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Sample records for hydrophilic solid surface

  1. Enhancement of Water Evaporation on Solid Surfaces with Nanoscale Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Wang, Chunlei; Lei, Xiaoling; Zhou, Guoquan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-11-06

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale water on hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterned surfaces is unexpectedly faster than that on any surfaces with uniform wettability. The key to this phenomenon is that, on the patterned surface, the evaporation rate from the hydrophilic region only slightly decreases due to the correspondingly increased water thickness; meanwhile, a considerable number of water molecules evaporate from the hydrophobic region despite the lack of water film. Most of the evaporated water from the hydrophobic region originates from the hydrophilic region by diffusing across the contact lines. Further analysis shows that the evaporation rate from the hydrophobic region is approximately proportional to the total length of the contact lines.

  2. Boundary layers of aqueous surfactant and block copolymer solutions against hydrophobic and hydrophilic solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, Roland; Schemmel, Sebastian; Shi Hongwei; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer of aqueous surfactants and amphiphilic triblock copolymers against flat solid surfaces of different degrees of hydrophobicity was investigated by neutron reflectometry (NR), grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Solid substrates of different hydrophobicities were prepared by appropriate surface treatment or by coating silicon wafers with polymer films of different chemical natures. For substrates coated with thin films (20-30 nm) of deuterated poly(styrene) (water contact angle θ w ∼ 90), neutron reflectivity measurements on the polymer/water interface revealed a water depleted liquid boundary layer of 2-3 nm thickness and a density about 90% of the bulk water density. No pronounced depletion layer was found at the interface of water against a less hydrophobic polyelectrolyte coating (θ w ∼ 63). It is believed that the observed depletion layer at the hydrophobic polymer/water interface is a precursor of the nanobubbles which have been observed by AFM at this interface. Decoration of the polymer coatings by adsorbed layers of nonionic C m E n surfactants improves their wettability by the aqueous phase at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Here, GISANS experiments conducted on the system SiO 2 /C 8 E 4 /D 2 O reveal that there is no preferred lateral organization of the C 8 E 4 adsorption layers. For amphiphilic triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) it is found that under equilibrium conditions they form solvent-swollen brushes both at the air/water and the solid/water interface. In the latter case, the brushes transform to uniform, dense layers after extensive rinsing with water and subsequent solvent evaporation. The primary adsorption layers maintain properties of the precursor brushes. In particular, their thickness scales with the number of ethylene oxide units (EO) of the block copolymer. In the case of dip-coating without

  3. Increase in the Hydrophilicity and Lewis Acid-Base Properties of Solid Surfaces Achieved by Electric Gliding Discharge in Humid Air: Effects on Bacterial Adherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamgang, J. O.; Brisset, J.-L.; Naitali, M.; Herry, J.-M.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Briandet, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed the effects of treatment with gliding discharge plasma on the surface properties of solid materials, as well as the consequences concerning adherence of a model bacterium. As evaluated by contact angles with selected liquids, plasma treatment caused an increase in surface hydrophilicity and in the Lewis acid-base components of the surface energy of all materials tested. These modifications were more marked for low density polyethylene and stainless steel than for polytetrafluoroethylene. After treatment, the hydrophilicity of the materials remained relatively stable for at least 20 days. Moreover, analysis of the topography of the materials by atomic force microscopy revealed that the roughness of both polymers was reduced by glidarc plasma treatment. As a result of all these modifications, solid substrates were activated towards micro-organisms and the adherence of S. epidermidis, a negatively charged Lewis-base and mildly hydrophilic strain selected as the model, was increased in almost all the cases tested. (plasma technology)

  4. Switchable Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, B C; Huber, D L; Kent, M S; Kushmerick, J G; Lopez, G P; Manginell, R P; Méndez, S E; Yim, H

    2002-01-01

    Tethered films of poly n-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) films have been developed as materials that can be used to switch the chemistry of a surface in response to thermal activation. In water, PNIPAM exhibits a thermally-activated phase transition that is accompanied by significant changes in polymer volume, water contact angle, and protein adsorption characteristics. New synthesis routes have been developed to prepare PNIPAM films via in-situ polymerization on self-assembled monolayers. Swelling transitions in tethered films have been characterized using a wide range of techniques including surface plasmon resonance, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, interfacial force microscopy, neutron reflectivity, and theoretical modeling. PNIPAM films have been deployed in integrated microfluidic systems. Switchable PNIPAM films have been investigated for a range of fluidic applications including fluid pumping via surface energy switching and switchable protein traps for pre-concentrating and separating...

  5. Multivalent-Counterion-Induced Surfactant Multilayer Formation at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Solid-Solution Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun; Xu, Hui; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Sivia, Devinderjit S

    2015-06-23

    Surface multilayer formation from the anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture of sodium dodecyl dioxyethylene sulfate, SLES, and monododecyl dodecaethylene glycol, C12E12, by the addition of multivalent Al(3+) counterions at the solid-solution interface is observed and characterized by neutron reflectivity, NR. The ability to form surface multilayer structures on hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica and cellulose surfaces is demonstrated. The surface multilayer formation is more pronounced and more well developed on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica surfaces than on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. The less well developed multilayer formation on the cellulose surfaces is attributed to the greater surface inhomogeneities of the cellulose surface which partially inhibit lateral coherence and growth of the multilayer domains at the surface. The surface multilayer formation is associated with extreme wetting properties and offers the potential for the manipulation of the solid surfaces for enhanced adsorption and control of the wetting behavior.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Droplets On Hydrophilic Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    and DNA microarrays technologies.Although extensive experimental, theoretical and computational work has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water, at the molecular level a complete understanding of silica-water systems has not been reached. Contact angle computations...... dynamics (MD) simulations of a hydrophilic air-water-silica system using the MD package FASTTUBE. We employ quantum chemistry calculation to obtain air-silica interaction parameters for the simulations. Our simulations are based in the following force fields: i) The silica-silica interaction is based...... of water droplets on silica surfaces offers a useful fundamental and quantitative measurement in order to study chemical and physical properties of water-silica systems. For hydrophobic systems the static and dynamic properties of the fluid-solid interface are influenced by the presence of air. Hence...

  7. Study on hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces improved by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jiangnan; Sunderland, Bob; Xue Jianming; Yan, Sha; Zhao Weijiang; Folkard, Melvyn; Michael, Barry D.; Wang Yugang

    2006-01-01

    Surface properties of polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples treated by microwave-induced argon plasma have been studied with contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanned electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that plasma treatment modified the surfaces both in composition and roughness. Modification of composition makes polymer surfaces tend to be highly hydrophilic, which mainly depended on the increase of ratio of oxygen-containing group as same as other papers reported. And this experiment further revealed that C=O bond is Key factor to the improvement of the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces. Our SEM observation on PET shown that the roughness of the surface has also been improved in micron scale and it has influence on the surface hydrophilicity

  8. Frictional forces between hydrophilic and hydrophobic particle coated nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Petra M; Claesson, Per M.; Swerin, Agne

    2013-01-01

    Friction forces have long been associated with the famous Amontons' rule that states that the friction force is linearly dependent on the applied normal load, with the proportionality constant being known as the friction coefficient. Amontons' rule is however purely phenomenological and does...... not in itself provide any information on why the friction coefficient is different for different material combinations. In this study, friction forces between a colloidal probe and nanostructured particle coated surfaces in an aqueous environment exhibiting different roughness length scales were measured...... by utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemistry of the surfaces and the probe was varied between hydrophilic silica and hydrophobized silica. For hydrophilic silica surfaces, the friction coefficient was significantly higher for the particle coated surfaces than on the flat reference surface. All...

  9. Micro- and nanoscale characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae

    2006-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces as well as low adhesion and friction are desirable for various industrial applications. Certain plant leaves are known to be hydrophobic in nature due to their roughness and the presence of a thin wax film on the surface of the leaf. The purpose of this study is to fully characterize the leaf surfaces on the micro- and nanoscale while separating out the effects of the micro- and the nanobumps of hydrophobic leaves on the hydrophobicity. Hydrophilic leaves were also studied to better understand the role of wax and roughness. Furthermore, the adhesion and friction properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves were studied. Using an optical profiler and an atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM), measurements were made to fully characterize the leaf surfaces. It is shown that the nanobumps play a more important role than the microbumps in the hydrophobic nature as well as friction of the leaf. This study will be useful in developing superhydrophobic surfaces

  10. Fabrication of zero contact angle ultra-super hydrophilic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi Prakash, C G; Clement Raj, C; Prasanth, R

    2017-06-15

    Zero contact angle surfaces have been created with the combined effect of nanostructure and UV illumination. The contact angle of titanium surface has been optimized to 3.25°±1°. with nanotubular structures through electrochemical surface modification. The porosity and surface energy of tubular TiO 2 layer play critical role over the surface wettability and the hydrophilicity of the surface. The surface free energy has been enhanced from 23.72mJ/m 2 (bare titanium surface) to 87.11mJ/m 2 (nanotubular surface). Similar surface with TiO 2 nanoparticles coating shows superhydrophilicity with contact angle up to 5.63°±0.95°. This implies liquid imbibition and surface curvature play a crucial role in surface hydrophilicity. The contact angle has been further reduced to 0°±0.86° by illuminating the surface with UV radiation. Results shows that by tuning the nanotube morphology, highly porous surfaces can be fabricated to reduce contact angle and enhance wettability. This study provides an insight into the inter-relationship between surface structural factors and ultra-superhydrophilic surfaces which can help to optimize thermal hydraulic and self cleaning surfaces. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Utilizing ion-pairing hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction for efficient glycopeptide enrichment in glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Højrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Glycopeptide enrichment is a prerequisite to enable structural characterization of protein glycosylation in glycoproteomics. Here we present an improved method for glycopeptide enrichment based on zwitter-ionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction (ZIC-HILIC SPE...

  12. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  13. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J. [CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Quebec, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  14. Transforming plastic surfaces with electrophilic backbones from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Bowen, Raffick A R; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate a simple nonaqueous reaction scheme for transforming the surface of plastics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The chemical modification is achieved by base-catalyzed trans-esterification with polyols. It is permanent, does not release contaminants, and causes no optical or mechanical distortion of the plastic. We present contact angle measurements to show successful modification of several types of plastics including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polycarbonate (PC). Its applicability to blood analysis is explored using chemically modified PET blood collection tubes and found to be quite satisfactory. We expect this approach will reduce the cost of manufacturing plastic devices with optimized wettability and can be generalized to other types of plastic materials having an electrophilic linkage as its backbone.

  15. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  16. Anisotropic wetting characteristics versus roughness on machined surfaces of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yande; Shu, Liming; Natsu, Wataru; He, Fuben

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The aim is to investigate the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting on machined surfaces. • The relationship between roughness and anisotropic wetting is modeled by thermodynamical analysis. • The effect of roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials is stronger than that on hydrophobic materials. • The energy barrier existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting. • The contact angle in the parallel direction is larger than that in the perpendicular direction. - Abstract: Anisotropic wetting of machined surfaces is widely applied in industries which can be greatly affected by roughness and solid's chemical properties. However, there has not been much work on it. A free-energy thermodynamic model is presented by analyzing geometry morphology of machined surfaces (2-D model surfaces), which demonstrates the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting. It can be concluded that the energy barrier is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay. In addition, experiments in investigating anisotropic wetting, which was characterized by the static contact angle and droplet's distortion, were performed on machined surfaces with different roughness on hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials. The droplet's anisotropy found on machined surfaces increased with mean slope of roughness profile Kr. It indicates that roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials has a stronger effect than that on hydrophobic materials. Furthermore, the contact angles predicted by the model are basically consistent with the experimentally ones

  17. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Studies on ModelPeptide Adsorption at the Hydrophobic Solid-Water and HydrophilicSolid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Roger L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been used to study the interfacial structure of several polypeptides and amino acids adsorbed to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces under a variety of experimental conditions. Peptide sequence, peptide chain length, peptide hydrophobicity, peptide side-chain type, surface hydrophobicity, and solution ionic strength all affect an adsorbed peptide's interfacial structure. Herein, it is demonstrated that with the choice of simple, model peptides and amino acids, surface specific SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be a powerful tool to elucidate the interfacial structure of these adsorbates. Herein, four experiments are described. In one, a series of isosequential amphiphilic peptides are synthesized and studied when adsorbed to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces of deuterated polystyrene, it was determined that the hydrophobic part of the peptide is ordered at the solid-liquid interface, while the hydrophilic part of the peptide appears to have a random orientation at this interface. On a hydrophilic surface of silica, it was determined that an ordered peptide was only observed if a peptide had stable secondary structure in solution. In another experiment, the interfacial structure of a model amphiphilic peptide was studied as a function of the ionic strength of the solution, a parameter that could change the peptide's secondary structure in solution. It was determined that on a hydrophobic surface, the peptide's interfacial structure was independent of its structure in solution. This was in contrast to the adsorbed structure on a hydrophilic surface, where the peptide's interfacial structure showed a strong dependence on its solution secondary structure. In a third experiment, the SFG spectra of lysine and proline amino acids on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces were obtained by using a different experimental geometry that increases the SFG signal

  18. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  19. Surface hydrophilicity of PLGA fibers governs in vitro mineralization and osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Minnah; Arora, Aditya; Katti, Dhirendra S., E-mail: dsk@iitk.ac.in

    2014-12-01

    Interfacial properties of biomaterials play an important role in governing their interaction with biological microenvironments. This work investigates the role of surface hydrophilicity of electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers in determining their biological response. For this, PLGA is blended with varying amounts of Pluronic®F-108 and electrospun to fabricate microfibers with varying surface hydrophilicity. The results of mineralization study in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrate a significant enhancement in mineralization with an increase in surface hydrophilicity. While presence of serum proteins in SBF reduces absolute mineral content, mineralization continues to be higher on samples with higher surface hydrophilicity. The results from in vitro cell culture studies demonstrate a marked improvement in mesenchymal stem cell —adhesion, elongation, proliferation, infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization on hydrophilized fibers. Therefore, hydrophilized PLGA fibers are advantageous both in terms of mineralization and elicitation of favorable cell response. Since most of the polymeric materials being used in orthopedics are hydrophobic in nature, the results from this study have strong implications in the future design of interfaces of such hydrophobic materials. In addition, the work proposes a facile method for the modification of electrospun fibers of hydrophobic polymers by blending with a poloxamer for improved bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Surface hydrophilicity of PLGA modulated by blending with Pluronic F-108. • Hydrophilized fibers support better in vitro mineralization. • Mineralization trends retained in the presence of adsorbed serum proteins. • Hydrophilized fibers promote better cell adhesion and proliferation. • Hydrophilized fibers also enable better osteogenic differentiation.

  20. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Norde, W.; Meil, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F-prev) and to detach adhering bacteria (F-det) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the

  1. 3D Imaging of Water-Drop Condensation on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Condensation of water from the atmosphere on a solid surface is an ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and has diverse technological applications, e.g. in heat and mass transfer. We investigated the condensation kinetics of water drops on a lubricant-impregnated surface, i.e., a micropillar array impregnated with a non-volatile ionic liquid. Growing and coalescing drops were imaged in 3D using a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with a temperature and humidity control. Different stages of condensation can be discriminated. On a lubricant-impregnated hydrophobic micropillar array these are: (1) Nucleation on the lubricant surface. (2) Regular alignment of water drops between micropillars and formation of a three-phase contact line on a bottom of the substrate. (3) Deformation and bridging by coalescence which eventually leads to a detachment of the drops from the bottom substrate. The drop-substrate contact does not result in breakdown of the slippery behaviour. Contrary, on a lubricant-impregnated hydrophilic micropillar array, the condensed water drops replace the lubricant. Consequently, the surface loses its slippery property. Our results demonstrate that a Wenzel-like to Cassie transition, required to maintain the facile removal of condensed water drops, can be induced by well-chosen surface hydrophobicity.

  2. Free surface entropic lattice Boltzmann simulations of film condensation on vertical hydrophilic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Karlin, Iliya; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A model for vapor condensation on vertical hydrophilic surfaces is developed using the entropic lattice Boltzmann method extended with a free surface formulation of the evaporation–condensation problem. The model is validated with the steady liquid film formation on a flat vertical wall. It is sh......A model for vapor condensation on vertical hydrophilic surfaces is developed using the entropic lattice Boltzmann method extended with a free surface formulation of the evaporation–condensation problem. The model is validated with the steady liquid film formation on a flat vertical wall...

  3. Bond-Strengthening in Staphylococcal Adhesion to Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.; Norde, W.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent bacterial adhesion forces of four strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces were investigated. Initial adhesion forces differed significantly between the two surfaces and hovered around -0.4 nN. No unambiguous effect of substratum surface

  4. Solubility and dissolution enhancement of flurbiprofen by solid dispersion using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Daravath

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intent of the current work is to study the effect of polyethylene glycol 8000 and polyethylene glycol 10000 as hydrophilic carriers on dissolution behaviour of flurbiprofen. In the present study, solvent evaporation method was used to prepare flurbiprofen solid dispersions and evaluated for physico-chemical properties, drug-carrier compatibility studies and dissolution behaviour of drug. Solubility studies showed more solubility in higher pH values and formulations SD4 and SD8 were selected to prepare the fast dissolving tablets. FTIR and DSC study showed no interaction and drug was dispersed molecularly in hydrophilic carrier. XRD studies revealed that there was change in the crystallinity of the drug. The results of In vitro studies showed SD8 formulation confer significant improvement (p<0.05 in drug release, Q20 was 99.08±1.35% compared to conventional and marketed tablets (47.31±0.74% and 56.86±1.91%. The mean dissolution time (MDT was reduced to 8.79 min compared to conventional and marketed tablets (25.76 and 22.22 min. indicating faster drug release. The DE (% dissolution efficiency was increased by 2.5 folds (61.63% compared to conventional tablets (23.71%. From the results, it is evident that polyethylene glycol solid dispersions in less carrier ratio may enhance the solubility and there by improve the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen.

  5. Calcification of Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lenses With a Hydrophobic Surface: Laboratory Analysis of 6 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartaganis, Sotirios P; Prahs, Philipp; Lazari, Eftichia D; Gartaganis, Panos S; Helbig, Horst; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the nature and characteristic features of deposits causing opacification of intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on the examination of clinical findings using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Retrospective, observational case series. This is a multicenter study of 6 hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (Lentis LS-502-1; Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) with a hydrophobic surface that were explanted from 5 patients because of opacification. Three patients had an uncomplicated phacoemulsification. One patient underwent combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment and later silicone oil endotamponade owing to redetachment. The last patient had a pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil instillation combined with phacoemulsification for tractive retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy. The explanted lenses were submitted to our laboratory and were examined by SEM and EDX in order to identify the morphologic features and the composition of the deposits. SEM and EDX analyses confirmed the presence of calcific deposits in the interior of the opacified hydrophilic IOLs, with a pattern showing the formation of lumps on the surface. The lumps were due to subsurface formation of calcium phosphate crystalline deposits. The crystallite clusters seemed to diffuse from the IOL interior to the surface. We demonstrated the calcification pattern of the hydrophilic IOL (Lentis LS-502-1) with a hydrophobic surface. Although hydrophilic acrylic lenses have a hydrophobic surface, the development of calcification is a possible threat initiating from the hydrophilic subsurface of the IOLs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface modification of imprinted polymer microspheres with ultrathin hydrophilic shells to improve selective recognition of glutathione in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Renyuan, E-mail: songrenyuan0726@163.com; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Li, Ji; Du, Chunbao; Qian, Liwei; Wang, Chaoli

    2016-03-01

    A universal, effective approach addressing the classical limitations of hydrophobic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) microspheres was described. Two water-compatible MIP microspheres with ultrathin hydrophilic shells were synthesized by controllable surface-graft polymerization using a charged monomer (methacrylic acid) and uncharged monomer (N-isopropylacrylamide) as the hydrophilic functional monomers for the recognition of glutathione in the aqueous medium. The morphological and chemical characteristics of the as-prepared water-compatible MIP microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Their selective recognition properties were investigated by static binding tests and compared with those of the ungrafted MIP microspheres. The results of this study showed that the both as-prepared water-compatible MIP microspheres effectively decreased non-specific binding and enhanced the imprinting factor significantly, and the water-compatible MIP microspheres prepared using N-isopropylacrylamide as monomer exhibited a more remarkable recognition property. In addition, the thickness of surface-grafted hydrophilic layer was well controlled by adjusting the irradiation time to obtain the excellent recognition property. Finally, the applicability of the as-prepared water-compatible MIP microspheres as solid-phase extraction materials was investigated by competitive binding tests using a mixture of glutathione and its analogs. - Highlights: • Ultrathin hydrophilic shell was synthesized by controllable SIP approach. • Low nonspecific binding, high imprinting factor and selectivity were achieved. • Value of imprinting factor was controlled by adjusting irradiation time. • Selective solid-phase extraction of glutathione from a mixed solution of peptides.

  7. Patterned hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, M., E-mail: michael.mertens@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Mohr, M.; Brühne, K.; Fecht, H.J. [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Łojkowski, M.; Święszkowski, W. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Łojkowski, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties on fluorine-, hydrogen- and oxygen- terminated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. • Micropatterned - multi-terminated layers with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas on one sample. • Visualization of multi-terminated surfaces by e.g. SEM and LFM. • Roughness and friction investigations on different terminated surfaces. • Smooth and biocompatible surfaces with same roughness regardless of hydrophobicity for microbiological investigations. - Abstract: In this work, we show that ultra nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces have been modified to add them hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. This allows growing diamond on different substrates which can be even 3D or structured. Silicon and, for optical applications, transparent quartz glass are the preferred substrates for UNCD layers growth. Fluorine termination leads to strong hydrophobic properties as indicated by a high contact angle for water of more than 100°. Hydrogen termination shows lesser hydrophobic behavior. Hydrophilic characteristics has been realised with oxygen termination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirm the oxygen and fluorine- termination on the nanocrystalline diamond surface. Further, by micropatterning using photolithography, multi-terminated layers have been created with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. In addition, we have shown that retermination is achieved, and the properties of the surface have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and vice versa. Micro- roughness and stress in the grown film influences slightly the wetting angle as well. The opportunity to realize local differences in hydrophobicity on nanocrystalline diamond layers, in any size or geometry, offers interesting applications for example in

  8. An SFG study of interfacial amino acids at the hydrophilic SiO2 and hydrophobic deuterated polystyrene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinga, George J; York, Roger L; Onorato, Robert M; Thompson, Christopher M; Webb, Nic E; Yoon, Alfred P; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2011-04-27

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to characterize the interfacial structure of eight individual amino acids--L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, glycine, L-lysine, L-arginine, L-cysteine, L-alanine, and L-proline--in aqueous solution adsorbed at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. Specifically, SFG vibrational spectra were obtained for the amino acids at the solid-liquid interface between both hydrophobic d(8)-polystyrene (d(8)-PS) and SiO(2) model surfaces and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4. At the hydrophobic d(8)-PS surface, seven of the amino acids solutions investigated showed clear and identifiable C-H vibrational modes, with the exception being l-alanine. In the SFG spectra obtained at the hydrophilic SiO(2) surface, no C-H vibrational modes were observed from any of the amino acids studied. However, it was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance that amino acids do adsorb to the SiO(2) interface, and the amino acid solutions were found to have a detectable and widely varying influence on the magnitude of SFG signal from water at the SiO(2)/PBS interface. This study provides the first known SFG spectra of several individual amino acids in aqueous solution at the solid-liquid interface and under physiological conditions.

  9. The hydrophobic effect: Molecular dynamics simulations of water confined between extended hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Structural and dynamic properties of water confined between two parallel, extended, either hydrophobic or hydrophilic crystalline surfaces of n-alkane C36H74 or n-alcohol C35H71OH, are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Electron density profiles, directly compared with corresponding......-correlation functions reveal that water molecules have characteristic diffusive behavior and orientational ordering due to the lack of hydrogen bonding interactions with the surface. These observations suggest that the altered dynamical properties of water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces together...... at both surfaces. The ordering is characteristically different between the surfaces and of longer range at the hydrophilic surface. Furthermore, the dynamic properties of water are different at the two surfaces and different from the bulk behavior. In particular, at the hydrophobic surface, time...

  10. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  11. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: dybyun@skku.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  12. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  13. Comparison of the Fouling Release Properties of Hydrophobic Fluorinated and Hydrophilic PEGylated Block Copolymer Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.; Wang, N.; Ober, C.; Finlay, J.; Callow, M.; Callow, J.; Hexemer, A.; Sohn, K.; Kramer, E.; Fischer, D.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the role of surface wettability in adhesion of cells, the attachment of two different marine algae was studied on hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer surfaces. Adhesion of cells of the diatom Navicula and sporelings (young plants) of the green macroalga Ulva to an underwater surface is mainly by interactions between the surface and the adhesive exopolymers, which the cells secrete upon settlement and during subsequent colonization and growth. Two types of block copolymers, one with poly(ethylene glycol) side-chains and the other with liquid crystalline, fluorinated side-chains, were used to prepare the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The formation of a liquid crystalline smectic phase in the latter inhibited molecular reorganization at the surface, which is generally an issue when a highly hydrophobic surface is in contact with water. The adhesion strength was assessed by the fraction of settled cells (Navicula) or biomass (Ulva) that detached from the surface in a water flow channel with a wall shear stress of 53 Pa. The two species exhibited opposite adhesion behavior on the same sets of surfaces. While Navicula cells released more easily from hydrophilic surfaces, Ulva sporelings showed higher removal from hydrophobic surfaces. This highlights the importance of differences in cell-surface interactions in determining the strength of adhesion of cells to substrates

  14. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  15. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Protein Adsorption of Titanium Surface by Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel and convenient method of chemical treatment to modify the hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA titanium surfaces and machined titanium surfaces were treated with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solution. The wetting behavior of both kinds of surfaces was measured by water contact angle (WCA test. The surface microstructure was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D optical microscopy. The elemental compositions of the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The protein adsorption analysis was performed with fibronectin. Results showed that, after 1 M NaHCO3 treatment, the hydrophilicity of both SLA and machined surfaces was enhanced. No significant microstructural change presented on titanium surfaces after NaHCO3 treatment. The deprotonation and ion exchange activities might cause the enhanced hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. The increased protein adsorption of NaHCO3-treated SLA surfaces might indicate their improved tissue-integration in clinical use.

  16. Hydrophilic Surface Modification of PDMS Microchannel for O/W and W/O/W Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Bashir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification method for bonded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannels is presented herein. Polymerization of acrylic acid was performed on the surface of a microchannel using an inline atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasma technique. The surface treatment changes the wettability of the microchannel from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is a challenging task due to the fast hydrophobic recovery of the PDMS surface after modification. This modification allows the formation of highly monodisperse oil-in-water (O/W droplets. The generation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W double emulsions was successfully achieved by connecting in series a hydrophobic microchip with a modified hydrophilic microchip. An original channel blocking technique to pattern the surface wettability of a specific section of a microchip using a viscous liquid comprising a mixture of honey and glycerol, is also presented for generating W/O/W emulsions on a single chip.

  17. Characterization of solid surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  18. A Simple Hydrophilic Treatment of SU-8 Surfaces for Cell Culturing and Cell Patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2005-01-01

    SU-8, an epoxy-based photoresist, widely used in constitution different mTAS systems, is incompatible with mammalian cell adhesion and culture in its native form. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cheap and robust two-step method to render a SU-8 surface hydrophilic and compatible with cell culture........ The contact angle of SU-8 surface was significantly reduced from 90° to 25° after the surface modification. The treated SU-8 surfaces provided a cell culture environment that was comparable with cell culture flask surface in terms of generation time and morphology....

  19. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  20. Study of Hydrophobic and Ionizable Hydrophilic Copolymers at Polymer/Solid and Polymer/Liquid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perahia, Dvora

    2011-11-01

    Joint experimental-computational efforts were set to characterize the interfacial effects on the structure and dynamics of polymers consisting of highly rigid hydrophilic-ionizable and hydrophobic sub-units within one polymeric chain casted into thin films of several molecular dimensions. Focusing on the ultra thin film region we separate out the interfacial effects from bulk characteristics. Specifically, the study sought to: identify the parameters that control the formation of a stable polymer-solid interface. The study consists of two components, experimental investigations and computational efforts. The experimental component was designed to derive empirical trends that can be used to correlate the set of coupled polymer molecular parameters with the interfacial characteristics of these polymers, and their response to presence of solvents. The computational study was designed to provide molecular insight into the ensemble averages provided by the experimental efforts on multiple length scales from molecular dimensions, to the nanometer lengths to a macroscopic understanding of solvent interactions with structured polymers. With the ultimate goal of correlating molecular parameters to structure, dynamics and properties of ionic polymers, the first stage of the research began with the study of two systems, one which allowed tailoring the flexibility of the backbone without the presence of ionic groups, but with a potential to sulfonate groups at a later stage, and a polymer whose backbone is rigid and the density of the ionic group can be varied. The combined experimental and computational studies significantly extended the understanding of polymers at interfaces from model systems to polydispersed copolymers with blocks of varying nature and complexity. This new insight directly affects the design of polymers for sustainable energy applications from batteries and fuel cells to solar energy.

  1. Hydrophilization of poly(ether ether ketone) films by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI-ATRP) has been exploited to hydrophilize PEEK. The ketone groups on the PEEK surface were reduced to hydroxyl groups which were converted to bromoisobutyrate initiating sites for SI-ATRP. The modification steps were followed by contact...... angle measurements and XPS. Moreover, ATR FTIR has been used to confirm the formation of initiating groups. Grafting of PEGMA from PEEK was performed in aqueous solution. The presence of the PPEGMA grafts on PEEK was revealed by the thermograms from TGA whereas investigations with AFM rejected changes...

  2. Temporal Changes in Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Membrane Surfaces in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    multidimensional scaling of LC-OCD data showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the sampling event (time) regardless of the membrane surface chemistry (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) or operating mode (with or without permeate flux). These results suggest

  3. Effect of heat treatment on surface hydrophilicity-retaining ability of titanium dioxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Sun, Shupei; Liao, Xiaoming; Wen, Jiang; Yin, Guangfu; Pu, Ximing; Yao, Yadong; Huang, Zhongbing

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different annealing temperature and atmosphere on the surface wettability retaining properties of titania nanotubes (TNs) fabricated by anodization. The TNs morphology, crystal phase composition and surface elemental composition and water contact angle (WCA) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle instrument, respectively. After the samples annealed at 200 °C, 450 °C, 850 °C have been stored in air for 28 days, the WCAs increase to 31.7°, 21.1° and 110.5°, respectively. The results indicate that crystal phase composition of TNs plays an important role in surface wettability. Compared with the WCA (21.1°) of the samples annealed in air after 28 days, the WCA of samples annealed in oxygen-deficient atmosphere is lower, suggesting the contribution of oxygen vacancy in the enhanced hydrophilicity-retaining ability. Our study demonstrates that the surface hydrophilicity-retaining ability of TNs is related to the ordered nanotubular structure, crystal structure, the amount of surface hydroxyl group and oxygen vacancy defects.

