiration source to develop artificial hydrophobic surfaces. During the latest years the development of hydrophobic surfaces has been widely researched due to their numerous ranges of industrial applications. Industrially the use of hydrophobic surfaces is being highly demanded. This is why many companies develop hydrophobic products to repel water, in order to be used as coatings. Moreover, these coating should have the appropriated mechanical properties and wear resistance. In this work wear study of a hydrophobic coating on glass is carried out. Hydrophobic product used was Sika Crystal Dry by Sika S.A.U. (Alcobendas, Spain). This product is currently used on car windshield. To calculate wear resistance, pin-on-disk tests were carried out in dry and water conditions. The test parameters were rate, load and sliding distance, which were fixed to 60 rpm, 5 N and 1000 m respectively. A chamois was used as pin. It allows to simulate a real use. The friction coefficient and loss weight were compared to determinate coating resistance

  13. Intraocular hemorrhage in sudden increased intracranial pressure (Terson syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Diaz, A; Jimenez Carmena, J; Ruano Martin, F; Diaz Lopez, P; Muñoz Casado, M J

    1979-01-01

    We examined 19 cases with SAH, 4 of which presented intraocular hemorrhages (retinal, subhyaloid and in vitreous). The mortality rate was 50% when the intraocular hemorrhages were present compared to 20% when they were absent.

  14. Occupational methacrylate and acrylate allergy from glues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2008-06-01

    Glues and sealants are important causes of methacrylate and acrylate allergy. This study aimed to analyse patterns of allergic patch test reactions to acrylic monomers in relation to exposure in patients sensitized from glues. We screened the patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1994 to 2006 for allergic reactions in the 'Methacrylate series' and analysed the clinical records of sensitized patients. Only patients who had handled acrylic glues at work were included. 10 patients had allergic reactions to acrylic monomers and had been sensitized from glues at work. 9 of them had used anaerobic sealants, 3 cyanoacrylate-based instant adhesives, and 1 patient a bi-component instant adhesive. All the patients reacted to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA); reactions to 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate were also common. The first 4 methacrylates were found in the glues used by the patients. Ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA) gave no reactions, but 1 patient reacted weakly to her own ECA-based glue. 2-HEMA and EGDMA are good screeners for contact allergy to anaerobic sealants and also detected a single case deriving from bi-component acrylic glue.

  15. Methacrylate and acrylate allergy in dental personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2007-11-01

    Methacrylates are important allergens in dentistry. The study aimed to analyse patch test reactivity to 36 acrylic monomers in dental personnel in relation to exposure. We reviewed the test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1994 to 2006 for allergic reactions to acrylic monomers in dental personnel and analysed the clinical records of the sensitized patients. 32 patients had allergic reactions to acrylic monomers: 15 dental nurses, 9 dentists, and 8 dental technicians. The dentists and dental nurses were most commonly exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA), and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). 8 dentists and 12 dental nurses were allergic to 2-HEMA. The remaining dentist was positive to bis-GMA and other epoxy acrylates. The remaining 3 dental nurses reacted to diethyleneglycol diacrylate (DEGDA) or triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA), but not to monofunctional and multifunctional methacrylates. Our dental technicians were mainly exposed and sensitized to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). 1 technician reacted only to 2-HEMA, and another to ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA). 2-HEMA was the most important allergen in dentists and dental nurses, and MMA and EGDMA in dental technicians. Reactions to bis-GMA, DEGDA, TREGDA, EMA and EA were relevant in some patients.

  16. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  17. Intraocular Pressure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Nigerian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    A number of hormones are known to affect intraocular pressure. Of these, the female sex hormones are the predominant ones to cause variations in intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to determine if variation in sex hormones in pregnancy affects intraocular pressure. This study was a longitudinal one.

  18. Biocompatible Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles: Nanotechnology Improvement of Conventional Prosthetic Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Acosta-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most products for dental restoration are produced from acrylic resins based on heat-cured Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA. The addition of metal nanoparticles to organic materials is known to increase the surface hydrophobicity and to reduce adherence to biomolecules. This paper describes the use of nanostructured materials, TiO2 and Fe2O3, for simultaneously coloring and/or improving the antimicrobial properties of PMMA resins. Nanoparticles of metal oxides were included during suspension polymerization to produce hybrid metal oxides-alginate-containing PMMA. Metal oxide nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction. Physicochemical characterization of synthesized resins was assessed by a combination of spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, viscometry, porosity, and mechanical tests. Adherence of Candida albicans cells and cellular compatibility assays were performed to explore biocompatibility and microbial adhesion of standard and novel materials. Our results show that introduction of biocompatible metal nanoparticles is a suitable means for the improvement of conventional acrylic dental resins.

  19. All-acrylic superelastomers: facile synthesis and exceptional mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [Department of Chemistry; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA; Goodwin, Andrew [Department of Chemistry; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA; Wang, Yangyang [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Oak Ridge; USA; Yin, Panchao [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Oak Ridge; USA; Wang, Weiyu [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Oak Ridge; USA; Zhu, Jiahua [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Oak Ridge; USA; Wu, Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA; Lu, Xinyi [Department of Chemistry; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA; Hu, Bin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA; Hong, Kunlun [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Oak Ridge; USA; Kang, Nam-Goo [Department of Chemistry; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA; Mays, Jimmy [Department of Chemistry; University of Tennessee; Knoxville; USA

    2018-01-01

    All-acrylic multigraft copolymers made by a facile synthesis procedure exhibit elongation at break >1700% and strain recovery behavior far exceeding those of commercial acrylic and styrenic triblock copolymers.

  20. High acrylate concentrations in the mucus of Phaeocystis globosa colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, D.J B; Schotten, M; Gieskes, W.W C; Forney, L.J; Gottschal, J.C; van Rijssel, M

    1998-01-01

    Acrylate produced from dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) by Phaeocystis has been claimed to inhibit bacterial growth. However, the concentrations of acrylate measured in seawater during Phaeocystis blooms are not high enough to expect inhibition of bacterial growth. In this study, the total

  1. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. In-depth disinfection of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, V B; Saunders, T R; Pimsler, M; Elfring, D R

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrated that bacteria penetrate three kinds of dental acrylic resin after a short time period. Samples of acrylic resin were contaminated with a variety of bacteria and were then placed in three different disinfecting solutions as directed by the manufacturers. After the specific dilution and immersion time, cultures were made from the resin samples. The only effective disinfectant was a 0.525% solution of sodium hypochlorite at a 10-minute immersion. It disinfected not only the surfaces but also the bacteria that penetrated the surfaces to a depth of 3 mm.

  3. Alternatives to excimer laser refractive surgery: UV and mid-infrared laser ablation of intraocular lenses and porcine cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafetinides, A. A.; Makropoulou, M.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.

    2007-03-01

    Despite the fact that the laser applications in human ophthalmology are well established, further research is still required, for better and predictable ablation dosimetry on both cornea tissue and intraocular lenses. Further studies for alternative laser sources to the well established excimer lasers, such as UV or mid-infrared solid state lasers, have been proposed for refractive surgery. The precise lens ablation requires the use of laser wavelengths possessing a small optical penetration depth in the cornea and in the synthetic lenses, in order to confine the laser energy deposition to a small volume. In order to eliminate some very well known problems concerning the reshaping of cornea and the modification of the optical properties of the intraocular lenses, ablation experiments of ex vivo porcine cornea, acrylic PMMA and hydrophilic lenses were conducted with an Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm) and the fifth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (213 nm). The morphology of cornea was recorded using a cornea topography system before and immediately after the ablation. Histology analysis of the specimens was obtained, in order to examine the microscopic appearance of the ablated craters and the existence of any thermal damage caused by the mid-infrared and UV laser irradiation. The macroscopic morphology of the intraocular lens craters was inspected with an optical transmission microscope. Measurements of the ablation rates of the lenses were performed and simulated by a mathematical model.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, S K; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate...

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis due to an epoxy acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, J R

    1981-06-01

    A printer developed allergic contact dermatitis due to epoxy acrylate resin. Incomplete cross-reactivity between four epoxy acrylate resins and a lack of cross-reactivity to epoxy resin was demonstrated. The epoxy acrylate resin has been shown to be a potent cutaneous sensitizer for the guinea-pig.

  7. 40 CFR 721.4794 - Polypiperidinol-acrylate methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polypiperidinol-acrylate methacrylate... Substances § 721.4794 Polypiperidinol-acrylate methacrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polypiperidinol-acrylate...

  8. 78 FR 6213 - Styrene-2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Styrene-2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental...; also known as styrene-2-ethylhexyl acrylate copolymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide...-risk polymers are described in 40 CFR 723.250(d). Styrene-2-ethylhexyl acrylate copolymer conforms to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10081 - Aromatic urethane acrylate oligomer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic urethane acrylate oligomer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10081 Aromatic urethane acrylate oligomer (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic urethane acrylate oligomer (PMN P-06-26) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  14. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin...

  15. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in producing...

  16. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  17. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M.J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and

  18. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  19. DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kolobrodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.

  20. Intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber intraocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the visual outcome of cataract extraction with ACIOL implantation in a Nigerian hospital. Methods: The visual outcome of 50 eyes of 42 patients aged 40 years and above, out of 212 eyes that underwent intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL) implantation, were ...

  1. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in leprosy patients. Sight restoration to blind leprosy patients prevents them from injuring their anaesthetic limbs. The visual outcome and complications of extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant in 42 leprosy and 91 non-leprosy patients were compared.

  2. in Preventing Rise of Intraocular Pressure (Iop)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    INTRODUCTION. Cataract surgery is currently the most common ophthalmic surgical procedure in the world. This procedure involves the extracapsular extraction of the opaque lens fibers and implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) which restores good vision.[1]. However, posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which is ...

  3. Intraocular Silicone Oil Masquerading as Terson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi Sadr, Navid; Samavat, Bijan; Mehrian, Payam; Hedayatfar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Terson syndrome is described as intraocular hemorrhage in association with any type of intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with higher mortality rate and vision loss. Intraocular hemorrhage in Terson syndrome may be diagnosed using computed tomography but there are false positive results. Silicone oil which is widely used for internal tamponade of complicated retinal detachments has high attenuation on computed tomography and hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging that can mimic intraocular hemorrhage. This report shows that silicone oil is another origin of false positive results in interpreting CT findings for detecting Terson syndrome. Case Report. A 71-year-old diabetic woman presented with loss of consciousness. Brain computed tomography revealed right cerebellar hemorrhage and ventricular hemorrhage and hyperdensity in vitreous cavity of the left eye that was initially interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. Terson syndrome was the initial diagnosis but ophthalmoscopic examination and brain MRI showed that the left eye had silicone oil tamponade. Conclusion. Without knowing the history of previous vitreoretinal surgery, CT scan findings of intraocular silicone oil may be interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. In patients with concomitant intracranial hemorrhage, it can masquerade as Terson syndrome.

  4. Intraocular Silicone Oil Masquerading as Terson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Elmi Sadr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Terson syndrome is described as intraocular hemorrhage in association with any type of intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with higher mortality rate and vision loss. Intraocular hemorrhage in Terson syndrome may be diagnosed using computed tomography but there are false positive results. Silicone oil which is widely used for internal tamponade of complicated retinal detachments has high attenuation on computed tomography and hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging that can mimic intraocular hemorrhage. This report shows that silicone oil is another origin of false positive results in interpreting CT findings for detecting Terson syndrome. Case Report. A 71-year-old diabetic woman presented with loss of consciousness. Brain computed tomography revealed right cerebellar hemorrhage and ventricular hemorrhage and hyperdensity in vitreous cavity of the left eye that was initially interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. Terson syndrome was the initial diagnosis but ophthalmoscopic examination and brain MRI showed that the left eye had silicone oil tamponade. Conclusion. Without knowing the history of previous vitreoretinal surgery, CT scan findings of intraocular silicone oil may be interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. In patients with concomitant intracranial hemorrhage, it can masquerade as Terson syndrome.

  5. Calcification in hydrophilic intraocular lenses associated with injection of intraocular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Anish; Spalton, David J; Goyal, Saurabh; Werner, Liliana

    2012-06-01

    To report a distinct type of calcification in hydrophilic intraocular lenses in complicated, traumatized eyes with a history of intraocular gas use. Observational case series. Three cases of hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL) opacification confined to the pupillary area are reported from clinical practice in London, UK. Clinical details and analysis of the explanted intraocular lenses are provided with environmental scanning electron microscopy images and x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy results. All cases were associated with use of intraocular gas in complicated traumatized eyes, and had central areas of IOL opacification over the pupillary zone, confined to the anterior surface of the IOL. Analysis of the lenses showed the opacified areas to be composed of calcium and phosphate. The areas of opacification in all 3 hydrophilic IOLs were attributable to calcification. We postulate that intraocular gas use and the altered blood-aqueous barrier of these complicated traumatized eyes co-act to trigger secondary IOL calcification. Further experimental testing is needed to confirm this clinical association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2014-09-01

    Following unilateral enucleation, 4 Domestic Shorthair cats with an average age of 12.5 years (range: 9-16 years) were histologically diagnosed with a presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin). Medical records and follow-up were available for 3 of the 4 cats. Clinically, only 1 eye was affected in each cat; a mass lesion was noted in 2 cats, and a neoplasm was suspected in the other 2 cats. Grossly, 3 tumors presented as coalescing, poorly demarcated, white, friable masses filling the vitreous and intraocular chambers; 1 tumor presented as a solitary, well-demarcated, tan mass involving the iris and ciliary body. Histologically, all 4 neoplasms were composed of haphazardly arranged plump neoplastic spindle cells surrounded by irregular islands and thick trabeculae of abundant, variably basophilic, and Alcian blue-positive chondromatous matrix. None of the cats presented histologically or clinically with signs suggestive of feline posttraumatic ocular sarcoma. Two cats are still alive and healthy 6 months and 3 years following enucleation. One cat died 6 months following enucleation; however, this cat suffered from poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and the cause of death is undetermined. No other tumors or skeletal lesions were identified that could suggest a metastatic tumor to the eye. The origin of primary intraocular chondrosarcoma is unclear, but is presumed to be ocular multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Four cases of intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats not associated with the posttraumatic sarcoma complex of intraocular tumors are described. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  8. Preparation and application of crosslinked poly(sodium acrylate)--coated magnetite nanoparticles as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Saeed, Ashraf M

    2015-01-14

    This work presents a new method to prepare poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using sodium acrylate as monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structures with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly(sodium acrylate) as shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanocomposite chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the morphology of the modified poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. These particle will be evaluated for effective anticorrosion behavior as a hydrophobic surface on stainless steel. The composite nanoparticles has been designed by dispersing nanocomposites which act as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition effect of AA-Na/magnetite composites on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization measurements indicated that the studied inhibitor acts as mixed type corrosion inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop. The different techniques confirmed that the inhibition efficiency reaches 99% at 50 ppm concentration. This study has led to a better understanding of active anticorrosive magnetite nanoparticles with embedded nanocomposites and the factors influencing their anticorrosion performance.

  9. Preparation and Application of Crosslinked Poly(sodium acrylate-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to prepare poly(sodium acrylate magnetite composite nanoparticles. Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using sodium acrylate as monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA as crosslinker. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structures with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly(sodium acrylate as shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to characterize the nanocomposite chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM was used to examine the morphology of the modified poly(sodium acrylate magnetite composite nanoparticles. These particle will be evaluated for effective anticorrosion behavior as a hydrophobic surface on stainless steel. The composite nanoparticles has been designed by dispersing nanocomposites which act as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition effect of AA-Na/magnetite composites on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Polarization measurements indicated that the studied inhibitor acts as mixed type corrosion inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop. The different techniques confirmed that the inhibition efficiency reaches 99% at 50 ppm concentration. This study has led to a better understanding of active anticorrosive magnetite nanoparticles with embedded nanocomposites and the factors influencing their anticorrosion performance.

  10. PHEA-g-PMMA Well-Defined Graft Copolymer: ATRP Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Synchronous Encapsulation of Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Guest Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aishun; Xu, Jie; Gu, Guangxin; Lu, Guolin; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-03

    A series of well-defined amphiphilic graft copolymer bearing a hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) backbone and hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) side chains was synthesized by successive reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) through the grafting-from strategy. A well-defined PHEA-based backbone with Cl-containing ATRP initiating group in every repeated unit (M w /M n  = 1.08), poly(2-hydroxyethyl 2-((2-chloropropanoyloxy)methyl)acrylate) (PHECPMA), was first prepared by RAFT homopolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl 2-((2-chloropropanoyloxy)methyl)acrylate (HECPMA), a Cl-containing trifunctional acrylate. ATRP of methyl methacrylate was subsequently initiated by PHECPMA homopolymer to afford the target well-defined poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PHEA-g-PMMA) graft copolymers (M w /M n  ≤ 1.36) with 34 PMMA side chains and 34 pendant hydroxyls in PHEA backbone using CuCl/dHbpy as catalytic system. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the obtained graft copolymer was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe while micellar morphologies in aqueous media were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, PHEA-g-PMMA graft copolymer could self-assemble into large compound micelles rather than common spherical micelles, which can encapsulate hydrophilic rhodamine 6 G and hydrophobic pyrene separately or simultaneously.

  11. Thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, A.C.; de Groot, K.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.

    1971-01-01

    The thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate was carried out in the solid phase, the mesomorphic phase, and the liquid phase to study the effect of monomer ordering on polymerization rate and polymer properties. The rate increased with decreasing ordering (or enhanced mobility) of the

  12. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  13. 40 CFR 721.405 - Polyether acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 721.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyether acrylate (PMN P-95-666) is subject to... this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as...

  14. Development and Evaluation of Ketoprofen Acrylic Transdermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To fabricate ketoprofen transdermal patches (KTPs) using an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) polymer. Methods: KTPs were prepared using solvent casting method. The influence of the amount of PSA, drug content, and terpenes as penetration enhancers on the characteristics of the patch, namely, ...

  15. Application of hydrophobically modified water-soluble polymers for the dispersion of hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatridi, Zacharoula; Georgiadou, Violetta; Menelaou, Melita; Dendrinou-Samara, Catherine; Bokias, Georgios

    2014-06-21

    Hydrophobically modified water-soluble polymers (HMWSPs), comprised of a poly(sodium methacrylate) (PMANa) or poly(sodium acrylate) (PANa) backbone and pendent dodecyl methacrylate (DMA) or dodecyl acrylamide (DAAm) chains, respectively, were synthesized. The hydrophobic content of the copolymers, P(MANa-co-DMA) and P(ANa-co-DAAm), is in the range of 0 to 25 mol%, while their weight-average molar mass varies from ~10 000 up to ~75 000. Their self-assembly behavior in dilute aqueous solution was followed through Nile Red probing, DLS and TEM measurements. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is mainly controlled by the hydrophobic content and not the molar mass of the copolymers. Above CMC, spherical and large-compound micelles are identified by DLS and TEM. Moreover, oleylamine coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (CoFe2O4@OAm MNPs) of 9.4 nm with a saturation magnetization Ms = 85 emu g(-1) were solvothermally prepared. The hydrophobic CoFe2O4@OAm MNPs were successfully encapsulated into the hydrophobic cores of the structures formed by the copolymers above CMC through a solvent mixing procedure, and in that way hydrophilic CoFe2O4@HMWSP nanohybrids resulted. For comparison purposes, two alternate phase transfer approaches were also used to convert CoFe2O4@OAm MNPs to hydrophilic ones: (a) addition of a coating layer by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and (b) by the ligand exchange procedure with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). NMR transverse relaxivity measurements of the aqueous suspensions of CoFe2O4@P(ANa-co-DAAm), CoFe2O4@CTAB and CoFe2O4@DMSA were recorded and the r2 relaxivity was determined. CoFe2O4@CTAB demonstrated the highest r2 relaxivity of 554.0 mM(-1) s(-1), while CoFe2O4@P(ANa-co-DAAm) and CoFe2O4@DMSA showed lower values of 313.6 mM(-1) s(-1) and 76.3 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively.

  16. METHACRYLATE AND ACRYLATE ALLERGY IN DENTAL STUDENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming to evaluate the incidence of sensitization in students of dental medicineThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to some (meth acrylates in students of dental medicine at the time of their education, in dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants and in patients, the manifestation of co-reactivity.A total of 139 participants were included in the study, divided into four groups: occupationally exposed to (methacrylates and acrylic monomers dental professionals, 3-4 year-of-education students of dental medicine, 6th year–of-education students of dental medicine and patients with suspected or established sensitization to acrylates, without occupational exposure. All of them were patch-tested with methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl]propane (bis-GMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA, and tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate. The overall sensitization rates to methacrylates in the studied population are comparative high – from 25.9% for MMA to 31.7% for TREGDMA. Significantly higher incidence of sensitization in the group of 3-4 course students compared to the one in the group of dental professionals for MMA and TREGDMA was observed. Highest was the incidence of sensitization to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, BIS-GMA, 2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate in the group of patients, with

  17. [History of the development of intraocular lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffarth, G U; Apple, D J

    2001-11-01

    Even though cataract surgery has been practiced for over 2000 years, modern cataract surgery started just some 50 years ago. with the first IOL implantation by Sir Harold Ridley. The development of intraocular lenses was accompanied by great successes and disasters. With the fast development of cataract surgical techniques over the past 15 years (ECCE, Phacoemulsification, Capsulorhexis) a successful marriage between IOL-developments and surgery was established. Indication profiles for cataract surgery and IOL implantation extended to more and more patient groups. At this time classical cataract surgery is further developing into refractive intraocular lens surgery to correct higher ametropia in clear lens or phakic eyes. This development was only possible because of the improvements of surgical techniques and implants in classical cataract surgery.

  18. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  19. Metastatic intraocular hemangiopericytoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Pucket

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old Labrador Retriever who had been undergoing therapy for a recurrent hemangiopericytoma of the right flank presented to the Kansas State University Ophthalmology service for evaluation of a painful left eye. Examination revealed secondary glaucoma and irreversible blindness of the affected eye and multifocal chorioretinal lesions in the fellow eye. Therapeutic and diagnostic enucleation of the left eye was performed and histopathologic examination demonstrated the presence of a presumed metastatic spindle cell sarcoma. Further immunohistochemical staining confirmed the intraocular neoplasia to be metastatic spread from the previously removed flank mass. Rapid progression in size and number of chorioretinal lesions in the right eye was noted in the post-operative period until the patient was euthanized one month after surgery. This case report is the first to document intraocular metastasis of hemangiopericytoma in a veterinary patient.

  20. Study on Properties of Branched Hydrophobically Modified Polyacrylamide for Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Ting Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides (HPAMs used for polymer flooding is unsatisfactory under the conditions of high temperature and high salinity. In order to improve the viscosifying ability of HPAM, branched macromolecular skeleton monomer is used to change the linear backbone structure. A new branched hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide (BHMPAM was synthesized by the free radical copolymerization of functionalized branched macromolecular skeleton monomer, acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, and hydrophobic monomer hexadecyl-allyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride (C16DMAAC. The properties of polymer solution were characterized; the results of the experiments showed that BHMPAM exhibited the properties of pseudoplastic fluid, and the viscosity of BHMPAM was 345.9 mPa·s (polymer concentration was 1750 mg/L under the condition of 75°C and 9374 mg/L of salinity. Moreover, BHMPAM also performed well in viscoelasticity which can meet the property requirements for EOR polymer.

  1. Shear bond strength of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base after different surface conditioning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, Gajula Venu; Raj, Soundar; Yadav, Naveen; Mudgal, Ishitha; Mehta, Nidhi; Tatwadiya, Riddhi

    2013-09-01

    Acrylic resin ruled the dental profession for 60 years, and this success is attributed to its aesthetics, handling properties, physical and biological compatibility, its stability in oral environment and its cost effectiveness. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the bond strength of acrylic resin teeth treated with various conditioning materials like monomer and silane coupling agent. METHDOLOGY: A study was carried out in which 96 samples were grouped into 3 groups with a sample size of 32 each (16 premolars, 16 molars). They were conditioned with different conditioning materials i,e monomer and silane coupling agent. Monomer, Silane coupling agent are coated on the ridge lap area before thermocycling and cured according to the manufacturer recommendations. The samples are retained from the fask; trimmed and polished. The samples are then subjected to shear bond strength using the Insteron Universal Testing Machine. In the present study it was found that application of monomer increased the bond strength between acrylic teeth and denture base, when compared to the conventionally processed samples. However it was found that application of silane coupling agent further increased the shear bond strength between acrylic teeth and denture base. Interprations and Within the confnes of this study it is found that there was a signifcant improvement in the bond strength between the acrylic teeth and denture base when silane coupling agent and monomer were used as surface conditioning material. The order of shear strength of samples is control > monomer > silane coupling agent.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from dental composite resins due to aromatic epoxy acrylates and aliphatic acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R

    1989-03-01

    7 patients were occupationally sensitized to dental composite resin products (DCR): 6 dental nurses and 1 dentist. All had a positive patch test to their DCR. 2 independent types of allergy were seen; (a) aromatic epoxy acrylate, and/or (b) aliphatic acrylates. 4 out of 5 patients reacted to BIS-GMA, the most widely used aromatic epoxy acrylate in DCR, but not the dentist. She and 2 dental nurses were allergic to aliphatic acrylates, including triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA) and triethylene diglycol diacrylate (TREGDA). 4 patients were allergic to epoxy resin (ER) (containing mainly MW 340), possibly an impurity in some DCR. 2 patients were also allergic to methyl methacrylate (MMA): the dentist, had been exposed to MMA, but the nurse's exposure was uncertain. 1 patient was also allergic to rubber gloves, 2 to rubber chemicals but not their gloves, and 5 to disinfectants used. diagnosis was delayed as long as 13 years in spite of previous patch testing. Dermatologists need to use the patients' own DCR and the (meth)acrylate series for patch testing. No dental nurses could continue their occupation, but the dentist could occasionally handle DCR if wearing PVC gloves. Dental personnel need to know about the risks of DCR, and use no-touch techniques and protective gloves.

  3. Isobornyl acrylate: an impurity in alkyl glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Rigano, Luigi; Zimerson, Erik; Sicilia, Mattia; Ballini, Andrea; Ghizzoni, Oscar; Antelmi, Annarita; Angelini, Gianni; Bonamonte, Domenico; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl glucosides and alkyl poly-glucosides are widely used as wetting agents, surfactants and emulsifiers in several industrial and cosmetic products. They are known as well-tolerated and are usually added to the primary surfactants in order to reduce the irritating potential of the main foaming agents. Recently, some authors suggested that allergic contact dermatitis to alkyl glucosides might be more frequent than suspected. On the other hand, the chemical structures of glucosides do not show potentially allergenic chemical groups or strongly polarized structures. The aim of our study is to investigate alkyl glucosides carrying out a detailed chemical analysis on samples of raw materials to identify potentially allergenic impurities or by-products contained in commercial samples of alkyl glucosides. We chemically analyzed samples of cocoyl glucoside, decyl glucoside and lauryl glucoside by three different analytical methods, in order to identify any undesired or polluting substances. In each of the three samples, we detected the presence of isobornyl acrylate. Its approximate content in the tested samples is 500 ng/g of the product. Isobornyl acrylate is not used in the synthesis of alkyl glucosides, but as a plasticizer in many plastic materials. It can be easily released to materials flowing over these surfaces when they have high extraction power, as glucosides. Isobornyl acrylate may play a role as hidden allergen, in the form of an impurity collected during the industrial process, explaining some cases of allergic reaction to alkyl glucosides.

  4. Acrylated Chitosan Nanoparticles with Enhanced Mucoadhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaked Eliyahu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acrylate modification on the mucoadhesion of chitosan at the nanoscale. Nanoparticles were fabricated from acrylated chitosan (ACS via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate and were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, stability, and nanoparticle yield. Chitosan (CS nanoparticles, serving as a control, were fabricated using the same procedure. The mucoadhesion of the nanoparticles was evaluated using the flow-through method after different incubation periods. The retention percentages of ACS nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than those of CS nanoparticles, for all studied time intervals. An additional indication for the increased mucoadhesion of ACS nanoparticles was the increase in particle size obtained from the mucin particle method, in which mucin and nanoparticles are mixed at different ratios. NMR data verified the presence of free acrylate groups on the ACS nanoparticles. Thus, the improved mucoadhesion could be due to a Michael-type addition reaction between the nanoparticles and thiol groups present in mucin glycoprotein, in addition to entanglements and hydrogen bonding. Overall, ACS nanoparticles exhibit enhanced mucoadhesion properties as compared to CS nanoparticles and could be used as vehicles for drug delivery systems.

  5. Contact allergy to acrylates/methacrylates in the acrylate and nail acrylics series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teik-Jin Goon, Anthony; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee-Leok; Isaksson, Marléne

    2007-07-01

    In a recent study we showed that all our dental personnel/patients were detected with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). We studied 90 patients tested to the acrylate and nail acrylics series at our department over a 10 year period to see whether screening allergens could be found. Patch testing with an acrylate and nail acrylics series was performed. Among the 10 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic occupational dermatitis patients tested to the acrylate series, the most common allergens were triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA, 8), diethyleneglycol diacrylate (5), and 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BUDA, 5). All 10 of these patients would have been picked up by a short screening series combining TREGDA, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA), and BUDA or 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA). Among the 14 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic nail patients, the most common allergens were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 11), 2-HEMA, (9), and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (9). Screening for 3 allergens i.e. 2-HEMA plus EGDMA plus TREGDA, would have detected all 14 nail patients. A short screening series combining 2-HEMA, EGDMA, TREGDA, 2-HPMA, bis-GMA, and BUDA or HDDA would have picked up all our past study patients (dental, industrial, and nail) with suspected allergy to acrylate/methacrylate allergens.

  6. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry Efeito das lentes intraoculares asféricas e com pigmentação amarela na campimetria azul-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possibilidade de efeitos na sensibilidade ao contraste e nos resultados da campimetria azul-amarelo com implante de uma lente intraocular (LIO asférica ou de pigmentação amarela. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-mascarado, envolvendo 52 pacientes portadores de catarata senil bilateral, divididos em dois grupos; 25

  7. Processes for manufacturing multifocal diffractive-refractive intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Manufacturing methods and design features of modern diffractive-refractive intraocular lenses are discussed. The implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses is the most optimal method of restoring the accommodative ability of the eye after removal of the natural lens. Diffractive-refractive intraocular lenses are the most widely used implantable multifocal lenses worldwide. Existing methods for manufacturing such lenses implement various design solutions to provide the best vision function after surgery. The wide variety of available diffractive-refractive intraocular lens designs reflects the demand for this method of vision correction in clinical practice and the importance of further applied research and development of new technologies for designing improved lens models.

  8. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  12. Management of dislocated intraocular lenses with iris suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Y; Ferreira, Nuno P; Canastro, Mario

    2017-01-19

    Subluxated or malpositioned intraocular lenses (IOLs) and inadequate capsular support is a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Iris suture of an IOL seems to be an easy technique for the management of dislocated 3-piece IOL, allowing the IOL to be placed behind the iris, far from the trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelium. The purpose of this study is to assess the results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and iris suture of dislocated 3-piece acrylic IOLs. In this retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional case consecutive study, of a total of 103 dislocated IOLs, 36 eyes were considered for analysis. All 36 eyes had subluxated or totally luxated 3-piece IOL and underwent iris suture at the Ophthalmology Department of Santa Maria Hospital-North Lisbon Hospital Center, Portugal, from January 2011 until November 2015. All patients underwent 3-port 23-G PPV. The optic zone of the dislocated IOL was placed anterior to the iris with the haptics behind, in the posterior chamber. Haptics were sutured to iris followed by placement of the optics behind iris plane. Postoperative measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and development of macular edema. A total of 36 eyes of 36 patients were included. All underwent successful iris fixation of dislocated 3-piece IOL. Mean overall follow-up was 15.9 months (range 3-58 months). At presentation, 16 eyes (44.4%) had a luxated IOL and 20 eyes (55.6%) a subluxated IOL. As underlying cause, 17 eyes (47.2%) had a history of complicated cataract surgery, 5 eyes (13.9%) had a traumatic dislocation of the IOL, and 6 eyes (16.7%) had a previous vitreoretinal surgery. A total of 8 eyes (22.2%) had late spontaneous IOL dislocation after uneventful cataract surgery. The mean preoperative BCVA was 1.09 ± 0.70 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) units and mean postoperative BCVA was 0.48 ± 0.58 of log

  13. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by miniemulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Murillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Four waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization from a hyperbranched alkyd resin (HBR, methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA and acrylic acid (AA, by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO and ammonium persulfate (AP as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (Tg, content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly monomodal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time of the HBRAA were good.

  14. Hydrophobic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophobic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates a hydrophobic substance with a core substance, such as dye, corrosion indicator, corrosion inhibitor, and/or healing agent, dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophobic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophobic-phase droplets, e.g., containing the core substance and shell-forming compound, dispersed in a hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  15. [Sensitization to acrylates caused by artificial acrylic nails: review of 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, E; de la Cuadra, J; Alegre, V

    2008-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Recently, the number of cases of contact allergic dermatitis among beauticians specialized in sculpting artificial nails has increased. Our objective was to study the clinical characteristics and allergens implicated in allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates in beauticians and users of sculpted nails. This was an observational, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates used in sculpting artificial nails over the last 26 years in the Hospital General Universitario, Valencia, Spain. In total, 15 patients were diagnosed: 14 beauticians and 1 client. Most cases were diagnosed in the past 2 years. All were women, their mean age was 32.2 years, and 26.7 % had a personal or family history of atopy. The sensitization time varied between 1 month and 15 years. The most frequently affected areas were the fleshy parts of the fingers and hands. Three patients - 2 beauticians and 1 client - presented allergic asthma due to acrylates. All patients underwent patch testing with a standard battery of allergens and a battery of acrylates. The most frequent allergens were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (13/15, 86.7 %), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (13/15, 86.7 %), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (7/15, 46.7 %), 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (5/15, 33.3 %), and methyl methacrylate (5/15, 33.3 %). Acrylate monomers used for sculpting artificial nails are important sensitizers for contact and occupational dermatitis. The most important consideration is primary and secondary prevention.

  16. Nisin adsorption on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces: evidence of its interactions and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Layal; Jama, Charafeddine; Nuns, Nicolas; Mamede, Anne-Sophie; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

    2013-06-01

    Study of peptides adsorption on surfaces remains a current challenge in literature. A complementary approach, combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to investigate the antimicrobial peptide nisin adsorption on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The native low density polyethylene was used as hydrophobic support and it was grafted with acrylic acid to render it hydrophilic. XPS permitted to confirm nisin adsorption and to determine its amount on the surfaces. ToF-SIMS permitted to identify the adsorbed bacteriocin type and to observe its distribution and orientation behavior on both types of surfaces. Nisin was more oriented by its hydrophobic side to the hydrophobic substrate and by its hydrophilic side to the outer layers of the adsorbed peptide, in contrast to what was observed on the hydrophilic substrate. A correlation was found between XPS and ToF-SIMS results, the types of interactions on both surfaces and the observed antibacterial activity. Such interfacial studies are crucial for better understanding the peptides interactions and adsorption on surfaces and must be considered when setting up antimicrobial surfaces. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Acrylate contact allergy: patient characteristics and evaluation of screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Aaron Mark; Pratt, Melanie Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Acrylates are present in a wide variety of products and cause occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is no clear guidance from the literature as to which allergens should be used for patch-test screening for acrylates. To characterize patients with contact allergy to acrylates and to evaluate the allergens used to screen for acrylate allergy. Charts of patients visiting an outpatient contact dermatitis clinic from January 1998 to February 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-four patients were found to have contact allergy to acrylates. The most commonly positive allergens were hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Thirty-two of the 44 positive patch-test results (73%) would have been discovered with the use of the two compounds (MMA, EA) in the North American Standard Series (Chemotechnique screening series), a commercially available screening series, while 12 were found through expanded patch testing. Artificial nails, dental materials, and adhesives were the most common exposures. Occupational relevance was found in 18 cases, including those of dental workers, assemblers, and aestheticians. Acrylates are an important cause of contact allergy. Screening series identify most cases of acrylate allergy but miss a substantial number. Clinicians should remain vigilant for acrylate allergy even if initial screening is negative.

  18. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis.

  19. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates in Lodz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiec-Swierczynska, M K

    1996-06-01

    Among 1619 patients suspected of occupational contact dermatitis examined during the years 1990-1994, sensitivity to acrylates was diagnosed in 9 persons (4 dental technicians, 4 dentists, 1 textile printer). Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (5 positive patch tests), methyl methacrylate (4), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (4) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (4) were the most common sensitizers. Comparison of patch test results in dental technicians and dentists indicated that dentists were sensitive to a greater number of (meth)acrylate (acrylate and methacrylate) allergens and also to certain other allergens (metals and rubber additives). Dental technicians were sensitive almost exclusively to methacrylates, while the textile printer only to acrylates.

  20. Naphthyl methacrylate-based monolithic column for RP-CEC via hydrophobic and pi interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenga, Samuel; El Rassi, Ziad

    2010-03-01

    A neutral naphthyl methacrylate-based monolith (NMM) was introduced for RP-CEC of various aromatic compounds via hydrophobic and pi interactions. It was characterized over a wide range of elution conditions to gain insight into its RP retention mechanism toward the various solute probes under investigation. First, the NMM column exhibited cathodal EOF at various mobile phase compositions and pH suggesting that although the NMM column is void of fixed charges, it acquires a negative zeta potential. It is believed that the negative zeta potential is imparted by the adsorption of mobile phase ions to the NMM surface. The NMM column exhibited pi-pi interactions in addition to hydrophobic interactions due to the aromatic and nonpolar nature of its naphthyl ligands. In all cases, the retention of the various aromatic test solutes including PAHs, benzene derivatives, toluene derivatives, anilines and toluidine, tolunitrile and nitrotoluene positional isomers on the NMM column were compared to their retention on an octadecyl acrylate-based monolithic column. Not only were the values of the retention factors of the various solutes on the NMM column higher than those obtained on the octadecyl acrylate-based monolithic column under otherwise the same CEC conditions, but the elution orders were also different on both columns with a superior and unique selectivity exhibited by the NMM column.

  1. Synthesis of Poly(styrene-acrylates-acrylic acid Microspheres and Their Chemical Composition towards Colloidal Crystal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Ríos-Osuna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, polystyrene colloidal microspheres have been prepared using hexyl acrylate (HA, ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA, isooctyl acrylate (IOA, butyl acrylate (BA, or isobutyl acrylate (IBA as comonomers. Microspheres with diameters from 212 to 332 nm and with a polystyrene content of 65–78% were prepared. The particles prepared in this work do not present the typical core-shell structure; as a consequence, DSC analysis showed that the microspheres exhibited only one Tg. TEM images show that the particles with comonomer content below ~30% were spherical and regular. Microspheres containing comonomer between 21 to 25% produced the less brittle films showing very iridescent colors. The films prepared from microspheres containing hexyl, ethylhexyl, and isooctyl acrylate as comonomers are firmly attached to the substrate due to their adhesive properties. The large decrease of the fragility observed in these films makes them much more attractive materials in sensing applications.

  2. Kinetics and products of gas-phase reactions of ozone with methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, and ethyl acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Eyglunent, G; Daële, V; Mellouki, A

    2010-08-19

    The kinetics and products of the gas-phase reactions of ozone with methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, and ethyl acrylate have been investigated at 760 Torr total pressure of air and 294 +/- 2 K. The rate coefficients obtained (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) units) were as follows: k(methyl methacrylate) = (6.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18), k(methyl acrylate) = (0.95 +/- 0.07) x 10(-18), and k(ethyl acrylate) = (1.3 +/- 0.1) x 10(-18). In addition to formaldehyde being observed as a product of the three reactions, the other major reaction products were methyl pyruvate from reaction of ozone with methyl methacrylate, methyl glyoxylate from reaction of ozone with methyl acrylate, and ethyl glyoxylate from reaction of ozone with ethyl acrylate. Possible reaction mechanisms leading to the observed products are presented and discussed.

  3. Water on hydrophobic surfaces: Mechanistic modeling of hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-23

    Mechanistic models are successfully used for protein purification process development as shown for ion-exchange column chromatography (IEX). Modeling and simulation of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) in the column mode has been seldom reported. As a combination of these two techniques is often encountered in biopharmaceutical purification steps, accurate modeling of protein adsorption in HIC is a core issue for applying holistic model-based process development, especially in the light of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. In this work, a new mechanistic isotherm model for HIC is derived by consideration of an equilibrium between well-ordered water molecules and bulk-like ordered water molecules on the hydrophobic surfaces of protein and ligand. The model's capability of describing column chromatography experiments is demonstrated with glucose oxidase, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme on Capto™ Phenyl (high sub) as model system. After model calibration from chromatograms of bind-and-elute experiments, results were validated with batch isotherms and prediction of further gradient elution chromatograms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocorrência de opacidade de cápsula posterior em cães pós-facoemulsificação, com ou sem a utilização de lente intraocular dobrável e efeitos do Nd: Yag Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Luciano Fernandes da [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Cataracts are among the most common eye diseases in dogs, being the phacoemulsification method the one that best suits in their therapy. The posterior capsule opacification (PCOs) are among the most common complications and manifest themselves in weeks or months after cataract surgery. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) used in the correction of postoperative hyperopia, are mentioned as useful in the prevention of PCOs , especially the foldable acrylic ones with truncated or square edges. However, whe...

  5. Comparison between an Acrylic Splint Herbst and an Acrylic Splint Miniscrew-Herbst for Mandibular Incisors Proclination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Mazzotta, Laura; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Nuzzo, Claudio; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Cozzani, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to compare dental and skeletal effects produced by an acrylic splint Herbst with and without skeletal anchorage for correction of dental class II malocclusion. Methods. The test group was formed by 14 patients that were treated with an acrylic splint miniscrew-Herbst; miniscrews were placed between mandibular second premolars and first molars; controls also consisted of 14 subjects that were treated with an acrylic splint Herbst and no miniscrews. Cephalometric m...

  6. Diagnosis and management of opacified silicone intraocular lenses in patients with asteroid hyalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espandar, Ladan; Mukherjee, Nisha; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick; Kim, Terry

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 3 calcified silicone IOLs from 2 patients with a history of asteroid hyalosis. In both cases, posterior capsule opacification had been diagnosed and a laser capsulotomy performed before referral. Subsequently, both IOLs were exchanged with hydrophobic acrylic IOLs that were placed in the sulcus. The IOL exchange was challenging due to the open capsule. Light microscopy demonstrated that the white deposits on the explanted IOLs formed an almost confluent crust in some areas, interspersed with clear areas on the posterior optic surfaces. The findings in our cases and in other reported cases may affect the choice of IOL in the presence of asteroid hyalosis. Also, ophthalmologists may consider deferring laser posterior capsulotomy treatment in a calcified silicone IOL to facilitate an IOL exchange procedure. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Primary intraocular chondrosarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Perlmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A five-year-old male Cocker Spaniel was presented for evaluation of the right eye due to discomfort, abundant purulent discharge and progressive enlargement of the eyeball. The owner revealed that the right eye has appeared to be inflamed and smaller then the left eye for years. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal perforation, buphthalmia and conjuctival hyperemia. Enucleating was performed due to signs of endophthalmitis and ocular discomfort. Histopathology revealed a multilobulated proliferation of chondrocytes producing hyaline cartilage with occasional pleomorphism and binucleate cells. A diagnosis of primary intraocular chondrosarcoma was done.

  9. Posterior chamber intraocular lens dislocations and malpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstbaum, S A; To, K

    1989-08-01

    Decentration and malposition of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOL) accounts for one of the remaining and unresolved conditions associated with the implantation of these lenses. This condition assumes importance since in approximately 50% of cases where a PC IOL is removed there is an aspect of improper positioning. The common types of malpositions are: pupil capture; sunset syndrome; sunrise syndrome; horizontal decentration; and the windshield wiper syndrome. This paper will explore the causes and management of these conditions and discuss the virtues of capsular bag implantation.

  10. Optimizing outcomes with multifocal intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitansha Shreyas Sachdev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern day cataract surgery is evolving from a visual restorative to a refractive procedure. The advent of multifocal intraocular lenses (MFIOLs allows greater spectacle independence and increased quality of life postoperatively. Since the inception in 1980s, MFIOLs have undergone various technical advancements including trifocal and extended depth of vision implants more recently. A thorough preoperative workup including the patients' visual needs and inherent ocular anatomy allows us to achieve superior outcomes. This review offers a comprehensive overview of the various types of MFIOLs and principles of optimizing outcomes through a comprehensive preoperative screening and management of postoperative complications.

  11. The intraocular pressure and diabetes-A correlative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora V

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 60 diabetics were examined for intraocular pressure, scleral rigidity and facility of outflow. The intraocular pressure was found higher than in the general population except in patients with proliferative retinopathy. There was no marked difference in scleral rigidity in diabetics. The facility of outflow was lower in diabetic patients.

  12. Cataract Extraction With Intraocular Lens Implant: Early Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To audit our early experience of cataract surgery with intraocular lens implant, in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (U.N.T.H.), Enugu. Methods: In a retrospective, non-comparative case-series study, the records of all patients who had cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant between January ...

  13. Intraocular Pressure Lowering Effects of Methanolic Leaf and Stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activities of the leaf and stem extracts of Gongronema latifolium were investigated on rabbits. Increased intraocular pressure was induced using a combination of prazosin with oral and ophthalmic prednisolone and determined by tonometry. Oral administration of the leaf and stem ...

  14. Acute Retention of Urine Following Intraocular Surgery | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperosmolar agents and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to lower the intraocular pressure and thus minimize the chances of vitreous loss during intraocular surgery. However, these agents could precipitate urinary retention. This is a report on two elderly men who had perioperative acute urinary retention following ...

  15. [Synthesis and characterization of dihydroeugenol acrylate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Huan; Wang, Chun-Peng; Wang, Ji-Fu; Xu, Yu-Zhi; Chu, Fu-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Dihydroeugenol acrylate was synthesized by the reaction of acryloyl chloride (AC) with lignin mode compound dihydroeugenol (DH) in the presence of TEA and characterized by using FTIR, GC/MS, 1H-NMR and GPC. FTIR spectra showed that, after the esterification with acryloyl chloride, the intensity of stretching vibration peak of O-H (centered at 3 495 cm(-1)) of DH was disappeared. At the same time, a new peak appeared at 1 762 cm(-1) which was assigned to ester group. Additionally, the appearance of 1 631 and 981 cm(-1) were attributed to the carbon - carbon double bond confirmed the success in the synthesis of DH-AC. 1H-NMR spectra showed that, after the esterification with acryloyl chloride, the proton signal of O-H at 5.5 ppm was disappeared. Meanwhile, the appearance of three new proton signals at 6.0 ppm, 6.4 and 6.7 ppm, attributed to the vinylic protons, indicated that acryloyl chloride was successfully grafted onto DH. The results further confirmed the structures of the DH-AC. GC-MS results showed the DH-AC had a high purity of 98.63%. GPC results showed that dihydroeugenol acrylate could polymerize in the 1,4-dioxane using a thermal initiator of AIBN (2.0 Wt% of total monomers). The weight average molecular mass (Mw) of the homopolymer is 37 400 g x mol(-1), and the number average molecular mass is 23 400 g x mol(-1)' with a polydispersity index Mw/Mn of 1.60, indicating that the dihydroeugenol acrylate has high polymerization activity. This strategy provides a novel approach for extending the comprehensive utilization of lignin.

  16. Ionizing radiation-induced copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid and ionomer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alia

    The ionizing radiation-induced polymerization of acrylate esters is a technique employed for the curing of such materials for a variety of adhesive, coating, ink, and lithographic applications. The work presented in this dissertation involves the synthesis of a copolymer composed of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and acrylic acid (AA) using pulsed electron beam and gamma irradiation. The structure and synthesis kinetics of this copolymer were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron pulse radiolysis with kinetic spectroscopic detection (PR-KSD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of total dose, dose rate, and acrylic acid content on the polymerization reaction were studied. The conversion of 2-EHA monomer into polymer at a given total dose was found to be enhanced at lower dose rates and higher concentrations of acrylic acid. The pulse radiolysis investigation of the polymerization of 2-EHA and AA was performed through studies of four different types of systems: (i) neat 2-EHA, (ii) 2-EHA/methanol (MeOH) solutions, (iii) mixtures of 2-EHA and AA, and (iv) 2-EHA/AA/MeOH solutions. The build-up of carbon-centered neutral 2-EHA free radicals in neat 2-EHA was found to obey a second order rate law with a rate coefficient of ((7 +/- 3) x 108)epsilon EHA·, whereas in 2-EHA/AA mixtures it was found to obey a pseudo-first order rate law with a rate coefficient of (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10 10 mol-1 dm3 s-1. This phenomenon is suggested to originate in the increased H+ ion concentration in the presence of acrylic acid, which leads to a faster neutralization step of 2-EHA radical anions as they are transformed into neutral free radicals during the initiation step of the reaction. An investigation of the formation of ion-containing copolymers (known as ionomers) was performed using the radiation-synthesized poly(2-EHA-co-AA) and iron cations. Verification of successful incorporation of iron into the copolymer was identified by an

  17. Occupational dermatitis due to an epoxy acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

    1986-02-01

    A dental assistant developed sensitivity to dental restorative materials within 3 months of starting to use them. They contained the epoxy acrylate BIS-GMA, which is the most commonly used dimethacrylate monomer in dental composite restorations. She was positive to a patch test with BIS-GMA, which was the probable allergen, and epoxy resin, but this substance was not present in the materials used, as shown by high performance liquid chromatography. The patient was also allergic to the disinfectant Desimex i containing dodecyl diaminoethyl glycine.

  18. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-03-01

    Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×10 8 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×10 3 ) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×10 3 ) were statistically significant ( p injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis.

  19. Postoperative posterior capsular striae and the posterior capsular opacification in patients implanted with two types of intraocular lens material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Subhash Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative posterior capsular striae (PCS and its influence on posterior capsular opacification (PCO in patients implanted with two types of lens material. Setting: Tertiary eye care center in central rural India. Study Design: A prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Materials and Methods: The study included 1247 patients having age-related cataract scheduled for removal by phacoemulsification technique and implantation of hydrophilic or hydrophobic intraocular lens (IOL. Demographic profile, nuclear grading, axial length, and IOL power were noted. Details of PCS were noted on the 1st postoperative day in patients with clear cornea. Postoperative follow-up was ensured to study the status of PCS and development of PCO. Results: The overall incidence of PCS was 19.8% (247 out of 1247 eyes. Out of 1247 patients, 641 patients (51.4% had hydrophilic IOL implantation and 201 eyes had PCS (31.4% and 606 patients (48.6% had hydrophobic IOL implantation and 46 eyes had PCS (7.6%, P = 0.04. Three and more striae were seen in 119 eyes (119/641, 18.6% in hydrophilic group and 4 eyes (4/606, 0.66% in hydrophobic group. Sixty-two eyes (62/201, 30.9% in hydrophilic group with multiple PCS were reported with persistent striae after 6 months of surgery. Two eyes in hydrophobic group had persistent striae even after 3 years of follow-up. Evaluation of PCO score of the hydrophilic group was 0.6 whereas of the hydrophobic group was 0.1 (P = 0.04. Ten patients of the hydrophilic group only required neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (ND: YAG laser capsulotomy. Conclusion: The incidence of PCS was higher in hydrophilic than hydrophobic IOLs. Multiple PCS persisting in patients beyond 6 months after operation should be followed up for early development of PCO, particularly in patients implanted with hydrophilic IOL.

  20. Characterisation of nanomaterial hydrophobicity using engineered surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Oddo, Arianna; Ceccone, Giacomo; Spampinato, Valentina; Rossi, François; Colpo, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.colpo@ec.europa.eu [Directorate Health, Consumer and Reference Materials, Consumer Products Safety Unit (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Characterisation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is of outmost importance for the assessment of the potential risks arising from their extensive use. NMs display indeed a large variety of physico-chemical properties that drastically affect their interaction with biological systems. Among them, hydrophobicity is an important property that is nevertheless only slightly covered by the current physico-chemical characterisation techniques. In this work, we developed a method for the direct characterisation of NM hydrophobicity. The determination of the nanomaterial hydrophobic character is carried out by the direct measurement of the affinity of the NMs for different collectors. Each collector is an engineered surface designed in order to present specific surface charge and hydrophobicity degrees. Being thus characterised by a combination of surface energy components, the collectors enable the NM immobilisation with surface coverage in relation to their hydrophobicity. The experimental results are explained by using the extended DLVO theory, which takes into account the hydrophobic forces acting between NMs and collectors.

  1. [Contemporary possibilities of intraocular pressure measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornová, J; Baxant, A

    2013-10-01

    Authors introduced current possibilities of measuring intraocular pressure (IOP). A list of available methods of monitoring IOP is published; contact measurement method IOP directly on the cornea, but also over upper lid, methodology of minimal contact and non-contact measurement. Following contact methods are described; former measurements of IOP by impression Schiotz tonometer and the current methodology applanation. So far as the gold standard measurement Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) is considered, another methodology with applanation measurements are compared: Pascal dynamic contoured tonometer (DCT ), BioResonator - resonant applanation tonometer (ART ), digital applanation tonometer Tonopen and last hit: continuous measurement of IOP by Sensimed Triggerfish. Orientation and rapid assessment is palpation pressure control over the lid and measuring by tonometer Diaton. Rebound tonometer (RBT) iCare belongs to measurements with minimal contact, no need anesthetic drops and fluorescein, therefore a self - home version of IOP measurements (Icare ONE) is developed. Non-contact measurement of IOP by different pneumotonometers is popular for screening assessment of IOP. Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) is a non-contact applanation IOP measurement and reveals additional properties of the cornea. In the discussion of a range methodology is evaluated, the experience of other authors and their own experience is compared. For monitoring of patients is necessary to select the most suitable methodology, measure repeatedly and accurately to allow long-term monitoring of intraocular pressure.