  4. Thermocapillary droplet actuation on structured solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetsas, George; Chamakos, Nikolaos T.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates, through 2D and 3D finite element simulations, the thermocapillary-driven flow inside a droplet which resides on a non-uniformly heated patterned surface. We employ a recently proposed sharp-interface scheme capable of efficiently modelling the flow over complicate surfaces and consider a wide range of substrate wettabilities, i.e. from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surfaces. Our simulations indicate that due to the presence of the solid structures and the induced effect of contact angle hysteresis, inherently predicted by our model, a critical thermal gradient arises beyond which droplet migration is possible, in line with previous experimental observations. The migration velocity as well as the direction of motion depends on the combined action of the net mechanical force along the contact line and the thermocapillary induced flow at the liquid-air interface. We also show that through a proper control and design of the substrate wettability, the contact angle hysteresis and the induced flow field it is possible to manipulate the droplet dynamics, e.g. controlling its motion along a predefined track or entrapping by a wetting defect a droplet based on its size as well as providing appropriate conditions for enhanced mixing inside the droplet. Funding from the European Research Council under the Europeans Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no. [240710] is acknowledged.

  5. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12 g/mL and 20 kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120 min and 5 M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8 nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Dimethylformamide (DMF) has significant effect on reduction of fibers' diameter. • Having high hydrophilicity by alkaline hydrolysis • Suitable

  6. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabandeh, Fatemeh, E-mail: taban_f@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soheili, Zahra-Soheila [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12 g/mL and 20 kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120 min and 5 M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8 nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Dimethylformamide (DMF) has significant effect on reduction of fibers' diameter. • Having high hydrophilicity by alkaline hydrolysis • Suitable

  7. Solid surfaces : some theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    An appraisal of the current situation concerning some of the theoretical aspects of solid surfaces is presented. First of all the characterization of the surfaces that involves the surface geometry and atomic composition for both the clean and adsorbed surfaces is discussed. Under this, the methods for determining the surface structure (such as low energy electron diffraction, field electron and field ion microscopy, photo emission spectroscopy and atomic scattering) and methods for determining the surface composition by the Auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In the second part, emphasis is on the electronic structure of the clean and adsorbed surfaces. The measurements of ultra-violet and X-ray photo electron spectra are shown to yield the information about the surface electronic structure. In this context the many body effects such as, shake-up and relaxation energy etc. are discussed. Finally the status of the theory in relation to the experiments on angular resolved and polarization dependent photo emission are presented. (auth.)

  8. Capillary adhesion between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    I study how the contact area and the work of adhesion between two elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces depend on the relative humidity. The surfaces are assumed to be hydrophilic, and capillary bridges form at the interface between the solids. For elastically hard solids with relatively smooth surfaces, the area of real contact and therefore also the sliding friction are maximal when there is just enough liquid to fill out the interfacial space between the solids, which typically occurs for d K ∼3h rms , where d K is the height of the capillary bridge and h rms the root-mean-square roughness of the (combined) surface roughness profile. For elastically soft solids, the area of real contact is maximal for very low humidity (i.e. small d K ), where the capillary bridges are able to pull the solids into nearly complete contact. In both cases, the work of adhesion is maximal (and equal to 2γcosθ, where γ is the liquid surface tension and θ the liquid-solid contact angle) when d K >> h rms , corresponding to high relative humidity

  9. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  10. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi; Li, Yan; Krause, Wendy E.; Pasquinelli, Melissa A.; Rojas, Orlando J.

    2012-01-01

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi

    2012-01-25

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Hydrophilic modification of polyethersulfone porous membranes via a thermal-induced surface crosslinking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Lijun; Zhao Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    A thermal-induced surface crosslinking process was employed to perform a hydrophilic surface modification of PES porous membranes. Difunctional poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as the main crosslinking modifier. The addition of trifunctional trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA) into the reaction solutions accelerated the crosslinking progress of PEGDA on PES membranes. The membrane surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The mass gains (MG) of the modified membranes could be conveniently modulated by varying the PEGDA concentration and crosslinking time. The measurements of water contact angle showed that the hydrophilicity of PES membranes was remarkably enhanced by the coating of crosslinked PEGDA layer. When a moderate mass gain of about 150 μg/cm 2 was reached, both the permeability and anti-fouling ability of PES membranes could be significantly improved. Excessive mass gain not only contributed little to the anti-fouling ability, but also brought a deteriorated permeability to PES membranes.

  13. Hydrophilic modification of polyethersulfone porous membranes via a thermal-induced surface crosslinking approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu Lijun, E-mail: l.j.mu@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhao Wenzhen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-05-30

    A thermal-induced surface crosslinking process was employed to perform a hydrophilic surface modification of PES porous membranes. Difunctional poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as the main crosslinking modifier. The addition of trifunctional trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA) into the reaction solutions accelerated the crosslinking progress of PEGDA on PES membranes. The membrane surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The mass gains (MG) of the modified membranes could be conveniently modulated by varying the PEGDA concentration and crosslinking time. The measurements of water contact angle showed that the hydrophilicity of PES membranes was remarkably enhanced by the coating of crosslinked PEGDA layer. When a moderate mass gain of about 150 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} was reached, both the permeability and anti-fouling ability of PES membranes could be significantly improved. Excessive mass gain not only contributed little to the anti-fouling ability, but also brought a deteriorated permeability to PES membranes.

  14. Surface morphological modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo, Gastón A.; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I. [IMBIV (CONICET), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA (Argentina); Pino, Gustavo A.; Ferrero, Juan C. [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina); Rossa, Maximiliano, E-mail: mrossa@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser-induced surface modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by ns pulses. • Formation of ablation craters observed under most of the single-pulse experimental conditions. • UV laser foaming of dried hydrogel samples resulting from single- and multiple-pulse experiments. • Threshold values of the incident laser fluence reported for the observed surface modifications. • Lower threshold fluences for acrylate-based, compared to acrylamide-based hydrogels. - Abstract: This work reports an investigation of the surface modifications induced by irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths on crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymeric materials, which have been functionalized with 1-vinylimidazole as a co-monomer. A comparison is made between hydrogels differing in the base co-monomer (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) and in hydration state (both swollen and dried states). Formation of craters is the dominant morphological change observed by ablation in the visible at 532 nm, whereas additional, less aggressive surface modifications, chiefly microfoams and roughness, are developed in the ultraviolet at 266 nm. At both irradiation wavelengths, threshold values of the incident laser fluence for the observation of the various surface modifications are determined under single-pulse laser irradiation conditions. It is shown that multiple-pulse irradiation at 266 nm with a limited number of laser shots can be used alternatively for generating a regular microfoam layer at the surface of dried hydrogels based on N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. The observations are rationalized on the basis of currently accepted mechanisms for laser-induced polymer surface modification, with a significant contribution of the laser foaming mechanism. Prospective applications of the laser-foamed hydrogel matrices in biomolecule immobilization are suggested.

  15. Surface mobilities on solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Surface Mobilities on Solid Materials held in France in 1981. The goal of the two-week meeting was to review up-to-date knowledge on surface diffusion, both theoretical and experimental, and to highlight those areas in which much more knowledge needs to be accumulated. Topics include theoretical aspects of surface diffusion (e.g., microscopic theories of D at zero coverage; statistical mechanical models and surface diffusion); surface diffusion at the atomic level (e.g., FIM studies of surface migration of single adatoms and diatomic clusters; field emission studies of surface diffusion of adsorbates); foreign adsorbate mass transport; self-diffusion mass transport (e.g., different driving forces for the matter transport along surfaces; measurements of the morphological evolution of tips); the role of surface diffusion in some fundamental and applied sciences (e.g. adatomadatom pair interactions and adlayer superstructure formation; surface mobility in chemical reactions and catalysis); and recent works on surface diffusion (e.g., preliminary results on surface self-diffusion measurements on nickel and chromium tips)

  16. Exploring the Leishmania Hydrophilic Acylated Surface Protein B (HASPB) Export Pathway by Live Cell Imaging Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lorna; Price, Helen; O'Toole, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation. Here, we use live cell imaging methods to further explore this pathway allowing visualization of key events in real time at the individual cell level. These methods include live cell imaging using fluorescent reporters to determine the subcellular localization of wild type and acylation site mutation HASPB18-GFP fusion proteins, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the dynamics of HASPB in live cells, and live antibody staining to detect surface exposure of HASPB by confocal microscopy.

  17. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, Simon Alan

    1997-07-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were then carried out with trifluorinated amines to confirm the viability of this technique to bond molecules to surfaces. Finally, pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride took this approach one stage further, by forming well-adhered polymer films containing a predetermined concentration of reactive anhydride groups. Subsequent functionalization reactions led to the secure attachment of dendrimers and Jeffamines at any desired packing density. An alternative route to biocompatibilization used 1,2-ethanedithiol to yield thiolated surfaces containing very high polymeric sulfur : carbon ratios. (author)

  18. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, Simon Alan

    1997-01-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were then carried out with trifluorinated amines to confirm the viability of this technique to bond molecules to surfaces. Finally, pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride took this approach one stage further, by forming well-adhered polymer films containing a predetermined concentration of reactive anhydride groups. Subsequent functionalization reactions led to the secure attachment of dendrimers and Jeffamines at any desired packing density. An alternative route to biocompatibilization used 1,2-ethanedithiol to yield thiolated surfaces containing very high polymeric sulfur : carbon ratios. (author)

  19. Hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric surface capable of effective suppression of protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, Yuri; Inoue, Naoko; Mihara, Erika; Kitayama, Yukiya; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: takeuchi@gold.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Three hydrophilic crosslinked polymers were examined for protein adsorption. • All polymers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins. • Poly(MMPC) showed the lowest adsorption for positively charged proteins. • Poly(MMPC) is able to reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins. - Abstract: We investigated the nonspecific adsorption of proteins towards three hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric thin layers prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-[N-(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]phosphorylcholine (MMPC), or 6,6′-diacryloyl-trehalose crosslinkers. Protein binding experiments were performed by surface plasmon resonance with six proteins of different pI values including α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme in buffer solution at pH 7.4. All of the obtained crosslinked-polymeric thin layers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins at pH 7.4 such as α-lactalbumin, BSA, and myoglobin. Nonspecific adsorption of positively charged proteins including ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme was the lowest for poly(MMPC). These results suggest poly(MMPC) can effectively reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins that are negatively or positively charged at pH 7.4. MMPC is a promising crosslinker for a wide range of polymeric materials requiring low nonspecific protein binding.

  20. Highly Hydrophilic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration Membranes via Postfabrication Grafting of Surface-Tailored Silica Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2013-07-24

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has drawn much attention as a predominant ultrafiltration (UF) membrane material due to its outstanding mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, current applications suffer from the low fouling resistance of the PVDF membrane due to the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the membrane. The present study demonstrates a novel approach for the fabrication of a highly hydrophilic PVDF UF membrane via postfabrication tethering of superhydrophilic silica nanoparticles (NPs) to the membrane surface. The pristine PVDF membrane was grafted with poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) by plasma induced graft copolymerization, providing sufficient carboxyl groups as anchor sites for the binding of silica NPs, which were surface-tailored with amine-terminated cationic ligands. The NP binding was achieved through a remarkably simple and effective dip-coating technique in the presence or absence of the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking process. The properties of the membrane prepared from the modification without EDC/NHS cross-linking were comparable to those for the membrane prepared with the EDC/NHS cross-linking. Both modifications almost doubled the surface energy of the functionalized membranes, which significantly improved the wettability of the membrane and converted the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. The irreversibly bound layer of superhydrophilic silica NPs endowed the membranes with strong antifouling performance as demonstrated by three sequential fouling filtration runs using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model organic foulant. The results suggest promising applications of the postfabrication surface modification technique in various membrane separation areas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Switchable Super-Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Film Surfaces on Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Textured Si Wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Litao, Yao; Kim, Bonghwan

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a surface texturing process for pyramidal surface features along with an indium tin oxide (ITO) coating process to fabricate super-hydrophilic conductive surfaces. The contact angle of a water droplet was less than 5 degrees, which means that an extremely high wettability is achievable on super-hydrophilic surfaces. We have also fabricated a super-hydrophobic conductive surface using an additional coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the ITO layer coated on the textured Si surface; the ITO and PTFE films were deposited by using a conventional sputtering method. We found that a super-hydrophilic conductive surface is produced by ITO coated on the pyramidal Si surface (ITO/Si), with contact angles of approximately 0 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm. These values are highly dependent on the substrate temperature during the sputtering process. We also found that the super-hydrophobic conductive surface produced by the additional coating of PTFE on the pyramidal Si surface with an ITO layer (PTFE/ITO/Si) has a contact angle of almost 160 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm, with a reflectance lower than 9%. Therefore, these processes can be used to fabricate multifunctional features of ITO films for switchable super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Development of a classical force field for the oxidized Si surface: application to hydrophilic wafer bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Daniel J; Payne, Mike C; Csányi, Gábor; Spearing, S Mark; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio

    2007-11-28

    We have developed a classical two- and three-body interaction potential to simulate the hydroxylated, natively oxidized Si surface in contact with water solutions, based on the combination and extension of the Stillinger-Weber potential and of a potential originally developed to simulate SiO(2) polymorphs. The potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the structure, charge distribution, tensile surface stress, and interactions with single water molecules of a natively oxidized Si surface model previously obtained by means of accurate density functional theory simulations. We have applied the potential to the case of hydrophilic silicon wafer bonding at room temperature, revealing maximum room temperature work of adhesion values for natively oxidized and amorphous silica surfaces of 97 and 90 mJm(2), respectively, at a water adsorption coverage of approximately 1 ML. The difference arises from the stronger interaction of the natively oxidized surface with liquid water, resulting in a higher heat of immersion (203 vs 166 mJm(2)), and may be explained in terms of the more pronounced water structuring close to the surface in alternating layers of larger and smaller densities with respect to the liquid bulk. The computed force-displacement bonding curves may be a useful input for cohesive zone models where both the topographic details of the surfaces and the dependence of the attractive force on the initial surface separation and wetting can be taken into account.

  3. Structural and dynamical properties of water confined between two hydrophilic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Napoli, Solange, E-mail: dinapoli@tandar.cnea.gov.a [Depto. de Fisica - CAC, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Gamba, Zulema, E-mail: gamba@tandar.cnea.gov.a [Depto. de Fisica - CAC, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-10-01

    The properties of water in the vicinity of surfaces and under confinement have been extensively studied because of the relevance of a quantitative understanding of many processes that not only take place in biological systems, like cells, membranes and microemulsions, but also in many others such as confined water in rocks, ionic channels and interestellar matter. In this work we perform molecular dynamic calculations of the nanoscopic structure of TIP5P model water confined between two hydrophilic surfaces. We calculate the diffusion coefficients and the atomic density profile of water molecules and polar ions in the system as a function of the number of water molecules per amphiphilic (n{sub W}). We also study the dependence of the water layer thickness and the profiles of water dipole orientation with this parameter.

  4. Structural and dynamical properties of water confined between two hydrophilic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Napoli, Solange; Gamba, Zulema

    2009-01-01

    The properties of water in the vicinity of surfaces and under confinement have been extensively studied because of the relevance of a quantitative understanding of many processes that not only take place in biological systems, like cells, membranes and microemulsions, but also in many others such as confined water in rocks, ionic channels and interestellar matter. In this work we perform molecular dynamic calculations of the nanoscopic structure of TIP5P model water confined between two hydrophilic surfaces. We calculate the diffusion coefficients and the atomic density profile of water molecules and polar ions in the system as a function of the number of water molecules per amphiphilic (n W ). We also study the dependence of the water layer thickness and the profiles of water dipole orientation with this parameter.

  5. Transport mechanism of an initially spherical droplet on a combined hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kwon, Young Hoo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Fluid transport is a key issue in the development of microfluidic systems. Recently, Myong (2014) has proposed a new concept for droplet transport without external power sources, and numerically validated the results for a hypothetical 2D shape, initially having a hemicylindrical droplet shape. Myong and Kwon (2015) have also examined the transport mechanism for an actual water droplet, initially having a 3D hemispherical shape, on a horizontal hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface, based on the numerical results of the time evolution of the droplet shape, as well as the total kinetic, gravitational, pressure and surface free energies inside the droplet. In this study, a 3D numerical analysis of an initially spherical droplet is carried out to establish a new concept for droplet transport. Further, the transport mechanism of an actual water droplet is examined in detail from the viewpoint of the capillarity force imbalance through the numerical results of droplet shape and various energies inside the droplet.

  6. A New Concept to Transport a Droplet on Horizontal Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Hyon Kook

    2014-01-01

    A fluid transport technique is a key issue for the development of microfluidic systems. In this paper, a new concept for transporting a droplet without external power sources is proposed and verified numerically. The proposed device is a heterogeneous surface which has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic horizontal surfaces. The numerical simulation to demonstrate the new concept is conducted by an in-house solution code (PowerCFD) which employs an unstructured cell-centered method based on a conservative pressure-based finite-volume method with interface capturing method (CICSAM) in a volume of fluid (VOF) scheme for phase interface capturing. It is found that the proposed concept for droplet transport shows superior performance for droplet transport in microfluidic systems

  7. Air-spun PLA nanofibers modified with reductively sheddable hydrophilic surfaces for vascular tissue engineering: synthesis and surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Na Re; Sabbatier, Gad; Cunningham, Alexander; Laroche, Gaétan; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is a class of promising biomaterials that hold great promise for various biological and biomedical applications, particularly in the field of vascular tissue engineering where it can be used as a fibrous mesh to coat the inside of vascular prostheses. However, its hydrophobic surface providing nonspecific interactions and its limited ability to further modifications are challenges that need to be overcome. Here, the development of new air-spun PLA nanofibers modified with hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting reduction response is reported. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization allows for grafting pendant oligo(ethylene oxide)-containing polymethacrylate (POEOMA) from PLA air-spun fibers labeled with disulfide linkages. The resulting PLA-ss-POEOMA fibers exhibit enhanced thermal stability and improved surface properties, as well as thiol-responsive shedding of hydrophilic POEOMA by the cleavage of its disulfide linkages in response to reductive reactions, thus tuning the surface properties. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona

    2017-04-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12g/mL and 20kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120min and 5M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Highly Hydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes Functionalized with Surface-Tailored Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-09-26

    Thin-film composite polyamide membranes are state-of-the-art materials for membrane-based water purification and desalination processes, which require both high rejection of contaminants and high water permeabilities. However, these membranes are prone to fouling when processing natural waters and wastewaters, because of the inherent surface physicochemical properties of polyamides. The present work demonstrates the fabrication of forward osmosis polyamide membranes with optimized surface properties via facile and scalable functionalization with fine-tuned nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles are coated with superhydrophilic ligands possessing functional groups that impart stability to the nanoparticles and bind irreversibly to the native carboxyl moieties on the membrane selective layer. The tightly tethered layer of nanoparticles tailors the surface chemistry of the novel composite membrane without altering the morphology or water/solute permeabilities of the membrane selective layer. Surface characterization and interfacial energy analysis confirm that highly hydrophilic and wettable membrane surfaces are successfully attained. Lower intermolecular adhesion forces are measured between the new membrane materials and model organic foulants, indicating the presence of a bound hydration layer at the polyamide membrane surface that creates a barrier for foulant adhesion. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Hydrophilic film polymerized on the inner surface of PMMA tube by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengmeng; Huang, Jun; Yu, Jinsong; Chen, Guangliang; Qu, Shanqing

    2017-07-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) tube is widely used in biomedical and mechanical engineering fields. However, it is hampered for some special applications as the inner surface of PMMA tube exhibts a hydrophobic characteristic. The aim of this work is to explore the hydrophilic modification of the inner surface of the PMMA tubes using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system that incorporates the acylic acid monomer (AA). Polar groups were grafted onto the inner surface of PMMA tube via the reactive radicals (•OH, •H, •O) generated in the Ar/O2/AA plasma, which were observed by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The deposition of the PAA thin layer on the PMMA surface was verified through the ATR-FTIR spectra, which clearly showed the strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (C=O) at 1700 cm-1. The XPS data show that the carbon ratios of C-OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 9.50% and 0.07% to 13.49% and 17.07% respectively when a discharge power of 50 W was used in the APPJ system. As a result, the static water contat angle (WCA) of the modified inner surface of PMMA tube decreased from 100° to 48°. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the APP modified PMMA tubes was illustrated by the study of the adhesion of the cultured MC3T3-E1 osteocyte cells, which exhibted a significantly enhanced adhesion density.

  11. A facile strategy for the fabrication of a bioinspired hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surface for highly efficient fog-harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao

    2015-08-10

    Fog water collection represents a meaningful effort in the places where regular water sources, including surface water and ground water, are scarce. Inspired by the amazing fog water collection capability of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert and based on the recent work in biomimetic water collection, this work reported a facile, easy-to-operate, and low-cost method for the fabrication of hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surface toward highly efficient fog water collection. The essence of the method is incorporating a (super)hydrophobically modified metal-based gauze onto the surface of a hydrophilic polystyrene (PS) flat sheet by a simple lab oven-based thermal pressing procedure. The produced hybrid patterned surfaces consisted of PS patches sitting within the holes of the metal gauzes. The method allows for an easy control over the pattern dimension (e.g., patch size) by varying gauze mesh size and thermal pressing temperature, which is then translated to an easy optimization of the ultimate fog water collection efficiency. Given the low-cost and wide availability of both PS and metal gauze, this method has a great potential for scaling-up. The results showed that the hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surfaces with a similar pattern size to Stenocara beetles’s back pattern produced significantly higher fog collection efficiency than the uniformly (super)hydrophilic or (super)hydrophobic surfaces. This work contributes to general effort in fabricating wettability patterned surfaces and to atmospheric water collection for direct portal use.

  12. Visual function after implantation of single-piece toric hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses with hydrophobic surface six months after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alja Črnej

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Patients with medium to high corneal astigmatism and implanted single-piece toric hydrophilic acrylic IOLs with hydrophobic surface have very good visual function six months postoperatively.

  13. Droplet Drying Patterns on Solid Substrates: From Hydrophilic to Superhydrophobic Contact to Levitating Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Tarafdar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the simple process of drying a multicomponent droplet of a complex fluid which may contain salt or other inclusions. These processes provide a fascinating subject for study. The explanation of the rich variety of patterns formed is not only an academic challenge but also a problem of practical importance, as applications are growing in medical diagnosis and improvement of coating/printing technology. The fundamental scientific problem is the study of the mechanism of micro- and nanoparticle self-organization in open systems. The specific fundamental problems to be solved, related to this system, are the investigation of the mass transfer processes, the formation and evolution of phase fronts, and the identification of mechanisms of pattern formation. The drops of liquid containing dissolved substances and suspended particles are assumed to be drying on a horizontal solid insoluble smooth substrate. The chemical composition and macroscopic properties of the complex fluid, the concentration and nature of the salt, the surface energy of the substrate, and the interaction between the fluid and substrate which determines the wetting all affect the final morphology of the dried film. The range of our study encompasses the fully wetting case with zero contact angle between the fluid and substrate to the case where the drop is levitated in space, so there is no contact with a substrate and angle of contact can be considered as 180°.

  14. Wetting, adhesion and friction of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves and fabricated micro/nanopatterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae

    2008-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water-repellent properties. When two hydrophilic bodies are brought into contact, any liquid present at the interface forms menisci, which increases adhesion/friction and the magnitude is dependent upon the contact angle. Certain plant leaves are known to be superhydrophobic in nature due to their roughness and the presence of a thin wax film on the leaf surface. Various leaf surfaces on the microscale and nanoscale have been characterized in order to separate out the effects of the microbumps and nanobumps and the wax on the hydrophobicity. The next logical step in realizing superhydrophobic surfaces that can be produced is to design surfaces based on understanding of the leaves. The effect of micropatterning and nanopatterning on the hydrophobicity was investigated for two different polymers with micropatterns and nanopatterns. Scale dependence on adhesion was also studied using atomic force microscope tips of various radii. Studies on silicon surfaces patterned with pillars of varying diameter, height and pitch values and deposited with a hydrophobic coating were performed to demonstrate how the contact angles vary with the pitch. The effect of droplet size on contact angle was studied by droplet evaporation and a transition criterion was developed to predict when air pockets cease to exist. Finally, an environmental scanning electron microscope study on the effect of droplet size of about 20 µm radius on the contact angle of patterned surfaces is presented. The importance of hierarchical roughness structure on destabilization of air pockets is discussed.

  15. Contact angle of a nanodrop on a nanorough solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2015-02-21

    The contact angle of a cylindrical nanodrop on a nanorough solid surface is calculated, for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, using the density functional theory. The emphasis of the paper is on the dependence of the contact angle on roughness. The roughness is modeled by rectangular pillars of infinite length located on the smooth surface of a substrate, with fluid-pillar interactions different in strength from the fluid-substrate ones. It is shown that for hydrophobic substrates the trend of the contact angle to increase with increasing roughness, which was noted in all previous studies, is not universally valid, but depends on the fluid-pillar interactions, pillar height, interpillar distance, as well as on the size of the drop. For hydrophilic substrate, an unusual kink-like dependence of the contact angle on the nanodrop size is found which is caused by the change in the location of the leading edges of the nanodrop on the surface. It is also shown that the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations can not explain all the peculiarities of the contact angle of a nanodrop on a nanorough surface.

  16. Enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of valsartan solid dispersions prepared by a freeze-drying technique using hydrophilic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Juan; Xie, Hong-Juan; Cao, Qing-Ri; Shi, Li-Li; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Yin; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of valsartan (VAL), a poorly soluble drug using solid dispersions (SDs). The SDs were prepared by a freeze-drying technique with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 100KV) as hydrophilic polymers, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 as a surfactant without using any organic solvents. In vitro dissolution rate and physicochemical properties of the SDs were characterized using the USP paddle method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability of SDs in rats was evaluated by using VAL (pure drug) as a reference. The dissolution rates of the SDs were significantly improved at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 compared to those of the pure drug. The results from DSC, XRD showed that VAL was molecularly dispersed in the SDs as an amorphous form. The FT-IR results suggested that intermolecular hydrogen bonding had formed between VAL and its carriers. The SDs exhibited significantly higher values of AUC 0-24 h and Cmax in comparison with the pure drug. In conclusion, hydrophilic polymer-based SDs prepared by a freeze-drying technique can be a promising method to enhance dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of VAL.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Half-corrugated Channel Flow by Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rastan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the present study, a two dimensional half-corrugated channel flow is simulated at Reynolds number of 104, in no-slip condition (hydrophilic surfaces( using various low Reynolds turbulence models as well as standard k-ε model; and an appropriate turbulence model (k-ω 1998 model( is proposed. Then, in order to evaluate the proposed solution method in simulation of flow adjacent to hydrophobic surfaces, turbulent flow is simulated in simple channel and the results are compared with the literature. Finally, two dimensional half-corrugated channel flow at Reynolds number of 104 is simulated again in vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces for varoius slip lengths. The results show that this method is capable of drag reduction in such a way that an increase of 200 μm in slip length leads to a massive drag reduction up to 38%. In addition, to access a significant drag reduction in turbulent flows, the non-dimensionalized slip length should be larger than the minimum.

  18. Durability and Mechanical Performance of PMMA/Stone Sludge Nanocomposites for Acrylic Solid Surface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah EL-Bashir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic solid surface sheets were prepared by mixing different kinds of stone sludge fillers (SSF in Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanocomposites. PMMA nanocomposite syrups were made using free radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA, then two kinds of nanofillers were added, namely, hydrophilic nanosilica and clay Halloysite nanotubules (HNTs. Acrylic solid surface sheets were manufactured by mixing the syrups with SSFs. The morphology of the produced sheets was studied using optical, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM that revealed the uniform distribution of stone sludge in the polymeric matrix. The study of the physical properties showed promising mechanical performance and durability of PMMA/SSF nanocomposites for acrylic solid surface applications.

  19. Interactions between nano-TiO{sub 2} and the oral cavity: Impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teubl, Birgit J.; Schimpel, Christa [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); Leitinger, Gerd [Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Research Unit Electron Microscopic Techniques, Medical University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria); Bauer, Bettina [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); Fröhlich, Eleonore [Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria); Zimmer, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria); Roblegg, Eva, E-mail: eva.roblegg@uni-graz.at [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} NPs agglomerated under oral physiological conditions. • Particles penetrated the upper and lower buccal epithelium, independent on the degree of hydrophilicity. • Most of the hydrophobic particles were found in vesicular structures, while hydrophilic particles were freely distributed in the cytoplasm. • Hydrophilic particles had a higher potential to trigger toxic effects (e.g., ROS) than hydrophobic particles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle–cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO{sub 2} particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species.

  20. Interactions between nano-TiO2 and the oral cavity: Impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubl, Birgit J.; Schimpel, Christa; Leitinger, Gerd; Bauer, Bettina; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic TiO 2 NPs agglomerated under oral physiological conditions. • Particles penetrated the upper and lower buccal epithelium, independent on the degree of hydrophilicity. • Most of the hydrophobic particles were found in vesicular structures, while hydrophilic particles were freely distributed in the cytoplasm. • Hydrophilic particles had a higher potential to trigger toxic effects (e.g., ROS) than hydrophobic particles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle–cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO 2 particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species

  1. Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim, E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Pedrow, Patrick [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal [Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilic property of surgical-grade 316L stainless steel was enhanced by Ar-O{sub 2} corona streamer plasma treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophilicity, surface morphology, roughness, and chemical composition before and after plasma treatment were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements and surface-sensitive analyses techniques, including XPS and AFM, were carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum plasma treatment conditions of the SS 316L surface were determined. - Abstract: Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O{sub 2} gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kV{sub RMS}) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

  2. Formulation and characterization of hydrophilic drug diclofenac sodium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles based on phospholipid complexes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfei; Chen, Li; Jiang, Sunmin; Zhu, Shuning; Qian, Yong; Wang, Fengzhen; Li, Rui; Xu, Qunwei

    2014-03-01

    To successfully prepare the diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), phospholipid complexes (PCs) technology was applied here to improve the liposolubility of DS. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with phospholipid complexes (PCs) were prepared by the modified emulsion/solvent evaporation method. DS could be solubilized effectively in the organic solvents with the existence of phospholipid and apparent partition coefficient of DS in PCs increased significantly. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that DS in PCs was either molecularly dispersed or in an amorphous form. However, no significant difference was observed between the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of physical mixture and that of PCs. Particles with small sizes, narrow polydispersity indexes and high entrapment efficiencies could be obtained with the addition of PCs. Furthermore, according to the transmission electron microscopy, a core-shell structure was likely to be formed. The presence of PCs caused the change of zeta potential and retarded the drug release of SLNs, which indicated that phospholipid formed multilayers around the solid lipid core of SLNs. Both FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry analysis also illustrated that some weak interactions between DS and lipid materials might take place during the preparation of SLNs. In conclusion, the model hydrophilic drug-DS can be formulated into the SLNs with the help of PCs.