  2. Effect of resisting tonometry on intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, K A; Peters, R J; Maino, D M; Gunderson, G G

    1994-10-01

    Children and patients with developmental delay frequently resist the procedure of tonometry. Intraocular pressure (IOP) readings, if obtained under stressful circumstances, may have questionable reliability because IOP is influenced by numerous factors characteristic of the uncooperative patient. These factors include possible increases in arterial blood pressure, intraocular vascular engorgement, and pressure on the globe. A study of the effect upon IOP of these factors occurring simultaneously has not been reported previously. We measured IOP using the Tono-Pen on 40 cooperative adults under normal conditions and again under conditions simulating the resistant patient. Paired t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between IOP readings under the two conditions (p IOP under "resistant" conditions showing more variability and averaging 6mmHg higher than under normal conditions. We conclude that IOP readings in resistant patients should be viewed with caution. The possibility of obtaining false high readings in these patients could lead to unnecessary glaucoma evaluations if based only on elevated IOP readings.

  3. On the retinal toxicity of intraocular glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriglia, Alicia; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2010-12-15

    Corticosteroids are hormones involved in many physiological responses such as stress, immune modulation, protein catabolism and water homeostasis. The subfamily of glucocorticoids is used systemically in the treatment of inflammatory diseases or allergic reactions. In the eye, glucocorticoides are used to treat macular edema, inflammation and neovascularization. The most commonly used glucocorticoid is triamcinolone acetonide (TA). The pharmaceutical formulation of TA is not adapted for intravitreal administration but has been selected by ophthalmologists because its very low intraocular solubility provides sustained effect. Visual benefits of intraocular TA do not clearly correlate with morpho-anatomical improvements, suggesting potential toxicity. We therefore studied, non-common, but deleterious effects of glucocorticoids on the retina. We found that the intravitreal administration of TA is beneficial in the treatment of neovascularization because it triggers cell death of endothelial cells of neovessels by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, this treatment is toxic for the retina because it induces a non-apoptotic, caspase-independent cell death related to paraptosis, mostly in the retinal pigmented epithelium cells and the Müller cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of a novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} grafted by hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Yang, Simei; Luo, Xin [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Lei, Jingxin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); Cao, Qiue [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Wang, Jiliang, E-mail: jlwang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-OH) with different molecular weight and hydroxyl value was successfully prepared by the suspension copolymerization. • PVC-OH was grafted onto the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles by the urethane formation reaction. • The modified CaCO{sub 3} particles show excellent hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The hydroxylated PVC (PVC-OH) was successfully synthesized by a suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC), butyl acrylate (BA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} was then prepared by a urethane formation reaction between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and the −OH groups both in the PVC-OH chains and on the surface of pristine CaCO{sub 3} particles. The effect of the PVC-OH content on the grafting ratio of treated CaCO{sub 3} particles was extensively investigated. Combining the result of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with that of water contact angle, it can be concluded that the hydrophobicity of CaCO{sub 3} had been efficiently improved by the PVC-OH segments grafted on the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also used to study crystalline behaviors, thermal stability and surface morphology of the modified CaCO{sub 3} particles, respectively. The change of specific surface area implying surface modification was investigated as well.

  5. Acrylate in Phaeocystis colonies does not affect the surrounding bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, DJB; Gieskes, WWC; Gottschal, JC; Forney, LJ; van Rijssel, M

    Acrylate accumulates to concentrations of 1.3-6.5 mM in the mucus of Phaeocystis colonies and may have an effect on the surrounding bacterial community, either as an inhibitor or as a carbon source. Both in the held and in the laboratory, effects of acrylate on bacterial growth and on its

  6. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Milena; Krunić, Nebojša; Najman, Stevo; Nikolić, Ljubiša; Nikolić, Vesna; Rajković, Jelena; Petrović, Milica; Igić, Marko; Ignjatović, Aleksandra

    2015-10-01

    Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS) immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 +/- 1 degrees C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carned out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immedidtely after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard cold-polymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary.

  7. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  8. 40 CFR 721.10082 - Amine modified monomer acrylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine modified monomer acrylate (generic). 721.10082 Section 721.10082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10082 Amine modified monomer acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  9. Prevention of thermally induced aggregation of IgG antibodies by noncovalent interaction with poly(acrylate) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas; Ma, Dewang; Herbet, Amaury; Boquet, Didier; Winnik, Françoise M; Tribet, Christophe

    2014-08-11

    Prevention of thermal aggregation of antibodies in aqueous solutions was achieved by noncovalent association with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylate) copolymers. Using a polyclonal immunoglobin G (IgG) as a model system for antibodies, we have studied the mechanisms by which this multidomain protein interacts with polyanions when incubated at physiological pH and at temperatures below and above the protein unfolding/denaturation temperature, in salt-free solutions and in 0.1 M NaCl solutions. The polyanions selected were sodium poly(acrylates), random copolymers of sodium acrylate and N-n-octadecylacrylamide (3 mol %), and a random copolymer of sodium acrylate, N-n-octylacrylamide (25 mol %), and N-isopropylacrylamide (40 mol %). They were derived from two poly(acrylic acid) parent chains of Mw 5000 and 150000 g·mol(-1). The IgG/polyanion interactions were monitored by static and dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, capillary zone electrophoresis, and high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. In salt-free solutions, the hydrophilic PAA chains form complexes with IgG upon thermal unfolding of the protein (1:1 w/w IgG/PAA), but they do not interact with native IgG. The complexes exhibit a remarkable protective effect against IgG aggregation and maintain low aggregation numbers (average degree of oligomerization <12 at a temperature up to 85 °C). These interactions are screened in 0.1 M NaCl and, consequently, PAAs lose their protective effect. Amphiphilic PAA derivatives (1:1 w/w IgG/polymer) are able to prevent thermal aggregation (preserving IgG monomers) or retard aggregation of IgG (formation of oligomers and slow growth), revealing the importance of both hydrophobic interactions and modulation of the Coulomb interactions with or without NaCl present. This study leads the way toward the design of new formulations of therapeutic proteins using noncovalent 1:1 polymer/protein association that are transient and require a

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobically modified xanthan

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobically modified polysaccharides show unusual rheological and interfacial properties in solution due to the self association of hydrophobic entities grafted onto their hydrophilic backbone. Their properties are tunable according to some well known parameters, such as the length of the hydrophobic moieties or the grafting density. However, very few studies deal with the influence of the backbone conformation on the properties of such systems in solution. Therefore, the objective of thi...

  11. Aderência bacteriana in vitro a lentes intra-oculares de polimetilmetacrilato e de silicone In vitro bacterial adherence to silicone and polymetylmethacrylate intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Inês Locatelli

    2004-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis (clinical isolate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strains including growth curves, tests to verify capsule production, hydrophobicity and adherence to different materials as well as optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. RESULTS: No relation between capsule production, adherence of the strains tested and amount of microorganisms was observed; no statistically significant differences were detected between S. aureus and S. epidermidis adherence to polymetylmethacrylate and silicone intraocular lenses; P. aeruginosa was the most adherent microorganism to both materials. This adherence pattern was confirmed by SEM, while biofilm production by the three strains was visualized by AFM. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro experiments showed no differences of bacterial adherence between PMMA and silicone lenses, but P. aeruginosa displayed a greater level of adherence in relation to staphylococci. All three strains were shown to produce biofilm. Silicone was shown to be more hydrophobic when compared to polymethylmethacrylate.

  12. Occupational fingertip eczema from acrylates in a manicurist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denitza Zheleva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth acrylate compounds of her new nail cosmetics. Sculptured artificial acrylic and UV-hardened nails s are widely used in developed countries and they are gaining more and more popularity. We expect an increase in the number of cases of contact allergic dermatitis among manicurists and customers.

  13. Bond strength test of acrylic artificial teeth with prosthetic base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Kurnikasari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Denture consists of acrylic artificial teeth and acrylic prothesis base bond chemically with a bond strength of 315 kgF/cm2. Most of the commercial acrylic artificial teeth do not specify their specifications and all of those acrylic artificial teeth do not include mechanical data (bond strength. The aim of this study is to discover which acrylic artificial teeth meet ADA specification no. 15. This study is a descriptive analytic study performed to 5 acrylic artificial teeth posterior brands commonly used by dentists and technicians. From each brand, 3 sample teeth were taken. The acrylic artificial teeth were prepared into a rectangular shape and were attached between acrylic prothesis base simulation and jigs. The sample was given tensile load using a Universal Testing Machine. The amount of force that causes the teeth to be fractured was recorded and the bond strength was calculated. The results of the study show that the average value for the five acrylic artificial teeth for the five brands were as followed: Brand A, 125.993 kgF/cm2; B, 188.457 kgF/cm2; C, 175.880 kgF/cm2; D, 153.373 kgF/cm2; E, 82.839 kgF/cm2. The data can be tested statistically by using One Way ANOVA test and Dunnett test (alpha = 0.05. From the study, it is concluded that the five acrylic artificial teeth have a bond strength below the ADA specification no. 15.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Acrylic acid removal by acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin manufactured wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Lee, C M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system. The bacteria should have the ability to remove acrylic acid and tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity. The aim is also to understand the performance of isolated pure strain for treating different initial acrylic acid concentrations from synthetic wastewater. The results are: twenty strains were isolated from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system and twelve of them could utilize 600 mg/l acrylic acid for growth. Seven of twelve strains could tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity, when the concentration was below 300 mg/l. Bacillus thuringiensis was one of the seven strains and the optimum growth temperature was 32 degrees C. Bacillus thuringiensis could utilize acrylic acid for growth, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 1,690.4 mg/l. Besides this, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 606.8 mg/l, the acrylic acid removal efficiency exceeded 96.3%. Bacillus thuringiensis could tolerate 295.7 mg/l acrylamide and 198.4 mg/l acrylonitrile toxicity but could not tolerate 297.3 mg/l epsilon-caprolactam.

  16. Calcification of different designs of silicone intraocular lenses in eyes with asteroid hyalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, Jack; Werner, Liliana; Monson, Bryan; Theodosis, Raymond; Mamalis, Nick

    2010-08-01

    To describe the association between calcification of older and newer designs of silicone intraocular lenses (IOLs) and asteroid hyalosis. Case series with clinicopathologic correlation. Sixteen silicone IOLs explanted because of decreased visual acuity associated with opacifying deposits on the posterior optic surface. All 16 lenses underwent gross and light microscopic analyses. Selected lenses underwent alizarin red staining or scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy for elemental composition. Clinical data in each case were obtained by a questionnaire sent to the explanting surgeons. Clinical data in relation to 111 hydrophilic acrylic lenses explanted because of calcification also were assessed for comparison. Deposit morphologic features and location were evaluated under gross and light microscopy. The calcified nature of the deposits was assessed by histochemical staining and surface analyses. Clinical data obtained included age at IOL implantation, gender, implantation and explantation dates, as well as history of neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment. The presence of asteroid hyalosis in the affected eye was investigated for the explanted silicone and hydrophilic acrylic lenses. The 16 lenses were of 8 designs manufactured from different silicone materials, which were explanted 9.21+/-3.66 years after implantation. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser applications performed in 12 cases partially removed deposits from the lens, followed by a gradual increase in their density after the procedures. The presence of asteroid hyalosis was confirmed in 13 cases; no notes regarding this condition were found in patient charts in the other 3 cases. The deposits were only on the posterior optic surface of the silicone lenses and were composed of calcium and phosphate. A history of asteroid hyalosis was not found in relation to any of the 111 cases of postoperative calcification of hydrophilic acrylic lenses

  17. Real-time monitoring of hydrophobic aggregation reveals a critical role of cooperativity in hydrophobic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liguo; Cao, Siqin; Cheung, Peter Pak-Hang; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Peng, Qian; Shuai, Zhigang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Yao, Shuhuai; Huang, Xuhui

    2017-05-01

    The hydrophobic interaction drives nonpolar solutes to aggregate in aqueous solution, and hence plays a critical role in many fundamental processes in nature. An important property intrinsic to hydrophobic interaction is its cooperative nature, which is originated from the collective motions of water hydrogen bond networks surrounding hydrophobic solutes. This property is widely believed to enhance the formation of hydrophobic core in proteins. However, cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions has not been successfully characterized by experiments. Here, we quantify cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions by real-time monitoring the aggregation of hydrophobic solute (hexaphenylsilole, HPS) in a microfluidic mixer. We show that association of a HPS molecule to its aggregate in water occurs at sub-microsecond, and the free energy change is -5.8 to -13.6 kcal mol-1. Most strikingly, we discover that cooperativity constitutes up to 40% of this free energy. Our results provide quantitative evidence for the critical role of cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions.

  18. MicroRNA profiling in intraocular medulloepitheliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak P Edward

    Full Text Available To study the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA profiles between intraocular medulloepithelioma (ME and normal control tissue (CT.Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE intraocular ME (n=7 and from age matched ciliary body controls (n=8. The clinical history and phenotype was recorded. MiRNA profiles were determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays analyzed using expression console 1.3 software. Validation of significantly dysregulated miRNA was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The web-based DNA Intelligent Analysis (DIANA-miRPath v2.0 was used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed (DE miRNA gene targets in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway.The pathologic evaluation revealed one benign (benign non-teratoid, n=1 and six malignant tumors (malignant teratoid, n=2; malignant non-teratoid, n = 4. A total of 88 miRNAs were upregulated and 43 miRNAs were downregulated significantly (P<0.05 in the tumor specimens. Many of these significantly dysregulated miRNAs were known to play various roles in carcinogenesis and tumor behavior. RT-PCR validated three significantly upregulated miRNAs and three significantly downregulated miRNAs namely miR-217, miR-216a, miR-216b, miR-146a, miR-509-3p and miR-211. Many DE miRNAs that were significant in ME tumors showed dysregulation in retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, and precursor, normal and reactive human cartilage. Enriched pathway analysis suggested a significant association of upregulated miRNAs with 15 pathways involved in prion disease and several types of cancer. The pathways involving significantly downregulated miRNAs included the toll-like receptor (TLR (p<4.36E-16 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways (p<9.00E-06.We report significantly dysregulated miRNAs in intraocular ME tumors, which exhibited abnormal profiles in other cancers as well such as retinoblastoma and glioblastoma. Pathway analysis

  19. Toric phakic intraocular lens: European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, H Burkhard; Alió, Jorge; Bianchetti, Marco; Budo, Camille; Christiaans, Bern Jurriën; El-Danasoury, M Alaa; Güell, José L; Krumeich, Jörg; Landesz, Monika; Loureiro, Fransico; Luyten, Gregorius P M; Marinho, Antonio; Rahhal, Mohamed Saleh; Schwenn, Oliver; Spirig, Raimund; Thomann, Urs; Venter, Jan

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate safety, efficacy, predictability, stability, complications, and patient satisfaction after implantation of Artisan toric phakic intraocular lenses (TPIOLs) for the correction of myopia or hyperopia with astigmatism. Prospective, nonrandomized, comparative (self-controlled) multicenter trial. Seventy eyes of 53 patients (mean, 35 years; range, 22-59 years) with preoperative spherical equivalent between +6.50 and -21.25 diopters (D) and cylinder between 1.50 and 7.25 D. Seventy eyes underwent implantation of a TPIOL with an optical zone of 5.0 mm (Artisan, Ophtec, Groningen, The Netherlands). The dioptric power of the intraocular lens was calculated by considering refraction, keratometry, and anterior chamber depth. The follow-up was 6 months in all cases. Lenses were available in powers ranging from +12.0 D to -23.5 D (spherical equivalent) in 0.5-D increments, with additional cylinder from 1.0 D to 7.0 D, also in 0.5-D increments. The main parameters assessed were best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), refraction, endothelial cell count (ECC), intraocular pressure, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, subjective complaints, and patient satisfaction. Eyes were divided into group A, myopia (n = 48), with an average preoperative spherical equivalent of -8.90 +/- 4.52 D, and group B, hyperopia (n = 22), with an average preoperative spherical equivalent of +3.25 +/- 1.98 D. No eyes in either group experienced a loss in BSCVA, and 46 eyes gained 1 or more lines of their preoperative BSCVA. In 62 eyes (88.6%), UCVA was 20/40 or better. There was a significant reduction in spherical errors and astigmatism in all cases after surgery. All eyes of both groups were within +/-1.00 D of target refraction, and 51 eyes (72.9%) were within +/-0.50 D of target refraction. There was a 4.5% mean total loss of ECC during the first 6 months. No serious complications were observed. Overall patient satisfaction was very

  20. Lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada: resultados Diffractive apodized multifocal intraocular lens: results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Centurion

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar os resultados visuais e refracionais com lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de 100 olhos de 50 pacientes com catarata, submetidos à facoemulsificação com implante bilateral de lente intra-ocular (LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada. Foi avaliada a acuidade visual binocular sem e com correção para longe e perto, a previsibilidade refracional e a freqüência de uso de óculos. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual sem correção para longe foi de e " 20/30 em 97,56% dos olhos operados e e" J2 em 100%, sendo que 82% dos pacientes nunca usam óculos e 16% usam de forma esporádica. CONCLUSÃO: A LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada mostrou ser uma opção previsível, reproduzível e segura na correção dos vícios de refração para longe e perto durante a cirurgia da catarata, permitindo elevado índice de independência ao uso de óculos.OBJECTIVE: To show visual and refraction results using multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens. METHODS: The study of 100 eyes of 50 patients with cataract, submitted to phacoemulsification with bilateral implant of multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens (IOL. Binocular visual acuity was evaluated with and without correction for near and distance, and refraction previsibility and frequency of wearing glasses. RESULTS: Visual acuity without correction for distance was e" 20/30 in 97.56% of eyes operated on and e" J2 in 100%, of these 82% of patients never wear glasses and 16% wear glasses sporadically. CONCLUSION: Multifocal diffractive apodized IOL proved to be a foreseeable option, reproducible and safe in the correction of refraction errors for distance and near during cataract surgery, enabling a high rate of independence from the use of glasses.

  1. Effect of prophylactic intraocular pressure-lowering medication on intraocular pressure spikes after intravitreal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Max P C; Haji, Shamim A; Frenkel, Ronald E P

    2010-12-01

    To determine if prophylactic use of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication is effective in reducing the IOP spikes after intravitreal injections of pegaptanib, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab. Seventy-one patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration received intravitreal injections of 1 of 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medications: 30 patients received pegaptanib (0.09 mL), 47 patients received bevacizumab (0.05 mL), and 42 patients received ranibizumab (0.05 mL). Intraocular pressure-lowering medication, 1 hour prior to the injection, was used 63%, 74%, and 66% of the time in eyes that received pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured prior to injection, within 1 minute after injection, and every 5 to 10 minutes until the pressure was reduced to a safe level. All 3 intravitreal injections caused significant initial IOP spikes (mean [SD] IOP of 38.5 [11.56] mm Hg in the pegaptanib group, 37.75 [8.36] mm Hg in the ranibizumab group, and 34.88 [10.45] mm Hg in the bevacizumab group). The IOP reduced to less than 30 mm Hg in all 3 groups within 20 minutes. Prophylactic medication did not prevent postinjection IOP spikes. Patients with and without glaucoma showed a similar rate of IOP normalization over time in all 3 groups. Intraocular pressure spikes after intravitreal injection of pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab are common and in most cases transient. Routine prophylactic use of IOP-lowering medications is essentially ineffective in preventing IOP spikes after intravitreal injection of pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab and therefore not necessary before the injection.

  2. Hydrophobic Interactions Involved in Attachment of a Baculovirus to Hydrophobic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Deirdre A.; Moore, Norman F.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrophobic interactions of Trichoplusia ni nuclear polyhedrosis virus were characterized by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The determination of the hydrophobic force and some of the factors that influence its size is discussed in relation to the attachment to leaf surfaces of polyhedra during their use as biological control agents against insect pests.

  3. Risk factors for and management of pupillary intraocular lens capture after intraocular lens transscleral fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Rang; Jeon, Ji Hoon; Kang, Joon Won; Heo, Jang Won

    2017-12-01

    To analyze risk factors and management of pupillary intraocular lens (IOL) capture after IOL transscleral fixation. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Retrospective case series. A chart review was performed of patients who had transscleral fixation of IOLs between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Eyes were divided into 2 groups depending on whether the IOL was pupillary captured. Perioperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), spherical equivalent (SE) with refraction, axial length (AL), and total follow-up time were compared between the 2 groups. Ultrasound biomicroscopy images were used to analyze iris morphology and IOL position. The chart review identified 138 patients, 112 patients of whom were included in this analysis. The preoperative and final mean CDVA, IOP, SE, AL, and most iris morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In the pupillary capture IOL group, the mean age of patients with was younger, the anterior chamber depth (ACD) was narrower, and the rate of reverse pupillary block was higher (P = .003, P = .03, and P = .016, respectively). Intraocular lens decentration in the captured group was significantly larger (P = .002). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ACD, reverse pupillary block, and main decentration were associated with pupillary capture of the IOL. Pupillary capture of an IOL occurred more in eyes with reverse pupillary block and poor IOL positioning. Accordingly, laser iridotomy must be considered for treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Intraocular bacterial contamination during sutureless, small incision, single-port phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T; Sims, M; Hoffmann, C

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the incidence of anterior chamber bacterial contamination during no-stitch, 1-handed, small incision phacoemulsification. Little Company of Mary Hospital, Evergreen Park, Illinois, USA. This study comprised 53 eyes of 46 patients. Topical gentamicin sulfate was administered 1 hour preoperatively. After povidone-iodine cleansing solution and povidone-iodine paint (5% and 10%) were applied, the eyes were draped in a sterile manner. Aqueous fluid was aspirated upon entering the anterior chamber and at the end of surgery; the specimens were cultured for up to 14 days. All eyes had no-stitch, 1-handed, small incision phacoemulsification with implantation of a foldable acrylic posterior chamber intraocular lens through a 3.5 mm scleral tunnel incision. Three specimens (5.7%) aspirated on entry into the anterior chamber were positive for microorganisms. Of the cultures obtained at the end of surgery, 4 (7.5%) were positive for microorganisms. All posterior lens capsules were intact. The following organisms were cultured at the end of phacoemulsification: alpha-streptococci, micrococci, saprophytic mold, alpha-viridans streptococci, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and anaerobic positive cocci. No eye developed endophthalmitis. The incidence of anterior chamber bacterial contamination was low. Bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber occurred at the beginning and toward the end of phacoemulsification. Staphylococcus species was the most common organism in the beginning, while Streptococcus species was the most common at the end. Saprophytic mold was present only at the end. No eye developed endophthalmitis.

  5. Durability of hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of this study was the performance of hydrophobic treatment to protect concrete against chloride penetration from de-icing salts. Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Several types of tests were carried out to study the performance of

  6. Durability of hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of this study was the performance of hydrophobic treatment to protect concrete against chloride penetration from de-icing salts. Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Test methods and requirements for commercial products were established. In

  7. Complications of Scleral-Fixated Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma C; Pineda, Roberto

    2017-09-12

    Understanding the evolution of complications after scleral-fixated lens placement demonstrates advantageous surgical techniques and suitable candidates. A literature search in PubMed for several terms, including "scleral intraocular lens complication," yielded 17 relevant articles. Reviewing complication trends over time, lens tilt and suture erosion have decreased, cystoid macular edema has increased, and retinal detachment has remained the same after scleral-fixated lens placement. The successful reduction in complications are attributed to several alterations in technique, including positioning sclerotomy sites 180 degrees apart and using scleral flaps or pockets to bury sutures. Possible reduction in retinal risks have been proposed by performing an anterior vitrectomy prior to lens placement in certain settings. Complications after scleral-fixated lens placement should assist patient selection. Elderly patients with a history of hypertension should be counseled regarding risk of suprachoroidal hemorrhage, while young patients and postocular trauma patients should be considered for concurrent anterior vitrectomy.

  8. New technologies for measuring intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose María; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Saenz Frances, Federico; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Garcia-Saenz, Sofia; Mendez-Hernandez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The level of intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main known risk factor for the development and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Despite Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) being the gold standard for determining IOP since the last century, its limitations were obvious from the start and include substantial effects of several eye variables such as axial length, curvature, rigidity, and corneal thickness. These limitations have prompted the development of numerous formulas and nomograms designed to compensate for the ocular characteristics effect on GAT, but none of these methods has been entirely satisfactory. Similarly, as a result of efforts to mitigate some of the limitations of conventional tonometry, several new tonometers have appeared on the scene. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraocular lens implantation in microphthalmic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinskey, R M; Amin, P; Stoppel, J

    1992-09-01

    Microphthalmos is a developmental disorder of the eye consisting of a smaller than normal eye. This disorder can present as an isolated condition or associated with other systemic alterations. It is not uncommon for patients with microphthalmos to have congenital cataracts along with other ocular and systemic abnormalities. This paper reports the experience with 11 microphthalmic eyes of seven patients who had primary or secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation over a six-year period from 1985 to 1991. In all cases the IOL had a 13.5 mm or 14.0 mm overall diameter and a 6.0 mm or 6.5 mm optic. It was difficult to obtain documentation of objective visual improvement in many of these cases because of the associated nystagmus. However, all patients reported subjective improvements. These results suggest that with proper technique and lens selection microphthalmic patients should be considered for IOL implantation with relative safety and success.

  10. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP. The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute and in Kaliwining Experimental Garden. This experiment was arranged by factorial randomized complete design, in wich AASAP dosages 0%; 0.1% (0.1 g/100 seeds; 0.2% (0.2 g/100 seeds, 0.3% (0.3 g/100 seeds, 0,4% (0,4g/100 seeds, combined with seeds storage period 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The experiment used 3 replications and each repli cation used 100 seeds. Parameter of observation consisted of percentage of seeds germinated in storage, percentage of seeds infected by fungi in storage, seeds moisture content, percentage of seeds germination after storage, and early growth of cocoa seedlings. The results of the experiment showed that AASAP application with some dosages cocoa seeds storage cause to germinate in storage during 2 weeks. AASAP application with some dosages in cocoa seeds storage for 2 weeks would not result in infection by fungi and did not significantly affect seed germination after storage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and percentage of germination of cocoa seed after storage for 3 weeks decreased with increase dosage of AASAP. Higher dosage of AASAP would reduce early growth of cocoa seedling. Key words : Theobroma cacao, seed, acrylic acid sodium acrylate, seed storage, viabilty.

  11. An epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from an acrylic glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczynska-Machura, Dominika; Zaremba, Joanna

    2005-03-01

    Dermatological examinations were performed in 81 workers involved in the manufacture of electric coils for television displays, who had worked for 4 years in contact with a glue containing isobornyl acrylate, acrylic acid, N,N dimethyleneacrylamide, phosphine oxide, bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl) (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)- and beta-carboxyethyl acrylate. The glue was cured by 350-500-nm ultraviolet and visible radiations. Acrylate-specific dermal lesions were detected in 21 (25.9%) people. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 12 (15%) of the workers and occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 9 (11.2%). 12 people reacted to acrylates. Cross-reactions with methacrylates were not observed. The highest number of positive tests was obtained with triethyleneglycol diacrylate (10 people) and diethyleneglycol diacrylate (9), followed by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (5), 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (4), beta-carboxyethyl acrylate (3), tripropyleneglycol diacrylate (2) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (2). No cases of allergy to isobornyl acrylate, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide or phosphine oxide were noted.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WATER SORPTION BY DIFFERENT ACRYLIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic materials are used daily for the production of mobile dental restorations and orthodontic appliances. The presence of residual monomer, as a product of incomplete polymerisation of material, results in more porous structure of the material, which greatly reduces the mechanical and physical quality of the acrylic restorations and increases the absorption of liquids. The aim of this study was to examine the water absorption of different types of resin material. In the study it was assumed that the cold polymerized acrylates show a greater potential for absorbing fluid from the environment in relation to the hot polymerized acrylic. The study included two hot and two cold polymerized acrylates, and cold polymerized acrylate impregnated with aesthetic pearls. In order to determine the degree of water absorption, the mass of the samples was measured before and after one day, seven days and thirty days of immersion in a water bath of body temperature. The tested hot and cold polymerized acrylates after immersion in water bath showed standard values of water absorption. The degree of water absorption was not significantly influenced by the type and manner of polymerisation. Water absorption values were significantly higher after seven days and thirty days of water storage relative to the observational period of one day.

  13. Dynamical mechanical analysis of photocrosslinked hyperbranched urethane acrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANKO DUNJIC

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of acrylate functionalized samples based on hyperbranched hydroxy-terminated polyesters with different molecular weights and different degrees of acrylation were synthesized. The obtained urethane acrylates were slightly yellow viscose liquids. Their composition was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and their molecular weights were measured by GPC. All the synthesized samples were diluted with 25 wt.% 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (BDDM. The rheological properties of the uncured samples and the dynamic mechanical properties of the UV cured samples were examined. All the samples exhibit Newtonian behavior, which indicates the absence of physical entanglements in these polymers. The viscosity increases with increasing number of acrylic groups per molecule. The glass transition temperature of the UV cured samples increases with increasing the number of acrylic groups per molecule. The value of the storage modulus in the rubber-elastic plateau and the cross-link density increase with increasing number of acrylic groups per molecule. The formed networks are inhomogeneous and the residual unsaturation is the highest in the samples with the largest number of acrylic groups per molecule.

  14. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  15. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis route to poly(glucosyl-acrylates) using glucosidase from almonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Roest, Steven; Priatna, Siti R.; Stavila, Erythrina; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Novel types of glucosyl-acrylate monomers are obtained by beta-glucosidase from almond catalyzed glycosidation reaction. The saccharide-acrylate monomers were synthesized by reaction of D-glucose with hydroxyl functional acrylates: 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

  16. The sensitizing potential of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegemaekers, T H; van der Walle, H B

    1983-09-01

    The sensitizing potential of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate in the guinea pig could be demonstrated by Freund's Complete Adjuvant Test. This acrylate ester is a common constituent of adhesive tape. Allergic reactions to several brands of adhesive tape were not observed in 2-ethylhexyl acrylate sensitized animals. Cross reactions with other acrylic monomers were observed.

  17. 21 CFR 177.1990 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers. 177... chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 25038...) Identity. For the purposes of this section vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic...

  18. Occupational contact dermatitis to acrylates in a manicurist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Krecisz, B; Chomiczewska-Skora, D

    2013-07-01

    We report the case of a manicurist who developed an allergic skin reaction to acrylates, manifested by bullous lesions on fingertips and eczema of the hands and ears. Patch tests showed positive reactions to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 1,6-hexandiol diacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and triethyleneglycol diacrylate. Because of her skin disorder, she had to give up her job. She was not correctly advised on retraining and started to work as a dental nurse. Soon after re-exposure to acrylates in dental materials, she experienced recurrence of the skin symptoms.

  19. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated acrylate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2014-09-09

    A method for synthesizing a deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1), the method comprising: (i) deuterating a propiolate compound of Formula (2) to a methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in the presence of a base and D.sub.2O: and (ii) reductively deuterating the methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in a reaction solvent in the presence of deuterium gas and a palladium-containing catalyst to afford the deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1). The resulting deuterated acrylate compounds, derivatives thereof, and polymers derived therefrom are also described.

  20. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  1. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure using Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Blair F.; Marshall, William G.; Parsons, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalised using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new...... phase at ~0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerising on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analysed via Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via...

  2. Solution properties of hydrophobically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.

  3. [Determination of 9 residual acrylic monomers in acrylic resins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with microwave assisted extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying; Lin, Rui; Cai, Luxin; Ge, Xiuxiu; Huang, Changchun

    2012-01-01

    A reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 9 residual acrylic monomers (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid) in acrylic resins. Solid resin was precipitated with methanol after microwave assisted extraction with ethyl acetate for 30 min, and liquid resin was diluted with methanol directly. The nine acrylic monomers got a good separation within 20 min on a DB-WAX column. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) of the method were in the range of 1-10 mg/kg for liquid resin and 3-50 mg/kg for solid resin. The calibration curves were linear within 1-500 mg/L range with correlation coefficients above 0. 995. The recoveries ranged from 84.4% to 108.6% at five spiked levels. The sensitivity, recovery and selectivity of the method can fully meet the requirements of practical work.

  4. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus. The purpose of this review is to assess patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens.Keywords: Tecnis®, intraocular lens, multifocal, presbyopia 

  5. IOL Implants: Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery (Intraocular Lenses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cataract Surgery vs. Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery Cataract Vision Simulator Cataract Pictures and Videos: What Do ... Nov. 16, 2016 An intraocular lens (or IOL) is a tiny, artificial lens for the eye. It replaces the eye's ...

  6. Metastatic intraocular hemangiopericytoma in a dog | Pucket | Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic and diagnostic enucleation of the left eye was performed and histopathologic examination demonstrated the presence of a presumed metastatic spindle cell sarcoma. Further immunohistochemical staining confirmed the intraocular neoplasia to be metastatic spread from the previously removed flank mass.

  7. Prevention of aggregation and renaturation of carbonic anhydrase via weak association with octadecyl- or azobenzene-modified poly(acrylate) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas; Ruchmann, Juliette; Tribet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of aggregation during renaturation of urea-denatured carbonic anhydrase B (CAB) via hydrophobic and Coulomb association with anionic polymers was studied in mixed solutions of CAB and amphiphilic poly(acrylate) copolymers. The polymers were derivatives of a parent poly(acrylic acid) randomly grafted with hydrophobic side groups (either 3 mol % octadecyl group, or 1-5 mol % alkylamidoazobenzene photoresponsive groups). CAB:polymer complexes were characterized by light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in aqueous buffers (pH 7.75 or 5.9). Circular dichroism and enzyme activity assays enabled us to study the kinetics of renaturation. All copolymers, including the hydrophilic PAA parent chain, provided a remarkable protective effect against CAB aggregation during renaturation, and most of them (but not the octadecyl-modified one) markedly enhanced the regain of activity as compared to CAB alone. The significant role of Coulomb binding in renaturation and comparatively the lack of efficacy of hydrophobic association was highlighted by measurements of activity regain before and after in situ dissociation of hydrophobic complexes (achieved by phototriggering the polarity of azobenzene-modified polymers under exposure to UV light). In the presence of polymers (CAB:polymer of 1:1 w/w ratio) at concentration ∼0.6 g L(-1), the radii of the largest complexes were similar to the radii of the copolymers alone, suggesting that the binding of CAB involves one or a few polymer chain(s). These complexes dissociated by dilution (0.01 g L(-1)). It is concluded that prevention of irreversible aggregation and activity recovery were achieved when marginally stable complexes are formed. Reaching a balanced stability of the complex plays the main role in CAB renaturation, irrespective of the nature of the binding (by Coulomb association, with or without contribution of hydrophobic association).

  8. Intraocular lens power calculation following laser refractive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge,Christopher; McAlinden, Colm; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin; Sutton,Gerard; Martin, Aifric

    2015-01-01

    Refractive outcomes following cataract surgery in patients that have previously undergone laser refractive surgery have traditionally been underwhelming. This is related to several key issues including the preoperative assessment (keratometry) and intraocular lens power calculations. Peer-reviewed literature is overwhelmed by the influx of methodology to manipulate the corneal or intraocular lens (IOL) powers following refractive surgery. This would suggest that the optimal derivative formula...

  9. CT characteristics of intraocular perfluoro-N-octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, John B; Caruso, Paul A; Curtin, Hugh D; Fiore, Tito; D'Amico, Donald J

    2003-10-01

    Perfluoro-N-octane (PFO) is a heavy liquid that is used as an aid for complicated retinal surgical procedures. Although PFO is usually removed intraoperatively, the radiographic appearance of retained PFO may mimic an intraocular foreign body or vitreous hemorrhage. As the use of PFO in retinal procedures has become more widespread, recognition of its imaging appearance has become important in the differential diagnosis of intraocular foreign body and ocular trauma.

  10. Characterisation of nanomaterial hydrophobicity using engineered surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Oddo, Arianna; Ceccone, Giacomo; Spampinato, Valentina; Rossi, François; Colpo, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is of outmost importance for the assessment of the potential risks arising from their extensive use. NMs display indeed a large variety of physico-chemical properties that drastically affect their interaction with biological systems. Among them, hydrophobicity is an important property that is nevertheless only slightly covered by the current physico-chemical characterisation techniques. In this work, we developed a method for the direct characterisation of NM hydrophobicity. The determination of the nanomaterial hydrophobic character is carried out by the direct measurement of the affinity of the NMs for different collectors. Each collector is an engineered surface designed in order to present specific surface charge and hydrophobicity degrees. Being thus characterised by a combination of surface energy components, the collectors enable the NM immobilisation with surface coverage in relation to their hydrophobicity. The experimental results are explained by using the extended DLVO theory, which takes into account the hydrophobic forces acting between NMs and collectors. Graphical abstractDetermination of hydrophobicity character of nanomaterials by measuring their affinity to engineered surfaces.

  11. Intraocular lens power calculation after corneal refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiz, Vahid; Mannis, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    Keratorefractive procedures designed to decrease refractive errors have gained enormous popularity among ophthalmologists and patients. As the post-refractive surgery patient population ages, visually significant cataracts will develop. With advances in techniques for cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, cataract surgery has evolved into a refractive surgical procedure as well as an operation to improve best corrected visual acuity. This raises expectations in terms of desired postoperative refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity. Although performing modern cataract surgery in post-refractive surgery eyes is technically no more complicated than operating on virgin eyes, the calculation of intraocular lens power for a desired refractive target can be challenging and complicated. This has become increasingly apparent as case reports of "refractive surprises" after cataract surgery appear in the literature more frequently. This paper reviews the current clinical experience with intraocular lens power determination after cataract surgery in post-keratorefractive patients, provides an overview of possible sources of error in intraocular lens power calculation in these patients, and analyzes methods to minimize intraocular lens power errors. The clinical and routine methods of intraocular lens power determination after keratorefractive surgery need to be modified to improve accuracy. Our knowledge of this subject is still evolving. Given the enormous impact of this problem on clinical practice, awareness of the shortcomings and suggested methods to improve accuracy can be valuable to clinicians.

  12. Postprandial Glucose as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Jung; Fang, Wen-Hui; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Gia-Chi; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure in a relatively healthy population. We examined 1,439 adults getting a health check-up in a health promotion center at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. All participants underwent examinations to measure metabolic variables and intraocular pressure. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure. The levels of postprandial glucose were divided into quartiles with subjects in the lowest quartile being regarded as the reference group to perform quartile-based analysis. Covariate adjustment was designed for three models for further analysis. Subjects with higher quartiles of postprandial glucose level had a higher systolic blood pressure, a greater waist circumference and an elevated fasting glucose level (all p postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure. The trends of intraocular pressure across increasing quartiles of postprandial glucose were statistically significant (all p for trend postprandial glucose positively correlated with elevated intraocular pressure.

  13. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  14. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm...

  15. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Matthew B; Gibb, Bruce C

    2016-05-27

    This review focuses on papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state of the art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the hydrophobic effect. To highlight this, we present a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities such as idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins.

  16. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R [Livermore, CA; Poco, John F [Livermore, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA

    2007-05-01

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  17. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone/acrylic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of polycaprolactone/acrylic acid (PCL/AA) hydrogel for controlled drug delivery ... by measuring diffusion coefficient () and equilibrium water content (EWC). Network formation, morphology and crystallinity of PCL/AA hydrogels were ...

  19. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Treatment of acrylate wastewater by electrocatalytic reduction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Na; Song, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Shu-Quan; Zheng, Sheng-Zhi; Ll, Si-Min

    2011-10-01

    High-concentration acrylate wastewater was treated by an electrocatalytic reduction process. The effects of the cation exchange membrane (CEM) and cathode materials on acrylate reduction were investigated. It indicated that the acrylate could be reduced to propionate acid efficiently by the electrocatalytic reduction process. The addition of CEM to separator with the cathode and anode could significantly improve current efficiency. The cathode materials had significant effect on the reduction of acrylate. The current efficiency by Pd/Nickel foam, was greater than 90%, while those by nickel foam, the carbon fibers and the stainless steel decreased successively. Toxicity of the wastewater decreased considerably and methane production rate in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test increased greatly after the electrocatalytic reduction process.

  1. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  2. Hydrophobic interactions increase attachment of gum Arabic- and PVP-coated Ag nanoparticles to hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jee Eun; Phenrat, Tanapon; Marinakos, Stella; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Jie; Wiesner, Mark R; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2011-07-15

    A fundamental understanding of attachment of surface-coated nanoparticles (NPs) is essential to predict the distribution and potential risks of NPs in the environment. Column deposition studies were used to examine the effect of surface-coating hydrophobicity on NP attachment to collector surfaces in mixtures with varying ratios of octadecylichlorosilane (OTS)-coated (hydrophobic) glass beads and clean silica (hydrophilic) glass beads. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with organic coatings of varying hydrophobicity, including citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and gum arabic (GA), were used. The attachment efficiencies of GA and PVP AgNPs increased by 2- and 4-fold, respectively, for OTS-coated glass beads compared to clean glass beads. Citrate AgNPs showed no substantial change in attachment efficiency for hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic surfaces. The attachment efficiency of PVP-, GA-, and citrate-coated AgNPs to hydrophobic collector surfaces correlated with the relative hydrophobicity of the coatings. The differences in the observed attachment efficiencies among AgNPs could not be explained by classical DLVO, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between AgNPs and OTS-coated glass beads were responsible for the increase in attachment of surface-coated AgNPs with greater hydrophobicity. This study indicates that the overall attachment efficiency of AgNPs will be influenced by the hydrophobicity of the NP coating and the fraction of hydrophobic surfaces in the environment.

  3. A facile one-pot synthesis of acrylated hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Sigen; Xu, Qian; McMichael, Peter; Gao, Yongsheng; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Xi; Greiser, Udo; Zhou, Dezhong; Wang, Wenxin

    2018-01-25

    The synthesis of acrylated hyaluronic acid (HA-A) normally requires 2 to 3 steps of modification, needs laborious purification and also increases the risks of HA degradation. Here, we report that the conjugation of acrylate groups to hyaluronic acid can be successfully achieved via a new facile one-pot approach. Two types of new HA-A hydrogels (via chemical or UV crosslinking) were developed and applied for 3D cell encapsulation.

  4. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Milena; Krunić Nebojša; Najman Stevo; Nikolić Ljubiša; Nikolić Vesna; Rajković Jelena; Petrović Milica; Igić Marko; Ignjatović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS) immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath a...

  5. Synthesis and Reactivity of Aluminized Fluorinated Acrylic (AIFA) Nanocomposites (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    REACTIVITY OF ALUMINIZED FLUORINATED ACRYLIC (ALFA) NANOCOMPOSITES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...throughout the energetic materials community due to their strong reactivity with aluminum powders . Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel...These materials, which we have termed aluminized fluorinated acrylic (AlFA) composites, have been prepared with particle contents ranging from 10% to

  6. Hydrophobicity of carbohydrates and related hydroxy compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttersack, Christoph

    2017-06-29

    The hydrophobic interaction of carbohydrates and other hydroxy compounds with a C18-modified silica gel column was measured with pure water as eluent, thereby expanding the range of measurements already published. The interaction is augmented by structure strengthening salts and decreasing temperature. Although the interaction of the solute with the hydrophobic interface is expected to only imperfectly reflect its state in aqueous bulk solution, the retention can be correlated to hydration numbers calculated from molecular mechanics studies given in the literature. No correlation can be established towards published hydration numbers obtained by physical methods (isentropic compressibility, O-17 NMR relaxation, terahertz spectroscopy, and viscosity). The hydrophobicity is discussed with respect to the chemical structure. It increases with the fraction and size of hydrophobic molecular surface regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  8. Industrially relevant epoxy-acrylate hybrid resin photopolymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Gbenga I.

    Photopolymerization of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins takes advantages of inherent properties present in the free-radical and cationic reactions to reduce oxygen inhibition problems that plague free-radical reactions. Similarly, the combined reaction mechanisms reduce moisture sensitivity of the cationic reactions. Despite the advantages of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins, problems persist that need to be addressed. For example, low conversion and polymerization rate of the epoxides are a problem, because the fast acrylate conversion prevents the epoxide from reaching high conversion. Controlling phase separation is challenging, since two moieties with different properties are reacting. The physical properties of the polymer will be impacted by the availability of different moieties. High shrinkage stress results from the acrylate moiety, causing buckling and cracking in film and coating applications. The overall goal of this study is to use the fundamental knowledge of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins to formulate industrially viable polymers. In order to achieve this goal, the study focuses on the following objectives: (I) determine the apparent activation energy of the hybrid monomer METHB, (II) increase epoxide conversion and polymerization rate of hybrid formulations, and (III) control physical properties in epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins. In order to increase the epoxide conversion and rate of polymerization, the sensitivity of epoxides to alcohol is used to facilitate the activated monomer (AM) mechanism and induce a covalent bond between the epoxide and acrylate polymers through the hydroxyl group. It is hypothesized that if the AM mechanism is facilitated, epoxide conversion will increase. As a result, the resins can be tailored to control phase separation and physical properties, and shrinkage stress can be reduced. In pursuit of these objectives, the hybrid monomer METHB was polymerized at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 70°C to obtain apparent activation

  9. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  10. Poly(lauryl acrylate) and poly(stearyl acrylate) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for polypropylene composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Two new polymer grafts on an industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were prepared through a non-oxidative pathway employing controlled free radical polymerization for surface initiated polymer grafting. After photochemical introduction of an ATRP initiator onto the MWCNT, polymeriza......Two new polymer grafts on an industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were prepared through a non-oxidative pathway employing controlled free radical polymerization for surface initiated polymer grafting. After photochemical introduction of an ATRP initiator onto the MWCNT...... to be substantially improved, where poly(lauryl acrylate) was found to be the superior surface modification, resulting in a conductive composite....

  11. Surfactant and counter-ion distribution in styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid dry latex submonolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Keslarek Amauri José; Leite Carlos Alberto P; Galembeck Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid latex submonolayers prepared using a non-reactive phosphate surfactant together with a reactive sulfonate surfactant were examined in a transmission microscope using electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging (ESI-TEM). Phosphorus is nearly absent from the particles core but it is detected in a thick shell and in unusual, strongly scattering structures with a low carbon content, and largely made out of inorganic phosphate. P is also dispersed outside the par...

  12. Physicochemical surface properties of various intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, H B; Frohn, A; Augustin, A J; Wolters, B; Pakula, T; Pfeiffer, N

    2001-01-01

    It is of major interest to understand how intraocular lens (IOL) surfaces interact with aqueous humor or tissues after implantation. Important parameters to describe the physicochemical surface properties are the contact angle and critical surface tension. Therefore, we performed measurements of the contact angle and critical surface tension of several commercially available IOLs. Department of Ophthalmology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, University Eye Hospital, Tübingen, and Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, Germany. A total of 17 commercially available standard quality IOL types (6 of each) of different materials from several manufacturers were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements using the sessile drop method were made. The sessile drop method differentiated all materials based on their surface forces. The contact angle (mean +/- SD) ranged from 56.5 +/- 3.8b 3. Contact angles differed between the IOLs depending on the IOL material with the lowest contact angle in the heparin-surface-modified IOL. The contact angle measurement method generates useful information about the material surface and its potential biomaterial interactions. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Surgical management of intraocular lens dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Gul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To report and compare the surgical, visual, and anatomical outcomes following treatment of dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs.Methods:The medical records of 28 eyes of 28 patients were evaluated. Age, gender, pre-and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, surgical methods, and complications were recorded.Results:Pre-and postoperative BCVA ranged from counting fingers to 20/32 and from counting fingers to 20/25, respectively. Late-onset dislocations were the most frequently observed complication. The most frequent surgical method was IOL repositioning in 15 of 28 patients, followed by IOL exchange in 11 patients, and IOL removal in 2 patients. Only 1 patient required surgical re-intervention with IOL capture.Conclusions:Visual acuity improved following the use of either IOL repositioning or IOL exchange. No superiority of one method over the other was observed. In the present retrospective case series, management of dislocated IOLs with repositioning or exchange of the primary implant conferred comparable surgical and visual outcomes.

  14. Involvement of intraocular structures in disseminated histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Kauhaluoma, Marianne; Aho, Inka; Ristola, Matti; Karma, Anni

    2010-06-01

    To describe ocular involvement and response to treatment in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with severe progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH). We report a 35-year-old HIV-infected patient seen in our clinics over a period of 4 years. During antiretroviral treatment (ART), the HIV load became undetectable at 3 months; however, CD4 T-cell count increased slowly and rose to 100 cells/microl. Histoplasma capsulatum was cultured from skin pustules, cerebrospinal fluid (CF) and aqueous humour. The patient developed central nervous system (CNS) involvement 2 months and panuveitis in both eyes 4 months after the initiation of ART. With intravenous liposomal amphotericin B followed by oral voricanozole, the chorioretinal lesions of the right eye (RE) became inactivated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions of CNS disappeared. Relapse of the inflammation in the anterior segment of the left eye (LE) resulted in a total closure of the chamber angle and severe glaucoma. Despite medical therapy, two cyclophotocoagulations, total vitrectomy and repeated intravitreal amphotericin B injections, LE became blind. Histoplasma capsulatum was cultured from the aqueous humour after antifungal therapy of 16 months' duration. PDH with intraocular and CNS manifestations was probably manifested by an enhanced immune response against a previous subclinical disseminated infection. It seems difficult to eradicate H. capsulatum from the anterior segment of the eye in an immunocompromised patient.

  15. Intraocular lens implantation after penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C H; Chen, J J; Chen, P Y; Chen, H S

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the clinical results of nonsimultaneous penetrating keratoplasty, cataract extraction, and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (two-stage surgery) for combined corneal disease and cataract. Twenty-six eyes of 24 patients with an average age of 46 years who underwent two-stage surgery were studied retrospectively. Variables included visual acuity, refractive status, specular microscopy before and after IOL implantation (6 months), and the occurrence of graft failure. Astigmatism was corrected by suture removal and relaxing incision. The mean follow-up after IOL placement was 16 months. Unaided visual acuity was 20/100 or better in 22 (83%) eyes after the second procedure. Twenty-one (81%) eyes had an aided visual acuity of at least 20/40. The mean refractive and absolute errors were -1.49 +/- 1.39 diopters (D) and 1.55 +/- 1.30 D, respectively. The mean keratometric and refractive cylinders were 3.50 D and 2.26 D, respectively. Nineteen (73%) eyes had a spherical equivalent refraction within 2 D of emmetropia. Anisometropia (> or =3 D) occurred in four (15%) eyes. The endothelial cell density, the coefficient of variation, and the percentage of hexagonal cells documented by specular microscopy were not significantly different before and after IOL implantation. Complications included three rejections, two cases of herpetic recurrence, and one late decompensation. Two graft failures (8%) occurred after secondary surgery. The two-stage surgery is a safe and effective modality.

  16. A study of brachytherapy for intraocular tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yung Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Ko, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Lee, Sung Koo; Choi, Moon Sik [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Our purpose of this study is to perform brachytherapy for intraocular tumor. The result were as followed. 1. Eye model was determined as a 25 mm diameter sphere. Ir-192 was considered the most appropriate as radioisotope for brachytherapy, because of the size, half, energy and availability. 2. Considering the biological response with human tissue and protection of exposed dose, we made the plaques with gold, of which size were 15 mm, 17 mm and 20 mm in diameter, and 1.5 mm in thickness. 3. Transmission factor of plaques are all 0.71 with TLD and film dosimetry at the surface of plaques and 0.45, 0.49 at 1.5 mm distance of surface, respectively. 4. As compared the measured data for the plaque with Ir-192 seeds to results of computer dose calculation model by Gary Luxton et al. and CAP-PLAN (Radiation Treatment Planning System), absorbed doses are within {+-}10% and distance deviations are within 0.4 mm. Maximum error is -11.3% and 0.8 mm, respectively. 7 figs, 2 tabs, 28 refs. (Author).

  17. Elevated intraocular pressure in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Luciano; Riva, Ivano; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Porcelli, Teresa; Floriani, Irene; Katsanos, Andreas; Giustina, Andrea; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a cohort of acromegalic patients, and to correlate CCT with serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Consecutive patients affected by acromegaly underwent a comprehensive endocrinological and ophthalmological evaluation, including serum GH and IGF-1 levels, CCT measured with ultrasonic pachymetry and IOP assessed with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Fourteen patients with acromegaly and 28 healthy controls were included in the study. Acromegalic patients had a statistically higher median CCT (570 μm [range 551.5-638] vs 542.7 μm [range 461.5-610]; p < 0.01) and higher median IOP (17.2 mm Hg [range 14-21] vs 13.7 mm Hg [range 10.5-19]; p < 0.01) than healthy controls. No statistically significant correlation was found among CCT and GH, CCT and IGF-1, IOP and GH, IOP and IGF-1 in the acromegalic group, whereas a statistically significant correlation was documented between CCT and IOP in the entire cohort (Spearman's correlation coefficient: 0.56, p < 0.01). However, when IOP was corrected for CCT no significant difference was found between the two study groups (p = 0.07). Our results suggest that acromegaly is associated with an increased CCT, which could lead to an overestimation of IOP readings as determined with Goldmann applanation tonometry.