  3. Development of high performance nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophilic surface and superior antifouling properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, Ahmad; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Mortazavian, Narmin

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophilic nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes were developed for milk concentration. The membranes were prepared from new dope solution containing polyethersulfone (PES)/polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP)/polyethyleneglycole (PEG)/cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)/acrylic acid/Triton X-100 using phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation technique. This casting solution leads to formation of new hydrophilic membranes. The morphological studies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the hydrophilicity and performance of membranes were examined by contact angel measurements and cross-flow filtration (pure water flux, milk water permeation, protein rejection and antifouling measurements). The contact angle measurements indicate that a surface with superior hydrophilicity was obtained for PES membranes. Two concentrations of PES (16 and 14.4 wt.%) and two different non-solvents (pure water and mixtures of water and IPA) were used for preparation of membranes. The morphological studies showed that the higher concentration of PES and the presence of IPA in the gelation media results in formation of a membrane with a dense top and sub-layer with small pores on the surface. The pure water flux of membranes was decreased when higher polymer concentration and mixtures of water and IPA were employed for membrane formation. On the other hand, the milk water permeation and protein rejection were increased using mixtures of water and IPA as non-solvent. Furthermore, the fouling analysis of the membranes demonstrated that the membrane surface with fewer tendencies for fouling was obtained.

  4. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  5. Bacterial biofilms utilization of low concentrations of organic matter on hydrophile surfaces submerged in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Manuela Moldoveanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were designed to determine the effect and the metabolic rate utilization of various types of organic matter in low concentration by heterotrophic marine bacteria using as Henrici slide technique as culture method and “in vitro” static conditions in sterile containers in order to obtain bacterial biofilms on the hydrophile surface of glass. The bacteria attachment and biofilm formation was analyzed for a period from 2 hours to 72 hours in order to observe de first phase of biofilm formation in condition of seawater supplied  with organic matter and noninvasive optic microscopy analysis. The utilization of five different  types of organic substances (amino-acid mixture, yeast extract, tryptone, glucose and starch reveled that bacteria multiply and are otherwise physiologically active in this very dilute nutrient solutions of 0.1% and also the results revealed that the bacterial growth was considerable in the case of the substances like amino-acid mixture with a total density of 30.9∙103 cells/mm2  and tryptone with a total density of 28.85∙103 cells/mm2  comparable to the other types of organic matter used to supply the seawater

  6. How drops start sliding over solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Geyer, Florian; Pilat, Dominik W.; Wooh, Sanghyuk; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Berger, Rüdiger

    2018-02-01

    It has been known for more than 200 years that the maximum static friction force between two solid surfaces is usually greater than the kinetic friction force--the force that is required to maintain the relative motion of the surfaces once the static force has been overcome. But the forces that impede the lateral motion of a drop of liquid on a solid surface are not as well characterized, and there is a lack of understanding about liquid-solid friction in general. Here, we report that the lateral adhesion force between a liquid drop and a solid can also be divided into a static and a kinetic regime. This striking analogy with solid-solid friction is a generic phenomenon that holds for liquids of different polarities and surface tensions on smooth, rough and structured surfaces.

  7. Surface modification of commercial seawater reverse osmosis membranes by grafting of hydrophilic monomer blended with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatanpour, Vahid, E-mail: vahidvatanpour@khu.ac.ir; Zoqi, Naser

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A commercial PA RO membrane was modified by grafting of hydrophilic acrylic acid. • COOH-MWCNTs were mixed in grafting layer to increase permeability and antifouling. • However, more increase of CNTs caused in reduction of flux of the membranes. • Effect of acrylic acid amount, contact time and curing time was optimized. - Abstract: In this study, modification of commercial seawater reverse osmosis membranes was carried out with simultaneous use of surface grafting and nanoparticle incorporation. Membrane grafting with a hydrophilic acrylic acid monomer and thermal initiator was used to increase membrane surface hydrophilicity. The used nanomaterial was carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which were dispersed in the grafting solution and deposited on membrane surface to reduce fouling by creating polymer brushes and hydrodynamic resistance. Effectiveness of the grafting process (formation of graft layer on membrane surface) was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Increase of membrane surface hydrophilicity was approved with contact angle test. First, the grafting was performed on the membrane surfaces with different monomer concentrations, various contact times and several membrane curing times (three variables for optimization). The modified membranes were tested by a cross-flow setup using saline solution for permeability and rejection tests, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution for fouling test. The results showed that the modified membranes with 0.75 M of monomer, 3 min contact time and 80 min curing time in an oven at 50 °C presented the highest flux and lowest rejection decline related to the commercial reverse osmosis membrane. In the next step, the optimum grafting condition was selected and the nanotubes with different weight percentages were dispersed in the acrylic acid monomer solution. The membrane containing 0.25 wt% COOH-MWCNTs showed the

  8. Surface modification of commercial seawater reverse osmosis membranes by grafting of hydrophilic monomer blended with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanpour, Vahid; Zoqi, Naser

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A commercial PA RO membrane was modified by grafting of hydrophilic acrylic acid. • COOH-MWCNTs were mixed in grafting layer to increase permeability and antifouling. • However, more increase of CNTs caused in reduction of flux of the membranes. • Effect of acrylic acid amount, contact time and curing time was optimized. - Abstract: In this study, modification of commercial seawater reverse osmosis membranes was carried out with simultaneous use of surface grafting and nanoparticle incorporation. Membrane grafting with a hydrophilic acrylic acid monomer and thermal initiator was used to increase membrane surface hydrophilicity. The used nanomaterial was carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which were dispersed in the grafting solution and deposited on membrane surface to reduce fouling by creating polymer brushes and hydrodynamic resistance. Effectiveness of the grafting process (formation of graft layer on membrane surface) was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Increase of membrane surface hydrophilicity was approved with contact angle test. First, the grafting was performed on the membrane surfaces with different monomer concentrations, various contact times and several membrane curing times (three variables for optimization). The modified membranes were tested by a cross-flow setup using saline solution for permeability and rejection tests, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution for fouling test. The results showed that the modified membranes with 0.75 M of monomer, 3 min contact time and 80 min curing time in an oven at 50 °C presented the highest flux and lowest rejection decline related to the commercial reverse osmosis membrane. In the next step, the optimum grafting condition was selected and the nanotubes with different weight percentages were dispersed in the acrylic acid monomer solution. The membrane containing 0.25 wt% COOH-MWCNTs showed the

  9. Temporal Changes in Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Membrane Surfaces in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil

    2016-03-02

    Membrane surface hydrophilic modification has always been considered to mitigating biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Four hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membranes (pore sizes ∼0.1 μm) differing only in hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface characteristics were operated at a permeate flux of 10 L/m2.h in the same lab-scale MBR fed with synthetic wastewater. In addition, identical membrane modules without permeate production (0 L/m2.h) were operated in the same lab-scale MBR. Membrane modules were autopsied after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation, and total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) accumulated on the membranes were extracted and characterized in detail using several analytical tools, including conventional colorimetric tests (Lowry and Dubois), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (FEEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The transmembrane pressure (TMP) quickly stabilized with higher values for the hydrophobic membranes than hydrophilic ones. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) membrane had the highest negatively charged membrane surface, accumulated the least amount of foulants and displayed the lowest TMP. The same type of organic foulants developed with time on the four membranes and the composition of biopolymers shifted from protein dominance at early stages of filtration (day 1) towards polysaccharides dominance during later stages of MBR filtration. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of LC-OCD data showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the sampling event (time) regardless of the membrane surface chemistry (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) or operating mode (with or without permeate flux). These results suggest that EPS composition may not be the dominant parameter for evaluating membrane performance and possibly other parameters such as biofilm thickness, porosity, compactness and structure should be considered

  10. Selective three-dimensional hydrophilization of microstructured polymer surfaces through confined photocatalytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosova, Lena; Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Microstructured polymer surfaces with selective 3-D anisotropy were created. • Selective UV treatment was performed to alter surface wettability. • Removable meshes resembling a photomask were applied during UV treatment. • Micropatterning by viscous polymer on solid surface was performed. - Abstract: While the conventional photomask technique gives only two-dimensional anisotropies, in this study we fabricated microstructured polymer surfaces with a selective three-dimensional anisotropy. With the applied removable mesh, we were able to confine the contacting area between the surface and photoinitiator and provide three-dimensional wettability anisotropies. Different types of meshes were used depending on the desired micropatterns shape, size and substrate material. The results revealed the three-dimensional anisotropic micropits pattern with depth profiles, which would be applicable for the confinement and patterning of cells and biomolecules. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for creating selectively activated polymer surface as a substrate for further atomic layer deposition. Moreover, we demonstrate a low cost and fast mass productive method for patterning a viscous polymer liquid in a micro-sized scale

  11. Radius ratio rule for surface hydrophilization of polydimethyl siloxane and silica nanoparticle composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutam, Vijaykumar, E-mail: toutamvk@nplindia.org [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Rina [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Bathula, Sivaiah; Dhar, Ajay [Material Physics and Engineering Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Binary hard sphere silica nanoparticle system based PDMS composite. • Enhanced hydrophilization and retainability of the composite. • Restriction of uncured PDMS from diffusion. • Increased Debye length of electrostatic double layer, measured by F-D Spectroscopy. - Abstract: Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and Silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticle composite blocks of three different batches (CB1–CB3) made by varying the size of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP), are studied for the degree of hydrophilization and retainability after oxidation by contact angle measurements (CA) and force distance spectroscopy (FDS) using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). While CA measurements have shown high hydrophilization and retainability for CB3, F-D spectroscopy has reiterated the observation and has shown long range interactive forces and high Debye length of the electrostatic double layer formed. These results are in agreement with the radius ratio rule of binary sphere system for high density packing in the composite and thereby for strong hydrophilization and retainability due to reinforcement and restricted diffusion of uncured polymer.

  12. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Gac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1–5.4 years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3–5.9 years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland. In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5% and 23 TST implants (1.5% failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  13. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Olivier Le; Grunder, Ueli

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL) and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland) enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST) was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1-5.4) years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3-5.9) years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland). In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5%) and 23 TST implants (1.5%) failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  14. Surface Hydrophilicity of Poly(l-Lactide Acid Polymer Film Changes the Human Adult Adipose Stem Cell Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Argentati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge indicates that the molecular cross-talk between stem cells and biomaterials guides the stem cells’ fate within a tissue engineering system. In this work, we have explored the effects of the interaction between the poly(l-lactide acid (PLLA polymer film and human adult adipose stem cells (hASCs, focusing on the events correlating the materials’ surface characteristics and the cells’ plasma membrane. hASCs were seeded on films of pristine PLLA polymer and on a PLLA surface modified by the radiofrequency plasma method under oxygen flow (PLLA+O2. Comparative experiments were performed using human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs and human umbilical matrix stem cells (hUCMSCs. After treatment with oxygen-plasma, the surface of PLLA films became hydrophilic, whereas the bulk properties were not affected. hASCs cultured on pristine PLLA polymer films acquired a spheroid conformation. On the contrary, hASCs seeded on PLLA+O2 film surface maintained the fibroblast-like morphology typically observed on tissue culture polystyrene. This suggests that the surface hydrophilicity is involved in the acquisition of the spheroid conformation. Noteworthy, the oxygen treatment had no effects on hBM-MSC and hUCMSC cultures and both stem cells maintained the same shape observed on PLLA films. This different behavior suggests that the biomaterial-interaction is stem cell specific.

  15. Effect of Graphene Oxide (GO) on the Surface Morphology & Hydrophilicity of Polyethersulfone (PES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi, N. F. D.; Khalil, N. A.; Jahari, A. F.; Shaari, N. Z. K.; Shahruddin, M. Z.; Alias, N. H.; Othman, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    Membrane has been widely used in water and wastewater treatment. One of the major issues related membrane separation is concentration polarization or fouling, which can lead to a decline of flux and premature failure of membrane. However, fouling can be controlled by modification of membrane properties such as morphology and hydrophilicity. In this work, a modification of polymeric membrane, polyethersulfone (PES) was carried out using graphene oxide in order to attain high antifouling characteristics. Graphene oxide (GO) was added at different compositions ranging from (0.1 wt%-1.0 wt%). GO was synthesized using modified Hummers’ method and characterized using XRD and FTIR prior to using it as additive for the PES membrane. The prepared PES-GO composite membranes were characterized using FTIR and SEM, Contact angle measurement and pure water flux test were then conducted to investigate the hydrophilicity of the PES-GO membranes. It was found that the additions of GO has significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the membranes.

  16. Structure of DNA-Cationic Surfactant Complexes at Hydrophobically Modified and Hydrophilic Silica Surfaces as Revealed by Neutron Reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas Gomez, Marite; Wacklin, Hanna; Campbell, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on hydrophobic surfaces, where we show that DNA molecules are located on top of a self-assembled surfactant monolayer, with the thickness of the DNA layer and the surfactant DNA ratio determined by the surface coverage of the underlying...... interfacial structures, a higher concentration in relation to its cmc is required for the more soluble DTAB surfactant with a shorter alkyl chain than for CTAB. Our results suggest that the DNA Molecules Will spontaneously form a relatively dense, thin layer on top of a surfactant monolayer (hydrophobic...... surface) or a layer of admicelles (hydrophilic surface) as long as the surface concentration of surfactant is great enough to ensure a high interfacial-charge density. These findings have implications for bioanalytical and nanotechnology applications, which require the deposition of DNA layers with well...

  17. The surface reactivity of chalk (biogenic calcite) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimenko, D. V.; Dalby, K. N.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Bovet, N.; Christensen, J. H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-03-01

    The surface properties of calcium carbonate minerals play an important role in a number of industrial and biological processes. Properties such as wettability and adsorption control liquid-solid interface behaviour and thus have a strong influence on processes such as biomineralisation, remediation of aquifers and oil recovery. We investigated how two model molecules of different polarity, namely water and ethanol, interact with reservoir and outcrop chalk samples and we compared their behaviour with that of pure, inorganically precipitated calcite. Thermodynamic quantities, such as the work of wetting, surface energy and isosteric adsorption enthalpy, were determined from vapour adsorption isotherms. The chalks were studied fresh and after extraction of organic residues that were originally present in these samples. The work of wetting correlates with the amount of organic matter present in the chalk samples but we observed a fundamental difference between the adsorption properties of chalk and pure, inorganically precipitated calcite toward the less polar, ethanol molecule. Further analysis of the chemical composition of the organic matter extracted from the chalk samples was made by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Monitoring surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after extraction of the organic material, and with atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that nanometer sized clay crystals observed on the chalk particle surfaces could be an important part of the reason for the differences. Removal of the extractable portion of the hydrocarbons liberates adsorption sites that have different wetting properties than the rest of the chalk and these have an energy distribution that is similar to clays. Thus, the results exemplify the complexity of biogenic calcite adsorption behaviour and demonstrate that chalk wetting in drinking water aquifers as well as oil reservoirs is controlled partly by the nanoparticles of clay that have grown on the

  18. Improvement of Surface Wettability and Hydrophilization of Poly-paraphenylene benzobisoxazole Fiber with Fibrillation Combined Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new surface modification method fibrillation combined with oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hydrophily of PBO fiber was studied in this paper. The surface chemical structure and morphology of PBO fiber were characterized by the methods of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The wettability and hydrophlic characters changes on the surface were evaluated by the dynamic contact angle system and image analysis. The results show that the increase surface roughness by fibrillation could improve the wettability. Fibrillation combined oxygen plasma treatment has a better effect than oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hdyrophlization of PBO fiber. The specific area of PBO fiber increased to 10.7 m2/g from 0.7 m2/g, contact angle decreased to 43.2° from 84.4° and WRV increased to 208.4% from 13.7%. The modified fibers have a good dispersion in water for hydrophilization improvement.

  19. Surface Solid Dispersion and Solid Dispersion of Meloxicam: Comparison and Product Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Mayank; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla; Bhatt, Shailendra; Saini, Vipin

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: A comparative study was carried out between surface solid dispersion (SSD) and solid dispersion (SD) of meloxicam (MLX) to assess the solubility and dissolution enhancement approach and thereafter develop as patient friendly orodispersible tablet. Methods: Crospovidone (CPV), a hydrophilic carrier was selected for SSD preparation on the basis of 89% in- vitro MLX adsorption, 19% hydration capacity and high swelling index. SD on the other hand was made with PEG4000. Both were prepared by co-grinding and solvent evaporation method using drug: carrier ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. Formulation SSDS3 (MLX: CPV in 1:8 ratio) made by solvent evaporation method showed t 50% of 28 min and 80.9% DE 50min which was higher in comparison to the corresponding solid dispersion, SDS3 (t 50% of 35min and 76.4% DE 50min ). Both SSDS3 and SDS3 were developed as orodispersible tablets and evaluated. Results: Tablet formulation F3 made with SSD3 with a disintegration time of 11 secs, by wetting time= 6 sec, high water absorption of 78%by wt and cumulative drug release of 97% proved to be superior than the tablet made with SD3. Conclusion: Conclusively, the SSD of meloxicam has the potential to be developed as fast acing formulation that can ensure almost complete release of drug.

  20. Surface Solid Dispersion and Solid Dispersion of Meloxicam: Comparison and Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chaturvedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A comparative study was carried out between surface solid dispersion (SSD and solid dispersion (SD of meloxicam (MLX to assess the solubility and dissolution enhancement approach and thereafter develop as patient friendly orodispersible tablet. Methods: Crospovidone (CPV, a hydrophilic carrier was selected for SSD preparation on the basis of 89% in- vitro MLX adsorption, 19% hydration capacity and high swelling index. SD on the other hand was made with PEG4000. Both were prepared by co-grinding and solvent evaporation method using drug: carrier ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. Formulation SSDS3 (MLX: CPV in 1:8 ratio made by solvent evaporation method showed t50% of 28 min and 80.9% DE50min which was higher in comparison to the corresponding solid dispersion, SDS3 (t50% of 35min and 76.4% DE50min. Both SSDS3 and SDS3 were developed as orodispersible tablets and evaluated. Results: Tablet formulation F3 made with SSD3 with a disintegration time of 11 secs, by wetting time= 6 sec, high water absorption of 78%by wt and cumulative drug release of 97% proved to be superior than the tablet made with SD3. Conclusion: Conclusively, the SSD of meloxicam has the potential to be developed as fast acing formulation that can ensure almost complete release of drug.

  1. New approach of long-term modification of Topas® to acquire surface hydrophilicity for chromosome spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mednova, Olga; Kwasny, Dorota; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    as a description of the optimal cleaning procedure and storage conditions to maintain the modified surface. Three minutes of oxygen plasma activation followed by 4 min of acrylic acid UV-photografting at 50 °C leads to the most stable hydrophilicity that was characterized by an initial water contact angle of 53.......5° ± 1.2°. Storage of the modified material in cold water at 4 °C and refraining from ultrasonic cleaning limit water contact angle increase to 5° over 30 days. In comparison with pristine hydrophobic Topas, the proposed treatment improves chromosome spreading ability significantly....

  2. Interactions between nano-TiO2 and the oral cavity: impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubl, Birgit J; Schimpel, Christa; Leitinger, Gerd; Bauer, Bettina; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-04-09

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle-cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO2 particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic compounds in environmental water by solid-phase extraction with activated carbon fiber felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, K; Ibaraki, T; Tanabe, A; Yagoh, H; Shinoda, A; Suzuki, H; Yasuhara, A

    2001-03-09

    Simple gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic organic compounds in environmental water was developed. A cartridge containing activated carbon fiber felt was made by way of trial and was evaluated for solid-phase extraction of the compounds in water. The hydrophilic compounds investigated were acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Overall recoveries were good (80-100%) from groundwater and river water. The relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 16% for the target compounds. The minimum detectable concentrations were 0.02 to 0.03 microg/l. This method was successfully applied to several river water samples.

  4. Evolution and accumulation of organic foulants on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-09-07

    Membrane surface modification is attracting more attention to mitigate biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Five membranes differing in chemistry and hydrophobic/hydrophilic potential were run in parallel in a lab-scale MBR under the same conditions. Membranes were sampled after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation with synthetic wastewater. Subsequently, accumulated organic foulants were characterised using several chemical analytical tools. Results showed similar development of organic foulants with time, illustrating that membrane surface chemistry did not affect the selection of specific organic foulants. Multivariate analysis showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the day of sampling. The composition of organic foulants shifted from protein-like substances towards humics and polysaccharides-like substances. We propose that to control biofouling in MBRs, one should focus less on the membrane surface chemistry.

  5. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severino, P.; Andreani, T.; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, M. V.; Santana, M. H. A.; Silva, A. M.; Souto, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, 23 June (2014), s. 28-34 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : lipid nanoparticles * double emulsion * hydrophilic biotech drugs Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  6. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface modification impact on colloid lithography: Schottky-like defects, dislocation, and ideal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, Vasilii; Marchuk, Valentina; Kugaevskiy, Artem; Guselnikova, Olga; Elashnikov, Roman; Miliutina, Elena; Postnikov, Pavel; Svorcik, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2018-03-01

    Nano-spheres lithography is actually considered as a powerful tool to manufacture various periodic structures with a wide potential in the field of nano- and micro-fabrication. However, during self-assembling of colloid microspheres, various defects and mismatches can appear. In this work the size and quality of single-domains of closed-packed polystyrene (PS), grown up on thin Au layers modified by hydrophilic or hydrophobic functional groups via diazonium chemistry was studied. The effects of the surface modification on the quality and single-domain size of polystyrene (PS) microspheres array were investigated and discussed. Modified surfaces were characterized using the AFM and wettability tests. PS colloidal suspension was deposited using the drop evaporation method. Resulted PS microspheres array was characterized using the SEM, AFM and confocal microscopy technique.

  7. Negative-ion beam surface modification of tissue-culture polystyrene dishes for changing hydrophilic and cell-attachment properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.; Satoh, H.; Ikeda, S.; Ikemura, S.; Gotoh, Y.; Ishikawa, J.

    1999-01-01

    Negative-silver-ion implantation into tissue-culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes was investigated and it was found to modify hydrophilic and cell attachment properties of the dishes. Negative-ion implantation has an advantage of being almost free of surface charging, and is a suitable method for implantation into insulators such as polymers. Negative silver ions are used due to the antibacterial property of silver. Ag-implanted TCPS dishes had a contact angle larger than the normal value of 66 deg. of unimplanted dishes. The contact angle of water had a strong dependence on the ion energy rather than the dose. As a cell-culture experiment, human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) was used in unimplanted and Ag-implanted TCPS dishes, the implantation removed the cell-attachment property of the surface. In implantation with a mask with a striped pattern, most attached cells of HUVEC were in the unimplanted region aligned along a stripe direction

  8. Synthesis of Environmentally Responsive Polymers by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization: Generation of Reversible Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mittal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide brushes were grafted from the surface of polymer particles or flat surfaces in order to generate reversible hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The use of atom transfer radical polymerization was demonstrated for the grafting of polymer brushes as it allows efficient control on the amount of grafted polymer. The polymer particles were generated with or without surfactant in the emulsion polymerization and their surface could be modified with the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP initiator. The uniform functionalization of the surface with ATRP initiator was responsible for the uniform grafting of polymer brushes. The grafted brushes responded reversibly with changes in temperature indicating that the reversible responsive behavior could be translated to the particle surfaces. The particles were observed to adsorb and desorb protein and virus molecules by changing the temperatures below or higher than 32 °C. The initiator functionalized particles could also be adsorbed on the flat surfaces. The adsorption process also required optimization of the heat treatment conditions to form a uniform layer of the particles on the substrate. The grafted polymer brushes also responded to the changes in temperatures similar to the spherical particles studied through water droplets placed on the flat substrates.

  9. Effects of hydrophilicity and microtopography of titanium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque biofilm formation. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, F; Sculean, A; Wieland, M; Horn, N; Nuesry, E; Bube, C; Becker, J

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present pilot study is to investigate the effects of hydrophilicity and microtopography of titanium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque biofilm formation. Test specimens were manufactured from commercially pure grade 2 titanium according to one of the following procedures: polished (P), acid-etched (A), chemically modified (mod) A (modA), sand-blasted large grit and A (SLA), and modSLA. Intraoral splints were used to collect an in vivo supragingival plaque biofilm in each group at 12, 24, and 48 h. Stained plaque biofilm (PB) areas (%) were morphometrically assessed. All groups exhibited significant increases of mean PB areas over time (p P > A =modA (p modSLA = P > A = modA (p A = modA (p < 0.001; respectively). Within the limits of a pilot study, it could be concluded that hydrophilicity had no apparent effect, while microtopography had a highly uneven and unpredictable influence on supragingival plaque biofilm formation.

  10. Drop Impact on a Solid Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Josserand, C.

    2015-09-22

    © Copyright 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. A drop hitting a solid surface can deposit, bounce, or splash. Splashing arises from the breakup of a fine liquid sheet that is ejected radially along the substrate. Bouncing and deposition depend crucially on the wetting properties of the substrate. In this review, we focus on recent experimental and theoretical studies, which aim at unraveling the underlying physics, characterized by the delicate interplay of not only liquid inertia, viscosity, and surface tension, but also the surrounding gas. The gas cushions the initial contact; it is entrapped in a central microbubble on the substrate; and it promotes the so-called corona splash, by lifting the lamella away from the solid. Particular attention is paid to the influence of surface roughness, natural or engineered to enhance repellency, relevant in many applications.

  11. Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2017-12-07

    In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral

  12. Possible Time-Dependent Effect of Ions and Hydrophilic Surfaces on the Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Nada; Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Bukovec, Peter; Zupancic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of mechanical and electrical treatment on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Solutions were treated mechanically by iteration of two steps: 1:100 dilution and vigorous shaking. These two processes were repeated until extremely dilute solutions were obtained. For electrical treatment the solutions were exposed to strong electrical impulses. Effects of mechanical (as well as electrical) treatment could not be demonstrated using electrical conductivity measurements. However, significantly higher conductivity than those of the freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions was found in all aged solutions except for those samples stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously observed weak gel-like behavior in water stored in closed flasks. We suggest that ions and contact with hydrophilic glass surfaces could be the determinative conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. PMID:22605965

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of water on a hydrophilic silica surface at high air pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, H.A.; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    Wepresent a force field forMolecular Dynamics (MD) simulations ofwater and air in contactwith an amorphous silica surface. We calibrate the interactions of each species present in the systemusing dedicated criteria such as the contact angle of a water droplet on a silica surface, and the solubility...

  14. Evaporation of tiny water aggregation on solid surfaces with different wetting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Tu, Yusong; Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping

    2012-11-29

    The evaporation of a tiny amount of water on the solid surface with different wettabilities has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. From nonequilibrium MD simulations, we found that, as the surface changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the evaporation speed did not show a monotonic decrease as intuitively expected, but increased first, and then decreased after it reached a maximum value. The analysis of the simulation trajectory and calculation of the surface water interaction illustrate that the competition between the number of water molecules on the water-gas surface from where the water molecules can evaporate and the potential barrier to prevent those water molecules from evaporating results in the unexpected behavior of the evaporation. This finding is helpful in understanding the evaporation on biological surfaces, designing artificial surfaces of ultrafast water evaporating, or preserving water in soil.

  15. Surface hydrophilic modification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer by poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate): Preparation, characterization, and properties studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@njtech.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Surface hydrophilic modified ABS was prepared by melt blending with PETG. • O= C−O groups were enriched on the surface with increasing PETG content. • Hydrophilic property of the blends was enhanced with increasing PETG content. • Phase inversion behavior of the blends occurred around intermediate composition. • Tensile and flexural strength were enhanced with increasing PETG content. - Abstract: Surface hydrophilic modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer was prepared by melt blending with poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate) (PETG) random copolymer as the modifier. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for surface analysis. Through the contact angle measurement, the relationship between surface properties of the ABS/PETG blends and PETG content was investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to characterize interface morphology and compatibility of the blends. The effect of PETG content on the mechanical and rheological properties was examined. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis suggested that the hydrophilic groups were enriched on the surface with increasing PETG content in the blend. The decrease of the water contact angle and the increase of the polarity for the blends with increasing PETG content indicated that the hydrophilic property of the blends was enhanced with increasing PETG content. The ABS/PETG blends were partially miscible. And the blends with ≤50 wt% PETG had better compatibility than the blends with above 50 wt% PETG. It was clear that below 50 wt% PETG, the PETG phase was dispersed in spherical form and the ABS phase was continuous. Above 50 wt% PETG, the PETG phase became continuous and the ABS phase was dispersed in irregular form. Moreover, the tensile strength and flexural strength of the blends were enhanced with

  16. Hydrophilization of Poly(ether ether ketone) Films by Surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel; Eskimergen, Rüya; Burkrinsky, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    and confirmed by ATR FTIR, water contact ang;le, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The surface topography was evaluated by "Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the degree of functionalization. The performed modification allowed for successful...

  17. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  18. Hydrophilic surface modification of coronary stent using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Won; Bae, In-Ho; Park, Dae Sung; Lee, So-Youn; Jang, Eun-Jae; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Ju Han; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    The first two authors contributed equally to this study. Bioactivity and cell adhesion properties are major factors for fabricating medical devices such as coronary stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet in enhancing the biocompatibility and endothelial cell-favorites. The experimental objects were divided into before and after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment with the ratio of nitrogen:argon = 3:1, which is similar to air. The treated surfaces were basically characterized by means of a contact angle analyzer for the activation property on their surfaces. The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on cellular response was examined by endothelial cell adhesion and XTT analysis. It was difficult to detect any changeable morphology after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment on the surface. The roughness was increased after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment compared to nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment (86.781 and 7.964 nm, respectively). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the surface concentration of the C-O groups increased slightly from 6% to 8% after plasma activation. The contact angle dramatically decreased in the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (22.6 ± 15.26°) compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (72.4 ± 15.26°) ( n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on endothelial cell migration and proliferation was 85.2% ± 12.01% and 34.2% ± 2.68%, respectively, at 7 days, compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (58.2% ± 11.44% in migration, n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet method. Moreover, the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet might affect re-endothelialization after stenting.