  18. Characterization of surface hydrophobicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yao; Wiesner, Mark R

    2012-05-15

    The surface chemistry of nanoparticles, including their hydrophobicity, is a key determinant of their fate, transport and toxicity. Engineered NPs often have surface coatings that control the surface chemistry of NPs and may dominate the effects of the nanoparticle core. Suitable characterization methods for surface hydrophobicity at the nano-scale are needed. Three types of methods, surface adsorption, affinity coefficient and contact angle, were investigated in this study with seven carbon and metal based NPs with and without coatings. The adsorption of hydrophobic molecules, Rose Bengal dye and naphthalene, on NPs was used as one measure of hydrophobicity and was compared with the relative affinity of NPs for octanol or water phases, analogous to the determination of octanol-water partition coefficients for organic molecules. The sessile drop method was adapted for measuring contact angle of a thin film of NPs. Results for these three methods were qualitatively in agreement. Aqueous-nC(60) and tetrahydrofuran-nC(60) were observed to be more hydrophobic than nano-Ag coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone or gum arabic, followed by nano-Ag or nano-Au with citrate-functionalized surfaces. Fullerol was shown to be the least hydrophobic of seven NPs tested. The advantages and limitations of each method were also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the stability of the polymer brushes formed by adsorption of ionomer complexes on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, A M; Spruijt, E; de Keizer, A; Cohen Stuart, M A; Norde, W

    2011-01-15

    We have studied the effect of normal forces and shear forces on the stability and functionality of a polymer brush layer formed upon adsorption of polymeric micelles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The micelles consist of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte blocks (poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide), and a neutral block (poly(vinyl alcohol)) or neutral grafts (poly(ethylene oxide)). The strength of the attachment of the micellar layers to various substrates was evaluated with Atomic Force Microscopy. Flow cell experiments allowed for the evaluation of long-term stability of coatings in lateral flow. Fixed angle optical reflectometry was used to quantify protein (BSA) adsorption on the micellar layers after their exposure to flow. The results show that adsorbed micellar layers are relatively weakly attached to hydrophobic surfaces and much stronger to hydrophilic surfaces, which has a significant impact on their stability. Adsorbed layers maintain their ability to suppress protein adsorption on hydrophilic surfaces but not on hydrophobic surfaces. Due to the relatively weak attachment to hydrophobic surfaces the structure of adsorbed layers may easily be disrupted by lateral forces, such that the complex coacervate-brush structure no longer exists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of two polarity measurements of hydrophobic organic matter for the evaluation of water treatment processes: XAD resin and PRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Marc; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando; Suffet, Mel

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a mixture of thousands of organic molecules wide-ranging in molecular weight, polarity and physicochemical properties. DOM is responsible for multiple water treatment issues such as trihalomethane (THM) formation potential and membrane fouling. Two methods of evaluating the polarity of DOM are being used for water treatment application: a serial XAD resin adsorption method at acid pH and the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) by parallel solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges at natural pH. These two methods have been described by their authors as able to define a hydrophobic fraction though they do so by sorption onto different types of material at different pHs. The first part of this study compared the PRAM and XAD methods and showed that the hydrophobic fractions defined by the two approaches were not correlated. This result highlighted the difficulties in defining fractions as 'hydrophobic material'. It appeared that the sorbents for XAD-8 (an acrylic polymer containing oxygen) at pH water sources. This evaluation showed that the smaller molecular weight fraction of DOM (<1 kDa) had a higher percentage of hydrophobic character and that the fluorescence-defined aromatic protein fraction was the most hydrophilic.

  1. Interactions of hydrophobically modified polyvinylamines: adsorption behavior at charged surfaces and the formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers with polyacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illergård, Josefin; Enarsson, Lars-Erik; Wågberg, Lars; Ek, Monica

    2010-02-01

    The structure and adsorption behaviors of two types of hydrophobically modified polyvinylamines (PVAm) containing substituents of hexyl and octyl chains were compared to a native polyvinylamine sample. The conformation of dissolved polyvinylamines was studied in aqueous salt solutions using dynamic light scattering. Modified PVAm showed hydrodynamic diameters similar to native PVAm, which indicated that all PVAm polymers were present as single molecules in solution. The adsorption of the polyvinylamines, both native and hydrophobically modified, from aqueous solution onto negatively charged silica surfaces was studied in situ by reflectometry and quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) with up to nine individual layers were formed together with poly(acrylic acid). Obtained PEM structures were rigid and showed high adsorbed amounts combined with low dissipation, with similar results for both the modified and unmodified PVAm. This suggests that electrostatics dominated the PEM formation. At lower salt concentrations, the hydrophobically modified PVAm produced multilayers with low water contents, indicating that secondary interactions induced by the hydrophobic constituents can also have a significant influence on the properties of the formed layers. The surface structure of PEMs with nine individual layers was imaged in dry state using atomic force microscopy in a dynamic mode. Modified PVAm was found to induce a different structure of the PEM at 100 mM, with larger aggregates compared to those of native PVAm. From these results, it is proposed that modified PVAm can induce aggregation within the PEM, whereas PVAm remains as single molecules in solution.

  2. Enhanced Permeation of a Hydrophobic Fluid through Particles with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Patterned Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Renliang Zhang; Yousheng Xu; Binghai Wen; Nan Sheng; Haiping Fang

    2014-01-01

    The wetting properties of solid surfaces are significant in oil/gas and liquid displacement processes. It is difficult for hydrophobic fluids to permeate channels filled with hydrophilic particles and an aqueous phase, and this is thought to be the primary cause of low yields in low permeability reservoir operations. Using three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations, we show that particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterned surfaces can greatly improve hydrophobic fluid permeation...

  3. A history of intraocular pressure and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Doctors have not always associated elevated intraocular pressure with the vision loss from glaucoma. Although several individuals appear to have noted firmness of the eye in this condition as far back as the 10th century, elevated intraocular pressure was not routinely assessed until the latter part of the 19th century. von Graefe developed the first instrument for measuring intraocular pressure in 1865. The first reasonably accurate instrument was the Maklakoff applanation tonometer of the late 19th century; it was in widespread use throughout Eastern Europe until relatively recently. Schiötz developed an indentation tonometer that was widely used throughout the world during the first two thirds of the 20th century. Goldmann's applanation tonometer of 1950 began the era of truly accurate intraocular pressure measurement. It is still the most widely used tonometer in the world. Other devices such as the McKay-Marg tonometer (or its offspring the Tono-Pen), the pneumatonometer, and airpuff applanation tonometers are gaining adherents. The dynamic contour tonometer is the first totally new concept in tonometry in over 100 years. It is probably the most accurate of all the tonometers and is relatively independent of corneal biomechanical properties unlike its predecessors. Transpalpebral tonometers are attractive as they do not require topical anesthesia; however, they add the biomechanical properties of the eyelid to the list of potential errors and have not proven very accurate. The future should, hopefully, bring tonometers that can give diurnal or even longer indications of intraocular pressure variation. Although intraocular pressure elevation (or its absence) no longer can be counted on for diagnostic purposes, the role of intraocular pressure in the management of glaucomatous optic neuropathy remains critical.

  4. Fracture properties of an acrylic bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoblocka-Juszczyk, E; Baleani, M; Cristofolini, L; Viceconti, M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated experimentally the fracture properties, i.e., the fatigue strength, the resistance to crack propagation and the fracture toughness, of an acrylic bone cement (Cemex RX). The mean endurance limit was determined following the staircase method. The endurance limit was estimated at 9.2 MPa. The fatigue crack propagation rate was measured according to the ASTM E647 standard. The equation of the line fitting the crack growth per cycle (da/dN) versus the stress-intensity factor range (delta K), in a log-log graph, was used to calculate the empirical constants of Paris' law for the selected bone cement: da/dN (m/cycle) = 3.56 x 10(-7) x delta K (MPa x m1/2)5.79. This power-law relationship described well (R2 = 0.96) the growth rate in the stable crack growth region, i.e., in the mid delta K range. The fracture toughness K(IC) of the bone cement was determined according to the ASTM E399 standard. The K(IC) mean value was 1.38 MPa x m1/2. These experimental results provide the set of necessary inputs for numerical studies aimed to investigate the damage accumulation process in the mantle fixing cemented prostheses.

  5. Coating materials and solvents. 2. Acrylic acid, acrylate, and MMA; Toryo yozai. 2. Akurirusan oyobi akurirusan esuteru MMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Y. [Nippon Shokubai Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the production process, its scale, physical properties and usage of acrylic acid, acrylate for general use, and MMA (methyl methacrylate). The propylene oxidation process is only one process for the industrial production of acrylic acid and acrylate due to its economical predominance. Annual production of acrylic acid in the world has reached to about 2.2 million tons. Relatively high growth rate is forecasted also in the future. In Japan, the acrylate is used for paints, adhesive materials, and fibers. The industrial production process of MMA includes ACH (acetone cyanhydrin) process, new ACH process, isobutylene process, MAN (methacrylonitrile) process, and ethylene carbonylation process. Demand and supply of MMA are characterized especially by the high proportion of export from Japan to the Asian region. Methacrylic resins are used for various materials, such as tail lamp lenses and meter panels of automobiles, and laser disks, CD-ROM and MD pick-ups in the field of electronic industry. Consumption of these resins is steadily extended. 16 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Preparation of Photoresponsive Functionalized Acrylic Nanoparticles Cantaining Carbazole Groups for Smart Cellulosic Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Keyvan Rad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoresponsive functionalized polymer nanoparticles were prepared as useful materials for preparation of smart papers. Such polymer nanoparticles have wide applications in several fields including papers, sensors, bioimaging and biomedicine. First, carbazole as a photosensitive compound was modified with 2-bromoethanol through substitution nucleation reaction to its hydroxyl derivative (N-(2-hydroxyethyl carbazole, CzEtOH. The synthesis of 2-N-carbazolylethyl acrylate (CzEtA monomer was carried out by modification reaction of CzEtOH with acryloyl chloride and the chemical structures of the products were characterized. Next, CzEtA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and butyl acrylate were copolymerized to prepare photoresponsive functionalized polymer nanoparticles through mini-emulsion polymerization in order to form a hydrophobic core. This was followed by copolymerization of MMA and glycidyl methacrylate by seeded emulsion polymerization to give a functionalized outer layer on the latex particles. Absorption characteristics, size, size distribution (narrow size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic laser light scattering (DLS analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs, respectively. Finally, due to the importance of photoresponsive smart papers and their wide applications, cellulosic fibers were reacted with the prepared functionalized latex particles for preparation of smart papers. Morphology of the fibers was investigated with respect to the surface-immobilized polymers on the cellulosic paper and their smart behavior was evaluated by UV irradiation at 254 nm. The results revealed fast color changes and the obtained cellulosic papers became violet upon irradiation. This work shows some promising feature of these materials for preparation of anti-counterfeiting papers, where the safety becomes a major concern.

  7. Diffusion behavior of isobornyl acrylate into photopolymerized urethane acrylate films: influence of surface oxidation during curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougharbel, Ali; Mallégol, Jacky; Coqueret, Xavier

    2009-09-01

    The diffusion of liquid isobornyl acrylate (iBoA) into photopolymerized films of urethane acrylate was shown to be strongly dependent on curing conditions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) monitoring of iBoA sorption into films photopolymerized in oxygen-free conditions reveals that diffusion proceeds according to Fick's laws. The diffusion coefficient and the total amount of absorbed monomer are dependent on the degree of cure of the polymer network. When polymerized in air, the films exhibit an anomalous behavior, with a lag time increasing with the dose of applied radiation. At a comparable degree of cure, films photopolymerized in air showed a retarded diffusion with a characteristic diffusion constant close or equal to the Fickian diffusion coefficient observed with the film polymerized under nitrogen, suggesting that the retardation phenomenon was due to differences in surface interactions with liquid the monomer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements clearly revealed the occurrence of surface oxidation attributed to direct photolysis of urethane functions by the short wavelength component of the incident UV light. The lag time observed in samples polymerized in aerobic conditions is interpreted by the existence of H-bonded hydroperoxides forming a temporary barrier retarding monomer diffusion.

  8. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Ceramic and Acrylic Occlusal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ozhohan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop and substantiate the methods of constructing the occlusal surfaces when manufacturing aesthetic fixed restorations through the combination of different materials. Materials and methods. The study included 65 patients with ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces of aesthetic fixed dental prostheses. Group I included 21 patients with a combination of ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces. Group II included 22 patients with a combination of ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group III included 22 patients with a combination of acrylic occlusal surfaces. The patients were observed 3, 6 and 12 months after prosthetic repair. Results. The greatest increase in the occlusal contact surface area of fixed restorations was observed in Group I, that is, when combining dental prostheses with ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces. Considering uneven abrasion of the occlusal surfaces, we do not recommend to combine different materials when veneering the occlusal surface of the antagonistic teeth. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the important role of the correct combination of materials when veneering the occlusal surfaces. Physical and chemical properties of materials, namely the abrasion resistance play a significant role in the long-term denture functioning. The smallest increase in the occlusal contact surface area was observed in Group II when combining ceramic occlusal surfaces. It was due to a good abrasion resistance of ceramics as compared to acrylic resin as well as the presence of the glazed layer which prevents the premature abrasion of the occlusal surfaces of the antagonistic teeth due to lower surface roughness. The combination of acrylic resin and ceramics when constructing the occlusal surfaces of fixed restorations in Group I demonstrated the highest rate of the increase in the occlusal contact surface area – 9.93%. It was due to a low hardness of acrylic resin and its high surface roughness. In

  9. Intraocular lens power calculation after corneal refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Sachin D; Kim, Alisa; Ladas, John G

    2008-07-01

    Corneal refractive procedures have become increasingly popular over the past decade, allowing patients to have excellent uncorrected visual acuity and spectacle independence. As these individuals mature, many will eventually undergo cataract surgery. With the advances in modern cataract surgery and lens implant technology, particularly presbyopic intraocular lens implants, patients and physicians have greater expectations regarding visual outcomes and independence from glasses after cataract surgery. Therefore, it is important to understand methods to accurately determine intraocular lens power calculation after keratorefractive procedures to avoid refractive surprises and patient dissatisfaction. In this review article, we provide an overview of intraocular lens power determination after corneal refractive surgery, highlighting sources of errors and potential methods to improve the accuracy of the lens power estimation. Newer methods to address errors in intraocular lens power calculations after keratorefractive surgery represent a paradigm shift from the previous gold standard of the clinical history method. Understanding the advantages and limitations of the various methods may be beneficial in obtaining more accurate estimations of the intraocular lens power after corneal refractive surgery, resulting in improved visual outcomes.

  10. Primary intraocular lymphoma: improving the diagnostic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Anni; von Willebrand, Eva O; Tommila, Petri V; Paetau, Anders E; Oskala, Pertti S; Immonen, Ilkka J

    2007-07-01

    To analyze the clinical features of primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) and to describe cytochemical and immunocytochemical findings of the vitreous specimens as well as the reasons for delayed diagnosis of PIOL. Prospective noncomparative study. Eleven patients referred to the uveitis or medical retina units, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, were diagnosed as having PIOL between 2000 and 2005. The median follow-up of the patients was 32 months. Clinical features and diagnostic workup of uveitis were described. Twelve vitrectomies were performed on 9 patients. The first 5 biopsies were fixed in an equal volume of 50% alcohol. The specimens of the next 7 vitrectomies were handled without alcohol, and tissue culture medium was added to the samples. Clinical features of PIOL, intervals from ocular symptoms and from first ophthalmological examination to diagnosis, and the role of a proper handling of the vitreous sample in the diagnosis of PIOL. Six females (54%) and 5 males (46%) (median age, 61 years) were included. Ten patients had ocular symptoms for 1 to 30 months (median, 8) before the first contact with an ophthalmologist. Uveitis was bilateral in 9 patients. Vitreitis was seen in all patients, and it was severe in 8. Fundus lesions dominated in 3 patients. Six patients lost useful vision in one eye before the diagnosis of PIOL. Cytologic and immunohistochemical stainings prepared of the unfixed vitreous specimens showed PIOL in 6 patients. The samples fixed in alcohol were nondiagnostic in 4 patients, and in them, verification of diagnosis was based on brain biopsy (3) or cerebrospinal fluid (1) findings. Seven patients died due to primary nervous system lymphoma. Diagnosis of PIOL is difficult but can be improved. Severe bilateral vitreitis in an elderly patient is a characteristic finding of PIOL. Alcohol fixation may jeopardize the identification of PIOL cells in the vitreous sample. Optimal handling of the vitreous specimens and

  11. Refractive outcomes after multifocal intraocular lens exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric J; Sajjad, Ahmar; Montes de Oca, Ildamaris; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li; Weikert, Mitchell P; Al-Mohtaseb, Zaina N

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the refractive outcomes after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) exchange. Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Retrospective case series. Patients had multifocal IOL explantation followed by IOL implantation. Outcome measures included type of IOL, surgical indication, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and refractive prediction error. The study comprised 29 patients (35 eyes). The types of IOLs implanted after multifocal IOL explantation included in-the-bag IOLs (74%), iris-sutured IOLs (6%), sulcus-fixated IOLs with optic capture (9%), sulcus-fixated IOLs without optic capture (9%), and anterior chamber IOLs (3%). The surgical indication for exchange included blurred vision (60%), photic phenomena (57%), photophobia (9%), loss of contrast sensitivity (3%), and multiple complaints (29%). The CDVA was 20/40 or better in 94% of eyes before the exchange and 100% of eyes after the exchange (P = .12). The mean refractive prediction error significantly decreased from 0.22 ± 0.81 diopter (D) before the exchange to -0.09 ± 0.53 D after the exchange (P < .05). The median absolute refractive prediction error significantly decreased from 0.43 D before the exchange to 0.23 D after the exchange (P < .05). Multifocal IOL exchange can be performed safely with good visual outcomes using different types of IOLs. A lower refractive prediction error and a higher likelihood of 20/40 or better vision can be achieved with the implantation of the second IOL compared with the original multifocal IOL, regardless of the final IOL position. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraocular pressure: modulation as treatment for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Joseph; Varma, Rohit

    2011-09-01

    To review the role of intervisit intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Perspective after literature review. Analysis of pertinent publications in the peer-reviewed literature. Disparate findings regarding the role of intervisit IOP variation have been published. IOP variation was a significant risk factor in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study, and other smaller studies. These studies have in common low IOPs (often after surgery) and moderately advanced disease. In the AGIS, when patients were stratified by mean IOP, only those patients with low IOPs showed the detrimental effects of IOP variation. IOP variation was not a significant risk factor in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Treatment Trial, and in 2 separate studies of ocular hypertensives. These studies have in common generally higher IOPs and an earlier stage of glaucoma (or no glaucoma at all). We believe these results are complementary rather than contradictory: existing data suggest that the effects of IOP variation depend on the characteristics of the patient, the baseline IOP, their stage of damage, the type of glaucoma, and other as-yet unknown factors. Practitioners should consider whether patients who are progressing at low mean IOP may benefit from having IOP variation reduced. Single elevated measures of IOP may not be an anomaly or may not be related to compliance, but may identify patients who are at high risk for progressive glaucomatous damage, and thus should be monitored more carefully and potentially treated more aggressively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New trends in intraocular lens imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.; Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel

    2011-08-01

    As a result of modern technological advances, cataract surgery can be seen as not only a rehabilitative operation, but a customized procedure to compensate for important sources of image degradation in the visual system of a patient, such as defocus and some aberrations. With the development of new materials, instruments and surgical techniques in ophthalmology, great progress has been achieved in the imaging capability of a pseudophakic eye implanted with an intraocular lens (IOL). From the very beginning, optical design has played an essential role in this progress. New IOL designs need, on the one hand, theoretical eye models able to predict optical imaging performance and on the other hand, testing methods, verification through in vitro and in vivo measurements, and clinical validation. The implant of an IOL requires a precise biometry of the eye, a prior calculation from physiological data, and an accurate position inside the eye. Otherwise, the effects of IOL calculation errors or misplacements degrade the image very quickly. The incorporation of wavefront aberrometry into clinical ophthalmology practice has motivated new designs of IOLs to compensate for high order aberrations in some extent. Thus, for instance, IOLs with an aspheric design have the potential to improve optical performance and contrast sensitivity by reducing the positive spherical aberration of human cornea. Monofocal IOLs cause a complete loss of accommodation that requires further correction for either distance or near vision. Multifocal IOLs address this limitation using the principle of simultaneous vision. Some multifocal IOLs include a diffractive zone that covers the aperture in part or totally. Reduced image contrast and undesired visual phenomena, such as halos and glare, have been associated to the performance of multifocal IOLs. Based on a different principle, accommodating IOLs rely on the effort of the ciliary body to increase the effective power of the optical system of the

  14. Use of statistical design of experiments in the optimization of Ar–O2 low-pressure plasma treatment conditions of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for increasing polarity and adhesion, and inhibiting hydrophobic recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Butrón-García, María Isabel; Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film was treated with RF low-pressure plasmas (LPPs) made of mixtures of oxygen and argon for increasing surface polarity, minimizing hydrophobic recovery (i.e. retard ageing) and increasing adhesion to acrylic adhesive tape for medical use. Statistical design of experiments has been used for determining the most influencing experimental parameters of the LPP treatment of PDMS. Water contact angle values (measured 24 h after treatment) and the O/C ratio obtained fr...

  15. Comparative study of the self-aggregation of rhodamine 6G in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), poly(N-phenylmaleimide-co-acrylic acid), poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid), and poly(sodium acrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio; Fuenzalida, Juan Pablo; Tripailaf, Gustavo; Araya-Hermosilla, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Guadalupe del C; Marambio, Oscar Guillermo; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2010-09-23

    The interaction between rhodamine 6G and different polyelectrolytes is analyzed. Structural aspects differentiate these polyelectrolytes, such as the presence of aromatic groups and the number and localization of their respective charges, which may be directly attached to the aromatic groups or to the polymeric main chain. In the case of poly(sodium acrylate), which does not bear aromatic groups, the polyelectrolyte induces cooperative self-stacking between the dyes which is highly sensitive to the ionic strength, due to the predominance of long-range electrostatic interactions between the polymer and the dye. In the case of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), whose charge is directly attached to the aromatic groups, a high dispersant ability of the dyes is found and the interaction is less dependent on the ionic strength, due to the predominance of short-range aromatic-aromatic interactions between the dye and the polymer. Among the two polyelectrolytes studied for which the polymeric charge is directly attached to the main chain, and separated from the aromatic group, poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) shows a lower dependence of the interaction on the ionic strength than poly(N-phenylmaleimide-co-acrylic acid) at a comonomer composition of 1:2, due to a higher linear aromatic density and a lower linear charge density, indicating the importance of hydrophobic forces. Both copolymers exhibit a high ability to induce cooperative self-aggregation of the dye.

  16. Large deformation micromechanics of particle filled acrylics at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Eray Mustafa

    The main aim of this study is to investigate stress whitening and associated micro-deformation mechanism in thermoformed particle filled acrylic sheets. For stress whitening quantification, a new index was developed based on image histograms in logarithmic scale of gray level. Stress whitening levels in thermoformed acrylic composites was observed to increase with increasing deformation limit, decreasing forming rate and increasing forming temperatures below glass transition. Decrease in stress whitening levels above glass transition with increasing forming temperature was attributed to change in micro-deformation behavior. Surface deformation feature investigated with scanning electron microscopy showed that source of stress whitening in thermoformed samples was a combination of particle failure and particle disintegration depending on forming rate and temperature. Stress whitening level was strongly correlated to intensity of micro-deformation features. On the other hand, thermoformed neat acrylics displayed no surface discoloration which was attributed to absence of micro-void formation on the surface of neat acrylics. Experimental damage measures (degradation in initial, secant, unloading modulus and strain energy density) have been inadequate in describing damage evolution in successive thermoforming applications on the same sample at different levels of deformation. An improved version of dual-mechanism viscoplastic material model was proposed to predict thermomechanical behavior of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions. Simulation results and experimental results were in good agreement and failure of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions ar low forming temperatures were succesfully predicted based on entropic damage model. Particle and interphase failure observed in acrylic composites was studied in a multi-particle unit cell model with different volume fractions. Damage evolution due to particle failure and interphase failure was simulated

  17. Ca (OH)2Nanoparticles Based on Acrylic Copolymers for the consolidation and protection of Ancient Egypt Calcareous Stone Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammad A.; Darwish, Sawsan S.; Adam, Mahmoud A.; Elmarzugi, Nagib A.; Al-Mouallimi, Nadia; Ahmed, Sayed M.

    2017-04-01

    The deterioration of calcareous stones materials used in artistic/architectural field is one of the most serious problems facing conservation today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanosized particles of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a consolidation and protection material dispersed in acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly (EMA/MA), for calcareous stone monuments and painted surfaces affected by different kinds of decay. The synthesis process of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposite containing 5% of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and well protection properties.

  18. Cotton fabric modification for imparting high water and oil repellency using perfluoroalkyl phosphate acrylate via gamma-ray-induced grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Hui; Bao Fenfen; Cheng Liangliang [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi Wenfang, E-mail: wfshi@ustc.ed [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The perfluoroalkyl phosphate acrylates were grafted onto a cotton fabric via gamma-ray irradiation to improve the hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. The change in chemical structure of grafted cotton fabric was detected by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The contact angles for water and sunflower oil were determined to be over 150 deg. and 140 deg., respectively, after irradiated with a dose range of 471-5664 Gy. The flame retardancy of the fabric with a grafting ratio of over 13.0 wt% was improved, reaching to 24 compared with 18 of which before grafted, according to the limiting oxygen index measurement. The microstructure of the fabric before and after grafted was observed by the scanning electron microscope.

  19. Occupational asthma due to acrylates in a graphic arts worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig Rincón de Arellano, I; Cimarra Alvarez-Lovell, M; Robledo Echarren, T; Fernández-Nieto, M; Quirce Gancedo, S; Seaone Plata, C; Martínez-Cócera, C

    2006-01-01

    Acrylates are used in a wide variety of products such as solvents, adhesives, paints, printing ink, soft contact lenses, porcelain nails, and methacrylates (used by dentists and orthopedists). Currently there are various types of acrylic compounds: acrylates, cyanoacrylates (such as tissue adhesives and home glues), and methacrylates (prostheses and dental and orthopedic fillings). The sensitization mechanism is unknown, but the allergy is believed to be due to a non-IgE mediated phenomenon, since a late asthmatic response occurs. Various cases of acrylate-induced asthma have been reported, especially in dentists and persons using glues or paints containing this substance. We present the case of a 52-year-old man who had been working in graphic arts for the previous 7 years. For the previous 2 years he had experienced persistent cough with a sensation of drowning, dyspnea that increased with moderate exertion, and nasal obstruction despite continuous treatment. The symptoms first appeared after an episode of acute respiratory difficulty associated with weight loss, pulmonary infiltrates, and eosinophilia. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured during work and sick leave, and specific bronchial challenge with acrylates was performed in a bronchial chamber. The PEF improved on weekends and sick leave. The challenge test provoked a late asthmatic response and the non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity increased after the test. As well in the sputum samples there was a increase of eosinophil amount.

  20. Intraocular manifestations of mycobacterium tuberculosis: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Dalvin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is most commonly associated with pulmonary infection. However, tuberculosis (TB can also affect the eye. TB can affect nearly any tissue in the eye, and a high index of suspicion is required for accurate diagnosis, as many of the intraocular manifestations of TB can mimic other, more common diseases. Correct diagnosis is critical because systemic anti-tuberculosis treatment may be required, and vision loss or even loss of the affected eye can occur without proper treatment. Thus, it is important for ophthalmologists and infectious disease specialists to work together to accurately diagnose and treat intraocular TB. This article reports the various known presentations of intraocular TB and reviews important elements of diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: Mycobacterium, Tuberculosis, Choroidal granuloma, Retinal vasculitis

  1. Ultrasound biomicroscopic localization and evaluation of intraocular foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, D; Ishikawa, H; Greenfield, D; Liebmann, J M; Ritch, R

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound biomicroscopic appearance of anterior segment foreign bodies under clinical and experimental conditions. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed on 4 eyes of 4 patients referred for evaluation of anterior segment trauma and known or suspected intraocular foreign body. Imaging of wood, aluminum, concrete, and glass foreign bodies was performed in the anterior chamber of a human cadaver eye. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the location of a foreign body in two patients and identified occult foreign bodies in two others. Under clinical and experimental conditions, intraocular aluminum and glass produced comet tail artifacts. Under experimental conditions intraocular wood and concrete produced shadowing artifacts. Ultrasound biomicroscopy provides useful information in the evaluation of known and occult anterior segment foreign bodies. Ultrasound patterns of shadowing and comet tail may help differentiate foreign body materials.

  2. Epithelial Downgrowth after Intraocular Surgery Treated with Intracameral 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the clinical and histopathologic correlation of two cases of epithelial downgrowth (EDG after prior intraocular surgery. Methods. Observational case reports. Results. We present two cases of EDG occurring after intraocular surgery. In both cases, after two anterior chamber injections of 5-fluorouracil (5FU, the area of EDG initially regressed. In Case 1, a limited area of EDG eventually recurred, and penetrating keratoplasty with cryotherapy was curative. In Case 2, subsequent corneal edema required Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and the patient remained clinically free of EDG without further treatment. Conclusion. Intracameral 5FU may have a role in the treatment of EDG after intraocular surgery, though its precise utilization and impact remain to be defined.

  3. Dataset for acrylate/silica nanoparticles formulations and photocured composites: Viscosity, filler dispersion and bulk Poisson׳s ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Gojzewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-curable polymer composites are of importance in industry, biomedical applications, scientific fields, and daily life. Outstanding physical properties of polymer composites were achieved with nanoparticles as filler, primarily in enhancing mechanical strength or barrier properties. Structure-property relationships of the resulting nanocomposites are dictated by the polymer-filler molecular architecture, i.e. interactions between polymer matrix and filler, and high surface area to volume ratio of the filler particles. Among monomers, acrylates and methacrylates attracted wide attention due to their ease of polymerization and excellent physicochemical and mechanical properties of the derived polymers. We prepared and photopolymerized two series of formulations containing hydrophobized silica nanofiller (Aerosil R7200 dispersed in 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA or polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA monomers. We compared selected physical properties of the formulations, both before and after photocuring; specifically the viscosity of formulations and dispersion of the filler in the polymer matrices. Additionally, we estimated the bulk Poisson׳s ratio of the investigated nanocomposites. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Nanoscale Young׳s modulus and surface morphology in photocurable polyacrylate/nanosilica composites” (Gojzewski et al., 2017 [1].

  4. Ten-year retrospective review of outcomes following phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in patients with pre-existing uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hannah; Dang, Harry; Cheung, Crystal; Khosla, Deepak; Arjmand, Parnian; Rabinovitch, Theodore; Derzko-Dzulynsky, Larissa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome, uveitis control, and complications following cataract surgery for intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with a known diagnosis of uveitis. The study was a retrospective interventional case series. We reviewed 98 patients (137 eyes) with adult uveitis undergoing cataract surgery with foldable acrylic posterior chamber IOL implantation between 2003 and 2013 in 2 uveitis practices. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and uveitis grade (Standardized Uveitis Nomenclature criteria) were measured at 1 month preoperatively, at postoperative week 1, and at postoperative months 1, 6, and 12. The main outcome measures were mean change in postoperative BCVA, uveitis grade, and complications. Of the eyes studied, 84% had grade 0-0.5 anterior uveitis at postoperative week 1 and maintained uveitis control (77% grade 0; 19% grade 0.5 anterior uveitis) at 1 year postoperatively. None of the patients had active intermediate or posterior uveitis at any time point. Mean BCVA improved from 0.71 ± 0.38 logMAR preoperatively to 0.37 ± 0.36 at 6 months (p uveitis, including epiretinal membrane (12%), cystoid macular edema (12%), and glaucoma (5.8%); 46% of patients had small pupils as a result of posterior synechiae. Postoperative vision-limiting complications included posterior capsule opacification (18%), epiretinal membrane (9.0%), and cystoid macular edema (8.8%). Of the eyes studied, 5.8% underwent Nd:YAG capsulotomy. Cataract surgery with acrylic posterior-chamber IOL implantation is effective at improving visual acuity in patients with uveitis. Uveitis was well controlled in the majority of our study patients for 12 months after cataract surgery. The most frequent vision-limiting postoperative complication was posterior capsule opacification, which was treatable with Nd:YAG capsulotomy. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using an anterior chamber maintainer to control intraocular pressure during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, M; Assia, E I; Chen, V; Avni, I

    1994-01-01

    We describe a phacoemulsification technique that uses an anterior chamber maintainer (ACM) to control intraocular pressure. Continuous irrigation through the ACM maintains pressurized intraocular conditions throughout surgery and when the automated system is not activated. Intraocular pressure is stabilized at predetermined levels with minor fluctuations. Viscoelastics can be used in conjunction with the ACM.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Nitrous oxide inhalation anaesthesia in the presence of intraocular gas can cause irreversible blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, A J; Yang, Y F

    2008-03-08

    Nitrous oxide inhalation sedation is frequently used in dental and other surgical procedures. We report the case of a patient with intraocular gas who developed sudden elevation in intraocular pressure and blindness as a result of nitrous oxide anaesthesia. All medical and dental personnel administering nitrous oxide inhalation should be aware that this is contraindicated in patients with intraocular gas.

  8. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  9. Intraocular lens power calculation following laser refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Christopher; McAlinden, Colm; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin; Sutton, Gerard; Martin, Aifric

    2015-01-01

    Refractive outcomes following cataract surgery in patients that have previously undergone laser refractive surgery have traditionally been underwhelming. This is related to several key issues including the preoperative assessment (keratometry) and intraocular lens power calculations. Peer-reviewed literature is overwhelmed by the influx of methodology to manipulate the corneal or intraocular lens (IOL) powers following refractive surgery. This would suggest that the optimal derivative formula has yet been introduced. This review discusses the problems facing surgeons approaching IOL calculations in these post-refractive laser patients, the existing formulae and programs to address these concerns. Prior published outcomes will be reviewed.

  10. [Implantation of intraocular lenses. Bullous keratopathy in pseudophakos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberth, B

    1982-09-01

    The author presents his views on the implantation of intraocular lenses, in connection with two pseudophakic bullous keratopathy cases. There is no medical indication for implantation. The question is whether the most important function of the eye, object vision, may be risked in order to avoid aniseikonia or to restore binocular vision? Knowing that vision can be restored with glasses or contact lenses, is it ethical to induce more or less severe postoperative complications by means of intraocular lenses? In view of the considerable success often achieved immediately after the operation, complications which may not arise years later should also be taken into consideration.

  11. BILATERAL INTRAOCULAR HEMORRHAGE SECONDARY TO CEREBRAL VENOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunle-Hassan, Feyi; Dattani, Minaxi; Snead, Martin; Subash, Mala

    2016-10-05

    To report a case of bilateral intraocular hemorrhage secondary to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with no associated intracranial hemorrhage. Case report. A 32-year-old Asian gentleman presented with left reduced vision as a result of a left subhyaloid macular hemorrhage associated with severe headache. Right retinal hemorrhages were also present. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography brain imaging demonstrated cerebral transverse venous sinus thrombosis. Intraocular hemorrhage has previously been described in association with intracranial hemorrhage and in particular subarachnoid hemorrhage (Terson syndrome). We describe a similar clinical picture in the context of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with no associated intracranial hemorrhage.

  12. Early Intraocular Complications of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage after Aneurysm Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Turek, Grzegorz; Mariak, Zenon; Mariak, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing for early intraocular complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The authors analysed 96 selected cases of aneurysmal SAH. Forty patients (42%) demonstrated abnormal fundus findings, including disc swelling (13.5%), retinal haemorrhages (23%), and vitreous haemorrhage (5%). The incidence of intraocular pathologies was significantly higher in patients who lost consciousness at the onset of SAH, were admitted with high scores of the Hunt-Hess and Fisher scales and low score of the Glasgow Coma Scale, as well as in those with arterial hypertension, more sizable aneurysm, and older.

  13. Effect of cataract surgery incision location and intraocular lens type on ocular aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesudovs, Konrad; Dietze, Holger; Stewart, Owen G; Noble, Bruce A; Cox, Michael J

    2005-04-01

    To determine whether Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing detects differences in optical performance in vivo between poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and foldable acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) and between clear corneal and scleral tunnel incisions and whether optical differences are manifested as differences in visual performance. Department of Optometry, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. This study comprised 74 subjects; 17 were phakic with no ocular pathology, 20 had implantation of a Pharmacia 722C PMMA IOL through a scleral tunnel, 21 had implantation of an Alcon AcrySof IOL through a scleral tunnel, and 16 had implantation of an AcrySof IOL through a corneal incision. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity testing, ocular optical quality measurement using Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing, and corneal surface measurement with a videokeratoscope were performed in all cases. There were significant differences between groups in the total root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront aberration over a 6.0 mm pupil (F=3.91; degrees of freedom=3,70; PPMMA-scleral group had the least aberrations and the AcrySof-corneal group the most. For a 3.5 mm diameter pupil, the total higher-order RMS wavefront aberration was not significantly different between the groups (P>.05). There were no differences between groups in corneal shape, visual acuity, or contrast sensitivity. Implantation of the spherical PMMA IOL led to a slight reduction in total wavefront aberration compared to phakic eyes. AcrySof IOLs induced more aberrations, especially spherical aberration. Corneal-based incisions for IOL implantation compounded this increase. Studies of the optical performance of IOLs in vivo should use wavefront sensing as the main outcome measure rather than visual measures, which are readily confounded by multiple factors.

  14. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of capsular bag in spontaneously late dislocated capsular bag-intraocular lens complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our study aims to evaluate the morphology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry of the spontaneously late dislocated capsular bag-intraocular lens (CB-IOL complex. Various etiologies and possible pathogenesis of the event are also discussed. Methods: This was a tertiary-care setting and retrospective observational case series. The surgically explanted intact specimens of spontaneously late dislocated CB-IOL complex were studied. The demographics, duration of pseudophakia, IOL design/material, and specimen measurements were noted. Fresh specimens were photographed, and computer software was used for measurements. After processing, a detailed microscopic examination was carried out for three different sections of each specimen with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E, Masson's-trichrome, and immunohistochemistry stain for vimentin. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 12 specimens, the mean CB and capsulorhexis opening size were 8.32 ± 0.8 mm and 3.62 ± 0.61 mm, respectively. The average CB-IOL complex size of our study was significantly lower than the studies reported in the literature (P ≤ 0.001. All (n = 12, 100% were acrylic IOLs with 11 (91.67% having single-piece design. All specimens on H and E stain showed extensive subepithelial fibrosis while Masson's trichrome staining showed that none had any pseudoexfoliation material. The circumferential sphincter-like fibrous tissue arrangement was seen in all specimens. Immunohistochemical expression of vimentin suggested the mesenchymal metaplasia of epithelial A-cells. Conclusion: Significant fibrotic contraction of the CB and phimosis of capsulorhexis may cause a progressive zonular tear. This is probably the most important etiology of spontaneous late dislocation of the CB-IOL complex.

  15. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by acrylic monomer in a denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutis, D; Freeman, S

    2001-08-01

    A 71-year-old edentulous man developed a severely painful red mouth at sites of contact with a new denture. Patch testing showed allergy to samples of the denture material and to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Patch testing to methyl methacrylate was negative. Prolonged boiling of the denture resulted in reversal of his symptoms and samples of this fully cured denture material produced negative patch tests. While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms. Material safety data sheets are unreliable in providing information regarding the type of acrylate present in the material. Hence, patch testing should be performed with a battery of acrylate allergens as well as with small samples of the denture material.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Acrylic Primer for Concrete Substrate Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study dealt with the properties of acrylic primer for concrete substrate using acrylic syrup, made from a methyl methacrylate monomer solution of terpolymers. Terpolymer systems consisting of methyl methacrylate (MMA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA, and methacrylic acid (MAA with different chemical composition ratios of MMA and 2-EHA were synthesized through bulk polymerization using azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The terpolymer composition is characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, DSC, TGA, and SEM. The glass transition temperature and the thermal stability increased with increasing amounts of MMA in the terpolymer backbone. The effect of chemical composition of terpolymers on physicomechanical properties of primer films was investigated. However, increasing the amount of MMA in terpolymer backbone increased tensile and contact angle of primer films while elongation at break, water absorption, and bond strength are decreased. In particular, the primer syrup containing 65% 2-EHA has good bonding strength with concrete substrate around 1.1 MPa.

  17. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the path toward the digital era, the authors were in the fortunate position to be involved in several unconventional glass and acrylic glass projects.On the basis of their most recent project, the  facade of the Vitra VSL Factory by SANAA Architekten, they describe the development of a facade for which they chose acrylic glass not as a substitute for glass but rather as a conscious material choice. Since the entire facade is it was possible to apply the manufacturing technology of deep-drawing, allowing for very thin wall thicknesses.

  18. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Matthias Michel, E-mail: michel@imagine-structure.eu Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the path toward the digital era, the authors were in the fortunate position to be involved in several unconventional glass and acrylic glass projects. On the basis of their most recent project, the facade of the Vitra VSL Factory by SANAA Architekten, they describe the development of a facade for which they chose acrylic glass not as a substitute for glass but rather as a conscious material choice. Since the entire facade is it was possible to apply the manufacturing technology of deep-drawing, allowing for very thin wall thicknesses.

  19. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  20. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  1. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads...... with a first hydrophobic antigen to provide a first group of bead-antigen conjugates by adsorption of the first hydrophobic antigen on the first group of beads, iii) isolating said bead- antigen conjugates, iv) contacting said bead-antigen conjugates with a sample to bind antibodies therein to provide bead...

  2. Biosynthetic pathway for acrylic acid from glycerol in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenhua; Xu, Ying; Xian, Mo; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Acrylic acid is an important industrial feedstock. In this study, a de novo acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source glycerol was constructed in Escherichia coli. The acrylic acid was produced from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, and acrylyl-CoA. The acrylate production was improved by screening and site-directed mutagenesis of key enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase and chromosomal integration of some exogenous genes. Finally, our recombinant strain produced 37.7 mg/L acrylic acid under shaking flask conditions. Although the acrylate production is low, our study shows feasibility of engineering an acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source. Furthermore, the reasons for limited acrylate production and further strain optimization that should be performed in the future were also discussed.

  3. Elastic modulus and flexural strength comparisons of high-impact and traditional denture base acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour M. Ajaj-ALKordy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the high-impact acrylic resin is a suitable denture base material for patients with clinical fracture of the acrylic denture.

  4. Microwave preservation method for DMSP, DMSO, and acrylate in unfiltered seawater and phytoplankton culture samples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinsey, Joanna D; Kieber, David J

    2016-01-01

    ... T ), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO T ), and acrylate (acrylate T ) concentrations in unfiltered samples to alleviate problems associated with the acidification method when applied to samples containing Phaeocystis . Microwave‐ and acid...

  5. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue.

  6. Curcumin delivery from poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hollow microparticles prevents dopamine-induced toxicity in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Tzankova, Virginia; Petrov, Petar; Laouani, Mohamed; Halacheva, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    The potential of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-AA) copolymers to form hollow particles and their further formulation as curcumin delivery system have been explored. The particles were functionalized by crosslinking the acrylic acid groups via bis-amide formation with either cystamine (CYS) or 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP) which simultaneously incorporated reversibility due to the presence of disulfide bonds within the crosslinker. Optical micrographs showed the formation of spherical hollow microparticles with a size ranging from 1 to 7 μm. Curcumin was loaded by incubation of its ethanol solution with aqueous dispersions of the cross-linked particles and subsequent evaporation of the ethanol. Higher loading was observed in the microparticles with higher content of hydrophobic PMMA units indicating its influence upon the loading of hydrophobic molecules such as curcumin. The in vitro release studies in a phosphate buffer showed no initial burst effect and sustained release of curcumin that correlated with the swelling of the particles under these conditions. The capacity of encapsulated and free curcumin to protect rat brain synaptosomes against dopamine-induced neurotoxicity was examined. The encapsulated curcumin showed greater protective effects in rat brain synaptosomes as measured by synaptosomal viability and increased intracellular levels of glutathione. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving water sensitivity in acrylic films using surfmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendia, Esteban; Barandiaran, María J; Grade, Joe; Blease, Trevor; Asua, José M

    2005-02-15

    The water sensitivity of films obtained from high solids content acrylic latexes was investigated, with special focus on the role of the surfactant used in the synthesis step. The performance of films obtained from latexes stabilized by nonionic surfmers was compared to that of the acrylic latexes stabilized with conventional nonionic and anionic surfactants. It was seen that the latexes stabilized with reactive surfactants exhibited a remarkably better resistance to both water permeability and water vapor permeability and therefore enlarged the durability of the films. Atomic force microscopy images suggested that the defects created by surfactant migration in the latexes stabilized with conventional surfactants promoted the permeation of water by capillarity.

  8. The creep behavior of acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiku, E R; Biotidara, F O

    1996-01-01

    The creep behavior of acrylic dental base resins, at room temperature and at different loading conditions, has been examined. The behaviors of these resins are similar to that of "commercial perspex" at room temperature over a period of 1000 seconds. The pseudo-elastic moduli of the blends of PMMA VC show a significant increase compared with PMMA alone. The addition of the PVC powder to the heat-cured acrylic resin increased the time-dependent elastic modulus. This increase in elastic modulus is advantageous in the production of denture based resins of improv mechanical properties.

  9. Immunogenicity of acrylate chemicals as assessed by antibody induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J E; Henderson, D C; Turk, J L

    1987-01-01

    The immunogenicities of two acrylate chemicals, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and methyl acrylate (MeAc), and one related vinyl compound, 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP), were investigated by determining the in vivo induction of IgG antibodies in guinea pigs. The injection of the chemicals emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant resulted in the induction of serum antibody responses against MeAc and 4VP but not TMPTA. However, antibody with anti-TMPTA activity was produced following immunization of guinea pigs with TMPTA conjugated to protein, which allowed comparisons to be made of the immunogenic structural features of the compounds.

  10. Effects of Novel Structure Bonding Materials on Properties of Aeronautical Acrylic

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhisheng; Zhang, Hongfeng; Li, Lei; Yan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Novel structure bonding materials, J-351 epoxy adhesive film with low curing temperature and liquid modified acrylate SY-50s adhesive were chosen and characterized. The effects of adhesives on the mechanical properties of acrylic were studied. The results reveal that both adhesives have excellent bonding properties to acrylic. The stress-solvent crazing value of J-351 is higher than that of SY-50s. With the application of adhesive on the surface, mechanical properties of acrylic are declined....

  11. Novel azo-peresters radical initiators used for the synthesis of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA based on two monomers: 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid were synthesized in organic solvent ethyl acetate using AIBN (2, 2'-azo-diisobutyronitrile and new synthesized azo-peresters as radical initiators. After polymerization the viscosity, molecular weight and polydispersity of synthesized acrylic PSA were evaluated. The novel synthesized radical azo-perester initiators were synthesized, isolated and compared with industrial predominant usable azo-initiator AIBN.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN P-06-263...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  14. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid...-risk polymers are described in 40 CFR 723.250(d). Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components of...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of a...

  18. CROSS-REACTION PATTERNS IN GUINEA-PIGS SENSITIZED TO ACRYLIC-MONOMERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cross-reaction patterns of selected acrylate and methacrylate esters were investigated using the guinea pig maximization test. Methacrylates were less potent sensitizers than acrylates. Cross-sensitization was found between (meth)acrylates with closely related core structures, most extensivel...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting under...

  20. Effects of Novel Structure Bonding Materials on Properties of Aeronautical Acrylic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhisheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel structure bonding materials, J-351 epoxy adhesive film with low curing temperature and liquid modified acrylate SY-50s adhesive were chosen and characterized. The effects of adhesives on the mechanical properties of acrylic were studied. The results reveal that both adhesives have excellent bonding properties to acrylic. The stress-solvent crazing value of J-351 is higher than that of SY-50s. With the application of adhesive on the surface, mechanical properties of acrylic are declined. Casting acrylic shows more drastic decline than that of oriented acrylic. Through the characterization of fracture surface, we find that fracture of tensile sample derives from the side with adhesive. Mechanical properties of acrylic are more sensitive to SY-50s, because the liquid adhesive presents integrate bonding interface with acrylic. The interface between J-351 and acrylic is clear, making acrylic insensitive to J-351 film. Edge attachment strength of samples bonded with J-351 are higher than that of samples bonded with SY-50s due to the effects of adhesives on acrylic. J-351 epoxy adhesive film presents preferable application performance in the structure bonding of aeronautical acrylic.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate derivative of... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10147 Acrylate derivative of... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane...

  2. Molecular and Serological Intraocular Fluid Analysis of Coxiella burnetii-seropositive Patients with Concurrent Idiopathic Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L E; Oosterheert, J J; Kampschreur, L M; Ossewaarde-van Norel, J; Dekkers, J; Rothova, A; de Groot-Mijnes, J D F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between Q fever and uveitis. We determined whether Coxiella burnetii causes intraocular infection in C. burnetii-seropositive patients with idiopathic uveitis. From a retrospective observational case series, paired aqueous humor and serum samples from 10 C. burnetii-seropositive patients with idiopathic uveitis were examined for intraocular antibody production by using the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although intraocular IgG against C. burnetii was detected, no intraocular antibody production was observed (low Goldmann Wittmer coefficients). All PCR results were negative. Uveitis due to an intraocular infection with C. burnetii is unlikely.

  3. Nanopatterned polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) surfaces to modulate cell-material interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizundia, Erlantz; Sáenz-Pérez, Míriam; Patrocinio, David; Aurrekoetxea, Iskander; dM Vivanco, Maria; Vilas, José Luis

    2017-06-01

    In this work we explore the effect of surface nanoarchitecture of polystyrene (PS) and polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) diblock copolymer films on cell viability. PS and PS-b-PAA have been nanopatterned at temperatures of 110, 120 and 140°C using nanoporous aluminium oxide membranes (AAO) as a template. Surface architecture strongly depends on the infiltration temperature and the nature of the infiltrated polymer. High patterning temperatures yield hollow fibre shape architecture at the nanoscale level, which substantially modifies the surface hydrophobicity of the resulting materials. Up to date very scarce reports could be found in the literature dealing with the interaction of microstructured/nanostructured polymeric surfaces with cancer cells. Therefore, MCF-7 breast cancer cells have been selected as a model to conduct cell viability assays. The findings reveal that the fine-tuning of the surface nanoarchitecture contributes to the modification of its biocompatibility. Overall, this study highlights the potential of AAO membranes to obtain well-defined tailored morphologies at nanoscale level and its importance to develop novel soft functional surfaces to be used in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA and Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices.

  5. Bubble Movement on Inclined Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Ali; Ozbay, Ridvan; Sarshar, Mohammad Amin; Kang, Yong Tae; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2017-10-31

    The movement of a single air bubble on an inclined hydrophobic surface submerged in water, including both the upward- and downward-facing sides of the surface, was investigated. A planar Teflon sheet with an apparent contact angle of a sessile water droplet of 106° was used as a hydrophobic surface. The volume of a bubble and the inclination angle of a Teflon sheet varied in the ranges 5-40 μL and 0-45°, respectively. The effects of the bubble volume on the adhesion and dynamics of the bubble were studied experimentally on the facing-up and facing-down surfaces of the submerged hydrophobic Teflon sheet, respectively, and compared. The result shows that the sliding angle has an inverse relationship with the bubble volume for both the upward- and downward-facing surfaces. However, at the same given volume, the bubble on the downward-facing surface spreads over a larger area of the hydrophobic surface than the upward-facing surface due to the greater hydrostatic pressure acting on the bubble on the downward-facing surface. This makes the lateral adhesion force of the bubble greater and requires a larger inclination angle to result in sliding.

  6. The new view of hydrophobic free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert L

    2013-04-17

    In the new view, hydrophobic free energy is measured by the work of solute transfer of hydrocarbon gases from vapor to aqueous solution. Reasons are given for believing that older values, measured by solute transfer from a reference solvent to water, are not quantitatively correct. The hydrophobic free energy from gas-liquid transfer is the sum of two opposing quantities, the cavity work (unfavorable) and the solute-solvent interaction energy (favorable). Values of the interaction energy have been found by simulation for linear alkanes and are used here to find the cavity work, which scales linearly with molar volume, not accessible surface area. The hydrophobic free energy is the dominant factor driving folding as judged by the heat capacity change for transfer, which agrees with values for solvating hydrocarbon gases. There is an apparent conflict with earlier values of hydrophobic free energy from studies of large-to-small mutations and an explanation is given. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanostructured coatings for super hydrophobic textiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, silica nanoparticles can be suitably functionalized or can be used as a component of nanocom- posite coating to adhere with cotton surface. Amino functiona- lized silica nanoparticles applied on epoxy functionalized cotton fabric shows excellent super-hydrophobicity (∼170. ◦. ). The functionalization of silica and ...

  8. Hydrophobicity measurements of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Harbrecht, J.G.; Brinkman, D.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Riet, van 't K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the determination of the hydrophobicity of membrane materials is developed. The advantage of this method over existing methods is that it is not influenced by the presence of the pores. A piece of the membrane material is submerged horizontally in a liquid with surface tension L.