  19. Poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted cyclic acetals based polymer networks with non-water-swellable, biodegradable and surface hydrophilic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruixue, E-mail: qdruinyan@hotmail.com [Complex and Intelligent Research Center, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Nan; Wu, Wentao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Kemin, E-mail: kemin-wang@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Cyclic acetals based biomaterial without acidic products during hydrolytic degradation is a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications; however, low hydrophilicity is still one limitation for its biomedical application. In this work, we aim to achieve non-water-swellable cyclic acetal networks with improved hydrophilicity and surface wettability by copolymerization of cyclic acetal units based monomer, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-β,β-dimethyl-1, 3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate (mPEGA) under UV irradiation, to avoid swelling of conventional hydrogels which could limit their applicability in particular of the mechanical properties and geometry integrity. Various EHD/mPEGA networks were fabricated with different concentrations of mPEGA from 0 to 30%, and the results showed photopolymerization behavior, mechanical property and thermal stability could not be significantly affected by addition of mPEGA, while the surface hydrophilicity was dramatically improved with the increase of mPEGA and could achieve a water contact angle of 37° with 30% mPEGA concentration. The obtained EHD/mPEGA network had comparative degradation rate to the PECA hydrogels reported previously, and MTT assay indicated it was biocompatible to L929 cells. - Highlights: • Cyclic acetals contained EHD/mPEGA networks were fabricated by photopolymerization. • It can be degraded under simulated physiological condition without acidic products. • Surface hydrophilicity was increased without swelling in water.

  20. Solid-phase equilibria on Pluto's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sugata P.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2018-03-01

    Pluto's surface is covered by volatile ices that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Multicomponent phase equilibria may be calculated using a thermodynamic equation of state and, without additional assumptions, result in methane-rich and nitrogen-rich solid phases. The former is formed at temperature range between the atmospheric pressure-dependent sublimation and condensation points, while the latter is formed at temperatures lower than the sublimation point. The results, calculated for the observed 11 μbar atmospheric pressure and composition, are consistent with recent work derived from observations by New Horizons.

  1. The Combination Process for Preparative Separation and Purification of Paclitaxel and 10-Deacetylbaccatin III Using Diaion® Hp-20 Followed by Hydrophilic Interaction Based Solid Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshekanb, Mahsa; Rezadoost, Hassan; Javanbakht, Mehran; Ghassempour, Ali Reza

    2017-01-01

    There is no other naturally occurring defense agent against cancer that has a stronger effect than paclitaxel, commonly known under the brand name of Taxol®. The major drawback for the more widespread use of paclitaxel and its precious precursor, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III), is that they require large-scale extraction from different parts of yew trees (Taxus species), cell cultures, taxane-producing endophytic fungi, and Corylus species. In our previous work, a novel online two-dimensional heart-cut liquid chromatography process using hydrophilic interaction/ reversed-phase chromatography was used to introduce a semi-preparative treatment for the separation of polar (10-deacetylbaccatin III) and non-polar (paclitaxel) taxanes from Taxus baccata L. In this work, a combination of the absorbent (Diaion® HP-20) and a silica based solid phase extraction is utilized as a new, efficient, and cost effective method for large-scale production of taxanes. This process avoids the technical problem of two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography. The first stage of the process involves discarding co-extractive polar compounds including chlorophylls and pigments using a non-polar synthetic hydrophobic absorbent, Diaion® HP-20. Extract was then loaded on to a silica based hydrophilic interaction solid phase extraction (silica 40-60 micron). Taxanes was eluted using a mixture of water and methanol at the optimized ratio of 70:30. Finally, the fraction containing taxanes was applied to semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC. The results revealed that using this procedure, paclitaxel and 10-DAB III could be obtained at 8 and 3 times more, respectively than by the traditional method of extraction. PMID:29552048

  2. The Combination Process for Preparative Separation and Purification of Paclitaxel and 10-Deacetylbaccatin III Using Diaion® Hp-20 Followed by Hydrophilic Interaction Based Solid Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshekanb, Mahsa; Rezadoost, Hassan; Javanbakht, Mehran; Ghassempour, Ali Reza

    2017-01-01

    There is no other naturally occurring defense agent against cancer that has a stronger effect than paclitaxel, commonly known under the brand name of Taxol ® . The major drawback for the more widespread use of paclitaxel and its precious precursor, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III), is that they require large-scale extraction from different parts of yew trees ( Taxus species), cell cultures, taxane-producing endophytic fungi, and Corylus species. In our previous work, a novel online two-dimensional heart-cut liquid chromatography process using hydrophilic interaction/ reversed-phase chromatography was used to introduce a semi-preparative treatment for the separation of polar (10-deacetylbaccatin III) and non-polar (paclitaxel) taxanes from Taxus baccata L. In this work, a combination of the absorbent (Diaion ®  HP-20) and a silica based solid phase extraction is utilized as a new, efficient, and cost effective method for large-scale production of taxanes. This process avoids the technical problem of two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography. The first stage of the process involves discarding co-extractive polar compounds including chlorophylls and pigments using a non-polar synthetic hydrophobic absorbent, Diaion ®  HP-20. Extract was then loaded on to a silica based hydrophilic interaction solid phase extraction (silica 40-60 micron). Taxanes was eluted using a mixture of water and methanol at the optimized ratio of 70:30. Finally, the fraction containing taxanes was applied to semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC. The results revealed that using this procedure, paclitaxel and 10-DAB III could be obtained at 8 and 3 times more, respectively than by the traditional method of extraction.

  3. Fast wettability transition from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic laser-textured stainless steel surfaces under low-temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the fabrication of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by means of pulsed laser texturing has been developed. After laser texturing, samples are typically chemically coated or aged in ambient air for a relatively long time of several weeks to achieve superhydrophobicity. To accelerate the wettability transition from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity without the use of additional chemical treatment, a simple annealing post process has been developed. In the present work, grid patterns were first fabricated on stainless steel by a nanosecond pulsed laser, then an additional low-temperature annealing post process at 100 °C was applied. The effect of 100-500 μm step size of the textured grid upon the wettability transition time was also investigated. The proposed post process reduced the transition time from a couple of months to within several hours. All samples showed superhydrophobicity with contact angles greater than 160° and sliding angles smaller than 10° except samples with 500 μm step size, and could be applied in several potential applications such as self-cleaning and control of water adhesion.

  4. A comparative study of the growth of octadecyltrichlorosilane and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane self-assembled monolayers on hydrophilic silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-R.; Kolbesen, Bernd O.

    2008-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of two different organosilane precursors, methyl-terminated nonpolar n-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS, Cl 3 Si(CH 2 ) 17 CH 3 ) and thiol-terminated polar 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS, (CH 3 O) 3 SiCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 SH), were prepared separately on hydrophilic silicon surfaces by immersion in millimolar solutions of the respective precursors in toluene at room temperature. Ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the growth and the properties of OTS and MPTMS SAMs. For OTS SAMs, generally speaking, small islands surrounded large dendrite-shaped islands. But for MPTMS SAMs, sporadic small round islands appeared, but no dendrites. The impact of the solution age was more significant on the growth of OTS SAMs than MPTMS SAMs. At the same precursor concentration and solution age, the growth of OTS SAMs was much faster than MPTMS SAMs due to the greater hydrolysis ability of Si-Cl bonds in OTS as compared with that of Si-OCH 3 bonds in MPTMS. The difference in hydrolysis ability was confirmed by the absence of a Cl signal in the XP spectrum of OTS SAMs and the existence of a C 1s peak corresponding to unhydrolyzed Si-OCH 3 bonds in the XP spectrum of MPTMS SAMs. This trend together with the difference in alkyl chain length had a strong influence on the surface morphology and coverage of these two SAMs. According to the individual adsorption behavior of the components, the predictable kinetic difficulty of preparing OTS/MPTMS mixed SAMs by co-adsorption is pointed out. Furthermore, a potential reaction condition for stepwise adsorption is suggested.

  5. Effect of incorporating graphene oxide and surface imprinting on polysulfone membranes on flux, hydrophilicity and rejection of salt and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibechu, Rose Waithiegeni; Ndinteh, Derek Tantoh; Msagati, Titus Alfred Makudali; Mamba, Bhekie Briliance; Sampath, S.

    2017-08-01

    We report a significant enhancement of hydrophillity of polysulfone (Psf) membranes after modification with graphene oxide (GO) as a filler followed by surface imprinting on the surface of GO/Psf composite imprinted membranes (CIMs). The surface imprinting on the GO-Psf membrane was employed in order to enhance its selectivity towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The CIMs were prepared through a process of phase inversion of a mixture of graphene oxide and polysulfone (Psf) in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the imprinted showed new peaks at 935 cm-1 and 1638 cm-1 indicating success in surface imprinting on the GO-Psf membrane. The CIM also showed improvement in flux from 8.56 LM-2 h-1 of unmodified polysulfone membrane to 15.3 LM-2 h-1 in the CIM, salt rejection increased from 57.2 ± 4.2% of polysulfone membrane to 76 ± 4.5%. The results obtained from the contact angle measurements showed a decrease with increase in GO content from 72 ± 2.7% of neat polysulfone membrane to 62.3 ± 2.1% of CIM indicating an improvement in surface hydrophilicity. The results from this study shows that, it is possible to improve the hydrophilicity of the membranes without affecting the performance of the membranes.

  6. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties; Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1999-05-01

    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  7. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties. Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1999-05-01

    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  8. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment significantly enhanced PVC surface hydrophilicity. • The contact angle of PVC significantly decreased compared to other E-waste plastics. • 100% of PVC was selectively separated with 96.4% purity from E-waste plastics. • SEM/XPS results indicated an oxidative degradation of chlorides on the PVC surface. • Hybrid treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO and froth flotation is effective. - Abstract: Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100 rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5 wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  9. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment significantly enhanced PVC surface hydrophilicity. • The contact angle of PVC significantly decreased compared to other E-waste plastics. • 100% of PVC was selectively separated with 96.4% purity from E-waste plastics. • SEM/XPS results indicated an oxidative degradation of chlorides on the PVC surface. • Hybrid treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO and froth flotation is effective. - Abstract: Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100 rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5 wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  10. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of polar drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa M; Borrull, Francesc

    2011-09-02

    The present study describes the first fully automated method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to hydrophilic interaction chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (HILIC-(ESI)MS) to determine a group of polar drugs that includes illicit drugs (such as cocaine, morphine, codeine and metabolites) and pharmaceuticals in environmental water samples. The SPE was performed using a highly retentive polymeric sorbent. The HILIC separation was optimised and the initial high organic content of the chromatographic mobile phase, was also suitable for the proper on-line elution of the analytes retained in the SPE column and for enhancing the ESI ionisation efficiency. This method allows the loading of samples of up to 250ml of ultrapure water or 10ml of environmental water samples spiked at low ngl(-1) levels of the analytes. The method yields near 100% recoveries for all the analytes. The method was also validated with environmental water samples with linear ranges from 5 to 1000ngl(-1) and limits of detection ≤2ngl(-1) for most of the compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  12. Effect of the hydrophilic block length on the surface-active and micellar thermodynamic properties of oxyethylene-oxybutylene diblock copolymers in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Usman, M.; Siddiq, M.; Fatima, G.; Harrison, W.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hydrophilic block length on the surface and micellar thermodynamic properties of aqueous solution of E/sub 40/B/sub 8/, E/sub 80/B/sub 8/ and E/sub 120/B/sub 8/ diblock copolymers, were studied by surface tension measurements over a wide concentration and temperature range; where E stands for an oxyethylene unit and B for an oxybutylene unit. Like conventional surfactants, two breaks (change in the slope) were observed in the surface tension vs logarithm of concentration curve for all the three copolymers. Surface tension measurements were used to estimate surface excess concentrations (r m), area per molecule at air/water interface a and thermodynamic parameters for all adsorption of the pre-micellar region in the temperature range 20 to 50 degree C. Likewise the critical micelle concentration, CMC and thermodynamic parameters for micellization were also calculated for the post-micellar solutions at all temperatures. For comparison the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption and micellization are discussed in detail. The impact of varying E-block length and temperature on all calculated parameters are also discussed. This study shows the importance of hydrophobic-hydrophilic-balance (HHB) of copolymers on various surface and micellar properties. (author)

  13. Polar silica-based stationary phases. Part II- Neutral silica stationary phases with surface bound maltose and sorbitol for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasekara, Renuka; El Rassi, Ziad

    2017-07-28

    Two neutral polyhydroxylated silica bonded stationary phases, namely maltose-silica (MALT-silica) and sorbitol-silica (SOR-silica), have been introduced and chromatographically characterized in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for a wide range of polar compounds. The bonding of the maltose and sorbitol to the silica surface was brought about by first converting bare silica to an epoxy-activated silica surface via reaction with γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) followed by attaching maltose and sorbitol to the epoxy surface in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst BF 3 .ethereate. Both silica based columns offered the expected retention characteristics usually encountered for neutral polar surface. The retention mechanism is majorly based on solute' differential partitioning between an organic rich hydro-organic mobile phase (e.g., ACN rich mobile phase) and an adsorbed water layer on the surface of the stationary phase although additional hydrogen bonding was also responsible in some cases for solute retention. The MALT-silica column proved to be more hydrophilic and offered higher retention, separation efficiency and resolution than the SOR-silica column among the tested polar solutes such as derivatized mono- and oligosaccharides, weak phenolic acids, cyclic nucleotide monophosphate and nucleotide-5'-monophosphates, and weak bases, e.g., nucleobases and nucleosides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomic Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Adhering to Solid Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Guilbaud

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic micro-organism responsible for many hospital-acquired infections. It is able to adhere to solid surfaces and develop an immobilized community or so-called biofilm. Many studies have been focusing on the use of specific materials to prevent the formation of these biofilms, but the reactivity of the bacteria in contact to surfaces remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the abiotic surface on the physiology of adherent bacteria. Three different materials, stainless steel (SS, glass (G, and polystyrene (PS that were relevant to industrial or medical environments were characterized at the physicochemical level in terms of their hydrophobicity and roughness. We showed that SS was moderately hydrophilic and rough, potentially containing crevices, G was hydrophilic and smooth while PS was hydrophobic and smooth. We further showed that P. aeruginosa cells were more likely able to adhere to SS and G rather than PS surfaces under our experimental conditions. The physiological response of P. aeruginosa when adhering to each of these materials was then evaluated by global proteomic analysis. The abundance of 70 proteins was shown to differ between the materials suggesting that their abundance was modified as a function of the material to which bacteria adhered. Our data lead to enabling the identification of abundance patterns that appeared to be specific to a given surface. Taken together, our data showed that P. aeruginosa is capable of sensing and responding to a surface probably via specific programmes to adapt its physiological response accordingly.

  15. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactive solid surface morphology variation via ionic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-08-14

    In gas-solid reactions, one of the most important factors that determine the overall reaction rate is the solid morphology, which can be characterized by a combination of smooth, convex and concave structures. Generally, the solid surface structure varies in the course of reactions, which is classically noted as being attributed to one or more of the following three mechanisms: mechanical interaction, molar volume change, and sintering. Here we show that if a gas-solid reaction involves the outward ionic diffusion of a solid-phase reactant then this outward ionic diffusion could eventually smooth the surface with an initial concave and/or convex structure. Specifically, the concave surface is filled via a larger outward diffusing surface pointing to the concave valley, whereas the height of the convex surface decreases via a lower outward diffusion flux in the vertical direction. A quantitative 2-D continuum diffusion model is established to analyze these two morphological variation processes, which shows consistent results with the experiments. This surface morphology variation by solid-phase ionic diffusion serves to provide a fourth mechanism that supplements the traditionally acknowledged solid morphology variation or, in general, porosity variation mechanisms in gas-solid reactions.

  17. Optimization of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and development of solid-phase extraction for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Elizabeth; Stobo, Lesley; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The combination of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been proposed for use in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, methods for the detection of multiple PSP toxins [saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNEO), gonyautoxins 1-5 (GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5), decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX2 and dcGTX3), and the N-sulfocarbamoyl C toxins (C1 and C2)] were optimized using single (MS) and triple quadrupole (MS/MS) instruments. Chromatographic separation of the toxins was achieved by using a TSK-gel Amide-80 analytical column, although superior chromatography was observed through application of a ZIC-HILIC column. Preparative procedures used to clean up shellfish extracts and concentrate PSP toxins prior to analysis were investigated. The capacity of computationally designed polymeric (CDP) materials and HILIC solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges to retain highly polar PSP toxins was explored. Three CDP materials and 2 HILIC cartridges were assessed for the extraction of PSP toxins from aqueous solution. Screening of the CDPs showed that all tested polymers adsorbed PSP toxins. A variety of elution procedures were examined, with dilute 0.01% acetic acid providing optimum recovery from a CDP based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid as the monomer. ZIC-HILIC SPE cartridges were superior to the PolyLC equivalent, with recoveries ranging from 70 to 112% (ZIC-HILIC) and 0 to 90% (PolyLC) depending on the PSP toxin. It is proposed that optimized SPE and HILIC-MS methods can be applied for the quantitative determination of PSP toxins in shellfish.

  18. Drops and bubbles in contact with solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The third volume in a series dedicated to colloids and interfaces, Drops and Bubbles in Contact with Solid Surfaces presents an up-to-date overview of the fundamentals and applications of drops and bubbles and their interaction with solid surfaces. The chapters cover the theoretical and experimental aspects of wetting and wettability, liquid-solid interfacial properties, and spreading dynamics on different surfaces, including a special section on polymers. The book examines issues related to interpretation of contact angle from nano to macro systems. Expert contributors discuss interesting pec

  19. Surface Science at the Solid Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-06

    prominent experimental avenue, developed originally by Hubbard et al,_ involves emersing monocrystalline elec- As for metal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum...reliable means of both preparing and dosateizn ordered monocrystalline metal surfaces in UHV has led to ing appropriate molecular components of...surface atoms in place of bottom panel of Fig. 2, equal intensity contours are shown 23 underlying surface atoms, the compression is 24/23 - I in the

  20. Chemical diffusion on solid surfaces. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.B.

    1980-12-01

    The techniques of surface science have been applied to the problem of the measurement of the surface diffusion rate of an adsorbed species over the surface of a chemically dissimilar material. Studies were carried out for hydrogen and nitrogen adatoms on a Ni(100) surface and for silver adatoms on a sapphire surface. Positive results were obtained only for the case of nitrogen on Ni(100). In this system the diffusivity is characterized by the expression D = D 0 exp (/sup -ΔH//RT), with D 0 = 0.25 cm 2 /sec and ΔH = 28kcal/mol

  1. Pure and Nb2O5-doped TiO2 amorphous thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface and photo-induced hydrophilic conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Tudose, I.V.; Vernardou, D.; Lygeraki, M.I.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrophilicity of titanium dioxide makes this material one of the most suitable for various coating applications in antifogging mirrors and self-cleaning glasses. The field of functional titanium dioxide coatings is expanding rapidly not only in applications for glass but also in applications for polymer, metal and ceramic materials. The high hydrophilic surface of TiO 2 is interesting for understanding also the basic photon-related surface science of titanium dioxide. In doing so, it is inevitably necessary to understand the relationship between the photoreaction and the surface properties. In this work, photo-induced hydrophilic conversion was evaluated on amorphous pure and niobium oxide-doped titanium dioxide thin films on Corning 1737F glass grown by dc magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. This study is focused on the influence of the Ar:O ratio during sputtering plasma deposition on thin film surface morphology and subsequent photo-induced hydrophilic conversion results. Structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has shown that our films are amorphous and extremely smooth with a surface roughness bellow 1 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed on as-deposited and during/after 10 min UV exposure. We present evidence that the photo-induced hydrophilic conversion of film surface is directly correlated with surface morphology and can be controlled by growth conditions

  2. Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.

  3. Surface effects in solid mechanics models, simulations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews current understanding, and future trends, of surface effects in solid mechanics. Covers elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity, modeling based on continuum theories and molecular modeling and applications of different modeling approaches.

  4. Exciton-Promoted Desorption From Solid Water Surfaces A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCoustra, M.R.S.; Thrower, J.D.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Desorption from solid water surfaces resulting from interaction with electromagnetic and particle radiation is reviewed in the context of the role of nonthermal desorption in astrophysical environments. Experimental observations are interpreted in terms of mechanisms sharing a common basis...

  5. Pseudopotentials for calculating the bulk and surface properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented describing research in condensed matter physics using pseudopotentials to calculate electronic, structural, and vibrational properties of solids. Semiconductors are emphasized, and both bulk and surface calculations are discussed. (author) [pt

  6. Effects of surface hydrophilicity and microtopography on early stages of soft and hard tissue integration at non-submerged titanium implants: an immunohistochemical study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Ferrari, Daniel; Herten, Monika; Mihatovic, Ilja; Wieland, Marco; Sager, Martin; Becker, Jürgen

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of surface hydrophilicity and microtopography on soft and hard tissue integration at non-submerged titanium implants. Implantation of conventional sand-blasted large grit and acid-etched (SLA) and chemically modified SLA (modSLA) titanium implants with differently structured transmucosal surfaces (SLA implants: machined [M-SLA] or SLA [SLA-SLA]; modSLA implants: mod acid-etched [modA] [modA-modSLA] or modSLA [modSLA-modSLA]) was performed bilaterally in the upper and lower jaws of 15 beagle dogs. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 4, 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue reactions were assessed histomorphometrically and immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies to transglutaminase II (angiogenesis) and osteocalcin. Although the junctional epithelium commonly was separated from M-SLA and SLA-SLA implants by a gap, the epithelial cells appeared to be in close contact with modA-modSLA surfaces after 14 days of healing. Moreover, modA-modSLA and modSLA-modSLA groups showed a well-vascularized subepithelial connective tissue exhibiting collagen fibers that started to extend and attach partially perpendicular to the implant surface. The highest and statistically significant mean bone-to-implant contact areas were observed in the modA-modSLA and modSLA-modSLA groups at days 7, 14, and 28. Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that soft and hard tissue integration was influenced mainly by surface hydrophilicity rather than by microtopography.

  7. The PM2.5 capture of poly (lactic acid)/nano MOFs eletrospinning membrane with hydrophilic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Dai, Xiu; Li, Xu; Wang, Xinlong

    2018-03-01

    In this article, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) material is introduced in the poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by electrospinning to fabricate the nanocomposite membrane. The acrylic acid (AA) is grafted onto the membrane under UV light. The prepared membrane is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), contact angle test and tensile strength test. The SEM image and XRD indicate that nano MOFs particles adhere to the membrane. Contact angle test shows that grafting AA on the composite fiber membrane improves its hydrophilicity effectively. TG analyses show that the particulate matter (PM) capture capacity of PLA membrane with 2 wt% ZIF-8 content is 22%, which rises to 37% after grafting.

  8. Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Superconductivity: M.B.Maple, UCSD, La Jolla Metals and Alloys, Solid-State Electron Microscopy. S.Amelinckx, Mol Positron Annihilation : P.Hautojlirvi...position of the conduction band edge of the colloidal TiO2 particle influences greatly the rate of MV+ formation. Figure 5.3 shows data obtained 116 B0...Reduction of Viologens on Colloidal TiO2 Irradiation of TiO 2 sols in alkaline solutions in the presence of C14MV 2+ leads to the formation of doubly

  9. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  10. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  11. A Solid-State Deuterium NMR and SFG Study of the Side Chain Dynamics of Peptides Adsorbed onto Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Nicholas F.; Weidner, Tobias; Li, Kun; Castner, David G.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2011-01-01

    The artificial amphiphilic peptide LKα14 adopts a helical structure at interfaces, with opposite orientation of its leucine (L, hydrophobic) and lysine (K, hydrophilic) side chains. When adsorbed onto surfaces, different residue side chains necessarily have different proximities to the surface, depending on both their position in the helix and the composition of the surface itself. Deuterating the individual leucine residues (isopropyl-d7) permits the use of solid-state deuterium NMR as a site-specific probe of side chain dynamics. In conjunction with SFG as a probe of the peptide binding face, we demonstrate that the mobility of specific leucine side chains at the interface is quantifiable in terms of their surface proximity. PMID:19764755

  12. Positron beam studies of solids and surfaces: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A personal overview is given of the advances in positron beam studies of solids and surfaces presented at the 10th International Workshop on Positron Beams, held in Doha, Qatar, in March 2005. Solids studied include semiconductors, metals, alloys and insulators, as well as biophysical systems. Surface studies focussed on positron annihilation-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES), but interesting applications of positron-surface interactions in fields as diverse as semiconductor technology and studies of the interstellar medium serve to illustrate once again the breadth of scientific endeavour covered by slow positron beam investigations

  13. Positron beam studies of solids and surfaces: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. G.

    2006-02-01

    A personal overview is given of the advances in positron beam studies of solids and surfaces presented at the 10th International Workshop on Positron Beams, held in Doha, Qatar, in March 2005. Solids studied include semiconductors, metals, alloys and insulators, as well as biophysical systems. Surface studies focussed on positron annihilation-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES), but interesting applications of positron-surface interactions in fields as diverse as semiconductor technology and studies of the interstellar medium serve to illustrate once again the breadth of scientific endeavour covered by slow positron beam investigations.

  14. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  15. Improvement in surface hydrophilicity and resistance to deformation of natural leather through O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O low-temperature plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xuewei; Gou, Li, E-mail: gouli@scu.edu.cn; Tong, Xingye

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O can increase oxygen concentration in the plasma compared to the pure O{sub 2} atmosphere. • Pores at the surface of natural leather became larger and deeper with enhanced permeability of water. • The initial water contact angle was about 21°. • Its preferable surface hydrophilicity kept for 3 days, which gives guidance for next process. • The elongation of the treated sample for 10 min was twice as large as that of the untreated sample. - Abstract: The natural leather was modified through O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O low-temperature plasma treatment. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the results showed that the pores on the leather surface became deeper and larger with enhanced permeability of water and vapor. XPS and FTIR-ATR was performed to determine the chemical composition of natural leather surface. Oxygen-containing groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of natural leather and oxygen content increased with longer treatment time. After O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O plasma treatment, initial water contact angle was about 21° and water contact angles were not beyond 55° after being stored for 3 days. Furthermore, the tensile test indicated that the resistance to deformation had a prominent transform without sacrificing the tensile strength.

  16. Improvement in surface hydrophilicity and resistance to deformation of natural leather through O_2/H_2O low-temperature plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Xuewei; Gou, Li; Tong, Xingye

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • O_2/H_2O can increase oxygen concentration in the plasma compared to the pure O_2 atmosphere. • Pores at the surface of natural leather became larger and deeper with enhanced permeability of water. • The initial water contact angle was about 21°. • Its preferable surface hydrophilicity kept for 3 days, which gives guidance for next process. • The elongation of the treated sample for 10 min was twice as large as that of the untreated sample. - Abstract: The natural leather was modified through O_2/H_2O low-temperature plasma treatment. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the results showed that the pores on the leather surface became deeper and larger with enhanced permeability of water and vapor. XPS and FTIR-ATR was performed to determine the chemical composition of natural leather surface. Oxygen-containing groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of natural leather and oxygen content increased with longer treatment time. After O_2/H_2O plasma treatment, initial water contact angle was about 21° and water contact angles were not beyond 55° after being stored for 3 days. Furthermore, the tensile test indicated that the resistance to deformation had a prominent transform without sacrificing the tensile strength.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of uranium compound adsorption on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Yuki; Takizawa, Yuji; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Particles mixed in the UF6 gas have the property of accumulating on the inside of piping or units. This type of accumulation will cause material unaccounted for (MUF) in the UF6 gas processing facilities. Development of a calculation model for estimating the accumulation rate of uranium compounds has been expected. And predicting possible part of the units where uranium compounds adsorb will contribute to design an effective detection system. The purpose of this study is to take the basic knowledge of the particle's adsorption mechanism from the microscopic point of view. In simulation analysis, UF5 model particle is produced, then two types of solid surfaces are prepared; one is a solid surface at rest and the other is a moving solid surface. The result obtained by the code 'PABS' showed that when the solid surface moves at a lower velocity, the particle's adsorption process dominates over the particle's breakup one. Besides the velocity of the solid surface, other principal factors affecting an adsorption ratio were also discussed. (author)

  18. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik, E-mail: cgamja@snu.ac.kr

    2017-04-01

    technique onto SLA-treated surface. • The MNH surface structure remarkably improved the hydrophilicity of Ti6Al4V-ELI. • The MNH surface exhibited good cell adhesion morphology and the highest value of the proliferation level. • A bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the MNH surface structured screw.

  19. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-01-01

    technique onto SLA-treated surface. • The MNH surface structure remarkably improved the hydrophilicity of Ti6Al4V-ELI. • The MNH surface exhibited good cell adhesion morphology and the highest value of the proliferation level. • A bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the MNH surface structured screw.

  20. Solid colloids with surface-mobile linkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meulen, Stef A J; Helms, Gesa; Dogterom, Marileen

    2015-01-01

    In this report we review the possibilities of using colloids with surface mobile linkers for the study of colloidal self-assembly processes. A promising route to create systems with mobile linkers is the use of lipid (bi-)layers. These lipid layers can be either used in the form of vesicles or as coatings for hard colloids and emulsion droplets. Inside the lipid bilayers molecules can be inserted via membrane anchors. Due to the fluidity of the lipid bilayer, the anchored molecules remain mobile. The use of different lipid mixtures even allows creating Janus-like particles that exhibit directional bonding if linkers are used which have a preference for a certain lipid phase. In nature mobile linkers can be found e.g. as receptors in cells. Therefore, towards the end of the review, we also briefly address the possibility of using colloids with surface mobile linkers as model systems to mimic cell–cell interactions and cell adhesion processes. (topical review)

  1. A flow chamber assay for quantitative evaluation of bacterial surface colonization used to investigate the influence of temperature and surface hydrophilicity on the biofilm forming capacity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Emil; Kingshott, Peter; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2010-01-01

    to those found on an implanted device. We have used the method to evaluate the biofilm forming capacity of clinically isolated Escherichia coli on silicone rubber and on silicone rubber containing a hydrophilic coating. It was found that the surface chemistry influenced the colonization of the isolates...... very differently. In addition, the temperature was found to have a considerable influence upon the adhesion and biofilm forming capacity of some of the isolates, and that the influence of surface chemistry depended on temperature. Our results suggest that the step from using E. coli laboratory strains...

  2. Hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced magnetic nanoparticles: preparation and application in magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a novel hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced magnetic nanoparticle, magnetic poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (HLB-MPNP) was successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction and determination of triazine and organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples. The specific ratio of two monomers, hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone and lipophilic divinylbenzene, endowed the magnetic nanoparticles with hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced character, which made it capable of extracting both polar and nonpolar analytes. The experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency, including desorption conditions, sample pH, sample volume and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.20-10 μg L(-1) for triazine herbicides and 5.0-100 ng L(-1) for organochlorine pesticides, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.994 to 0.999. The limits of determination were between 0.048 and 0.081 μg L(-1) for triazine herbicides and 0.39 and 3.26 ng L(-1) for organochlorine pesticides. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of triazine and organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples (ground, river and reservoir). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical reaction on solid surface observed through isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi

    1983-01-01

    In order to know the role of atoms and ions on solid surfaces as the partners participating in elementary processes, the literatures related to the isomerization and hydrogen exchanging reaction of olefines, the hydrogenation of olefines, the metathesis reaction and homologation of olefines based on solid catalysts were reviewed. Various olefines, of which the hydrogen atoms were substituted with deuterium at desired positions, were reacted using various solid catalysts such as ZnO, K 2 CO 3 on C, MoS 2 (single crystal and powder) and molybdenum oxide (with various carriers), and the infra-red spectra of adsorbed olefines on catalysts, the isotope composition of reaction products and the production rate of the reaction products were measured. From the results, the bonding mode of reactant with the atoms and ions on solid surfaces, and the mechanism of the elementary process were considered. The author emphasized that the mechanism of the chemical reaction on solid surfaces and the role of active points or catalysts can be made clear to the considerable extent by combining isotopes suitably. (Yoshitake, I.)

  4. Solid surface vs. liquid surface: nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, and DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Mori, Taizo; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P

    2017-09-13

    The investigation of molecules and materials at interfaces is critical for the accumulation of new scientific insights and technological advances in the chemical and physical sciences. Immobilization on solid surfaces permits the investigation of different properties of functional molecules or materials with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Liquid surfaces also present important media for physicochemical innovation and insight based on their great flexibility and dynamicity, rapid diffusion of molecular components for mixing and rearrangements, as well as drastic spatial variation in the prevailing dielectric environment. Therefore, a comparative discussion of the relative merits of the properties of materials when positioned at solid or liquid surfaces would be informative regarding present-to-future developments of surface-based technologies. In this perspective article, recent research examples of nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, DNA nanotechnology, and DNA origami are compared with respect to the type of surface used, i.e. solid surfaces vs. liquid surfaces, for future perspectives of interfacial physics and chemistry.

  5. A facile strategy for the fabrication of a bioinspired hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surface for highly efficient fog-harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao; Zhang, Lianbin; Wu, Jinbo; Hedhili, Nejib; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Fog water collection represents a meaningful effort in the places where regular water sources, including surface water and ground water, are scarce. Inspired by the amazing fog water collection capability of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert

  6. Evolution and accumulation of organic foulants on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Maab, H.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    foulants with time, illustrating that membrane surface chemistry did not affect the selection of specific organic foulants. Multivariate analysis showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the day of sampling. The composition of organic foulants

  7. COUPLING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-DERIVED CARBOHYDRATES ONTO SOLID SURFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for immobilising a polysaccharide (PS) to a solid surface, said polysaccharide having a keto-carboxy group (-C(=O)-COOH) or a ketal or hemiketal group corresponding thereto, e.g. derived from KDO (2-keto-3-deoxy-D-mannooctonic acid), the method comprising t...

  8. The effects of viscosity on sound radiation near solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morfey, C.L.; Sorokin, Sergey; Gabard, G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the acoustic analogy developed by Lighthill, Curle, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings for sound generation by unsteady flow past solid surfaces is formally exact, it has become accepted practice in aeroacoustics to use an approximate version in which viscous quadrupoles are neglected. Her...

  9. Estimating the Volumes of Solid Figures with Curved Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Several examples of solid figures that calculus students can use to exercise their skills at estimating volume are presented. Although these figures are bounded by surfaces that are portions of regular cylinders, it is interesting to note that their volumes can be expressed as rational numbers. (JJK)

  10. Evidence of the no-slip boundary condition of water flow between hydrophilic surfaces using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Wang, Yuliang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2009-10-20

    In this study we present measurements of the hydrodynamic force exerted on a glass sphere glued to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever approaching a mica surface in water. A large sphere was used to reduce the impact of the cantilever beam on the measurement. An AFM cantilever with large stiffness was used to accurately determine the actual contact position between the sphere and the sample surface. The measured hydrodynamic force with different approach velocities is in good agreement with the Taylor force calculated in the lubrication theory with the no-slip boundary conditions, which verifies that there is no boundary slip on the glass and mica surfaces. Moreover, a detailed procedure of how to subtract the electrostatic double-layer force is presented.

  11. Liquid flow along a solid surface reversibly alters interfacial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dan; Backus, Ellen H G; Hunger, Johannes; Parekh, Sapun H; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-06-06

    In nature, aqueous solutions often move collectively along solid surfaces (for example, raindrops falling on the ground and rivers flowing through riverbeds). However, the influence of such motion on water-surface interfacial chemistry is unclear. In this work, we combine surface-specific sum frequency generation spectroscopy and microfluidics to show that at immersed calcium fluoride and fused silica surfaces, flow leads to a reversible modification of the surface charge and subsequent realignment of the interfacial water molecules. Obtaining equivalent effects under static conditions requires a substantial change in bulk solution pH (up to 2 pH units), demonstrating the coupling between flow and chemistry. These marked flow-induced variations in interfacial chemistry should substantially affect our understanding and modeling of chemical processes at immersed surfaces. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Spatially Resolved Quantification of the Surface Reactivity of Solid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Xiao, Li; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2016-05-17

    A new property is reported that accurately quantifies and spatially describes the chemical reactivity of solid surfaces. The core idea is to create a reactivity weight function peaking at the Fermi level, thereby determining a weighted summation of the density of states of a solid surface. When such a weight function is defined as the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac distribution function at a certain non-zero temperature, the resulting property is the finite-temperature chemical softness, termed Fermi softness (SF ), which turns out to be an accurate descriptor of the surface reactivity. The spatial image of SF maps the reactive domain of a heterogeneous surface and even portrays morphological details of the reactive sites. SF analyses reveal that the reactive zones on a Pt3 Y(111) surface are the platinum sites rather than the seemingly active yttrium sites, and the reactivity of the S-dimer edge of MoS2 is spatially anisotropic. Our finding is of fundamental and technological significance to heterogeneous catalysis and industrial processes demanding rational design of solid catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Water slip and friction at a solid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigo, L; Pierno, M; Mammano, F; Sada, C; Fois, G; Pozzato, A; Zilio, S dal; Mistura, G [Dipartimento di Fisica G Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Natali, M [Istituto di Chimica Inorganica e delle Superfici (ICIS), CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Tormen, M [TASC-INFM, CNR, S S 14 km 163.5 Area Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: mistura@padova.infm.it

    2008-09-03

    A versatile micro-particle imaging velocimetry ({mu}-PIV) recording system is described, which allows us to make fluid velocity measurements in a wide range of flow conditions both inside microchannels and at liquid-solid interfaces by using epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence excitation. This set-up has been applied to study the slippage of water over flat surfaces characterized by different degrees of hydrophobicity and the effects that a grooved surface has on the fluid flow inside a microchannel. Preliminary measurements of the slip length of water past various flat surfaces show no significant dependence on the contact angle.

  14. Improved surface hydrophilicity and antifouling property of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate grafted graphene oxide nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Lu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhenghui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Panpan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates were first synthesized by grafting hydrophilic poly (poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. A novel polysulfone (PSF) nanocomposite membrane using GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates as nanofillers was fabricated. FTIR, TGA, 1H NMR, GPC and TEM were applied to verify the successful synthesis of the prepared nanoplates, while SEM, AFM, XPS, contact angle goniometry and filtration experiments were used to characterize the fabricated nanocomposite membranes. It was found that the new prepared nanofillers were well dispersed in organic PSF matrix, and the PSF/GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanocomposite membrane showed significant improvements in water flux and flux recovery rate. Based on the results of resistance-in-series model, the nanocomposite membrane exhibited superior resistance to the irreversible fouling. The excellent filtration and antifouling performance are attributed to the segregation of GO-g-P(PEMGA) nanofillers toward the membrane surface and the pore walls. Notably, the blended nanofillers appeared a stable retention in/on nanocomposite membrane after 30 days of washing time. The demonstrated method of synthesis GO-g-P(PEGMA) in this study can also be extended to preparation of other nanocomposite membrane in future.

  15. Friction and Wear Management Using Solvent Partitioning of Hydrophilic-Surface-Interactive Chemicals Contained in Boundary Layer-Targeted Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication additives of the current invention require formation of emulsions in base lubricants, created with an aqueous salt solution plus a single-phase compound such that partitioning within the resulting emulsion provides thermodynamically targeted compounds for boundary layer organization thus establishing anti-friction and/or anti-wear. The single-phase compound is termed "boundary layer organizer", abbreviated BLO. These emulsion-contained compounds energetically favor association with tribologic surfaces in accord with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and will organize boundary layers on those surfaces in ways specific to the chemistry of the salt and BLO additives. In this way friction modifications may be provided by BLOs targeted to boundary layers via emulsions within lubricating fluids, wherein those lubricating fluids may be water-based or oil-based.

  16. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Shu-Chuan [Center of Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ying-Fang [Department of Dentistry, Yun-Lin Branch, National Taiwan University Hospital, Dou-Liu, Yun-Lin, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-You [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Yi-Syuan [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju, E-mail: sjt@cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa, 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 133, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko-Shao, E-mail: kschen@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R{sup 2} range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  17. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R 2 range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  18. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R2 range, 0.94-0.965, 0.934-0.972, and 0.874-0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  19. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Cox, Andrew R; Pelan, Eddie G

    2016-07-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are based on a new data analysis protocol, which allows one to decouple the two components of non-isotropic surface tension. For an axisymmetric non-fluid interface (e.g. bubble or drop covered by a protein adsorption layer with shear elasticity), the CMD determines the two different components of the anisotropic surface tension, σs and σφ, which are acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", and vary throughout the interface. The method uses data for the instantaneous bubble (drop) profile and capillary pressure, but the procedure for data processing is essentially different from that of the conventional drop shape analysis (DSA) method. In the case of bubble or drop pressed against a substrate, which forms a capillary bridge, the CBD method allows one to determine also the capillary-bridge force for both isotropic (fluid) and anisotropic (solidified) adsorption layers. The experiments on bubble (drop) detachment from the substrate show the existence of a maximal pulling force, Fmax, that can be resisted by an adherent fluid particle. Fmax can be used to quantify the strength of adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces. Its value is determined by a competition of attractive transversal tension and repulsive disjoining pressure forces. The greatest Fmax values have been measured for bubbles adherent to glass substrates in pea-protein solutions. The bubble/wall adhesion is lower in solutions containing the protein HFBII hydrophobin, which could be explained with the effect of sandwiched protein aggregates. The applicability of the CBD method to emulsion systems is illustrated by experiments with soybean-oil drops adherent to hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in

  20. Turbulent solutal convection and surface patterning in solid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    We describe experiments in which crystals of NaCl, KBr, and KCl are dissolved from below by aqueous solutions containing concentrations of the respective salts from zero concentration to near saturation. The solution near the solid-liquid interface is gravitationally unstable, producing turbulent hydrodynamic motion similar to thermal convection from a single surface cooled from above. The coupling of the fluid flow with the solid dissolution produces irregular patterns at the solid-liquid interface with a distribution of horizontal length scales. The dissolution mass flux and the pattern length scales are compared with a turbulent boundary layer model. Remarkable agreement is found, showing that the fluid motion controls both the dissolution rate and the interface patterning. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Reflection of slow hydrogen and helium ions from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Some characteristics of the proton and helium ion flux (E < 10 keV), reflected from solid surfaces are presented. A 'condensed walk' scheme, previously used for electron transport calculations, was adapted. Results obtained either by the scheme or by a more detailed 'consequent' scheme agreed closely. The presented data permit calculations of the mean energy of reflected particles and other values for various energy and angular distributions of incident particles. (author)

  2. Patterning Method for Silver Nanoparticle Electrodes in Fully Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistors Using Selectively Treated Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Takeda, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yu; Shimizu, Masahiro; Sekine, Tomohito; Kumaki, Daisuke; Kurihara, Masato; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Tokito, Shizuo

    2013-05-01

    Fully solution-processed organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) devices have been fabricated with simple patterning process at a relatively low process temperature of 100 °C. In the patterning process, a hydrophobic amorphous fluoropolymer material, which was used as the gate dielectric layer and the underlying base layer, was treated with an oxygen plasma to selectively change its surface wetting properties from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Silver source and drain electrodes were successfully formed in the treated areas with highly uniform line widths and without residues between the electrodes. Nonuniformities in the thickness of the silver electrodes originating from the “coffee-ring” effect were suppressed by optimizing the blend of solvents used with the silver nanoparticles, such that the printed electrodes are appropriate for bottom-gate OTFT devices. A fully solution-processed OTFT device using a polymer semiconductor material (PB16TTT) exhibited good electrical performance with no hysteresis in its transfer characteristics and with good linearity in its output characteristics. A relatively high carrier mobility of 0.14 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 1×105 were obtained with the fabricated TFT device.

  3. Surface-environment effects in spin crossover solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iu., E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com; Maksymov, A.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The spin-crossover nanocrystals were described by modified Ising-like model. • The ligand field on the surface is a function of external fluctuations. • The thermal hysteresis with surface and bulk interactions of the lattice was studied. • The system behavior with fluctuating ligand field on the surface was examined. • The fluctuations enlarge the hysteresis, but smaller surface interaction narrows it. - Abstract: The impact of surface effects on thermal induced spin crossover phenomenon is a subject of a broad and current interest. Using the modified Ising-like model of spin crossover solids with the ligand field as function of the molecule’ positions and random component on surface by means of Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm the thermal spin transition curves were calculated. The analysis of spin configuration during transition gives a general idea about contribution of molecules from the surface and inside the lattice into resulting magnetization of the systems. The behavior of hysteresis loop for various surface coupling and fluctuations strength has been described.

  4. Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Agócs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made to synthetize partially hydrophilic carotenoids. This review compiles the recently synthetized hydrophilic carotenoid derivatives.

  5. Enhancement of dissolution of Telmisartan through use of solid dispersion technique surface solid dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to increase the solubility of the poorly water soluble drug Telmisartan by using Surface solid dispersion (SSD made of polymers like Poloxamer 407, PEG 6000 by Solvent evaporation method. The drug was solubilized by surfactants and/or polymers then adsorbed onto the surface of extremely fine carriers to increase its surface area and to form the SSD which give the more Surface area for absorption of the drug. A 2 2 full factorial design was used to investigate for each carrier the joint influence of formulation variables: Amount of carrier and adsorbent. Saturation solubility studies shows the improvement in solubility of drug batch SSD 8 give more solubility improvement than the other batch, in-vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures and SSDs were carried out in that SSDs were found to be effective in increasing the dissolution rate of Telmisartan in form of SSD when compared to pure drug. Also FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry studies were carried out in order to characterize the drug and Surface solid dispersion. Furthermore, both DSC and X-ray diffraction showed a decrease in the melting enthalpy and reduced drug crystallinity consequently in SSDs. However, infrared spectroscopy revealed no drug interactions with the carriers.

  6. Surface free energy of polypropylene and polycarbonate solidifying at different solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, Emil; Terpilowski, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide, glycerol and diiodomethane were measured on polypropylene (PP) and polycarbonate (PC) sample surfaces which solidified at Teflon, glass or stainless steel as matrix surfaces. Then from the contact angle hystereses (CAH) the apparent free energies γ s tot of the surfaces were evaluated. The original PP surface is practically nonpolar, possessing small electron donor interaction (γ s - =1.91mJ/m 2 ), as determined from the advancing contact angles of these liquids. It may result from impurities of the polymerization process. However, it increases up to 8-10 mJ/m 2 for PP surfaces contacted with the solids. The PC surfaces both original and modified show practically the same γ s - =6.56.7mJ/m 2 . No electron acceptor interaction is found on the surfaces. The γ s tot of modified PP and PC surfaces depend on the kind of probe liquid and contacted solid surface. The modified PP γ s tot values determined from CAH of polar liquids are greater than that of original surface and they increase in the sequence: Teflon, glass, stainless steel surface, at which they solidified. No clear dependence is observed between γ s tot and dielectric constant or dipole moment of the polar probe liquids. The changes in γ s tot of the polymer surfaces are due to the polymer nature and changes in its surface structure caused by the structure and force field of the contacting solid. It has been confirmed by AFM images.

  7. Forces that Drive Nanoscale Self-assembly on Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Z.; Lu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence has accumulated in the recent decade that nanoscale patterns can self-assemble on solid surfaces. A two-component monolayer grown on a solid surface may separate into distinct phases. Sometimes the phases select sizes about 10 nm, and order into an array of stripes or disks. This paper reviews a model that accounts for these behaviors. Attention is focused on thermodynamic forces that drive the self-assembly. A double-welled, composition-dependent free energy drives phase separation. The phase boundary energy drives phase coarsening. The concentration-dependent surface stress drives phase refining. It is the competition between the coarsening and the refining that leads to size selection and spatial ordering. These thermodynamic forces are embodied in a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations reveal rich dynamics of the pattern formation process. It is relatively fast for the phases to separate and select a uniform size, but exceedingly slow to order over a long distance, unless the symmetry is suitably broken

  8. A Prospective Case-Control Clinical Study of Titanium-Zirconium Alloy Implants with a Hydrophilic Surface in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Domínguez, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    To evaluate prospectively the behavior of narrow-diameter (3.3-mm) titanium-zirconium alloy implants with a hydrophilic surface (Straumann Roxolid SLActive) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in single-unit restorations, compared with a healthy control group (assessed using the glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c test). The patients evaluated in this study required single-unit implant treatment; 15 patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients were healthy (control group [CG]). Marginal bone level (MBL) change around the implants was evaluated using conventional, sequential periapical digital radiographs. Patient HbA1c was assessed in each check-up. Normality test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov), univariate and multivariate logistic regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. No differences in MBL change and implant survival and success rates were found between the diabetes mellitus group (DMG) versus the control group, either during the initial recording (DMG, 0.99 ± 0.56 vs CG, 0.68 ± 0.54; P > .05) or 6 months after restoration (DMG, 1.28 ± 0.38 vs CG, 1.11 ± 0.59; P > .05). No significant correlation between HbA1c levels and MBL change was detected in these patients (P > .05). Patients with glycemic control exhibit similar outcomes to healthy individuals with regard to the investigated parameters. In light of these findings, the titanium-zirconium alloy small-diameter implants can be used in the anterior region of the mouth in type 2 diabetic patients.

  9. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  10. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  11. Observation of surface excitons in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saile, V.; Skibowski, M.; Steinmann, W.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.; Kozevnikov, A.

    1976-04-01

    Evidence is obtained for the excitation of surface excitons in solid Ar, Kr and Xe in optical transmission and reflection experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are located at photon energies ranging from 0.6 eV for Ar to 0.1 eV for Xe below the corresponding bulk excitons excited from the valence bands. Their halfwidths (20-50 MeV) is less than half the values found for the bulk excitons. Some are split by an amount considerably smaller than the spin orbit splitting of the valence bands. (orig.) [de

  12. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of gas mixtures on heterogeneous solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroniec, M; Rudzinski, W

    1977-01-01

    A review of theoretical studies on the physical adsorption from gas mixtures on heterogeneous solid surfaces, mainly by Jaroniec and coworkers, covers the vector notation used in the calculations; adsorption isotherms for multicomponent gases; the generalized integral equation for adsorption of gas mixtures, its numerical and analytical solutions, applied, (e.g., to interpret the experimental adsorption isotherms of ethane/ethylene on Nuxit-AL); thermodynamic relations, applied, (e.g., to calculating isosteric adsorption heats from experimental parameters for the adsorption of propylene from propane/propylene mixtures on Nuxit-AL); and the derivation and use of a simplified integral equation for describing the adsorption from gas mixtures on heterogeneous surfaces. 75 references.

  14. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  15. Axisymmetric Lattice Boltzmann Model of Droplet Impact on Solid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgamoni, Hussein; Yong, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact is a ubiquitous fluid phenomena encountered in scientific and engineering applications such as ink-jet printing, coating, electronics manufacturing, and many others. It is of great technological importance to understand the detailed dynamics of drop impact on various surfaces. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) emerges as an efficient method for modeling complex fluid systems involving rapidly evolving fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces with complex geometries. In this work, we model droplet impact on flat solid substrates with well-defined wetting behavior using a two-phase axisymmetric LBM with high density and viscosity contrasts. We extend the two-dimensional Lee and Liu model to capture axisymmetric effect in the normal impact. First we compare the 2D axisymmetric results with the 2D and 3D results reported by Lee and Liu to probe the effect of axisymmetric terms. Then, we explore the effects of Weber number, Ohnesorge number, and droplet-surface equilibrium contact angle on the impact. The dynamic contact angle and spreading factor of the droplet during impact are investigated to qualitatively characterize the impact dynamics.

  16. Scattering of atoms by molecules adsorbed at solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Zaida.

    1988-01-01

    The formalism of collisional time-correlation functions, appropriate for scattering by many-body targets, is implemented to study energy transfer in the scattering of atoms and ions from molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Double differential cross-sections for the energy and angular distributions of atoms and ions scattered by a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface are derived in the limit of impulsive collisions and within a statistical model that accounts for single and double collisions. They are found to be given by the product of an effective cross-section that accounts for the probability of deflection into a solid angle times a probability per unit energy transfer. A cluster model is introduced for the vibrations of an adsorbed molecule which includes the molecular atoms, the surface atoms binding the molecule, and their nearest neighbors. The vibrational modes of CO adsorbed on a Ni(001) metal surface are obtained using two different cluster models to represent the on-top and bridge-bonding situations. A He/OC-Ni(001) potential is constructed from a strongly repulsive potential of He interacting with the oxygen atom in the CO molecule and a van der Waals attraction accounting for the He interaction with the free Ni(001) surface. A potential is presented for the Li + /OC-Ni(001) where a coulombic term is introduced to account for the image force. Trajectory studies are performed and analyzed in three dimensions to obtain effective classical cross-sections for the He/OC-Ni(001) and Li + /OC-Ni(001) systems. Results for the double differential cross-sections are presented as functions of scattering angles, energy transfer and collisional energy. Temperature dependence results are also analyzed. Extensions of the approach and inclusion of effects such as anharmonicity, collisions at lower energies, and applications of the approach to higher coverages are discussed

  17. The hydrodynamics of bubble rise and impact with solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Rogerio; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2016-09-01

    A bubble smaller than 1mm in radius rises along a straight path in water and attains a constant speed due to the balance between buoyancy and drag force. Depending on the purity of the system, within the two extreme limits of tangentially immobile or mobile boundary conditions at the air-water interface considerably different terminal speeds are possible. When such a bubble impacts on a horizontal solid surface and bounces, interesting physics can be observed. We study this physical phenomenon in terms of forces, which can be of colloidal, inertial, elastic, surface tension and viscous origins. Recent advances in high-speed photography allow for the observation of phenomena on the millisecond scale. Simultaneous use of such cameras to visualize both rise/deformation and the dynamics of the thin film drainage through interferometry are now possible. These experiments confirm that the drainage process obeys lubrication theory for the spectrum of micrometre to millimetre-sized bubbles that are covered in this review. We aim to bridge the colloidal perspective at low Reynolds numbers where surface forces are important to high Reynolds number fluid dynamics where the effect of the surrounding flow becomes important. A model that combines a force balance with lubrication theory allows for the quantitative comparison with experimental data under different conditions without any fitting parameter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Backscattering of projectile-bound electrons from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobisch, M.; Schosnig, M.; Kroneberger, K.; Kuzel, M.; Maier, R.; Jung, M.; Fiedler, C.; Rothard, H.; Clouvas, A.; Suarez, S.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    The contribution of projectile ionization (PI) to secondary electron emission is studied by collision of H 2 + and H 3 + ions (400 keV/u and 700 keV/u) with carbon, copper and gold targets (600 A). The measured doubly differential intensity distribution shows a peak of lost projectile electrons near - v p . We describe the subtraction of the contribution of target ionization (TI), and compare the remaining electron intensities with a BEA calculation. For solids we observe a strong energy shift of the electron loss peak, which is compared with the influence of electron transport and binding energy. Furthermore, the low energy tail of the electron loss peak indicates the simultaneous occurrence of PI and TI. Finally we discuss the influence of surface conditions and the dependence of the observation angles on the measured electron intensities. (orig.)

  19. Study of the solid-solid surface adsorption of Eu2O3 on various Al2O3 supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongchuan; Yu Zhi; Zhou Yuan; Yoshitake Yamazaki

    1997-12-01

    Solid-solid surface interactions of Eu 2 O 3 on various oxide substrates are investigated with X-ray and Moessbauer experiments. The results indicate that the interaction of Eu 2 O 3 on the complex support differs from that having simple support. An incorporation model is used to explain how Eu 2 O 3 disperses onto the surface of γ-alumina or η-alumina

  20. Droplet impaction on solid surfaces exposed to impinging jet fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Zia

    2005-12-15

    The thermal response of hot surfaces exposed to impinging jet fire and subsequent impacting water droplets is investigated. The research was done mainly experimentally by utilizing three different concepts. This included experiments on a laboratory scale steel plate and large outdoor fire tests with a quadratic steel channel and steel plates. Besides the horizontal jet flame itself was characterized in a comprehensive study. As a comparative study, the last three types of the experiment were additionally modeled by the CFD-code Kameleon FireEx for validation of results. The purpose of the experiments done on bench scale steel plate (L x W x T : 300 x 200 x 8 mm) was mainly to map data on wetting temperature, water droplet size, droplet impingement angle, and droplet velocity prior to large scale jet fire tests. The droplet release angle normal to hot surface gives best cooling effect, when the surface is oriented in upright position. The partial wetting begins at about 165 degrees C. When the surface is positioned in horizontal plane, the droplet of about 5 mm in diameter wets the hot surface partially at around 240-250 degrees C within an impaction distance of 20 cm. At about 150 degrees C, the droplet is entirely attached to the surface with almost zero contact angle, and cools down the solid at a critical heat flux equivalent to 1750 kW/m{sup 2}. The cooling effectiveness is about 8 % with a Weber number of 68. Although in the event of horizontal channel (L x W x T : 1000 x 200 x 8 mm) water droplets were not applied, however, the knowledge gained with jet fire tests gave valuable information about temperature progress in solids (steels and insulation) and their response to impinging jet fire during long duration experiments. The temperature of the insulated area of the channel keeps 200 degrees C below that of the exposed surface, as long as the insulation material remained intact. Upon long test fire durations, the insulation either burns or degrades despite

  1. Adhesion of biodegradative anaerobic bacteria to solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schie, P.M. van; Fletcher, M.

    1999-11-01

    In order to exploit the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade certain contaminants for bioremediation of polluted subsurface environments, the authors need to understand the mechanisms by which such bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases, as well as the environmental conditions that influence partitioning. They studied four strictly anaerobic bacteria, Desulfomonile tiedjei, Syntrophomonas wolfei, Syntrophobacter wolinii, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11, which theoretically together can constitute a tetrachloroethylene- and trichloroethylene-dechlorinating consortium. Adhesion of these organisms was evaluated by microscopic determination of the numbers of cells that attached to glass coverslips exposed to cell suspensions under anaerobic conditions. The authors studied the effects of the growth phase of the organisms on adhesion, as well as the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the substratum. Results indicate that S. wolfei adheres in considerably higher numbers to glass surfaces than the other three organisms. Starvation greatly decreases adhesion of S. wolfei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 but seems to have less of an effect on the adhesion of the other bacteria. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} on the substratum, which would be electropositive, significantly increased the adhesion of S. wolfei, whereas the presence of silicon hydrophobic groups decreased the numbers of attached cells of all species. Measurements of transport of cells through hydrophobic-interaction and electro-static-interaction columns indicated that all four species had negatively charged cell surfaces and that D. tiedjei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 possessed some hydrophobic cell surface properties. These findings are an early step toward understanding the dynamic attachment of anaerobic bacteria in anoxic environments.

  2. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.05, the ......The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.......05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...... of the polymer matrix; (c) irradiating at least a part of said nanoporous material with light of a wave length of in the range of 250-400 nm (or 200-700 nm) in the presence of oxygen and/or ozone. Corresponding hydrophilic nanoporous materials are also disclosed. L...

  3. An effect of surface properties on detachment of adhered solid to cooling surface for formation of clathrate hydrate slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitoku, Tadafumi; Utaka, Yoshio

    In air-conditioning systems, it is desirable that the liquid-solid phase change temperature of a cool energy storage material is approximately 10 °C from the perspective of improving coefficient of performance (COP). Moreover, a thermal storage material that forms slurry can realize large heat capacity of working fluids. Since the solid that adheres to the heat transfer surface forms a thermal resistance layer and remarkably reduces the rate of cold storage, it is important to avoid the adhesion of a thick solid layer on the surface so as to realize efficient energy storage. Considering a harvest type cooling unit, the force required for removing the solid phase from the heat transfer surface was studied. Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate was used as a cold storage material. The effect of the heat transfer surface properties on the scraping force for detachment of adhered solid of TBAB hydrate to the heat transfer surface was examined experimentally.

  4. International Conference on Solid Films and Surfaces (ICSFS 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achete, C A; Almeida, C M; Cremona, M; Rocca, M; Stavale, F

    2015-01-01

    Foreword The 17th ICSFS took place at the wonderful city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from the 8th to the 11th of September, 2014. The conference focused on recent advances in controlling and characterizing the physical and chemical properties of films and surfaces, with a particular emphasis on materials for electronic, photonic and spintronic applications. In addition, themes of bio-functionalized structures and devices were strongly discussed in the ICSFS, covering interdisciplinary nano and nano-bio science and technology. The conference has promoted, in various sub-fields of materials surfaces and thin films, an excellent forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions in the field. In this volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering we are glad to present 11 peer-reviewed ICSFS contributing papers. The cross-disciplinary nature of conference topics is clearly reflected in these Proceedings' contents. The themes discussed ranged from those close to more traditional condensed matter physics, such as semiconductor surfaces to physical chemistry related issues. The Proceedings were organized in accordance with contributions presented at the Conference. We were glad with the presence of over 160 participants, including 24 invited and plenary talks and over 50 oral contributions. We strongly believe that these Proceedings will be useful for a wide audience of those interested in basic and applied surfaces and thin solid interfaces. Acknowledgment We would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which oversaw the general organization, particularly of Dicom (Social Communication Division) from the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Inmetro (Brazil). We also would like to thank all the invited speakers and session chairs for making the meeting such a great success. The Conference was supported and sponsored by Academia

  5. PREFACE: International Conference on Solid Films and Surfaces (ICSFS 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, C. A.; Almeida, C. M.; Cremona, M.; Rocca, M.; Stavale, F.