  9. Deposition and Investigation of Hydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonov Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoropolymer coatings of different morphologies are deposited by the HWCVD (Hot Wire CVD method. The effect of activator filament temperature on the structure of fluoropolymer coating is shown. The results of studying the hydrophobic fluoropolymer coatings with different structures, deposited by the HWCVD method, are presented.

  10. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic adsorption on Y zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Istvan; Kim, Song; Marcus, Bonnie

    The uniform large micropores of hydrothermally stable Y zeolites are used widely to confine both polar and non-polar molecules. This paper compares the physisorption of water, methanol, cyclohexane, benzene and other adsorbates over various Y zeolites. These adsorbents are commercial products with reproducibly controllable physical and chemical characteristics. Results indicate that the type I isotherms typical for micropore adsorption can turn into type II or type III isotherms depending on either or both the hydrophobicity of the adsorbent and the polarity of the adsorbate. Methanol produced a rare type V isotherm not reported over zeolites before. Canonical and grand canonical Monte Carlo molecular simulations with Metropolis importance sampling reproduced the experimental isotherms and showed characteristic geometric patterns for molecules confined in Na-X, Na-Y, dealuminated Y, and ZSM5 structures. Adsorbate-adsorbate interactions seem to determine the micropore condensation of both polar and non-polar molecules. Exchanged ions and lattice defects play a secondary role in shaping the adsorption isotherms. The force field of hydrophobic Y appears to exert an as yet unexplored sieving effect on adsorbates having different dipole moments and partial charge distributions. This mechanism is apparently different from both the monolayer formation controlled adsorption on hydrophobic mesopores and macropores and the polarizability and small-pore opening controlled micropore confinement in hydrophobic ZSM5.

  11. Liquid Water may Stick on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The behavior of fluid on a solid surface under static and dynamic conditions are usually clubbed together. • On a wetting surface (hydrophilic), liquid water is believed to adhere to the surface causing multilayer sticking. • On a non-wetting surface (hydrophobic), water is believed to glide across the surface leading to slip ...

  12. hydrophobic silica membranes for gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, R.M.; Maier, Wilhelm F.; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of hydrophobic silica membranes are described. These membranes show very high gas permeance for small molecules, such as H2, CO2, N2, O2, and CH4, and permselectivities of 20–50 for these gases with respect to SF6 and larger alkanes like C3H8 and i-C4H10. The membranes

  13. Travoprost lowers intraocular pressure in healthy student volunteers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the change in diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) induced by the instillation of single dose travoprost 0.004% and placebo into the eyes of 20 healthy African volunteers in a randomized double masked, placebo controlled, crossover, single centre study. Pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ...

  14. Tear Film Functions and Intraocular Pressure Changes in Pregnancy.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Ophthalmology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso¹; Department of. Family Medicine, Jericho .... mean was taken as the final reading. Intraocular Pressure. Done in sitting position and the right eye measured first in accordance with convention. A drop of local anesthetic ...

  15. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, V., E-mail: viosimon@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rosca, C. [Optilens Clinic of Ophthalmology, 400604 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Eniu, D. [Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Sciences, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Changes on intraocular lens (IOL) surface after implantation. • Partial opacification of IOL central area. • Elemental composition on IOL surface prior to and after implantation. • First XPS depth profiling examination of the opacifying deposits. • Cell-mediated hydroxyapatite structuring. - Abstract: The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  16. The Relationship Between Systemic Blood Pressure and Intraocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some studies in the Caucasian subject showed that systemic blood pressure is related to in-traocular pressure (IOP) and that hypertensive patients are prone to develop raised IOP (glaucoma) but there are few records from black Africans where systemic hypertension is com-mon. We have thus examined IOP in 113 ...

  17. Prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Some glaucoma patients start out as glaucoma suspects for years. Aim: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular pressure distribution in glaucoma suspects. Methods: This survey was carried out in ...

  18. Tear production and intraocular pressure in canine eyes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and intraocular pressure (IOP) in dogs with unilateral corneal ulceration using the Schirmer tear test (STT) and rebound (TonoVet®) tonometry. IOP and STT values were recorded in both ulcerated and non-ulcerated (control) eyes of 100 dogs diagnosed with unilateral corneal ulceration. Dogs presented with other ocular ...

  19. Cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation in children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to report feasibility, the visual outcomes and complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5 to15 years in local anesthesia. This retrospective interventional case series included 62 eyes from 50 children who underwent pediatrc cataract ...

  20. Liquid-crystal intraocular adaptive lens with wireless control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, A.N.; Vdovine, G.V.; Loktev, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a prototype of an adaptive intraocular lens based on a modal liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator with wireless control. The modal corrector consists of a nematic liquid-crystal layer sandwiched between two glass substrates with transparent low- and high-ohmic electrodes, respectively.

  1. Intraocular Pressure Changes During Ramadan Fasting: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ramadan fasting (RF) alters many systemic milieus. Dehydration from fasting may cause weight loss, while sedentary lifestyle of some Muslims during fasting results in weight gain. RF is associated with low intraocular pressure (IOP). We aim to find out changes in IOP and its relationship to weight changes ...

  2. Intraocular Pressure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Nigerian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Estrogen and Progesterone receptors and hormone levels in human myometrium and placenta in term pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;. 150:501-505. 15. Klein BE, Klein R and Knudtson MD. Intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure: longitudinal perspective: the. Beaver Dam Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol.

  3. Investigation of the relationship between intraocular pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a randomized prospective study of volunteers attending Abia State University Optometry Clinic, Uturu, 100 healthy subjects of either sex were enlisted into study, ages 17-39yrs (mean 22-9+2.4) and body weight56to 02kg, in order to establish the association between total body water and intraocular pressure.

  4. Intraocular Lens Implantation Surgery In Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical complications were recurrent uveitis, 20 eyes (48.8%) astigmatism, 14 eyes (34.1%); high intraocular pressure, 3 eyes (7.3%); posterior capsule opacity, 3 eyes (7.3%) posterior castle tear, 2 eyes (4.9%). Poor post-operative acuity were due to posterior capsule opacity and macular scar, 3 eyes each; leukoma, ...

  5. comparative study of the intraocular pressure elevation potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was compared for dexamethasone phosphate (Decadron ) and fluorometholone acetate (Flarex ) on 32 normotensive volunteers, comprising 12 males and 20 females of the age range 18-40 years. However, age and sex were not considered in the study. An IOP increase of >.

  6. Intraocular pressure and visual acuity across the phases of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Available literature suggests that the pattern of variation in intraocular pressure (IOP) in different phases of the menstrual cycle is inconsistent. Results from studies on the effects of oestrogen and progesterone alone or in combination, on IOP have been conflicting. Aim: To determine the pattern of changes in IOP ...

  7. Short Term Effect of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure of Ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Numerous international studies have indicated that several physiological changes can influence the intraocular pressure (IOP) of subjects. In order to assess visual health status through physiological changes, the effects of rest and exercise on IOP were investigated in ocular hypertensive subjects and their ...

  8. Comparison of intraocular pressure reduction of initial and adjunct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) as initial and adjunct therapy in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Subjects and Methods: Retrospective chart review of POAG patients who had SLT either as initial or adjunct therapy over a ...

  9. Site of trabeculectomy and control of intraocular pressure: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: To determine the extent to which the site of trabeculectomy affects the extent of drop in intraocular pressure in an African population. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 eyes randomly allocated to a nasal, central and temporal trabeculectomy group and followed up for a period of six months.

  10. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically ...

  11. Effect of Solanum Melongena (Garden Egg) on Intraocular Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum melongena Linn, is one of the medicinal plants of Africa. Its effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated in 100 normotensive volunteers whose ages ranged between 16 and 30 (mean 22.5+3.4) years, attending the Abia State University Optometry clinic Uturu. Each subject had initial IOP measured before ...

  12. Influence of head flexion after endotracheal intubation on intraocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: During preparation and draping of periorbital area, neck flexion causes displacement of the endotracheal tube tip toward the carina. Stimulation of the tracheal mucosa may cause bucking, increased intraocular pressure (IOP), laryngospasm, bronchospasm, change in end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure ...

  13. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Reduction of Initial and Adjunct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. Reduction of IOP, through medical, surgical, and laser treatment modalities, remains the mainstay of therapy for the disease.[6] The choice of modality is dependent on several factors. The treatment regimen that lowers IOP below a level that is likely to ...

  14. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hitendra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  15. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Reduction of Initial and Adjunct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    head cupping, and visual field loss.[1]. Globally, glaucoma is presently the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide with a projected estimate of 79.6 million cases by the year 2020.[2] In. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure. Reduction of Initial and Adjunct Selective. Laser Trabeculoplasty for Primary Open Angle.

  16. Intraocular pressure after descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Mourits, Maarten P.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the incidence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). Retrospective case series. From the start of the technique in our hospital in 2003 until the middle of 2010, 73 eyes underwent DSEK, of which 66 (90.5 %) had a clear graft 1 year

  17. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.; Terwee, T.T.; Koopmans, S.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. Setting: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Methods:

  18. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  19. Comparison of the effects of Viscoat and Healon on postoperative intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, B A; Busin, M; Page, C; Bergsma, D R; Kaufman, H E

    1985-09-15

    We compared the effects of Viscoat and Healon on postoperative increases in intraocular pressure in patients undergoing uncomplicated extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in a prospective, randomized, single-masked study. Eleven eyes received Viscoat and 13 received Healon. The Viscoat or Healon was aspirated from the anterior chamber with the irrigation-aspiration tip of an automated irrigation-aspiration system at the end of the procedure. No prophylactic intraoperative or postoperative ocular hypotensive agents were used. Intraocular pressure was measured at three, six, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Compared with preoperative intraocular pressure, postoperative intraocular pressure was significantly increased in both the Viscoat group and the Healon group. Some postoperative intraocular pressures were as high as 50 to 60 mm Hg, despite removal of the viscoelastic substance at the end of surgery. There was no significant difference in the postoperative intraocular pressures of the Viscoat group and the Healon group.

  20. [Cell biology of intraocular vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, T

    1999-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) still remains the leading cause of blindness in the working population of Japan and western world, though therapies such as retinal photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be remarkably effective when administered at an appropriate stage in the disease process. Consequently, there is a need for further investigation of the pathogenesis of DR to develop better therapy. DR is characterized by gradually progressive alterations in the retinal microvasculature, leading to three fundamental morbidities: 1. vascular hyperpermeability, 2. vascular occlusion, and 3. neovascularization. Recent studies have revealed that hyperglycemia causes several metabolic disorders which cause DR directly or indirectly through the abnormal expression of cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we performed precise tests of the correlation between intraocular VEGF and the three fundamental changes in the diabetic retina mentioned above. Ultrastructural study of the human retina revealed that two major pathways are responsible for hyperpermeability of diabetic retinal vessels, i.e., intercellular or paracellular transport (opening of the tight junctions) and intracellular or transcellular transport (caveolae, intracytoplasmic vesicles, and fenestration). All these pathways were induced by intravitreal injection of VEGF. The major trigger of VEGF overexpression is tissue ischemia caused by vascular occlusion. However, the retinas from the eyes with background DR revealed increased expression of VEGF without apparent incidence of vascular occlusion. We have identified accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in these retinas, and found that AGEs are a major stimulus for VEGF overexpression in background DR. Retinal vascular occlusion was caused by thrombus formation primarily in the capillary vessels. Thrombi mainly consisted of fibrin, platelets, and leucocytes in the early stage of their formation, and glial cells and

  1. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in patients with oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Pedro J; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan P; Izquierdo, Natalio J

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the benefits of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). The charts of 195 patients with OCA who visited a local eye clinic were reviewed. All of these patients had genetic linkage analysis to establish OCA type. Frequencies and Paired t-test analysis were determined. Of the 195 patients, nine (4.6%) underwent clear cornea phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Seven of the nine patients with OCA had the Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) type 1; two had OCA type 1. Pre-operative BCVA of all eyes ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 logMAR with a mean of 1.42 logMAR and a standard deviation of 0.41 logMAR. Post-operative BCVA of all eyes ranged from 1.0 to 1.30 logMAR with a mean of 1.04 logMAR and a standard deviation of 0.10 logMAR. BCVA improved after phacoemulsification surgery and intraocular lens implantation (p = 0.002). Pre-operative astigmatism of all eyes ranged from +0.50 to +5.75 with a mean of +2.25 and a standard deviation of +2.40. Post-operative astigmatism of all eyes ranged from +0.50 to +2.00 with a mean of +1.23 and a standard deviation of +0.42. Astigmatism improved after phacoemulsification surgery and intraocular lens implantation (p = 0.05). Nine patients with OCA who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implant experienced improved visual acuity and reduced astigmatism post-operatively. These results suggest cataract surgery may improve vision and refractive errors, and thus quality of life, in patients with albinism.

  2. [Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for intraocular metastases in choroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena; Kowal, Joanna; Pogrzebielski, Arkadiusz; Markiewicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Uveal metastases are the most common intraocular malignant tumors. Most patients who develop metastatic carcinoma to the choroid are managed by radiation or chemotherapy. Since TTT is an optional treatment for choroidal melanomas and hemangiomas, we ought to determine whether TIT is suitable for treatment of solitary choroidal metastasis at the posterior pole. To evaluate effectivenes of TTT treatment for intraocular metastases. 45 patients (59 eyes) with intraocular metastases were treated in the Ophthalmological Department of Jagiellonian University in Kraków. There were 30 women and 15 man, at the age 31-84 years (av. 57.5). The primary tumor was a breast cancer in 22 women, lung cancer in 5 men and 2 women, kidney (3), colon (2), uterus (1), larynx (1), testicle (1), esophagus (1). 10 patients had also metastases in other organs. TTT was performed in all treated eyes, in 11 combined with 106Ru brachytherapy (BT). Chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment was performed in 18 patients. The results of treatment were evaluated in mean 14.5 months (1-61) follow-up. After TTT, tumor shrinking was observed in most treated tumors (in 37 eyes, 62.7%), inhibition of tumor growth in 5 (8.4%), and in 4 cases (6.7%) progression of tumor growth. In 3 cases (5.1%) with flat scar and intraocular tumor shrinking, extrascleral extension located close to the tumor base appeared after treatment (TTT in 2 eyes, TTT combined with BT in one case). TTT is an effective treatment method for small choroidal metastases located in the posterior pole. TTT combined with 106Ru brachytherapy can be useful treatment in medium sized choroidal metastases. Efficient results encourage further application of thermotherapy in the treatment of intraocular metastases. It allows for the conservative treatment of the eyeball and also useful visual acuity. Extraocular extension appearing after TT needs further study.

  3. Injectable biocompatible and biodegradable pH-responsive hollow particle gels containing poly(acrylic acid): the effect of copolymer composition on gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halacheva, Silvia S; Adlam, Daman J; Hendow, Eseelle K; Freemont, Tony J; Hoyland, Judith; Saunders, Brian R

    2014-05-12

    The potential of various pH-responsive alkyl (meth)acrylate ester- and (meth)acrylic acid-based copolymers, including poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-AA) and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PBA-MAA), to form pH-sensitive biocompatible and biodegradable hollow particle gel scaffolds for use in non-load-bearing soft tissue regeneration have been explored. The optimal copolymer design criteria for preparation of these materials have been established. Physical gels which are both pH- and redox-sensitive were formed only from PMMA-AA copolymers. MMA is the optimal hydrophobic monomer, whereas the use of various COOH-containing monomers, e.g., MAA and AA, will always induce a pH-triggered physical gelation. The PMMA-AA gels were prepared at physiological pH range from concentrated dispersions of swollen, hollow, polymer-based particles cross-linked with either cystamine (CYS) or 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP). A linear relationship between particle swelling ratios, gel elasticity, and ductility was observed. The PMMA-AA gels with lower AA contents feature lower swelling ratios, mechanical strengths, and ductilities. Increasing the swelling ratio (e.g., through increasing AA content) decreased the intraparticle elasticity; however, intershell contact and gel elasticity were found to increase. The mechanical properties and performance of the gels were tuneable upon varying the copolymers' compositions and the structure of the cross-linker. Compared to PMMA-AA/CYS, the PMMA-AA/DTP gels were more elastic and ductile. The biodegradability and cytotoxicity of the new hollow particle gels were tested for the first time and related to their composition, mechanical properties, and morphology. The new PMMA-AA/CYS and PMMA-AA/DTP gels have shown good biocompatibility, biodegradability, strength, and interconnected porosity and therefore have good potential as a tissue repair agent.

  4. Competition of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between small hydrophobes and model enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingle; Friesner, Richard A; Berne, B J

    2010-06-03

    The binding affinity between a probe hydrophobic particle and model hydrophobic plates with different charge (or dipole) densities in water was investigated through molecular dynamics simulation free-energy perturbation calculations. We observed a reduced binding affinity when the plates are charged, in agreement with previous findings. With increased charge density, the plates can change from "hydrophobic like" (pulling the particle into the interplate region) to "hydrophilic like" (ejecting the particle out of the interplate region), demonstrating the competition between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The reduction of the binding affinity is quadratically dependent on the magnitude of the charge for symmetric systems, but linear and cubic terms also make a contribution for asymmetric systems. Statistical perturbation theory explains these results and shows when and why implicit solvent models fail.

  5. Nisin-activated hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces: assessment of peptide adsorption and antibacterial activity against some food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Layal; Jama, Charafeddine; Mamede, Anne-Sophie; Boukla, Samir; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

    2013-12-01

    An effective antimicrobial packaging or food contact surface should be able to kill or inhibit micro-organisms that cause food-borne illnesses. Setting up such systems, by nisin adsorption on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, is still a matter of debate. For this purpose, nisin was adsorbed on two types of low-density polyethylene: the hydrophobic native film and the hydrophilic acrylic acid-treated surface. The antibacterial activity was compared for those two films and it was highly dependent on the nature of the surface and the nisin-adsorbed amount. The hydrophilic surfaces presented higher antibacterial activity and higher amount of nisin than the hydrophobic surfaces. The effectiveness of the activated surfaces was assessed against Listeria innocua and the food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus was more sensitive than the three other test bacteria toward both nisin-functionalized films. Simulation tests to mimic refrigerated temperature showed that the films were effective at 20 and 4 °C with no significant difference between the two temperatures after 30 min of exposure to culture media.

  6. Acrylic Triblock Copolymers Incorporating Isosorbide for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, James J.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Reineke, Theresa M. (UMM)

    2016-05-10

    A new monomer acetylated acrylic isosorbide (AAI) was prepared in two steps using common reagents without the need for column chromatography. Free radical polymerization of AAI afforded poly(acetylated acrylic isosorbide) (PAAI), which exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) = 95 °C and good thermal stability (Td, 5% weight loss; N2 = 331 °C, air = 291 °C). A series of ABA triblock copolymers with either poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) or poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) as the low Tg midblocks and PAAI as the high Tg end blocks were prepared using Reversible Addition–Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The triblock copolymers ranging from 8–24 wt % PAAI were evaluated as pressure sensitive adhesives by 180° peel, loop tack, and static shear testing. While the PAAI-PEHA-PAAI series exhibited poor adhesive qualities, the PAAI-PnBA-PAAI series of triblock copolymers demonstrated peel forces up to 2.9 N cm–1, tack forces up to 3.2 N cm–1, and no shear failure up to 10000 min. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that PAAI-PEHA-PAAI lacked the dissipative qualities needed to form an adhesive bond with the substrate, while the PAAI-PnBA-PAAI series exhibited a dynamic mechanical response consistent with related high performing PSAs.

  7. In-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Dirk Jan

    1990-01-01

    The scope of this thesis concerns a new method to produce oriented polymers by the in-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates. The desired macroscopic molecular order is already accomplished in the monomeric state prior to the polymerization. ... Zie: Summary

  8. Hydrogen Bonding Interaction between 1-Propanol and Acrylic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between 1-propanol and acrylic esters (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) in non-polar solvents, viz. n-heptane, CCl4, and benzene has been investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy. The formation constants of the 1:1 complexes have been calculated using Nash's method.

  9. Comparison of classical dermatoscopy and acrylic globe magnifier dermatoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Henrik F; Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Weismann, Kaare

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 83-97%). Sensitivity for melanoma, benign melanocytic naevi and basal cell carcinoma was 100%, 98% and 85%, respectively. Specificity was 95%, 94% and 100% for melanoma, naevi and basal cell carcinoma. Acrylic globe dermatoscopy enables a diagnostic accuracy similar to epiluminescence...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLIC ESTERS IN PTC: KINETICS AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Torosyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of esters of acrylic acids, which are applied for synthesis of polymeric materials by phase transfer catalysis were discussed (PTC, which is very useful for reduction of reaction consumption of materials and power.This method has substantial advantages including high speed of the process, soft condition of reaction and reduced pollution.

  11. Decarboxylation-based traceless linking with aroyl acrylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    beta-Keto carboxylic acids are known to decarboxylate readily. In our pursuit to synthesize beta-indolinyl propiophenones, we have exploited this chemistry as a mean of establishing a traceless handle. 2-Aroyl acrylic acids have been esterified to a trityl resin, after which Michael-type addition...

  12. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.T.; Techen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the

  13. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  14. Effect of acrylic acid on the properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) networks grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) was prepared by using γ-rays from a Co-60 source at room temperature. The parameters like effect of radiation dose and concentration of AAc were studied. The properties such as gel content, swelling behavior and thermal stability ...

  15. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). 721.324 Section 721.324 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer... A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping...

  16. 40 CFR 721.330 - Aromatic acrylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aromatic acrylate (PMN P-01-420) is... this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as...

  17. Gingival Tissue Color Related With Facial Skin and Acrylic Resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research into the degree of epithelial vascularisation, keratinisation and melanin pigmentation of the various zones in the mouth in this environment is required which may explain the reason for the dark colour observed in the attached gingival. Key Word: Gingival tissue colour, denture, skin, acrylic resin, Nigerians ...

  18. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings...

  19. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    HADDAD, Marcela Filié; GOIATO, Marcelo Coelho; dos SANTOS, Daniela Micheline; CREPALDI, Nádia de Marchi; PESQUEIRA, Aldiéris Alves; BANNWART, Lisiane Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an adhesive system on the bond strength between acrylic resin and facial silicone. Material and Methods A total of 120 samples were fabricated with auto-polymerized acrylic resin and MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. Both materials were bonded through mechanical retentions and/or application of primers (DC 1205 primer and Sofreliner primer S) and adhesive (Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A) or not (control group). Samples were divided into 12 groups according to the method used to attach the silicone to the acrylic resin. All samples were subjected to a T-peel test in a universal testing machine. Failures were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. The data were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's HSD test (α=.05). Results The highest bond strength values (5.95 N/mm; 3.07 N/mm; 4.75 N/mm) were recorded for the samples that received a Sofreliner primer application. These values were significantly higher when the samples had no scratches and did not receive the application of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A. Conclusions The most common type of failure was adhesive. The use of Sofreliner primer increased the bond strength between the auto-polymerized acrylic resin and the Silastic MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. PMID:23329247

  20. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  1. Simultaneous production of biobased styrene and acrylates using ethenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, J.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanine (1), which could be potentially obtained from biofuel waste streams, is a precursor of cinnamic acid (2) that can be converted into two bulk chemicals, styrene (3) and acrylic acid (4), via an atom efficient pathway. With 5 mol% of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst, 1 bar of

  2. Studies on thin film materials on acrylics for optical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Films are also coated on plastics to protect the surfaces against abrasion and moisture penetration. Deposition of thin film coatings on acrylics is a challenging job because they are soft, temperature sensitive, moisture absorbing and desorb in vacuum. Moreover, there is a large gap between thermal expansion coefficient of ...

  3. Performance of waterborne acrylic surface coatings on wood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two waterborne acrylic coatings were applied on spruce wood, impregnated with two copperethanolamine containing preservatives (CuE and CuEQ), one of them (CuEQ) containing a boron compound, octanoic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound as additives. Lower contact angles and deeper penetration of both ...

  4. Phacoemulsification and customized toric intraocular lens implantation in eyes with cataract and high astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, Ugo; Eandi, Chiara; Grignolo, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Phacoemulsification and implantation of a hydrophilic acrylic toric intraocular lens (IOL) (T-flex 623T) with customized cylindrical power was performed in 1 eye in 3 consecutive patients with cataract and high postkeratoplasty astigmatism (range 6.75 to 8.75 diopters [D]). Twelve months postoperatively, the uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/30 in Case 1, from 20/400 to 20/40 in Case 2, and from 20/200 to 20/25 in Case 3 and the corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 or better in all 3 eyes. The spheroequivalent was within ± 0.50 D of the intended value and the refractive astigmatism was less than 1.00 D. The corneal grafts were transparent, and the endothelial cell loss range was 6% to 12%. Rotation of the toric IOL was less than 5 degrees. The toric IOL with customized cylindrical power provided good postoperative rotational stability and very satisfactory postoperative visual recovery. This type of toric IOL is appropriate to correct high postkeratoplasty astigmatism in eyes operated on for cataract. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Acosta-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resins, but the transverse strength and porosity were slightly improved. The acrylic resins cured with microwave energy exhibited reduced C. albicans adherence. These results demonstrate an improved noncytotoxic material for the manufacturing of denture bases in dentistry.

  6. Effects of composition and layer thickness of a butyl acrylate/acrylic acid copolymer on the adhesion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghim, Deoukchen; Kim, Jung Hyeun [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives are synthesized by solution copolymerization using n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid (AA) in ethyl acetate anhydrous. The copolymer composition is controlled for good adhesive properties by varying AA content. The monomer conversion is measured by the gravimetric method and FTIR technique. The adhesive layer thickness is measured by scanning electron microscopy, and the adhesive properties are evaluated with loop tack, 180 .deg. peel, and holding time measurements. The peel force increases with increasing the AA content up to 3 wt% and decreases at the AA content higher than 3 wt%, but the tack force decreases with increasing the AA content. The holding time increases with increasing the AA content, and it shows a similar trend with the T{sub g} of adhesives. The increase of layer thickness improves tack and peel forces, but it weakens the holding power. A tape thickness of about 20 μm shows well-balanced properties at 3 wt% AA content in the acrylic copolymer system.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to artificial fingernails prepared from UV light-cured acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, W; Focke, M; Wantke, F; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    1996-09-01

    Contact dermatitis from artificial nails made from self-curing acrylic resins is occasionally reported. Recently, UV light-cured products introducing new acrylics have become available. Our purpose was to identify relevant allergens in commercial light-curing products by patch tests and to evaluate the efficacy of "hypoallergenic" products by inclusion into the test series. Patients wearing photobonded acrylic nails who had perionychial and subonychial eczema were patch tested with an acrylate battery and "hypoallergenic" commercial products. Triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, hydroxyfunctional methacrylates, and (meth)-acrylated urethanes proved to be relevant allergens in photobonded nail preparations. Methacrylated epoxy resin sensitization was not observed. All "hypoallergenic" products provoked positive reactions. The omission of irritant methacrylic acid in UV-curable products does not reduce the high sensitizing potential of new acrylates. In contrast to the manufacturers' declarations, all "hypoallergenic" products continue to include acrylate functional monomers and therefore continue to cause allergic sensitization.