    2015-03-01

    Foreword The 17th ICSFS took place at the wonderful city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from the 8th to the 11th of September, 2014. The conference focused on recent advances in controlling and characterizing the physical and chemical properties of films and surfaces, with a particular emphasis on materials for electronic, photonic and spintronic applications. In addition, themes of bio-functionalized structures and devices were strongly discussed in the ICSFS, covering interdisciplinary nano and nano-bio science and technology. The conference has promoted, in various sub-fields of materials surfaces and thin films, an excellent forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions in the field. In this volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering we are glad to present 11 peer-reviewed ICSFS contributing papers. The cross-disciplinary nature of conference topics is clearly reflected in these Proceedings' contents. The themes discussed ranged from those close to more traditional condensed matter physics, such as semiconductor surfaces to physical chemistry related issues. The Proceedings were organized in accordance with contributions presented at the Conference. We were glad with the presence of over 160 participants, including 24 invited and plenary talks and over 50 oral contributions. We strongly believe that these Proceedings will be useful for a wide audience of those interested in basic and applied surfaces and thin solid interfaces. Acknowledgment We would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which oversaw the general organization, particularly of Dicom (Social Communication Division) from the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Inmetro (Brazil). We also would like to thank all the invited speakers and session chairs for making the meeting such a great success. The Conference was supported and sponsored by Academia

  6. Condensation Enhancement by Surface Porosity: Three-Stage Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Michal; Marmur, Abraham

    2015-08-18

    Surface defects, such as pores, cracks, and scratches, are naturally occurring and commonly found on solid surfaces. However, the mechanism by which such imperfections promote condensation has not been fully explored. In the current paper we thermodynamically analyze the ability of surface porosity to enhance condensation on a hydrophilic solid. We show that the presence of a surface-embedded pore brings about three distinct stages of condensation. The first is capillary condensation inside the pore until it is full. This provides an ideal hydrophilic surface for continuing the condensation. As a result, spontaneous condensation and wetting can be achieved at lower vapor pressure than on a smooth surface.

  7. Auger emission from solid surfaces bombarded with ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Oscar.

    1986-01-01

    The Auger electron emission from Be, Na, Mg, Al and Si bombarded with 0,5-20 KeV noble gas ions is studied. Sharp structures of the Auger electron spectra of Na and Be were identified. A Monte Carlo program was adapted to simulate the colision cascade in the solid, inner shell excitations and Auger decays. From the comparision of experimental and simulated Auger intensities, the relative role of symmetric and asymmetric collisions in Be K- and Al L-shell excitation were evaluated. In the case of Be, the discussion of the exciting processes to higher projectile energies was extended. To this end, the simulation to early measurements of Be K X-ray yields was applied. From this analysis, information about the variations of the fluorescence yield and outer-shell occupation numbers of Be with projectile energy was obtained. The study of the shape of the sharp Auger structures and their dependence with the energy and incidence projectile angle gives information about the collisional processes, inner hole lifetimes and Auger decays. From the evaluation of the energy and angular distribution of the excited sputtered atoms and the interaction between them and the metallic-surface, the energy shift distributions in the Auger energies were obtained. From the comparison of these distributions with the experimental atomic peaks, the main causes of the broadening of these peaks were determined. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Soft x-ray photochemistry in solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Baba, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    Resent studies on photochemistry using synchrotron soft x-rays in solid surfaces are reviewed. A type of site-selective chemical reaction induced by inner-shell excitation is classified into two model systems that are referred to as 'Element-specific fragmentation' and 'Bonding-site-specific dissociation.' The former system uses difference of core-binding-energies in different elements and the latter is based on the existence of plural unoccupied molecular orbitals with different antibonding character. The selectivity of the reaction in respective systems is discussed in terms of mass-patterns of desorbed fragment-ions and photon-energy dependence of the ion yields. Also discussed are the fragmentation and desorption mechanisms which include intrinsic direct photofragmentation and indirect channels induced by secondary electrons. The latter process reduces the selectivity of the reaction. Furthermore, two experimental approaches, which have recently been performed to estimate the relative magnitude of contribution in the direct and indirect processes to the total yields, are described: (1) the layer-thickness dependence and (2) polarization-angle dependence in the photofragmentation. (author)

  9. Tuning Solid Surfaces from Hydrophobic to Superhydrophilic by Submonolayer Surface Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Sheng; Zhang Zhenyu; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2006-01-01

    Molecular-scale understanding and manipulation of the wetting behavior of water on solids remains a fundamental challenge. Using diamond as a model system, we show that the naturally hydrophobic behavior of a hydrogen-terminated C(111) surface can be manipulated by replacing the H termination with a monolayer of adsorbate. In particular, a mixed monolayer of (1/3) Na and (2/3) F atoms leads to superhydrophilic behavior, as shown by first-principles calculations. The physical origin of the superhydrophilic behavior is attributed to the ionic nature of the Na adatoms, which mediate the right degree of binding strength between water molecules and the substrate

  10. Physics of foam formation on a solid surface in carbonated liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidberg, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The amount and size of bubbles in a foam layer that have originated from a solid surface in a gas supersaturated solution is largely determined by the physical properties of that solid and liquid surface and the supersaturation level of the gas in the liquid. The presence of pre-existent

  11. A comparative study of the effectiveness of early and delayed loading of short tissue-level dental implants with hydrophilic surfaces placed in the posterior section of the mandible-A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Arkadiusz; Botzenhart, Ute; Seeliger, Julia; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Biocev, Peter; Dominiak, Marzena

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the primary and secondary stability of tissue-level short dental titanium implants with polished necks and hydrophilic surfaces of two different designs and manufacturers. The first implant system used (SPI ® ELEMENT RC INICELL titanium implants, Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland), allowed functional loading 6 weeks after its placement, whereas the second implant system (RN SLActiv ® tissue-level titanium implants, Straumann GmbH, Fribourg, Germany), was loaded after 15 weeks. The degree of primary and secondary stability was determined using an Osstell ISQ measuring device. Marginal bone loss (MBL) was evaluated radiographically 12 and 24 weeks after implantation and the Wachtel's healing index as well as the patient's satisfaction with the treatment was registered on a VAS scale. The intergroup comparison revealed significant differences in terms of primary stability as well as differences in MBL 3 months after the procedure, but no significant differences could be found after 6 months and for secondary stability. The primary stability was significantly higher for Thommen ® compared to Straumann ® implants. Insertion of short dental implants with a hydrophilic conditioned surface significantly shortens patient treatment time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling Gas Adsorption in Porous Solids: Roles of Surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling the adsorption of small molecule gases such as N2, CH4 and CO2 in porous solids can ... fusive properties of CO2 adsorbed in the solids have been examined using ..... exhibit a wide range of physical behavior.78,79 The intro-.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic force and spatial thin film thickness between deformable and solid surfaces by integrated thin liquid film force apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Manica, Rogerio; Wang, Louxiang; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-09

    Interactions involving deformable surfaces reveal a number of distinguishing physicochemical characteristics that do not exist in interactions between rigid solid surfaces. A unique fully custom-designed instrument, referred to as integrated thin liquid film force apparatus (ITLFFA), was developed to study the interactions between one deformable and one solid surface in liquid. Incorporating a bimorph force sensor with interferometry, this device allows for the simultaneous measurement of the time-dependent interaction force and the corresponding spatiotemporal film thickness of the intervening liquid film. The ITLFFA possesses the specific feature of conducting measurement under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, with a displacement velocity of deformable surfaces ranging from 2 μm s -1 to 50 mm s -1 . Equipped with a high speed camera, the results of a bubble interacting with hydrophilic and partially hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions indicated that ITLFFA can provide information on interaction forces and thin liquid film drainage dynamics not only in a stable film but also in films of the quick rupture process. The weak interaction force was extracted from a measured film profile. Because of its well-characterized experimental conditions, ITLFFA permits the accurate and quantitative comparison/validation between measured and calculated interaction forces and temporal film profiles.

  14. Solid state cesium ion guns for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzis, A.E.; Carr, W.E.; Kim, S.I.; Seidl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Three cesium ion guns covering the energy range of 5--5000 V are described. These guns use a novel source of cesium ions that combine the advantages of porous metal ionizers with those of aluminosilicate emitters. Cesium ions are chemically stored in a solid electrolyte pellet and are thermionically emitted from a porous thin film of tungsten at the surface. Cesium supply to the emitting surface is controlled by applying a bias across the pellet. A total charge of 10.0 C can be extracted, corresponding to greater than 2000 h of lifetime with an extraction current of 1.0 μA. This source is compact, stable, and easy to use, and produces a beam with >99.5% purity. It requires none of the differential pumping or associated hardware necessary in designs using cesium vapor and porous tungsten ionizers. It has been used in ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) experiments at pressures of -10 Torr with no significant gas load. Three different types of extraction optics are used depending on the energy range desired. For low-energy deposition, a simple space-charge-limited planar diode with a perveance of 1x10 -7 A/V 3/2 is used. Current densities of 10.0 μA/cm 2 at the exit aperture for energies ≤20 V are typical. This type of source provides an alternative to vapor deposition with the advantage of precise flux calibration by integration of the ion current. For energies from 50 to 500 V and typical beam radii of 0.5 to 0.2 mm, a high perveance Pierce-type ion gun is used. This gun was designed with a perveance of 1x10 -9 A/V 3/2 and produces a beam with an effective temperature of 0.35 eV. For the energy range of 0.5 to 5 keV, the Pierce gun is used in conjunction with two Einzel lenses, enabling a large range of imaging ratios to be obtained. Beam radii of 60 to 300 μm are typical for beam currents of 50 nA to 1.0 μA

  15. Tribology of thin wetting films between bubble and moving solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakashev, Stoyan I; Stöckelhuber, Klaus W; Tsekov, Roumen; Phan, Chi M; Heinrich, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This work shows a successful example of coupling of theory and experiment to study the tribology of bubble rubbing on solid surface. Such kind of investigation is reported for the first time in the literature. A theory about wetting film intercalated between bubble and moving solid surface was developed, thus deriving the non-linear evolution differential equation which accounted for the friction slip coefficient at the solid surface. The stationary 3D film thickness profile, which appears to be a solution of the differential equation, for each particular speed of motion of the solid surface was derived by means of special procedure and unique interferometric experimental setup. This allowed us to determine the 3D map of the lift pressure within the wetting film, the friction force per unit area and the friction coefficient of rubbing at different speeds of motion of the solid surface. Thus, we observed interesting tribological details about the rubbing of the bubble on the solid surface like for example: 1. A regime of mixed friction between dry and lubricated friction exists in the range of 6-170 μm/s, beyond which the rubbing between the bubble and solid becomes completely lubricated and passes through the maximum; 2. The friction coefficient of rubbing has high values at very small speeds of solid's motion and reduces substantially with the increase of the speed of the solid motion until reaching small values, which change insignificantly with the further increase of the speed of the solid. Despite the numerous studies on the motion of bubble/droplet in close proximity to solid wall in the literature, the present investigation appears to be a step ahead in this area as far as we were able to derive 3D maps of the bubble close to the solid surface, which makes the investigation more profound. © 2013.

  16. Effects of hydrophilic solvent and oxidation resistance post surface treatment on molecular structure and forward osmosis performance of polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Qibo; Xu, Yangyu [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Haijun, E-mail: yanghj@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Lu, E-mail: zhoulu@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • NMP promotes swelling of polyamide, which enhances the TFC FO membrane water flux. • Electron-withdrawing carboxyl groups reduce the activity of polyamide molecules. • TMC and oxalic acid can improve the oxidation resistance properties of the FO membrane. • Oxalic acid and EDC improve the FO membrane separation performance significantly. - Abstract: In this article, novel hydrophilic solvents and antioxidants were used to post-treat aromatic polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber forward osmosis (FO) membranes. The effects of trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and oxalic acid on the structure of polyamide skin layer were investigated using ATR-FTIR and XPS analyses. Pure water flux and rejection of salts were detected using 2 M NaCl solution as draw solutions in FO processes. The results demonstrated that hydrophilic solvent N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) enhanced the water flux and kept a high salt retention of the TFC FO membrane. TMC and oxalic acid were both found to improve the oxidation resistance properties of the skin layer of TFC membrane because the electron-withdrawing carboxyl groups reduced the activity of polyamide molecular. The effects of the oxalic acid and carbodiimide on the molecular structures and the FO water flux of the polyamide TFC membranes were more marked than those of TMC. The novel TFC FO membrane treated by oxalic acid and 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) exhibited a high level of water flux (20.33 L m{sup −2} h{sup −1}), and the rates of salt rejection and salt reverse rejection were higher by 50% and 83%, respectively.

  17. Interfacial separation between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces: comparison of experiment with theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J [IFF, FZ-Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-01-07

    We study the average separation between an elastic solid and a hard solid, with a nominally flat but randomly rough surface, as a function of the squeezing pressure. We present experimental results for a silicon rubber (PDMS) block with a flat surface squeezed against an asphalt road surface. The theory shows that an effective repulsive pressure acts between the surfaces of the form p{approx}exp(-u/u{sub 0}), where u is the average separation between the surfaces and u{sub 0} a constant of the order of the root-mean-square roughness, in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Structure of solid surfaces and of adsorbates by low-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    LEED theory has developed to the point where the diffraction beam intensities can be computed using the locations of the surface atoms as the only adjustable parameters. The position of atoms in many clean monatomic solid surfaces and the surface structures of ordered monolayers of adsorbed atoms have been determined this way. Surface crystallography studies are now extended to small hydrocarbon molecules that are adsorbed on metal surfaces. These studies are reviewed

  19. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, Krassimir D.; Stanimirova, Rumyana D.; Kralchevsky, Peter A.; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B.J.; Cox, Andrew R.; Pelan, Eddie G.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are

  20. Mineralization of CCl4 and CCl2F2 on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeb, S.; Schmitzer, J.; Turner, W.V.; Korte, F.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising

    1980-01-01

    The mineralization of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CCl 2 F 2 in the dark is shown to be greatly dependent on the nature of the solid surfaces to which they are exposed, alumina being more effective than silica gel and a number of natural sands. Activation of the solids by drying or mechanically by tumbling leads to increased mineralization rates. (orig.)

  1. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  2. A methodology for modeling surface effects on stiff and soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Park, Harold S.

    2018-06-01

    We present a computational method that can be applied to capture surface stress and surface tension-driven effects in both stiff, crystalline nanostructures, like size-dependent mechanical properties, and soft solids, like elastocapillary effects. We show that the method is equivalent to the classical Young-Laplace model. The method is based on converting surface tension and surface elasticity on a zero-thickness surface to an initial stress and corresponding elastic properties on a finite thickness shell, where the consideration of geometric nonlinearity enables capturing the out-of-plane component of the surface tension that results for curved surfaces through evaluation of the surface stress in the deformed configuration. In doing so, we are able to use commercially available finite element technology, and thus do not require consideration and implementation of the classical Young-Laplace equation. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of the methodology for modeling surface stress in both soft solids and crystalline nanostructures.

  3. How to decrease the hydrophilicity of wood flour to process efficient composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzet, M.; Gautier, D.; Charlet, K. [Institut Pascal, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS/IFMA, BP 265, Aubière 63175 (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand 63000 (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubière 63177 (France); Dubois, M., E-mail: Marc.DUBOIS@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand 63000 (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubière 63177 (France); Béakou, A. [Institut Pascal, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS/IFMA, BP 265, Aubière 63175 (France)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Evolution of the contact angle of a water drop on sample (θ{sub c}) according to the fluorinated material. - Highlights: • Fluorination was applied to wood flour. • Covalent attachment of fluorine atoms onto wood surface decreases its hydrophilicity. • Fluorinated wood flour was added into composites with polyester. • Fluorination enhances the interface between wood flour and polymer matrix. - Abstract: Dynamic fluorination and static fluorination were applied to wood flour to decrease its hydrophilic character, aiming at processing wood-polymer composites with good properties. Fourier-Transform infrared spectra and {sup 19}F solid state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) results proved the successful covalent bonding of fluorine atoms onto the wood's chemical structure. It revealed that static fluorination brings about a less damaged and less hydrophilic fluorinated wood than with dynamic fluorination. Composites manufactured from this fluorinated wood presented a hydrophobic character directly related to the hydrophicity of these wood reinforcements. A composite made with fluorinated wood and polyester exhibited a higher hydrophobicity than the neat polyester and than the composite made with non-treated wood. Moreover, the further fluorination of a composite made of fluorinated wood led to a contact angle comparable to that of some metals (steel, gold) due to the etching of the composite surface during fluorination.

  4. Evaporation characteristics of a hydrophilic surface with micro-scale and/or nano-scale structures fabricated by sandblasting and aluminum anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Kim, Joonwon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of evaporation experiments using water droplets on aluminum sheets that were either smooth or had surface structures at the micro-scale, at the nano-scale or at both micro- and nano-scales (dual-scale). The smooth surface was a polished aluminum sheet; the surface with micro-scale structures was obtained by sandblasting; the surface with nano-scale structures was obtained using conventional aluminum anodization and the surface with dual-scale structures was prepared using sandblasting and anodization sequentially. The wetting properties and evaporation rates were measured for each surface. The evaporation rates were affected by their static and dynamic wetting properties. Evaporation on the surface with dual-scale structures was fastest and the evaporation rate was analyzed quantitatively.

  5. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~300 to 400nm and a width of ~60 to 70nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using reweighting and free energy surface interpolation to predict solid-solid phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Natalie P.; Dybeck, Eric C.; Shirts, Michael R.

    2018-04-01

    Many physical properties of small organic molecules are dependent on the current crystal packing, or polymorph, of the material, including bioavailability of pharmaceuticals, optical properties of dyes, and charge transport properties of semiconductors. Predicting the most stable crystalline form at a given temperature and pressure requires determining the crystalline form with the lowest relative Gibbs free energy. Effective computational prediction of the most stable polymorph could save significant time and effort in the design of novel molecular crystalline solids or predict their behavior under new conditions. In this study, we introduce a new approach using multistate reweighting to address the problem of determining solid-solid phase diagrams and apply this approach to the phase diagram of solid benzene. For this approach, we perform sampling at a selection of temperature and pressure states in the region of interest. We use multistate reweighting methods to determine the reduced free energy differences between T and P states within a given polymorph and validate this phase diagram using several measures. The relative stability of the polymorphs at the sampled states can be successively interpolated from these points to create the phase diagram by combining these reduced free energy differences with a reference Gibbs free energy difference between polymorphs. The method also allows for straightforward estimation of uncertainties in the phase boundary. We also find that when properly implemented, multistate reweighting for phase diagram determination scales better with the size of the system than previously estimated.

  7. Surface energies of metals in both liquid and solid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Although during the last years one has seen a number of systematic studies of the surface energies of metals, the aim and the scientific meaning of this research is to establish a simple and a straightforward theoretical model to calculate accurately the mechanical and the thermodynamic properties of metal surfaces due to their important application in materials processes and in the understanding of a wide range of surface phenomena. Through extensive theoretical calculations of the surface tension of most of the liquid metals, we found that the fraction of broken bonds in liquid metals (f) is constant which is equal to 0.287. Using our estimated f value, the surface tension (γ m ), surface energy (γ SV ), surface excess entropy (-dγ/dT), surface excess enthalpy (H s ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α m and α b ), sound velocity (c m ) and its temperature coefficient (-dc/dT) have been calculated for more than sixty metals. The results of the calculated quantities agree well with available experimental data.

  8. Electric treatment for hydrophilic ink deinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaotang; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophilic inks have been widely used due to higher printing speed, competitive cost and being healthy non-organic solvents. However, they cause problems in both product quality and process runnability due to their hydrophilic surface wettability, strong negative surface charge and sub-micron size. Electric treatment was shown to be able to increase the ink sizes from 60 nm to 700 nm through electrocoagulation and electrophoresis. In addition, electric treatment assisted flotation could reduce effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) by 90 ppm, compared with only 20 ppm by traditional flotation. Furthermore, the effect of electric treatment alone on ink separation was investigated by two anode materials, graphite and stainless steel. Both of them could remove hydrophilic inks with less than 1% yield loss via electroflotation and electrophoresis. But graphite is a better material as the anode because graphite reduced ERIC by an additional 100 ppm. The yield loss of flotation following electric treatment was also lower by 17% if graphite was the anode material. The difference between the two electrode materials resulted from electrocoagulation and ink redeposition during electric treatment. An electric pretreatment-flotation-hyperwashing process was conducted to understand the deinking performance in conditions similar to a paper mill, and the ERIC was reduced from 950 ppm to less than 400 ppm.

  9. Laser generation of nanostructures on the surface and in the bulk of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bityurin, N M

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers nanostructuring of solid surfaces by nano-optical techniques, primarily by laser particle nanolithography. Threshold processes are examined that can be used for laser structuring of solid surfaces, with particular attention to laser swelling of materials. Fundamental spatial resolution issues in three-dimensional (3D) laser nanostructuring are analysed with application to laser nanopolymerisation and 3D optical information recording. The formation of nanostructures in the bulk of solids due to their structural instability under irradiation is exemplified by photoinduced formation of nanocomposites. (photonics and nanotechnology)

  10. Surface damage-caused inelastic relaxation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darinskij, B.M.; Izmajlov, N.V.; Loginov, V.A.; Mitrokhin, V.I.; Yaroslavtsev, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    Internal friction (IF) in solids having different structure: crystalline- Si, Ga, P, GaAs, InP, InAs, CdTe, LiNbO 3 ; amorphous-crystalline-devitrified glass ST-50; amorphous- quartz glass, has been studied. IF peak was observed in each of the specimens at the frequency of bed oscillations equal to 8-30 kHz in the -70- -50 deg C temperature range. Its parameters (activation energy, frequency factor, etc.) for each of the materials are presented. Strong dependence of the peak height on the amplitude of deformation is ascertained, the annealing temperature is determined

  11. On two possible mechanisms of metallic island remotion from solid surface at heavy multicharged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, I.V.; Geguzin, Ya.E.; Monastyrenko, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two mechanisms of energy transfer from a moving ion to a metallic island film on a solid surface are described. A particular case when the energy transfer quantity is enough to remove an island from the solid surface breaking adhesion bond is considered. One mechanism is 'shaking off', another one is a 'jumping up' mechanism. The essence of the first mechanism is that an ion bombarding the surface excites a cylindrical shock wave with a front that can 'shake off' islands from the solid surface along the ion trajectory when it reaches the surface. An island is heated in pulsed mode, and during thermal expansion it should push off the substrate, and so it jumps up. The pure case of such mechanism is observed when an ion transverses an island and transfers energy to the latter one that is defined by the quantity of ion energy losses in the island

  12. Single atom and-molecules chemisorption on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anda, E.V.; Ure, J.E.; Majlis, N.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified model for the microscopic interpretation of single atom and- molecules chemisorption on metallic surfaces is presented. An appropriated hamiltonian for this problem is resolved, through the Green's function formalism. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Monte Carlo prediction of crater formation by single ion impact on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Collins, R.; Gras-Marti, A.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the topography changes following the impact of one energetic ion on the plane surface of a monatomic amorphous solid. This is done in two stages. The first is a Monte Carlo calculation of the sputter yield and interior distribution relocated atoms, with no compensation for local departures from equilibrium density. In the second stage there is a systematic relaxation of the solid, in which the density returns to its previous constant value and a crater develops in the surface. Two alternative methods of carrying out stage two are compared. In the first the solid is subdivided into cells within which relaxation is carried out normal to the surface, as in previous one-dimensional studies. The second method treats the solid as a 3-dimensional incompressible medium. Both seem to reproduce quite well the main features found experimentally. (orig.)

  14. Applying the Coupled-Cluster Ansatz to Solids and Surfaces in the Thermodynamic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thomas; Liao, Ke; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Hummel, Felix; Grüneis, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Modern electronic structure theories can predict and simulate a wealth of phenomena in surface science and solid-state physics. In order to allow for a direct comparison with experiment, such ab initio predictions have to be made in the thermodynamic limit, substantially increasing the computational cost of many-electron wave-function theories. Here, we present a method that achieves thermodynamic limit results for solids and surfaces using the "gold standard" coupled cluster ansatz of quantum chemistry with unprecedented efficiency. We study the energy difference between carbon diamond and graphite crystals, adsorption energies of water on h -BN, as well as the cohesive energy of the Ne solid, demonstrating the increased efficiency and accuracy of coupled cluster theory for solids and surfaces.

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF 2 as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states

  16. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  17. Ejection of fast recoil atoms from solids under ion bombardment (medium-energy ion scattering by solid surfaces: Pt. 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonoy, A.I.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the third part of our review surface scattering. Part I, which was devoted to the scattering of ions by the surfaces of disordered solids, was published in 1972; Part II, concerning scattering by crystal surfaces, was published in 1974. Since the publication of these reviews the material contained in them has become obsolete in many respects. A more recent account of the status of the problem has been given in a number of studies, including the book by E.S. Mashkova and V.A. Molchanov, Medium-Energy Ion Scattering by Solid Surfaces (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1980), than extended version of which was published by North-Holland in 1985. We note, however, that at the time these reviews were written the study of fast recoil atoms had not been carried out systematically; the problem was studied only as a by-product of surface scattering and sputtering. For this reason, in the above-mentioned works and in other reviews the data relating to recoil atoms were considered only occasionally. In recent years there have appeared a number of works - theoretical, experimental and computer -specially devoted to the study of the ejection of recoil atoms under ion bombardment. A number of interesting effects, which are due to the crystal structure of the target, have been discovered. It therefore, appeared desirable to us to systematize the available material and to present it as Part III of our continuing review. (author)

  18. Improvement in surface hydrophilicity and resistance to deformation of natural leather through O2/H2O low-temperature plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xuewei; Gou, Li; Tong, Xingye

    2016-01-01

    The natural leather was modified through O2/H2O low-temperature plasma treatment. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the results showed that the pores on the leather surface became deeper and larger with enhanced permeability of water and vapor. XPS and FTIR-ATR was performed to determine the chemical composition of natural leather surface. Oxygen-containing groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of natural leather and oxygen content increased with longer treatment time. After O2/H2O plasma treatment, initial water contact angle was about 21° and water contact angles were not beyond 55° after being stored for 3 days. Furthermore, the tensile test indicated that the resistance to deformation had a prominent transform without sacrificing the tensile strength.

  19. Interaction of antihydrogen with ordinary atoms and solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.froelich@kvac.uu.se; Voronin, Alexei [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    The characteristic features of cold atom-antiatom collisions and antiatom-surface interactions are discussed and illustrated by the results for hydrogen-antihydrogen scattering and for quantum reflection of ultracold antihydrogen from a metallic surface. We discuss in some detail the case of spin-exchange in ultracold H-bar - H collisions, exposing the interplay of Coulombic, strong and dispersive forces, and demonstrating the sensitivity of the spin-exchange cross sections to hypothetical violations of Charge-Parity-Time (CPT) symmetry.

  20. Fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Korenev, S.A.; Orelovich, O.L.; Puzynin, I.V.; Chernik, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the results of scanning electron microscopy of surfaces of the solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion beam treatment. The appearance of fractal structures on the modified surfaces is shown. The fractal dimensions of these structures were estimated by box-counting algorithm

  1. Non-equilibrium dynamics of single polymer adsorption to solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panja, D.; Barkema, G.T.; Kolomeisky, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of polymers to surfaces is crucial for understanding many fundamental processes in nature. Recent experimental studies indicate that the adsorption dynamics is dominated by non-equilibrium effects. We investigate the adsorption of a single polymer of length N to a planar solid surface

  2. Hydroxyapatite synthesis on solid surfaces using a biological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A; Mei, J; Tse, Y Y; Jones, I P; Sammons, R L

    2012-01-01

    Many naturally occurring mineralisation processes yield hydroxyapatite (HA) or related salts, but biological routes to calcification have not generally been exploited for production of hydroxyapatite for clinical and industrial applications. Serratia sp. NCIMB 40259 is a non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of growing as a biofilm on many surfaces and can be used to form HA coatings on a variety of polymeric and metallic materials, including titanium. Here we review previous work and report the results of more recent studies on the influence of titanium compositional and surface properties on Serratia adherence and proliferation and biomineralisation on commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) discs and a Ti mesh. Bacterial adherence was equivalent on cpTi and Ti6Al4V, and biofilms formed on both rough and mirror-polished cpTi surfaces. Embedded alumina particles and alkali treatment did not noticeably alter the precipitation of Serratia HA, nor the structure of the coating in comparison with non-treated substrates. Coatings were retained after sintering at 800°C in argon, although the original curved plate-like crystals changed to nano-scale β-tricalcium phosphate particles. A phosphorous-rich diffusion zone formed at the coating-titanium interface. Bacterial mineralisation may have applications as a method for producing coatings on implants in non load-bearing sites, and non-clinical applications where a high surface area is the major concern.

  3. Hydroxyapatite synthesis on solid surfaces using a biological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Mei, J.; Tse, Y. Y.; Jones, I. P.; Sammons, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many naturally occurring mineralisation processes yield hydroxyapatite (HA) or related salts, but biological routes to calcification have not generally been exploited for production of hydroxyapatite for clinical and industrial applications. Serratia sp. NCIMB 40259 is a non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of growing as a biofilm on many surfaces and can be used to form HA coatings on a variety of polymeric and metallic materials, including titanium. Here we review previous work and report the results of more recent studies on the influence of titanium compositional and surface properties on Serratia adherence and proliferation and biomineralisation on commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) discs and a Ti mesh. Bacterial adherence was equivalent on cpTi and Ti6Al4V, and biofilms formed on both rough and mirror-polished cpTi surfaces. Embedded alumina particles and alkali treatment did not noticeably alter the precipitation of Serratia HA, nor the structure of the coating in comparison with non-treated substrates. Coatings were retained after sintering at 800°C in argon, although the original curved plate-like crystals changed to nano-scale β-tricalcium phosphate particles. A phosphorous-rich diffusion zone formed at the coating-titanium interface. Bacterial mineralisation may have applications as a method for producing coatings on implants in non load-bearing sites, and non-clinical applications where a high surface area is the major concern.

  4. Surface modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with hydrophilic and anti-fouling performance via a two-step polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gui-E; Sun, Li; Huang, Hui-Hong; Liu, Yan-Jun [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai (China); Xu, Zhen-Liang; Yang, Hu [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-15

    The surface modification of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane was performed via a two-step polymerization reactions. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAAc) was first grafted onto the membrane surface for the preparation of PVDF-g-PAAc membrane, and then poly (ethylene glycol) 200 (PEG 200) was immobilized on the membrane surface by the esterification reaction for the fabrication of PVDF-g-PEGA membrane. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and protein adsorption, water flux, water content and dynamic contact angle were conducted to characterize the structures and performance of the resultant PVDF membranes. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the PVDF-g-PEGA membrane decreased about 80% when the grafting ratio reached to 15 wt%, compared with the pristine PVDF membrane. Moreover, the water contact angle of the membrane dropped to 60.5o, while the membrane pore sizes remained little changed.

  5. Novel hydrophilic nanostructured microtexture on direct metal laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V surfaces enhances osteoblast response in vitro and osseointegration in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzy, Sharon L; Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Yatzkaier, Gustavo; Whitehead, Alexander J; Clohessy, Ryan M; Gittens, Rolando A; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biological effects in vivo of hierarchical surface roughness on laser sintered titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) implants to those of conventionally machined implants on osteoblast response in vitro and osseointegration. Laser sintered disks were fabricated to have micro-/nano-roughness and wettability. Control disks were computer numerical control (CNC) milled and then polished to be smooth (CNC-M). Laser sintered disks were polished smooth (LST-M), grit blasted (LST-B), or blasted and acid etched (LST-BE). LST-BE implants or implants manufactured by CNC milling and grit blasted (CNC-B) were implanted in the femurs of male New Zealand white rabbits. Most osteoblast differentiation markers and local factors were enhanced on rough LST-B and LST-BE surfaces in comparison to smooth CNC-M or LST-M surfaces for MG63 and normal human osteoblast cells. To determine if LST-BE implants were osteogenic in vivo, we compared them to implant surfaces used clinically. LST-BE implants had a unique surface with combined micro-/nano-roughness and higher wettability than conventional CNC-B implants. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in cortical bone-implant contact of LST-BE implants compared to CNC-B implants after 3 and 6 weeks. However, mechanical testing revealed no differences between implant pullout forces at those time points. LST surfaces enhanced osteoblast differentiation and production of local factors in vitro and improved the osseointegration process in vivo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2086-2098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Response surface method optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis preparation genistein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Sun, E; Yu, Dan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Ning, Qing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-04-01

    This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method. And differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion. And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7.1, temperature 52.2 degrees C, enzyme concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) and reaction time 7 h. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was (93.47 +/- 2.40)%. Comparing with that without forming the genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2.62 fold. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein. The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production.

  7. Modifying zirconia solid electrolyte surface property to enhance oxide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, B.Y.; Song, S.Y. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, BSCCO) is known for its high T{sub c} superconducting behavior and mixed conducting property. The applicability of similar high T{sub c} cuprates for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application has been studied recently. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of several Ag{vert_bar}BSCCO{vert_bar}10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ){vert_bar}Ag and Ag{vert_bar}YSZ{vert_bar}Ag cells using complex impedance spectroscopy. A highly uniform and porous microstructure was observed at the interface of the YSZ and BSCCO. The ionic conductivity determined from the Nyquest plots in the temperature range of 200-700{degrees}C agrees with the values reported in the literature. The specific resistance of the BSCCO{vert_bar}YSZ interface was also determined to be lower than those of the conventional manganite electrode, suggesting that BSCCO seems attractive for cathode applications in SOFC.

  8. The dynamics of the water droplet impacting onto hot solid surfaces at medium Weber numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakusuma, Windy H.; Kamal, Samsul; Indarto; Dyan Susila, M.; Hermawan; Deendarlianto

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the wettability of a droplet impacting onto a hot solid surface under medium Weber numbers were studied experimentally. The Weber numbers used in the present experiment were 52.1, 57.6, and 63.1. Three kinds of solid surfaces with different wettability were used. These were normal stainless steel (NSS), TiO2 coated NSS, and TiO2 coated NSS radiated with ultraviolet rays. The surface temperatures were varied from 60 to 200 °C. The image of side the view and 30° from horizontal were taken to explain the spreading and the interfacial behavior of a single droplet during impact the hot solid surfaces. It was found that under medium Weber numbers, the surface wettability plays an important role on the droplet spreading and evaporation time during the impact on the hot solid surfaces. The higher the wettability, the larger the droplet spreading on the hot surface, and the lower the evaporation time.

  9. Molecular weight evaluation of poly-dimethylsiloxane on solid surfaces using silver deposition/TOF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masae; Murase, Atsushi

    2004-06-01

    Molecular ions include information about end groups, functional groups and molecular weight. A method for directly detecting this in the high-mass region of the spectrum (>1000 amu) from poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on a solid surface was investigated. It was found that a TOF-SIMS analysis of silver-deposited surfaces (silver deposition/TOF-SIMS) is useful for this purpose. Two methods for silver deposition, the diode sputtering method and the vacuum evaporation coating method, were tried. The former required the sample to be cooled so as to prevent the damage of the sample surface due to thermal oxidation; the latter caused no damage to sample surfaces at room temperature. Using silver deposition/TOF-SIMS analysis, silver-cationized quasi-molecular ions were clearly detected from PDMS on solid surfaces and their images were observed without the interference of deposited silver. By applying to the analysis of paint defects, etc., it was confirmed that this technique is useful to analyze practical industrial materials. Silver-cationized ions were detected not only from PDMS, but also from other organic materials, such as some kinds of lubricant additives and fluorine oils on solid surfaces. Therefore, silver deposition/TOF-SIMS was proved to be useful for the analysis of thin substances on solid surfaces.

  10. Random Process Theory Approach to Geometric Heterogeneous Surfaces: Effective Fluid-Solid Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyupin, Aleksey; Aslyamov, Timur

    2017-06-01

    Realistic fluid-solid interaction potentials are essential in description of confined fluids especially in the case of geometric heterogeneous surfaces. Correlated random field is considered as a model of random surface with high geometric roughness. We provide the general theory of effective coarse-grained fluid-solid potential by proper averaging of the free energy of fluid molecules which interact with the solid media. This procedure is largely based on the theory of random processes. We apply first passage time probability problem and assume the local Markov properties of random surfaces. General expression of effective fluid-solid potential is obtained. In the case of small surface irregularities analytical approximation for effective potential is proposed. Both amorphous materials with large surface roughness and crystalline solids with several types of fcc lattices are considered. It is shown that the wider the lattice spacing in terms of molecular diameter of the fluid, the more obtained potentials differ from classical ones. A comparison with published Monte-Carlo simulations was discussed. The work provides a promising approach to explore how the random geometric heterogeneity affects on thermodynamic properties of the fluids.

  11. Localized solid-state amorphization at grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline Al solid solution subjected to surface mechanical attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Tao, N [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hong, Y [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, J [LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000, Troyes (France); Lu, K [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2005-11-21

    Using high-resolution electron microscopy, localized solid-state amorphization (SSA) was observed in a nanocrystalline (NC) Al solid solution (weight per cent 4.2 Cu, 0.3 Mn, the rest being Al) subjected to a surface mechanical attrition treatment. It was found that the deformation-induced SSA may occur at the grain boundary (GB) where either the high density dislocations or dislocation complexes are present. It is suggested that lattice instability due to elastic distortion within the dislocation core region plays a significant role in the initiation of the localized SSA at defective sites. Meanwhile, the GB of severely deformed NC grains exhibits a continuously varying atomic structure in such a way that while most of the GB is ordered but reveals corrugated configurations, localized amorphization may occur along the same GB.

  12. Microanalysis of solid surfaces by nuclear reactions and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agius, B.

    1975-01-01

    The principles involved in the use of monokinetic light ions beams, of about 1MeV, to the study of surface phenomena are presented. Two complementary techniques are described: the use of elastic scattering, which allows the analysis of impurity elements heavier than the substrate components and the use of nuclear reactions specific of light elements. Typical sensitivities are of the order of 10 11 at/cm 2 in good cases. The depth resolution varies, according to the cases, from about a hundred angstroems to a few thousand angstroems [fr

  13. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans

    2014-01-01

    and excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging......Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide...

  14. Infrared thermography of solid surfaces in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meléndez, J; Foronda, A; Aranda, J M; López, F; López del Cerro, F J

    2010-01-01

    Fire resistance tests are commonplace in industry. The aerospace sector is particularly active in this area, since the behaviour of advanced materials, such as composites, when in a fire is not fully understood yet. Two of the main obstacles are the inherent difficulty of direct surface measurements in such a harsh environment (especially on the exposed side of the specimens) and the lack of spatial resolution of the usual measuring devices, namely thermocouples (TCs). This paper presents a way to overcome these problems by using an infrared (IR) camera to study the exposed side of composite plates exposed to fire. A method for minimizing the effect of the flame (thus making it as 'transparent' as possible) was developed, resulting in 2D temperature maps of the plate surface. The assumptions that the method relies on were verified by data analysis and ad hoc emission–transmission experiments. The errors associated with two slightly different versions of the method were studied, and comparisons with TC measurements were performed. It was found that the IR method provides better results than TCs, not only due to its spatial resolution capability but also because of the non-intrusive nature of IR thermography, as opposed to the local effects caused by TCs, which became evident during the experiments

  15. Inertial collapse of bubble pairs near a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of applications ranging from naval structures to biomedical ultrasound. One important consequence is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated inertial collapse of vapor bubbles. Although the mechanical loading produced by the collapse of a single bubble has been widely investigated, less is known about the detailed dynamics of the collapse of multiple bubbles. In such a problem, the bubble-bubble interactions typically affect the dynamics, e.g., by increasing the non-sphericity of the bubbles and amplifying/hindering the collapse intensity depending on the flow parameters. Here, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics, as well as the pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of gas bubbles near a rigid surface. We perform high-resolution simulations of this problem by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The results are used to investigate the non-spherical bubble dynamics and characterize the pressure and temperature fields based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuration (angle, relative size, distance), collapse strength. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  16. Levitation of Liquid Microdroplets Above A Solid Surface Subcooled to the Leidenfrost Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of liquid microdroplets that fall on a solid surface with the temperature of below the Leidenfrost temperature is studied. It has been found out that sufficiently small liquid droplets of about 10 microns can suspend at some distance from the surface (levitate and do not reach the surface; at that, the rate of droplet evaporation is reduced by an order as compared to microdroplets, which touch the surface. It is determined that in contrast to microdroplets, which touch the surface, the specific evaporation rate of levitating droplets is constant in time.

  17. Surface Functionalization and Targeting Strategies of Liposomes in Solid Tumor Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Riaz, Muhammad Adil; Zhang, Xue; Lin, Congcong; Wong, Ka Hong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Lu, Aiping

    2018-01-01

    Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.e., extracellular and intracellular targets and targets in tumor microenvironment or vasculature. Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed. PMID:29315231

  18. Surface Functionalization and Targeting Strategies of Liposomes in Solid Tumor Therapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Riaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.e., extracellular and intracellular targets and targets in tumor microenvironment or vasculature. Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed.

  19. Radiation-induced reactions in D, L-α-alanine adsorbed in solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Camargo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior under irradiation of D, L and D-L α-alanine adsorbed in solid surfaces, as possible phase in the chemical evolution that may have occurred on the primitive Earth or in extraterrestrial environments and to evaluate the contribution of solids (a clay mineral) as shields for the adsorbed amino acids against a external energy source. The results show that α-alanine is adsorbed in the surfaces as function of pH and its yield of decomposition in mineral suspension is lower than the system without the solid surface. These results show the importance of nuclear techniques in these types of studies. (author)

  20. Drop Impact of Viscous Suspensions on Solid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolleddula, Daniel; Aliseda, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    Droplet impact is a well studied subject with over a century of progress. Most studies are motivated by applications such as inkjet printing, agriculture spraying, or printed circuit boards. Pharmaceutically relevant fluids provide an experimental set that has received little attention. Medicinal tablets are coated by the impaction of micron sized droplets of aqueous suspensions and subsequently dried for various purposes such as brand recognition, mask unpleasant taste, or functionality. We will present a systematic study of micron sized drop impact of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids used in pharmaceutical coating processes. In our experiments we extend the range of Ohnesorge numbers, O(1), of previous studies on surfaces of varying wettability and roughness.

  1. Observation of a new surface mode on a fluid-saturated permeable solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    Almost ten years ago, S. Feng and D. L. Johnson predicted the presence of a new surface mode on a fluid/fluid-saturated porous solid interface with closed surface pores [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 906 (1983)]. We found that, due to surface tension, practically closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at an interface between a nonwetting fluid (e.g., air) and a porous solid saturated with a wetting fluid (e.g., water or alcohol). Surface wave velocity and attenuation measurements were made on alcohol-saturated porous sintered glass at 100 kHz. The experimental results show clear evidence of the new ''slow'' surface mode predicted by Feng and Johnson

  2. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  3. Self-Patterning of Silica/Epoxy Nanocomposite Underfill by Tailored Hydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surfaces for 3D Integrated Circuit (IC) Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Chia-Chi; James, Nathan Pataki; Lin, Ziyin; Chen, Yun; Liu, Yan; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Li, Zhuo; Wong, C P

    2017-03-15

    As microelectronics are trending toward smaller packages and integrated circuit (IC) stacks nowadays, underfill, the polymer composite filled in between the IC chip and the substrate, becomes increasingly important for interconnection reliability. However, traditional underfills cannot meet the requirements for low-profile and fine pitch in high density IC stacking packages. Post-applied underfills have difficulties in flowing into the small gaps between the chip and the substrate, while pre-applied underfills face filler entrapment at bond pads. In this report, we present a self-patterning underfilling technology that uses selective wetting of underfill on Cu bond pads and Si 3 N 4 passivation via surface energy engineering. This novel process, fully compatible with the conventional underfilling process, eliminates the issue of filler entrapment in typical pre-applied underfilling process, enabling high density and fine pitch IC die bonding.

  4. Acoustically Induced Microparticle Orbiting and Clustering on a Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.; Tarimala, S.; Roberts, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    Behavior of colloidal particles in the bulk solution or at interfaces under the effect of high-frequency acoustics is critical to many seemingly different applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to improved mixing in microfluidic channels and from accelerated contaminant extractions to surface cleaning, drug delivery and microelectronics. It can be detrimental or beneficial, depending on the application. In medical research, flow cytometry and microfluidics, for example, acoustically induced clustering of tracer particles and/or their sticking to the walls of channels, vessels, or tubes often becomes a problem. On the other hand, it can be tailored to enhance processes such as mixing in microfluidic devices, particle separation and sizing, and power generation microdevices. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, microscopic visualization experiments were performed in which polystyrene fluorescent (468/508 nm wavelength) microspheres with a mean diameter of 2.26-µm and density of 1.05 g/cm3, were suspended in either de-ionized water or a 0.1M NaCl solution. The freshly-prepared colloidal suspension was injected into a parallel-plate glass flow cell, which was subjected to high-frequency acoustics (200-500 kHz) through a piezoelectric transducer attached to one of the cell's outer walls. When the suspending medium is de-ionized water, acoustic stimulation of the cell at 313 kHz induced three distinct particle behaviors: 1) entrainment and bulk transport via wavelength-scale Rayleigh streaming, 2) transport via direct radiation forces to concentrate at nodal or anti-nodal planes, and 3) entrapment via boundary layer vorticular microstreaming resulting in mobile particles orbiting deposited particles. This latter phenomenon is intriguing. It occurs at specific frequencies and the shape of the orbits is determined by the applied frequency, whereas the rotation speed is proportional to the applied amplitude. At the higher ionic strength, on the other

  5. Effect of Geometry on Electrokinetic Characterization of Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Kleinen, Jochen; Venzmer, Joachim; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    An analytical approach is presented to describe pressure-driven streaming current (I str ) and streaming potential (U str ) generation in geometrically complex samples, for which the classical Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) equation is known to be inaccurate. The new approach is valid under the same prerequisite conditions that are used for the development of the H-S equation, that is, the electrical double layers (EDLs) are sufficiently thin and surface conductivity and electroviscous effects are negligible. The analytical methodology is developed using linear velocity profiles to describe liquid flow inside of EDLs and using simplifying approximations to describe macroscopic flow. At first, a general expression is obtained to describe the I str generated in different cross sections of an arbitrarily shaped sample. Thereafter, assuming that the generated U str varies only along the pressure-gradient direction, an expression describing the variation of generated U str along the sample length is obtained. These expressions describing I str and U str generation constitute the theoretical foundation of this work, which is first applied to a set of three nonuniform cross-sectional capillaries and thereafter to a square array of cylindrical fibers (model porous media) for both parallel and transverse fiber orientation cases. Although analytical solutions cannot be obtained for real porous substrates because of their random structure, the new theory provides useful insights into the effect of important factors such as fiber orientation, sample porosity, and sample dimensions. The solutions obtained for the model porous media are used to device strategies for more accurate zeta potential determination of porous fiber plugs. The new approach could be thus useful in resolving the long-standing problem of sample geometry dependence of zeta potential measurements.

  6. Surface passivation for tight-binding calculations of covalent solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, N

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of a cluster representing a finite portion of a larger covalently bonded system requires the passivation of the cluster surface. We compute the effects of an explicit hybrid orbital passivation (EHOP) on the atomic structure in a model bulk, three-dimensional, narrow gap semiconductor, which is very different from the wide gap, quasi-one-dimensional organic molecules where most passivation schemes have been studied in detail. The EHOP approach is directly applicable to minimal atomic orbital basis methods such as tight-binding. Each broken bond is passivated by a hybrid created from an explicitly expressed linear combination of basis orbitals, chosen to represent the contribution of the missing neighbour, e.g. a sp 3 hybrid for a single bond. The method is tested by computing the forces on atoms near a point defect as a function of cluster geometry. We show that, compared to alternatives such as pseudo-hydrogen passivation, the force on an atom converges to the correct bulk limit more quickly as a function of cluster radius, and that the force is more stable with respect to perturbations in the position of the cluster centre. The EHOP method also obviates the need for parameterizing the interactions between the system atoms and the passivating atoms. The method is useful for cluster calculations of non-periodic defects in large systems and for hybrid schemes that simulate large systems by treating finite regions with a quantum-mechanical model, coupled to an interatomic potential description of the rest of the system

  7. Use of neutrals backscattering for studying the vibrational properties of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapujoulade, J.

    1975-01-01

    The neutrals (rare gases) elastic scattering may be used for studying some interesting properties of surfaces. However, an analysis of inelastic phenomena is mostly to be performed when vibrational properties of metallic surfaces are investigated. The dispersion relation of surface phonons has not yet been experimentally obtained from neutrals backscattering from solid surfaces, but the quasi-elastic scattering of helium should give this information on condition that velocity measurements are refined in view of directly obtained the distribution function rather than its moments and determining the preponderance of one-phonon transitions, or obtaining a detailed description of many-phonon exchanges [fr

  8. Hydrophilic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophilic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophilic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates water with the core substance dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophilic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophilic-phase droplets dispersed in a hydrophobic phase, with shell-forming compound contained in the hydrophilic phase or the hydrophobic phase and the core substance contained in the hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  9. Covalent attachment of proteins to solid supports and surfaces via Sortase-mediated ligation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the attachment of proteins to solid supports for the development of supported catalysts, affinity matrices, and micro devices as well as for the development of planar and bead based protein arrays for multiplexed assays of protein concentration, interactions, and activity. A critical requirement for these applications is the generation of a stable linkage between the solid support and the immobilized, but still functional, protein. METHODOLOGY: Solid supports including crosslinked polymer beads, beaded agarose, and planar glass surfaces, were modified to present an oligoglycine motif to solution. A range of proteins were ligated to the various surfaces using the Sortase A enzyme of S. aureus. Reactions were carried out in aqueous buffer conditions at room temperature for times between one and twelve hours. CONCLUSIONS: The Sortase A transpeptidase of S. aureus provides a general, robust, and gentle approach to the selective covalent immobilization of proteins on three very different solid supports. The proteins remain functional and accessible to solution. Sortase mediated ligation is therefore a straightforward methodology for the preparation of solid supported enzymes and bead based assays, as well as the modification of planar surfaces for microanalytical devices and protein arrays.

  10. Radiation-induced reactions of amino acids adsorbed on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esquivel Kranksith, L.; Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mosqueira, F.G. [Direcion General de Divulgacion de la Ciencia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, AP. 70-487 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramos-Bernal, Sergio, E-mail: ramos@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-21

    The purpose of this work is to study the adsorption of compounds such as amino acids on clays and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a possible phase in the chemical evolution that may have occurred on the primitive Earth or in extraterrestrial environments. We further study the behavior of amino acids adsorbed on these solid surfaces at different conditions of pH and levels of irradiation, simulating a high-radiation field at early Earth conditions. The relevance of this work is to explain the possible contribution of solids (clays and CNTs) as promoters of polymerization and as shields for the adsorbed organic compounds against external sources of energy. To this end, tryptophan, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid were adsorbed on fixed amounts of solid surfaces and were irradiated by a {sup 60}Co source for different periods of time at fixed dose rates. After irradiation, the amino acids were extracted from the solid and analyzed with UV and IR spectroscopes and high-performance liquid chromatography. The most efficient surface for adsorption of amino acids was clay, followed by CNTs. Studies of the gamma irradiation of amino acids adsorbed on clay (in the solid phase) show a low yield of recovery of the amino acid.

  11. Collective migration of adsorbed atoms on a solid surface in the laser radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V V; Ignat'ev, D V; Telegin, Gennadii G

    2004-01-01

    The lateral (in the substrate plane) interaction between dipoles induced in particles adsorbed on a solid surface is studied in a comparatively weak laser radiation field with a Gaussian transverse distribution. It is shown that the particles migrate over the surface in the radial direction either outside an illuminated spot with the formation of a 'crater' or inside the spot with the formation of a 'mound'. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  12. The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  13. Self-affine roughness influence on the friction coefficient for rubbers onto solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient mu(f) of a rubber body under incomplete contact onto a solid surface. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that with

  14. Adsorption of Cationic Peptides to Solid Surfaces of Glass and Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    , that the peptides adsorb to solid surfaces of glass and plastic. Specifically, we use analytical HPLC to systematically quantify the adsorption of the three cationic membraneactive peptides mastoparan X, melittin, and magainin 2 to the walls of commonly used glass and plastic sample containers. Our results show...

  15. Reflight of the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment: Opposed-Flow Flame Spread Over Cylindrical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Altenkirch, Robert A.; Worley, Regis; Tang, Lin; Bundy, Matt; Sacksteder, Kurt; Delichatsios, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The effort described here is a reflight of the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), with extension of the flight matrix first and then experiment modification. The objectives of the reflight are to extend the understanding of the interplay of the radiative processes that affect the flame spread mechanisms.

  16. Interactions between bacteria and solid surfaces in relation to bacterial transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Interactions between bacteria and solid surfaces strongly influence the behaviour of bacteria in natural and engineered ecosystems. Many biofilm reactors and terrestrial environments are porous media. The purpose of the research presented in this thesis is to gain a better insight into the

  17. Free surface modeling of contacting solid metal flows employing the ALE formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, A.A.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Akkerman, Remko; Huetink, Han; Merklein, M.; Hagenah, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical problem with contacting solid metal flows is presented and solved with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The problem consists of two domains which mechanically interact with each other. For this simulation a new free surface boundary condition

  18. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste

  19. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  20. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Heinz; Jaus, Sylvia; Hanke, Irene; Lueck, Alfred; Hollender, Juliane; Alder, Alfredo C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  1. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Heinz; Jaus, Sylvia; Hanke, Irene; Lueck, Alfred; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Alder, Alfredo C., E-mail: alfredo.alder@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  2. Effect of membrane hydrophilization on ultrafiltration performance for biomolecules separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, H.; Roihatin, A.; Aryanti, N.; Anggoro, D.D.; Ulbricht, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of different hydrophilization methods to prepare low fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The methods include post-modification with hydrophilic polymer and blending of hydrophilic agent during either conventional or reactive phase separation (PS). The post-modification was done by photograft copolymerization of water-soluble monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), onto a commercial polyethersulfone (PES) UF membrane. Hydrophilization via blend polymer membrane with hydrophilic additive was performed using non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). In reactive PS method, the cast membrane was UV-irradiated before coagulation. The resulting membrane characteristic, the performance and hydrophilization stability were systematically compared. The investigated membrane characteristics include surface hydrophilicity (by contact angle /CA/), surface chemistry (by FTIR spectroscopy), and surface morphology (by scanning electron microscopy). The membrane performance was examined by investigation of adsorptive fouling and ultrafiltration using solution of protein or polysaccharide or humic acid. The results suggest that all methods could increase the hydrophilicity of the membrane yielding less fouling. Post-modification decreased CA from 44.8 ± 4.2 o to 37.8 ± 4.2 o to 42.5 ± 4.3 o depending on the degree of grafting (DG). The hydrophilization via polymer blend decreased CA from from 65 deg. to 54 deg. for PEG concentration of 5%. Nevertheless, decreasing hydraulic permeability was observed after post-modification as well as during polymer blend modification. Stability examination showed that there was leaching out of modifier agent from the membrane matrix prepared via conventional PS after 10 days soaking in both water and NaOH. Reactive PS could increase the stability of the modifier agent in membrane matrix. Highlights: ► We compared different methods to prepare low fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes.

  3. Effect of membrane hydrophilization on ultrafiltration performance for biomolecules separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanto, H., E-mail: heru.susanto@undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto-Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia); Roihatin, A.; Aryanti, N.; Anggoro, D.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto-Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia); Ulbricht, M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Germany, Universitaetstr. 5, Essen (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    This paper compares the performance of different hydrophilization methods to prepare low fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The methods include post-modification with hydrophilic polymer and blending of hydrophilic agent during either conventional or reactive phase separation (PS). The post-modification was done by photograft copolymerization of water-soluble monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), onto a commercial polyethersulfone (PES) UF membrane. Hydrophilization via blend polymer membrane with hydrophilic additive was performed using non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). In reactive PS method, the cast membrane was UV-irradiated before coagulation. The resulting membrane characteristic, the performance and hydrophilization stability were systematically compared. The investigated membrane characteristics include surface hydrophilicity (by contact angle /CA/), surface chemistry (by FTIR spectroscopy), and surface morphology (by scanning electron microscopy). The membrane performance was examined by investigation of adsorptive fouling and ultrafiltration using solution of protein or polysaccharide or humic acid. The results suggest that all methods could increase the hydrophilicity of the membrane yielding less fouling. Post-modification decreased CA from 44.8 {+-} 4.2{sup o} to 37.8 {+-} 4.2{sup o} to 42.5 {+-} 4.3{sup o} depending on the degree of grafting (DG). The hydrophilization via polymer blend decreased CA from from 65 deg. to 54 deg. for PEG concentration of 5%. Nevertheless, decreasing hydraulic permeability was observed after post-modification as well as during polymer blend modification. Stability examination showed that there was leaching out of modifier agent from the membrane matrix prepared via conventional PS after 10 days soaking in both water and NaOH. Reactive PS could increase the stability of the modifier agent in membrane matrix. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared different methods to prepare low

  4. Atomistic modelling of evaporation and explosive boiling of thin film liquid argon over internally recessed nanostructured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim, E-mail: nasim@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad, E-mail: shavik@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle, E-mail: rabbi35.me10@gmail.com; Haque, Mominul, E-mail: mominulmarup@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate evaporation and explosive boiling phenomena of thin film liquid argon on nanostructured solid surface with emphasis on the effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. The nanostructured surface considered herein consists of trapezoidal internal recesses of the solid platinum wall. The wetting conditions of the solid surface were assumed such that it covers both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions and hence effect of interfacial wettability on resulting evaporation and boiling phenomena was the main focus of this study. The initial configuration of the simulation domain comprised of a three phase system (solid platinum, liquid argon and vapor argon) on which equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. After equilibrium of the three-phase system was established, the wall was set to different temperatures (130 K and 250 K for the case of evaporation and explosive boiling respectively) to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat flux normal to the solid surface was also calculated to illustrate the effectiveness of heat transfer for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in cases of both nanostructured surface and flat surface. The results obtained show that both the wetting condition of the surface and the presence of internal recesses have significant effect on normal evaporation and explosive boiling of the thin liquid film. The heat transfer from solid to liquid in cases of surface with recesses are higher compared to flat surface without recesses. Also the surface with higher wettability (hydrophilic) provides more favorable conditions for boiling than the low-wetting surface (hydrophobic) and therefore, liquid argon responds quickly and shifts from liquid to vapor phase faster in

  5. The mechanical problems on additive manufacturing of viscoelastic solids with integral conditions on a surface increasing in the growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. A.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasistatic mechanical problems on additive manufacturing aging viscoelastic solids are investigated. The processes of piecewise-continuous accretion of such solids are considered. The consideration is carried out in the framework of linear mechanics of growing solids. A theorem about commutativity of the integration over an arbitrary surface increasing in the solid growing process and the time-derived integral operator of viscoelasticity with a limit depending on the solid point is proved. This theorem provides an efficient way to construct on the basis of Saint-Venant principle solutions of nonclassical boundary-value problems for describing the mechanical behaviour of additively formed solids with integral satisfaction of boundary conditions on the surfaces expanding due to the additional material influx to the formed solid. The constructed solutions will retrace the evolution of the stress-strain state of the solids under consideration during and after the processes of their additive formation. An example of applying the proved theorem is given.

  6. Initial adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to solid surfaces under liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szlavik, Julie; Soares Paiva, Dionísio; Mørk, Nils

    2012-01-01

    .001) was observed but not of interactions between surface-shear stress. No correlation between surface hydrophobicity and IAR was observed. Addition of 5% NaCl during propagation resulted in a decrease in IAR whilst propagation in low nutrient media caused an increase indicating a general change in surface......Some strains of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes persist in food processing environments. The exact reason behind this phenomenon is not known, but strain differences in the ability to adhere to solid surfaces could offer an explanation. In the present work, initial adhesion of nine...... strains of L. monocytogenes was investigated under liquid flow at two levels of shear stress on six different surfaces using a flow chamber set-up with microscopy measurements. The surfaces tested were glass and PVC, and glass coated with beef extract, casein, and homogenised and unhomogenised milk...

  7. Technology and human purpose: the problem of solids transport on the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    Displacement of mass of limited deformability ("solids") on the Earth's surface is opposed by friction and (the analog of) form resistance - impediments relaxed by rotational motion, self-powering of mass units, and transport infrastructure. These features of solids transport first evolved in the biosphere prior to the emergence of technology, allowing slope-independent, diffusion-like motion of discrete objects as massive as several tons, as illustrated by animal foraging and movement along game trails. However, high-energy-consumption technology powered by fossil fuels required a mechanism that could support fast advective transport of solids, i.e., long-distance, high-volume, high-speed, unidirectional, slope-independent transport across the land surface of materials like coal, containerized fluids, minerals, and economic goods. Pre-technology nature was able to sustain regional- and global-scale advection only in the limited form of piggybacking on geophysical flows of water (river sediment) and air (dust). The appearance of a mechanism for sustained advection of solids independent of fluid flows and gravity appeared only upon the emergence of human purpose. Purpose enables solids advection by, in effect, simulating a continuous potential gradient, otherwise lacking, between discrete and widely separated fossil-fuel energy sources and sinks. Invoking purpose as a mechanism in solids advection is an example of the need to import anthropic principles and concepts into the language and methodology of modern Earth system dynamics. As part of the emergence of a generalized solids advection mechanism, several additional transport requirements necessary to the function of modern large-scale technological systems were also satisfied. These include spatially accurate delivery of advected payload, targetability to essentially arbitrarily located destinations (such as cities), and independence of structure of advected payload from transport mechanism. The latter property

  8. On non-binary nature of the collisions of heavy hyperthermal particles with solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferleger, V.Kh. E-mail: root@ariel.tashkent.su; Wojciechowski, I.A

    2000-04-01

    The limits of applicability of the binary collision approximation for a description of scattering of atomic particles by a solid surface are discussed. The experimental data of energy losses of atoms of hyperthermal energies (HT) scattered by a solid surface were found to bring in evidence for the non-binary nature of collisions in the hyperthermal energy region (1-30 eV). The dependence of the energy losses on the initial energy of the particles and their angles of incidence was shown to be well described by the following model: the particle is being single-scattered by certain complex of surface atoms forming an effective mass. A contribution of the non-binary collisions to the processes of atomic and cluster sputtering is also discussed.