  8. Hydrophobization of inorganic oxide surfaces using dimethylsilanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Wang, Liming; Krumpfer, Joseph W; Watkins, James J; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2013-02-05

    Dimethylsilanediol is a stable crystalline solid that was described in 1953. As the monomer of an important class of commercial products (poly(dimethylsiloxanes)-silicones, PDMS) and as a simple molecule in its own right (the silicon analog of acetone hydrate), it has been neglected by several fields of fundamental and applied research including the hydrophobization of inorganic oxide surfaces. We report that dimethylsilanediol is a useful reagent for the surface modification (hydrophobization) of oxidized silicon and other oxidized metal surfaces and compare the wetting properties of modified solids with those of conventionally modified surfaces. That water is the only byproduct of this modification reaction suggests that this and likely other silanediols are useful surface-modification agents, particularly when substrate corrosion or the competitive adsorption of byproducts is an issue. We note that dimethylsilanediol is volatile with a significant vapor pressure at room temperature. Vapor-phase surface modifications are also reported.

  9. Influence of Hydrophobicity on Polyelectrolyte Complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadman, Kazi [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Wang, Qifeng [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Chen, Yaoyao [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Keshavarz, Bavand [Department; Jiang, Zhang [X-ray; Shull, Kenneth R. [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States

    2017-11-16

    Polyelectrolyte complexes are a fascinating class of soft materials that can span the full spectrum of mechanical properties from low viscosity fluids to glassy solids. This spectrum can be accessed by modulating the extent of electrostatic association in these complexes. However, to realize the full potential of polyelectrolyte complexes as functional materials their molecular level details need to be clearly correlated with their mechanical response. The present work demonstrates that by making simple amendments to the chain architecture it is possible to affect the salt responsiveness of polyelectrolyte complexes in a systematic manner. This is achieved by quaternizing poly(4-vinylpyridine) (QVP) with methyl, ethyl and propyl substituents– thereby increasing the hydrophobicity with increasing side chain length– and complexing them with a common anionic polyelectrolyte, poly(styrene sulfonate). The mechanical 1 ACS Paragon Plus Environment behavior of these complexes is compared to the more hydrophilic system of poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium) by quantifying the swelling behavior in response to salt stimuli. More hydrophobic complexes are found to be more resistant to doping by salt, yet the mechanical properties of the complex remain contingent on the overall swelling ratio of the complex itself, following near universal swelling-modulus master curves that are quantified in this work. The rheological behavior of QVP complex coacervates are found to be approximately the same, only requiring higher salt concentrations to overcome strong hydrophobic interactions, demonstrating that hydrophobicity can be used as an important parameter for tuning the stability of polyelectrolyte complexes in general, while still preserving the ability to be processed “saloplastically”.

  10. Hydrophobic Solvation : A 2D IR Spectroscopic Inquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Liang, Chungwen; Jansen, Thomas La Cour; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Bakker, Huib J.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    For decades, the enigma of the hydrophobic force has captured the imagination of scientists. in particular, Frank and Evans' idea that the hydrophobic effect was mainly due to some kind of "iceberg" formation around a hydrophobic solute stimulated many experiments and molecular dynamics simulation

  11. Hydrophobic solvation: A 2D IR spectroscopic inquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, A.A.; Liang, C.; La Cour Jansen, T.; Wiersma, D.A.; Bakker, H.J.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    For decades, the enigma of the hydrophobic force has captured the imagination of scientists. in particular, Frank and Evans' idea that the hydrophobic effect was mainly due to some kind of "iceberg" formation around a hydrophobic solute stimulated many experiments and molecular dynamics simulation

  12. Adsorption of dextrin on hydrophobic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A

    2009-09-01

    The adsorption of dextrin on talc, molybdenite, and graphite (three naturally hydrophobic minerals) has been compared. Adsorption isotherms and in situ tapping mode atomic force microscope (TMAFM) imaging have enabled polymer adsorbed amount and morphology of the adsorbed layer (area coverage and polymer domain size) to be determined and also the amount of hydration water in the structure of the adsorbed layer. The effect of the polymer on the mineral contact angles, measured by the captive bubble method on cleaved mineral surfaces, indicates clear correlations between the hydrophobicity reduction of the minerals, the adsorbed amount, and the surface coverage of the adsorbed polymer. Predictions of the flotation recovery of the treated mineral phases have been confirmed by performing batch flotation experiments. The influence of the polymer surface coverage on flotation recovery has highlighted the importance of this key parameter in the predictions of depressant efficiency. The roles of the initial hydrophobicity and the surface structure of the mineral basal plane in determining adsorption parameters and flotation response of the polymer-treated minerals are also discussed.

  13. Hydrophobic-hydrophilic forces in protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Stewart R; Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-08-01

    The process of protein folding is obviously driven by forces exerted on the atoms of the amino-acid chain. These forces arise from interactions with other parts of the protein itself (direct forces), as well as from interactions with the solvent (solvent-induced forces). We present a statistical-mechanical formalism that describes both these direct and indirect, solvent-induced thermodynamic forces on groups of the protein. We focus on 2 kinds of protein groups, commonly referred to as hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Analysis of this result leads to the conclusion that the forces on hydrophilic groups are in general stronger than on hydrophobic groups. This is then tested and verified by a series of molecular dynamics simulations, examining both hydrophobic alkanes of different sizes and hydrophilic moieties represented by polar-neutral hydroxyl groups. The magnitude of the force on assemblies of hydrophilic groups is dependent on their relative orientation: with 2 to 4 times larger forces on groups that are able to form one or more direct hydrogen bonds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Magnetic hydrophobic nanocomposites: Silica aerogel/maghemite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zelis, P. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET (Argentina); Fernandez van Raap, M.B., E-mail: raap@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET (Argentina); Socolovsky, L.M. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET (Argentina); Leyva, A.G. [Div. Materia condensada, CNEA- ECyT-UNSAM, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, F.H. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic hydrophobic aerogels (MHA) in the form of nanocomposites of silica and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by one step sol-gel procedure followed by supercritical solvent extraction. Silica alcogels were obtained from TEOS, MTMS, methanol and H{sub 2}O, and Fe(III) nitrate as magnetic precursor. The hydrophobic property was achieved using the methytrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as co-precursor for surface modification. The so produced nanocomposite aerogels are monolithic, hydrophobic and magnetic. The interconnected porous structure hosts {approx}6 nm size {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, has a mean pore diameter of 5 nm, and a specific surface area (SSA) of 698 m Superscript-Two /g. Medium range structure of MHA is determined by SAXS, which displays the typical fractal power law behavior with primary particle radius of {approx}1 nm. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticle ensembles hosted in them are studied by means of dc-magnetometry.

  15. Enhanced Pest Ant Control With Hydrophobic Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Meer, R K; Milne, D E

    2017-04-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), left most of its natural enemies behind in South America when it arrived in Mobile, AL, in the 1930s and spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, reaching population levels up to 10 times those found in South America. The large population densities and propensity for disturbed habitats led to direct conflict with human activities. Bait control methods were first developed for fire ants in the early 1960s and little has changed in the subsequent decades, despite the drawback that the bait carrier rapidly breaks down when wet. The southeast United States is wet; thus, bait labels have various guidance-restricting applications based on potential wet conditions. Here we compare a hydrophobic fire ant bait to the equivalent standard bait formulation and demonstrate in a paired-mound field experiment under natural wet conditions in Florida (heavy dew on ground), a significant advantage for the hydrophobic bait. An effective hydrophobic ant bait would extend the utility of current bait insecticides to wet conditions and also fill an important gap in our ability to control invasive pest ant species that thrive in wet tropical and subtropical habitats, e.g., Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), the little fire ant. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Locally Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intraocular Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 103 - year - old patient, with duration of complaints of about ten years. The initial complaint had been presented as a small nodule, located on the eyebrow, which subsequently ulcerated and encompassed larger regions of the upper and lower eyelids. For the past three years, the patient also had complaints of a worsening of his vision, without seeking for medical help. Within the dermatological examination, an intraocular and periocular localised tumour was established, characterised by a raised peripheral edge and central ulceration. More careful examination revealed that the bulb was fully consumed. The patient refused further diagnosis and treatment. Advanced basal cell carcinomas with intraocular invasion are rare in general. If the patient refuses surgery, radiotherapy and systemic therapy with modern medications such as Vismodegib or Sonidegib are available as treatment options.

  17. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs have become more popular quickly in recent years. Bevacizumab is an anti- vascular endothelial growth factor agent (anti-VEGF used to treat choroidal neovascularization and retinal vascular disorders. Rare long lasting ocular adverse events are reported in the intravitreal injection of this drug that include intraocular inflammation, retinal tears, vitreous hemorrhage, endophtalmitis, and lens changes. One important concern about intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drug is intraocular pressure (IOP elevation. There are two kinds of IOP elevation. First one is an acute elevation of IOP (after few minutes and the second is delayed IOP elevation (after few months. The prevalence of IOP elevation immediately after injection is significantly high and seems to have the potential risk for optic nerve fiber loss results in decreased vision but fortunately this IOP elevation seems to be transient in most of studies.

  18. Corneal biomechanical properties and intraocular pressure in high myopic anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suzhong; Xu, Aiqin; Tao, Aizhu; Wang, Jianhua; Fan, Fan; Lu, Fan

    2010-07-01

    To investigate corneal biomechanical properties and intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with high myopic anisometropia. Patients with high myopic anisometropia (n = 23) and emmetropic subjects (n = 55) were enrolled. Corneal hysteresis (CH), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), corneal resistance factor, and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were measured with Ocular Response Analyzer. Central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography. Zeiss IOL-Master determined the values of corneal refractive power and ocular axial length. Significant differences were presented in CH, IOPg, and IOPcc among the high myopic, contralateral, and normal eyes (analysis of variance, Panisometropia. High myopic eyes showed decreased CH, but not corneal resistance factor, which indicates that some aspects of corneal biomechanical properties may be altered in high myopic eye of anisometropia. It is also suggested that anisometropic eyes with different refractive errors do not share the same biomechanical properties, which may impact IOP measurement.

  19. Foldable micro coils for a transponder system measuring intraocular pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullerich, S.; Schnakenberg, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1; Mokwa, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1]|[Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Boegel, G. vom [Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A foldable transponder system consisting of a chip and a micro coil for measuring intraocular pressure continuously is presented. The system will be integrated in the haptic of a soft artificial intraocular lens. Calculations of planar micro coils with 6 mm and 10.3 mm in diameter show the limits for planar coils with an outer diameter of 6 mm. For the realisation of the transponder system a 20 {mu}m thick coil with an outer diameter of 10.3 mm, an inner diameter of 7.7 mm, 16 turns and a gap of 20 {mu}m between the windings was selected. Measurements show a good agreement between calculated and measured values. Wireless pressure measurements were carried out showing a linear behaviour of the output signal with respect to the applied pressure. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric refractive surgery: corneal and intraocular techniques and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paysse, Evelyn A; Tychsen, Lawrence; Stahl, Erin

    2012-06-01

    Refractive surgery has now been used successfully to treat severe anisometropia and isoametropia associated with amblyopia in children who cannot wear standard spectacles or contact lenses. Extraocular techniques include photorefractive keratectomy, laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis, and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Intraocular techniques include refractive lensectomy and phakic intraocular lenses and are still being investigated in children for refractive errors outside the treatment dose capabilities of the excimer laser. This workshop discusses the various techniques, how and when to use each, and their risks and benefits. Newer techniques currently being used in adults that may someday be used in children are also introduced. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral migration of intraocular silicone oil: an MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Milea, Dan; Løgager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intraocular silicone oil may migrate into the optic nerve or the cerebral ventricles, but little is known about the frequency of these events. The aim of this prospective neuroimaging study was to determine the frequency of extraocular silicone oil migration in humans operated...... for retinal detachment. Methods: Nineteen patients included in this study were referred for silicone oil removal after uncomplicated retinal detachment surgery using internal silicone oil tamponade. Patients with a previous history of intraocular silicone oil, glaucoma or optic pit were excluded. After...... was 115 days. No extraocular silicone oil in the orbit, in the optic nerve or in the cerebral ventricles was found on MRI. Conclusions: This is the first published in vivo study on the frequency of extraocular silicone oil migration after retinal detachment surgery. Special dedicated MRI sequences...

  2. Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J C; Crawford, W J; Alexander, P C; Anduze, A L; Gelbart, S S

    1980-03-01

    Marihuana inhalation was accompanied by increased heart rate and decreased intraocular and blood pressure in 18 subjects with heterogenous glaucomas. The hypotensive effects appeared in 60 to 90 minutes as the decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) appeared to follow the decrease in blood pressure. In addition to any local effect, the mechanism of lowered to any local effect, the mechanism of lowered IOP may also involve the decreased pressure perfusing the ciliary body vasculature as a result of the peripheral vasodilatory properties of marihuana. Postural hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, and alterations in mental status occurred with such frequency as to mitigate against the routine used in the general glaucoma population. Our data indicate that further research should be directed to local means of delivering the ocular hypotensive cannabinoid to the glaucomatous eye.

  3. Scleral Fixation of Intraocular Lens with Ab Interno Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, N K; Rijal, R; Thapa, B B; Gurung, S

    2017-01-01

    Implantation of scleral fixation intraocular lens for the surgical management of aphakia cases without capsular support is a safe procedure. Prospective study was carried out at Lumbini Eye Institute, Bhairahawa. A total of 32 patients underwent scleral fixation intraocular lens implantation within a period of two years from February 2014 to February 2016. The age range was from 15 to 79 years; mean age was 47.56 ± 20.16 SD. Among them 14 (43.75%) were male and 18 (56.25%) were female. The follow-up lasted for 24 months. SFIOL for the surgical management of aphakia in the absence of capsular support is a safe procedure. The long-term follow-up is needed for an accurate evaluation of outcomes.

  4. High-throughput screening of PLGA thin films utilizing hydrophobic fluorescent dyes for hydrophobic drug compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Terry W J; Huang, Charlotte L; Kumar, Saranya; Widjaja, Effendi; Chiang Boey, Freddy Yin; Loo, Joachim S C; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2011-10-01

    Hydrophobic, antirestenotic drugs such as paclitaxel (PCTX) and rapamycin are often incorporated into thin film coatings for local delivery using implantable medical devices and polymers such as drug-eluting stents and balloons. Selecting the optimum coating formulation through screening the release profile of these drugs in thin films is time consuming and labor intensive. We describe here a high-throughput assay utilizing three model hydrophobic fluorescent compounds: fluorescein diacetate (FDAc), coumarin-6, and rhodamine 6G that were incorporated into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA-polyethylene glycol films. Raman microscopy determined the hydrophobic fluorescent dye distribution within the PLGA thin films in comparison with that of PCTX. Their subsequent release was screened in a high-throughput assay and directly compared with HPLC quantification of PCTX release. It was observed that PCTX controlled-release kinetics could be mimicked by a hydrophobic dye that had similar octanol-water partition coefficient values and homogeneous dissolution in a PLGA matrix as the drug. In particular, FDAc was found to be the optimal hydrophobic dye at modeling the burst release as well as the total amount of PCTX released over a period of 30 days. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Dewetting and hydrophobic interaction in physical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Weeks, John D; Zhou, Ruhong

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophobicity manifests itself differently on large and small length scales. This review focuses on large-length-scale hydrophobicity, particularly on dewetting at single hydrophobic surfaces and drying in regions bounded on two or more sides by hydrophobic surfaces. We review applicable theories, simulations, and experiments pertaining to large-scale hydrophobicity in physical and biomolecular systems and clarify some of the critical issues pertaining to this subject. Given space constraints, we cannot review all the significant and interesting work in this active field.

  6. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa; Patrícia Novita Garcia; Letícia Fernandes Barroso; Marco Antonio Ferreira; Érika Araki Okuda; Norma Allemann

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes we...

  7. Corneal decompensation after intraocular ophthalmic surgery--Missouri, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-24

    During January 8-14, 1998, six of eight patients undergoing elective intraocular surgery at a Veterans Affairs medical center (VAMC) in St. Louis, Missouri, developed corneal endothelial decompensation (corneal edema and opacification) instruments sterilized by the Abtox Plazlyte system (Abtox, Inc., Chicago, Illinois). This report summarizes the results of the investigation of these cases and indicates that using the Abtox Plazlyte system to sterilize opthalmologic surgical equipment led to corneal decompensation.

  8. [Short Review of the History of Radiotherapy for Intraocular Tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechrakis, N E; Blatsios, G; Haas, G

    2015-07-01

    For many decades, radiotherapy with its different modalities has proved to be the gold standard in the treatment of benign and malignant intraocular tumours. The various complicated therapeutic developments in this field cover a period of over 100 years and the present year deserves special mention because of the 100th anniversary of the first mention of a successful brachytherapy for a uveal melanoma by R. Deutschmann in Hamburg in 1915. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira; Garcia, Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki; Allemann, Norma

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed). Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and measure the intraocular foreign body, directing

  10. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  11. Fiberglass intraocular foreign body with no initial ocular symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, David; Olumba, Kenneth; Shrier, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of an occult intraocular foreign body missed on initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fiberglass as an intraocular foreign body. A case report in which the clinical presentation of the patient was documented by color anterior segment and fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and computed topography (CT) of the orbit. A 34-year-old male was referred for the evaluation of an acute unilateral preretinal hemorrhage of undetermined origin. Three months before his presentation, he had a foreign body sensation while cutting fiberglass, which lasted for several hours. He denied having any visual complaints until his presentation 3 months later. On anterior examination, a small paracentral corneal scar was noticed. There was no cell or flare. A small iris defect inferior nasal with an adjacent area of broad based peripheral anterior synechia on gonioscopy was noted. On funduscopy, a large subretinal elevation with an underlying hemorrhage adjacent to the disk with a white foreign body partially imbedded in the retina was seen. A vitreous hemorrhage was overlying the macula. Because there were no signs of infection or inflammation, surgical intervention was avoided. Barrier laser was performed around the subretinal elevation. Occurrence of intraocular foreign bodies, although not uncommon, has a varying presentation. Most often devastating and dramatic, clinical signs may not be obvious or appreciated on thorough examination, especially when the offending object is very small. Intraocular foreign bodies composed of inert material (i.e., glass/fiberglass) can leave the eye without inflammation, further making the diagnosis difficult.

  12. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  13. A key step in the formation of acrylic acid from CO2 and ethylene: the transformation of a nickelalactone into a nickel-acrylate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Reinald; Langer, Jens; Malassa, Astrid; Walther, Dirk; Görls, Helmar; Vaughan, Gavin

    2006-06-21

    The reaction of a nickelalactone with dppm, resulting in the formation of a stable binuclear Ni(I) complex with an acrylate, a Ph2P- and a dppm bridge, models a key step in the formation of acrylic acid from CO2 and ethylene.

  14. Occupational methacrylate and acrylate allergy--cross-reactions and possible screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2010-12-01

    Acrylic resin monomers, especially acrylates and methacrylates, are important occupational allergens. To analyse patterns of concomitant patch test reactions to acrylic monomers in relation to exposure, and to suggest possible screening allergens. We reviewed the patch test files for the years 1994-2009 at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health for allergic reactions to acrylic monomers, and analysed the clinical records of sensitized patients. In a group of 66 patients allergic to an acrylic monomer, the most commonly positive allergens were three methacrylates, namely ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA), and an acrylate, namely diethyleneglycol diacrylate (DEGDA). The patterns of concomitant reactions imply that exposure to methacrylates may induce cross-reactivity to acrylates, whereas exposure to acrylates usually does not lead to cross-allergy to methacrylates. Screening for triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA) in the baseline series was found to be useful, as 3 of 8 patients with diagnosed occupational acrylate allergy might have been missed without the screening. A short screening series of four allergens, EGDMA, DEGDA, 2-HPMA and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), would have screened 93% of our 66 patients; each of the remaining 5 patients reacted to different acrylic monomer(s). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Acrylate and methacrylate contact allergy and allergic contact disease: a 13-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ashley; Gazzani, Paul; Thompson, Donna A

    2016-09-01

    (Meth)acrylates are important causes of contact allergy and allergic contact disease, such as dermatitis and stomatitis, with new and emerging sources resulting in changing clinical presentations. To identify the (meth)acrylates that most commonly cause allergic contact disease, highlight their usefulness for screening, and examine their relationship with occupational and clinical data. A retrospective review of results from patch tests performed between July 2002 and September 2015, in one tertiary Cutaneous Allergy Unit, was performed A series of 28 (meth)acrylates was applied to 475 patients. Results were positive in 52 cases, with occupational sources being identified in 24. Industrial exposures and acrylic nails were responsible for 13 and 10 cases, respectively, with wound dressings being implicated in 7. We found that four individual (meth)acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate, and ethyl acrylate), if used as a screening tool, could have identified 47 (90.4%) of our positive cases. Our 13-year experience indicates a changing landscape of (meth)acrylate contact allergy and allergic contact disease, with an observed shift in exposures away from manufacturing and towards acrylic nail sources. Wound dressings are highlighted as emerging sources of sensitization. Larger studies are required to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the four (meth)acrylates proposed for potential screening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 10 years of patch testing with the (meth)acrylate series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

    1997-12-01

    Statistics on 10 years of patch testing with 30 (meth)acrylates were compiled. Altogether 275 patients were patch tested and 48 patients (17.5%) had an allergic reaction to at least 1 (meth)acrylate. The (meth)acrylates most often provoking an allergic patch test reaction were 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA; 12.1%), 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA; 12.0%) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA; 11.4%). No allergic reactions were caused by 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]propane (BIS-MA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligotriacrylate 480 (OTA 480), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA), or ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA). The frequency of allergic patch test reactions presented cannot be considered as a "ranking" list of the most sensitizing (meth)acrylate compounds. In order to be able to judge the sensitization capacity of various (meth)acrylate compounds in humans, it would be necessary to have detailed information on the exposure history of the patients studied, including the purity of the (meth)acrylate compounds. Currently, this is not possible because (meth)acrylate-containing products regularly contain undeclared (meth)acrylate compounds.

  17. The effect of low dose teicoplanin-loaded acrylic bone cement on biocompatibility of bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztemür, Zekeriya; Sümer, Zeynep; Tunç, Tutku; Pazarcé, Özhan; Bulut, Okay

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) is used to prevent or treat infection in total joint replacement surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the teicoplanin-loaded acrylic bone cement. Cytotoxicity examination of acrylic bone cement balls and 400 mg teicoplanin added acrylic bone cement balls conducted by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) was used to observe adhesion and spreading of cells on surface of the balls. Cytotoxicity examination conducted by MTT assay on acrylic bone cement balls and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement balls revealed no cytotoxicity. SEM analysis put forward that cells started to proliferate and adhere on surface of the samples in both groups as a result of 48-hour incubation and that the cell proliferation over acrylic bone cement and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement was similar. As a consequence, there was no cytotoxicity in acrylic bone cement and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement groups according to results of MTT assay. On the other hand, results of SEM showed that biocompatibility of both groups was similar. In conclusion, teicoplanin-loaded bone cement did not change biocompatibility of bone cement in studied dose.

  18. Clinical and pathological classification of canine intraocular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Matthew R; Musciano, Ayla R; Dubielzig, Richard D; Durham, Amy C

    2017-07-17

    The objectives of this retrospective study of 100 dogs with intraocular lymphoma were to describe the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of canine intraocular lymphoma, determine the proportion of cases with presumed solitary ocular lymphoma (PSOL) compared to multicentric disease, and assess the clinical outcomes of these patients. Selected cases from Penn Vet Diagnostic Laboratory and Comparative Ocular Pathology Lab of Wisconsin (2004-2015) were evaluated and subtyped using the WHO classification system. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were the two most common subtypes. Questionnaires were distributed to the referring veterinarians and veterinary ophthalmologists inquiring about clinical signs at time of enucleation, staging, patient outcome, treatment, and disease progression. Cases were categorized as PSOL if only ocular involvement was noted at the time of diagnosis based on the clinical staging criteria. The majority of cases (61%) did not have systemic involvement at the time of diagnosis, and these cases did not progress postoperatively. Median survival time (MST) was significantly higher for the presumed solitary intraocular cases: 769 vs. 103 days, hazard ratio of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.077-0.68). The subtype of lymphoma did not affect survival time. The results of this study suggest two significant points of clinical interest: the majority of dogs (61%) presented without signs of systemic involvement of lymphoma at the time of enucleation, and dogs with only ocular involvement showed no disease progression postenucleation. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Conductive keratoplasty for symptomatic presbyopia following monofocal intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Panpan; Xu, Wen; Tang, Xiajing; Yao, Ke; Li, Zhaochun; Xu, Hesheng; Shi, Junting

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes of conductive keratoplasty for relief of symptomatic presbyopia of pseudophakia with monofocal intraocular lens implantation. It was a prospective clinical study and set in Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University. This study comprised 27 eyes from 27 patients with presbyopia symptom. The patients received conductive keratoplasty via monovision approach after monofocal intraocular lens implantation and were followed up at 1 week and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The main outcomes including uncorrected near visual acuity, uncorrected distance visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction spherical equivalent, keratometric astigmatism, contrast and glare sensitivity, spherical aberration and pseudoaccommodation were evaluated. Twelve months after conductive keratoplasty, the binocular uncorrected near visual acuity was significantly improved from logMAR 0.88 ± 0.16 preoperatively to logMAR 0.30 ± 0.13 (P presbyopia of pseudophakia with monofocal intraocular lens implantation. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. Near-infrared transillumination photography of intraocular tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Jørgen; Ulltang, Erlend; Kjersem, Bård

    2013-10-01

    To present a technique for near-infrared transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours based on the modifications of a conventional digital slit lamp camera system. The Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG) was used for transillumination photography by gently pressing the tip of the background illumination cable against the surface of the patient's eye. Thus the light from the flash unit was transmitted into the eye, leading to improved illumination and image resolution. The modification for near-infrared photography was done by replacing the original camera with a Canon EOS 30D (Canon Inc) converted by Advanced Camera Services Ltd. In this camera, the infrared blocking filter was exchanged for a 720 nm long-pass filter, so that the near-infrared part of the spectrum was recorded by the sensor. The technique was applied in eight patients: three with anterior choroidal melanoma, three with ciliary body melanoma and two with ocular pigment alterations. The good diagnostic quality of the photographs made it possible to evaluate the exact location and extent of the lesions in relation to pigmented intraocular landmarks such as the ora serrata and ciliary body. The photographic procedure did not lead to any complications. We recommend near-infrared transillumination photography as a supplementary diagnostic tool for the evaluation and documentation of anteriorly located intraocular tumours.