  9. A parametric finite element method for solid-state dewetting problems with anisotropic surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhu; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Quan

    2017-02-01

    We propose an efficient and accurate parametric finite element method (PFEM) for solving sharp-interface continuum models for solid-state dewetting of thin films with anisotropic surface energies. The governing equations of the sharp-interface models belong to a new type of high-order (4th- or 6th-order) geometric evolution partial differential equations about open curve/surface interface tracking problems which include anisotropic surface diffusion flow and contact line migration. Compared to the traditional methods (e.g., marker-particle methods), the proposed PFEM not only has very good accuracy, but also poses very mild restrictions on the numerical stability, and thus it has significant advantages for solving this type of open curve evolution problems with applications in the simulation of solid-state dewetting. Extensive numerical results are reported to demonstrate the accuracy and high efficiency of the proposed PFEM.

  10. A nanostructured surface increases friction exponentially at the solid-gas interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, Arindam; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Hawk, John E.; Prashanthi, Kovur; Thundat, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    According to Stokes’ law, a moving solid surface experiences viscous drag that is linearly related to its velocity and the viscosity of the medium. The viscous interactions result in dissipation that is known to scale as the square root of the kinematic viscosity times the density of the gas. We observed that when an oscillating surface is modified with nanostructures, the experimentally measured dissipation shows an exponential dependence on kinematic viscosity. The surface nanostructures alter solid-gas interplay greatly, amplifying the dissipation response exponentially for even minute variations in viscosity. Nanostructured resonator thus allows discrimination of otherwise narrow range of gaseous viscosity making dissipation an ideal parameter for analysis of a gaseous media. We attribute the observed exponential enhancement to the stochastic nature of interactions of many coupled nanostructures with the gas media.

  11. A nanostructured surface increases friction exponentially at the solid-gas interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, Arindam; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Hawk, John E; Prashanthi, Kovur; Thundat, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    According to Stokes' law, a moving solid surface experiences viscous drag that is linearly related to its velocity and the viscosity of the medium. The viscous interactions result in dissipation that is known to scale as the square root of the kinematic viscosity times the density of the gas. We observed that when an oscillating surface is modified with nanostructures, the experimentally measured dissipation shows an exponential dependence on kinematic viscosity. The surface nanostructures alter solid-gas interplay greatly, amplifying the dissipation response exponentially for even minute variations in viscosity. Nanostructured resonator thus allows discrimination of otherwise narrow range of gaseous viscosity making dissipation an ideal parameter for analysis of a gaseous media. We attribute the observed exponential enhancement to the stochastic nature of interactions of many coupled nanostructures with the gas media.

  12. Memory effect on energy losses of charged particles moving parallel to solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwei, C.M.; Tu, Y.H.; Hsu, Y.H.; Tung, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical derivations were made for the induced potential and the stopping power of a charged particle moving close and parallel to the surface of a solid. It was illustrated that the induced potential produced by the interaction of particle and solid depended not only on the velocity but also on the previous velocity of the particle before its last inelastic interaction. Another words, the particle kept a memory on its previous velocity, v , in determining the stopping power for the particle of velocity v. Based on the dielectric response theory, formulas were derived for the induced potential and the stopping power with memory effect. An extended Drude dielectric function with spatial dispersion was used in the application of these formulas for a proton moving parallel to Si surface. It was found that the induced potential with memory effect lay between induced potentials without memory effect for constant velocities v and v. The memory effect was manifest as the proton changes its velocity in the previous inelastic interaction. This memory effect also reduced the stopping power of the proton. The formulas derived in the present work can be applied to any solid surface and charged particle moving with arbitrary parallel trajectory either inside or outside the solid

  13. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  14. Directed Acceleration of Electrons from a Solid Surface by Sub-10-fs Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, F.; Hidding, B.; Osterholz, J.; Hemmers, D.; Pretzler, G.; Karmakar, A.; Pukhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    Electrons have been accelerated from solid target surfaces by sub-10-fs laser pulses of 120 μJ energy which were focused to an intensity of 2x10 16 W/cm 2 . The electrons have a narrow angular distribution, and their observed energies exceed 150 keV. We show that these energies are not to be attributed to collective plasma effects but are mainly gained directly via repeated acceleration in the transient field pattern created by incident and reflected laser, alternating with phase-shift-generating scattering events in the solid.

  15. Superstable Ultrathin Water Film Confined in a Hydrophilized Carbon Nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomo, Yoko; Askounis, Alexandros; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil; Takahashi, Koji

    2018-03-14

    Fluids confined in a nanoscale space behave differently than in the bulk due to strong interactions between fluid molecules and solid atoms. Here, we observed water confined inside "open" hydrophilized carbon nanotubes (CNT), with diameter of tens of nanometers, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 1-7 nm water film adhering to most of the inner wall surface was observed and remained stable in the high vacuum (order of 10 -5 Pa) of the TEM. The superstability of this film was attributed to a combination of curvature, nanoroughness, and confinement resulting in a lower vapor pressure for water and hence inhibiting its vaporization. Occasional, suspended ultrathin water film with thickness of 3-20 nm were found and remained stable inside the CNT. This film thickness is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the critical film thickness (about 40 nm) reported by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and previous experimental investigations. The stability of the suspended ultrathin water film is attributed to the additional molecular interactions due to the extended water meniscus, which balances the rest of the disjoining pressures.

  16. A study on the contact angles of a water droplet on smooth and rough solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Young; Ha, Man Yeong; Choi, Ho Jin; Hong, Seung Do; Yoon, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the wetting characteristics such as contact angle, wetting radius and topography of water droplets on smooth and random solid surfaces. Molecular dynamic simulation is employed to analyze the wetting behavior of water droplets on smooth and rough surfaces by considering different potential energy models of bond, angle, Lennard-Jones and Coulomb to calculate the interacting forces between water molecules. The Lennard-Jones potential energy model is adopted as an interaction model between water molecules and solid surface atoms. The randomly rough surface is generated by changing the standard deviation of roughness height from 1 A to 3 A with the fixed autocorrelation length. The size of water droplet considered is in the range from 2,000 to 5,000 molecules. The contact angles increase generally with increasing number of water molecules. For a hydrophobic surface whose characteristic energy is 0.1 kcal/mol, the contact angles depend rarely on the standard deviation of the roughness height. However, when the surface energy is 0.5 and 1.0 kcal/mol, the contact angles depend on both the roughness height of surfaces and droplet size

  17. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100–500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10–15 kV and 7–20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ∼100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2–9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol–saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water–saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge

  18. Development of breathable hydrophobic/hydrophilic functional textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Brink, G.J. (Ger)

    2013-01-01

    The proposed bi-functional protective structure intended to have hydrophilic interior towards the skin surface and hydrophobic exterior for protection, ensuring fast transfer of moisture between body and external environment. The sandwich structure is prepared using 100% wool jersey and varieties of

  19. Development of a new method for high temperature in-core characterisation of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, M.; Suzuki, A.; Yokota, T.; Nan Luo, G.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a new method for establishing in situ characterizations and monitoring of solid surfaces under irradiation and in controlled atmospheres, the high temperature Kelvin probe has been applied and tested to measure work function changes under such conditions. In the case of Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , two steps of distinct change of work function were observed when the specimen was exposed to hydrogen gas and also when it was retrieved. These changes were attributed to the oxygen vacancies formation/annihilation and the adsorption/desorption of gas (H 2 ). While the work function measured on a gold specimen under proton beam irradiation showed a steep drop in the work function during the initial irradiation, it gradually recovered after the end of irradiation. The second irradiation gave rise to a smaller value of the work function decrease of gold. These results support a possibility of adopting the high temperature Kelvin probe for the purpose of monitoring/characterising solid surface under irradiation in nuclear reactors and other facilities so as to detect the formation of defects in the surface and near-surface region of solid specimens. (authors)

  20. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław, E-mail: bronislaw.janczuk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2017-05-31

    Graphical abstract: Surface tension of PE, nylon 6 and quartz from different approaches to the interface tension. - Highlights: • New values of water and formamide surface tension components were established. • Quartz surface tension depends on its crystal face. • Usefulness of different approaches for solid surface tension determination was tested. - Abstract: The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  1. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  2. Surface morphology and structure of Ge layer on Si(111) after solid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoma; Tosaka, Aki; Shigeta, Yukichi

    2018-05-01

    The surface morphology change of a Ge layer on a Si(111) surface formed by solid phase epitaxy has been investigated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The Ge film was deposited at room temperature and annealed at 400 °C or 600 °C. The STM images of the sample surface after annealing at 400 °C show a flat wetting layer (WL) with small three-dimensional islands on the WL. After annealing at 600 °C, the STM images show a surface roughening with large islands. From the relation between the average height of the roughness and the deposited layer thickness, it is confirmed that the diffusion of Ge atoms becomes very active at 600 °C. The Si crystal at the interface is reconstructed and the intermixing occurs over 600 °C. However, the intermixing is fairly restricted in the solid phase epitaxy growth at 400 °C. The surface morphology changes with the crystallization at 400 °C are discussed by the shape of the islands formed on the WL surface. It is shown that the diffusion of the Ge atoms in the amorphous phase is active even at 400 °C.

  3. Luminescence stability of porous Si terminated by hydrophilic organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kimihisa; Kamiguchi, Masao; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Nomura, Takashi; Suzuki, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    The effects of the surface termination of a porous Si surface by propionic acid and by undecylenic acid on their hydrophilicity and luminescence stability were studied. In the measurements of the contact angle of water droplets on porous Si films, the hydrophilicity of porous Si is improved by the surface termination each types of organic molecule. The PL intensity of as-prepared porous Si decreased with increasing aging time in ambient air. As PL quenching involves PL blue shift and increasing Si-O bonds density, nonradiative recombination centers are formed in the surface oxide. After the hydrosilylation process of propionic acid and undecylenic acid, PL intensity decreased and became 30% that of as-prepared porous Si film. However, the PL intensity was stable and exceeded that of the as-prepared film after 1000 min of aging in the ambient air. The PL stabilities are contributed to the termination by organic molecules that inhibits surface oxidation.

  4. Hydrophilization of graphite using plasma above/in a solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Shuhei; Kawahara, Kazuma; Takeuchi, Nozomi

    2018-01-01

    A hydrophilization method for graphite is required for applications such as conductive ink. In typical chemical oxidation methods for graphite have the problems of producing many defects in graphite and a large environmental impact. In recent years, the plasma treatment has attracted attention because of the high quality of the treated samples and the low environmental impact. In this study, we proposed an above-solution plasma treatment with a high contact probability of graphite and plasma since graphite accumulates on the solution surface due to its hydrophobicity, which we compared with a so-called solution plasma treatment. Graphite was hydrophilized via reactions with OH radicals generated by the plasma. It was confirmed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were modified to the graphite and the dispersibility was improved. The above-solution plasma achieved more energy-efficient hydrophilization than the solution plasma and it was possible to enhance the dispersibility by increasing the plasma-solution contact area.

  5. Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Volume 1 Current Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Bovensiepen, Uwe; Wolf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques. The whole is rounded off by a look at future developments.

  6. Recent developments in automatic solid-phase extraction with renewable surfaces exploiting flow-based approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2008-01-01

    ,on-line SPE assays performed in permanent mode lack sufficient reliability as a consequence of progressively tighter packing of the bead reactor, contamination of the solid surfaces and potential leakage of functional moieties. This article overviews the current state-of-the-art of an appealing tool...... chemical-derivatization reactions, and it pinpoints the most common instrumental detection techniques utilized. We present and discuss in detail relevant environmental and bioanalytical applications reported in the past few years....

  7. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2. Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2 suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices.

  8. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Amy; Halsey, Kirstie; Lovegrove, Alison; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast “yeast-like” growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2). Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2) suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices. PMID:29020037

  9. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Svenja K; Hauf, Katharina; Heinrich, Stefan; Vieira, Josélio; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations. (paper)

  10. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  11. Quantum theory of scattering of atoms and diatomic molecules by solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.S.

    1973-01-01

    The unitary treatment, based on standard t-matrix theory, of the quantum theory of scattering of atoms by solid surfaces, is extended to the scattering of particles having internal degrees of freedom by perfect harmonic crystalline surfaces. The diagonal matrix element of the interaction potential which enters into the quantum scattering theory is obtained to represent the potential for the specular beam. From the two-potential formula, the scattering intensities for the diffracted beams and the inelastic beams with or without internal transitions of the particles are obtained by solving the equation for the t-matrix elements. (author)

  12. Adsorption of fluids on solid surfaces: A route toward very dense layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartarelli, S.A. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, San Miguel (Argentina); Szybisz, L., E-mail: szybisz@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, RA-1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fiica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, RA-1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Adsorption of Xe on single planar walls is investigated in the frame of a density functional theory. The strength of the adsorbate-substrate attraction is changed by considering surfaces of Cs, Na, Li, and Mg. The behavior is analyzed by varying the temperature T (between the triple point T{sub t} and the critical T{sub c}) and the coverage {Gamma}{sub Script-Small-L }. The obtained adsorption isotherms exhibit a variety of wetting situations. Density profiles are reported. It is shown that for strongly attractive surfaces the adsorbed liquid becomes very dense reaching densities characteristic of solids.

  13. Solid-supported synthesis: From pharmacologically relevant heterocycles to biologically active surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.

    for solid-phase synthesis, methods for on - and off-bead screening of combinatorial libraries and their applic ation to various biological targets. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the development of methodology for the synthesis of structurally diverse heterocyclic scaffolds via N...... methods for the controlled organo-functionalization of titanium, one of the most prominent materials in medicinal device industry, have been suggested . Initial acidic and oxidative treatment s of the metal surface genera te reactive hydroxyl moieties , which are subsequently modified with synthetically...... versatile amine -containing reagents. Subsequent applications in antimicrobial peptide synthesis, metal -catalysis, release from the surface, and polymer grafti ng, are also presented....

  14. Search for Hydrophilic Marine Fungal Metabolites: A Rational Approach for Their Production and Extraction in a Bioactivity Screening Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Biard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for bioactive natural products, our lab screens hydrophobic extracts from marine fungal strains. While hydrophilic active substances were recently identified from marine macro-organisms, there was a lack of reported metabolites in the marine fungi area. As such, we decided to develop a general procedure for screening of hydrophobic metabolites. The aim of this study was to compare different processes of fermentation and extraction, using six representative marine fungal strains, in order to define the optimized method for production. The parameters studied were (a which polar solvent to select, (b which fermentation method to choose between solid and liquid cultures, (c which raw material, the mycelium or its medium, to extract and (d which extraction process to apply. The biochemical analysis and biological evaluations of obtained extracts led to the conclusion that the culture of marine fungi by agar surface fermentation followed by the separate extraction of the mycelium and its medium by a cryo-crushing and an enzymatic digestion with agarase, respectively, was the best procedure when screening for hydrophilic bioactive metabolites. During this development, several bioactivities were detected, confirming the potential of hydrophilic crude extracts in the search for bioactive natural products.

  15. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Fundamental aspects of laser and ion-beam interactions with solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the first part of the thesis laser-beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed. In the second part ion-beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed and mainly the mixing of atoms due to ion bombardment. A study of ion-beam mixing of Cu-Au and Cu-W systems is described in order to illustrate the mechanism for ion beam mixing. As Cu-Au are miscible whereas Cu-W systems are not, and both systems have comparable mass numbers, comparison provides a test for current theories on ion-beam mixing. The results of experiments where 300 keV Kr 4+ ion-bombardment at a dose of 5x10 15 cm -2 has been applied to initiate mixing of a single layer structure and sandwich samples for both systems are described. Room temperature irradiations with a dose of 5x10 15 cm -2 show that Cu-Au mix readily, whereas a small mixing effect is observed for Cu-W systems. A comparable amount of mixing for Cu-Au induced by laser or ion beams is found whereas no mixing of Cu-W induced by laser irradiation is observed, which is in agreement with the criteria for formation of metastable solid solutions due to pulsed laser treatment. (Auth.)

  17. A Highly Selective Sensor for Cyanide in Organic Media and on Solid Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belygona Barare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of IR 786 perchlorate (IR-786 as a selective optical sensor for cyanide anion in both organic solution (acetonitrile (MeCN, 100% and solvent-free solid surfaces was demonstrated. In MeCN, IR-786 was selective to two anions in the following order: CN− > OH−. A significant change in the characteristic dark green color of IR-786 in MeCN to yellow was observed as a result of nucleophilic addition of CN− to the fluorophore, i.e., formation of IR 786-(CN, which was also verified by a blue shift in the 775 nm absorbance peak to 430 nm. A distinct green fluorescence emission from the IR-786-(CN in MeCN was also observed, which demonstrated the selectivity of IR-786 towards CN− in MeCN. Fluorescence emission studies of IR-786 showed that the lower detection limit and the sensitivity of IR-786 for CN− in MeCN was 0.5 μM and 0.5 to 8 μM, respectively. The potential use of IR-786 as a solvent-free solid state sensor for the selective sensing and monitoring of CN− in the environment was also demonstrated. On solvent-free solid state surfaces, the sensitivity of the IR-786 to CN− in water samples was in the range of 50–300 μM with minimal interference by OH−.

  18. Surface-Induced Frustration in Solid State Polymorphic Transition of Native Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Reeta; Baccile, Niki; Reza, Mehedi; Kontturi, Eero

    2017-06-12

    The presence of an interface generally influences crystallization of polymers from melt or from solution. Here, by contrast, we explore the effect of surface immobilization in a direct solid state polymorphic transition on individual cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from a plant-based origin. The conversion from native cellulose I to cellulose III crystal occurred via a host-guest inclusion of ethylene diamine inside the crystal. A 60% reduction in CNC width (height) in atomic force microscopy images suggested that when immobilized on a flat modified silica surface, the stresses caused by the inclusion or the subsequent regeneration resulted in exfoliation, hypothetically, between the van der Waals bonded sheets within the crystal. Virtually no changes in dimensions were visible when the polymorphic transition was performed to nonimmobilized CNCs in bulk dispersion. With reservations and by acknowledging the obvious dissimilarities, the exfoliation of cellulose crystal sheets can be viewed as analogous to exfoliation of 2D structures like graphene from a van der Waals stacked solid. Here, the detachment is triggered by an inclusion of a guest molecule inside a host cellulose crystal and the stresses caused by the firm attachment of the CNC on a solid substrate, leading to detachment of molecular sheets or stacks of sheets.

  19. Friction of hydrogels with controlled surface roughness on solid flat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Shintaro; Takase, Natsuko; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the effect of hydrogel surface roughness on its sliding friction against a solid substrate having modestly adhesive interaction with hydrogels under small normal pressure in water. The friction test was performed between bulk polyacrylamide hydrogels of varied surface roughness and a smooth glass substrate by using a strain-controlled rheometer with parallel-plates geometry. At small pressure (normal strain 1.4-3.6%), the flat surface gel showed a poor reproducibility in friction. In contrast, the gels with a surface roughness of 1-10 μm order showed well reproducible friction behaviors and their frictional stress was larger than that of the flat surface hydrogel. Furthermore, the flat gel showed an elasto-hydrodynamic transition while the rough gels showed a monotonous decrease of friction with velocity. The difference between the flat surface and the rough surface diminished with the increase of the normal pressure. These phenomena are associated with the different contact behaviors of these soft hydrogels in liquid, as revealed by the observation of the interface using a confocal laser microscope.

  20. Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramatarova L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM. According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA from simulated body fluid (SBF was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1 a simple soaking process in SBF and (2 a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect

  1. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Etch of Semiconductor Surface Channels by Running Gold Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Babak; Herzing, Andrew; Muramoto, Shin; Tersoff, Jerry

    2015-12-09

    We show that Au nanoparticles spontaneously move across the (001) surface of InP, InAs, and GaP when heated in the presence of water vapor. As they move, the particles etch crystallographically aligned grooves into the surface. We show that this process is a negative analogue of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires: the semiconductor dissolves into the catalyst and reacts with water vapor at the catalyst surface to create volatile oxides, depleting the dissolved cations and anions and thus sustaining the dissolution process. This VLS etching process provides a new tool for directed assembly of structures with sublithographic dimensions, as small as a few nanometers in diameter. Au particles above 100 nm in size do not exhibit this process but remain stationary, with oxide accumulating around the particles.

  2. Model of a liquid droplet impinging on a high-temperature solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulikov, A.V.; Berlin, I.I.; Karpyshev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The model of the collision of the liquid droplet, vertically falling on the heated solid surface, is presented. The wall temperature is predeterminated so that the droplet interaction with the wall proceeds through the gas interlayer (T≥400 Deg C). The droplet liquid is incompressible, nonviscous. The droplet surface is assigned as free one. The pressure is composed of two components. The first component is the surface tension. The record component is the steam pressure between the droplet and the wall. The liquid motion inside the droplet is assumed to be potential, axisymmetric. The calculation of the droplet collision are carried out with application of the above model. The obtained results are compared with the data of other authors [ru

  3. Experimental determination of the thermal contact conductance between two solid surfaces by the energy pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Gerson Antonio

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure for the determination of the thermal contact conductance between two solid surfaces as a function of the contact pressure and the energy of the laser radiation has been developed using the laser pulse method. A rubi laser with variable energy levels was employed as a radiating pulse energy source. The laser beam was allowed to impinge perpendicularly on the front face of a electrolytic iron 73 4 . The temperature fluctuations resulting on the back surface of the sample was detected by a thermocouple, which Is coupled to a PDP-11/45 Computer 32 Kbytes of memory, through a Analog-Digital Converter. A theoretical function, derived exclusively for the problem mentioned in this work, was adjusted by a method of least square fitting of experimental results. This adjustment yielded the value of a parameter related to the contact conductance between two surfaces. The experimental error obtained for the thermal contact conductance was +- 4.9%. (author)

  4. Membrane Distillation of Meat Industry Effluent with Hydrophilic Polyurethane Coated Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, M G; Zhu, Bo; Cran, Marlene; Dow, Noel; Milne, Nicholas; Desai, Dilip; Duke, Mikel

    2017-09-29

    Meat rendering operations produce stick water waste which is rich in proteins, fats, and minerals. Membrane distillation (MD) may further recover water and valuable solids, but hydrophobic membranes are contaminated by the fats. Here, commercial hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membranes with a hydrophilic polyurethane surface layer (PU-PTFE) are used for the first time for direct contact MD (DCMD) on real poultry, fish, and bovine stick waters. Metal membrane microfiltration (MMF) was also used to capture fats prior to MD. Although the standard hydrophobic PTFE membranes failed rapidly, PU-PTFE membranes effectively processed all stick water samples to colourless permeate with sodium rejections >99%. Initial clean solution fluxes 5-6 L/m²/h declined to less than half during short 40% water recovery tests for all stick water samples. Fish stick water uniquely showed reduced fouling and up to 78% water recovery. Lost flux was easily restored by rinsing the membrane with clean water. MMF prior to MD removed 92% of fats, facilitating superior MD performance. Differences in fouling between stick waters were attributed to temperature polarisation from higher melt temperature fats and relative proportions to proteins. Hydrophilic coated MD membranes are applicable to stick water processing but further studies should consider membrane cleaning and longer-term stability.

  5. Hydrophilic nano-silica coating agents with platinum and diamond nanoparticles for denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Taro; Akiba, Norihisa; Inokoshi, Masanao; Shimada, Masayuki; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-05-31

    Preventing microorganisms from adhering to the denture surface is important for ensuring the systemic health of elderly denture wearers. Silica coating agents provide high hydrophilicity but lack durability. This study investigated solutions to improve the durability of the coating layer, determine an appropriate solid content concentration of SiO 2 in the silica coating agent, and evaluate the effect of adding platinum (Pt) and diamond nanoparticles (ND) to the agent. Five coating agents were prepared with different SiO 2 concentrations with/without Pt and ND additives. The contact angle was measured, and the brush-wear test was performed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the silica coating layer. The appropriate concentration of SiO 2 was found to be 0.5-0.75 wt%. The coating agents with additives showed significantly high hydrophilicity immediately after coating and after the brush-wear test. The coating agents with/without additives formed a durable coating layer even after the brush-wear test.

  6. Membrane Distillation of Meat Industry Effluent with Hydrophilic Polyurethane Coated Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meat rendering operations produce stick water waste which is rich in proteins, fats, and minerals. Membrane distillation (MD may further recover water and valuable solids, but hydrophobic membranes are contaminated by the fats. Here, commercial hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE membranes with a hydrophilic polyurethane surface layer (PU-PTFE are used for the first time for direct contact MD (DCMD on real poultry, fish, and bovine stick waters. Metal membrane microfiltration (MMF was also used to capture fats prior to MD. Although the standard hydrophobic PTFE membranes failed rapidly, PU-PTFE membranes effectively processed all stick water samples to colourless permeate with sodium rejections >99%. Initial clean solution fluxes 5–6 L/m2/h declined to less than half during short 40% water recovery tests for all stick water samples. Fish stick water uniquely showed reduced fouling and up to 78% water recovery. Lost flux was easily restored by rinsing the membrane with clean water. MMF prior to MD removed 92% of fats, facilitating superior MD performance. Differences in fouling between stick waters were attributed to temperature polarisation from higher melt temperature fats and relative proportions to proteins. Hydrophilic coated MD membranes are applicable to stick water processing but further studies should consider membrane cleaning and longer-term stability.

  7. Study of gadolinia-doped ceria solid electrolyte surface by XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) is an important material to be used as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell for intermediate temperature operation. Ceria doped with 10 mol% gadolinia (Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 ) was prepared by conventional solid state synthesis and found to be single phase by room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical states of the surface of the prepared sample were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Though Gd was present in its characteristic chemical state, Ce was found in both Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ states. Presence of Ce 3+ state was ascribed to the differential yield of oxygen atoms in the sputtering process

  8. Surface Modification Of The High Temperature Porous Sliding Bearings With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewska-Weinert H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification of stainless steel bearing sleeves is developed to improve the tribology characteristics at high temperature. Solid lubricant nano- and microparticles are applied for this purpose. To create the quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication regimes, the solid lubricant powder layer is made by developed pressure impregnation technique. Porous sliding bearing sleeve prototypes were made by powder metallurgy technique. The purpose of the paper is to define the friction and wear characteristics of the sleeves and to determine the influence of sealing of the sliding interface on these characteristics. It is found that application of WS2 sold lubricant nano- and micro-particles and preservation of a particle leakage out of interface allows to achieve at the high temperature the friction coefficients comparable to those at ambient temperature.

  9. Dai Omega, a large solid angle axial focusing superconducting surface muon channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, H.; Nagamine, K.; Shimomura, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tanaka, H.; Fukuchi, K.; Makimura, S.; Ishida, K.

    2003-01-01

    An axial focusing surface muon channel, Dai Omega, was installed at KEK-MSL in the summer of 2001. Large aperture superconducting coils are utilized instead of quadrupole magnets. Dai Omega adopts an axial focusing beam path using symmetric magnetic fields from four coils. Computer simulations were performed on constructing Dai Omega, and the calculated solid angle acceptance of Dai Omega was larger than 1 sr at the optimum momentum. The momentum acceptance of Dai Omega was 6% FWHM. Dai Omega improved the solid angle acceptance by almost 20 times, in comparison with conventional muon channels. Beam tuning tests of Dai Omega have been carried out, and a beam intensity of 10 6 μ + /s was achieved at KEK-NML (500 MeV, 5 μA), which was almost comparable with that of RAL (800 MeV, 200 μA)

  10. Trace and surface analysis of ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Breuer, U; Westheide, J; Saprykin, A I; Holzbrecher, H; Nickel, H; Dietze, H J

    1996-06-01

    For the trace analysis of impurities in thick ceramic layers of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sensitive solid-state mass spectrometric methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and radiofrequency glow discharge mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) have been developed and used. In order to quantify the analytical results of LA-ICP-MS, the relative sensitivity coefficients of elements in a La(0.6)Sr(0.35)MnO(3) matrix have been determined using synthetic standards. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) - as a surface analytical method - has been used to characterize the element distribution and diffusion profiles of matrix elements on the interface of a perovskite/Y-stabilized ZrO(2) layer. The application of different mass spectrometric methods for process control in the preparation of ceramic layers for the SOFC is described.

  11. Characterization of Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces by Multidimensional Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, Michael P.; Fought, Ellie L.; Windus, Theresa L.; Wheeler, Lance M.; Anderson, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical and photophysical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are strongly dependent on the chemical composition and structure of their surfaces. Here we use fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and proton detection to enable the rapid acquisition of dipolar and scalar 2D 1 H– 29 Si heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) solid-state NMR spectra and reveal a molecular picture of hydride-terminated and alkyl-functionalized surfaces of Si NCs produced in a nonthermal plasma. 2D 1 H– 29 Si HETCOR and dipolar 2D 1 H– 1 H multiple-quantum correlation spectra illustrate that resonances from surface mono-, di-, and trihydride groups cannot be resolved, contrary to previous literature assignments. Instead the 2D NMR spectra illustrate that there is large distribution of 1 H and 29 Si chemical shifts for the surface hydride species in both the as-synthesized and functionalized Si NCs. However, proton-detected 1 H– 29 Si refocused INEPT experiments can be used to unambiguously differentiate NMR signals from the different surface hydrides. Varying the 29 Si evolution time in refocused INEPT experiments and fitting the oscillation of the NMR signals allows for the relative populations of the different surface hydrides to be estimated. This analysis confirms that monohydride species are the predominant surface species on the as-synthesized Si NCs. A reduction in the populations of the di- and trihydrides is observed upon functionalization with alkyl groups, consistent with our previous hypothesis that the trihydride, or silyl (*SiH 3 ), group is primarily responsible for initiating surface functionalization reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to obtain quantum chemical structural models of the Si NC surface and reproduce the observed 1 H and 29 Si chemical shifts. Furthermore, the approaches outlined here will be useful to obtain a more detailed picture of surface structures for Si NCs and other hydride-passivated nanomaterials.

  12. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine, and heavy metal contaminants from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is defining decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its sites. Current D ampersand D activities are generally labor intensive, use chemical reagents that are difficult to treat, and may expose workers to radioactive and hazardous chemicals. Therefore, new technologies are desired that minimize waste, allow much of the decommissioned materials to be reused rather than disposed of as waste, and produce wastes that will meet disposal criteria. The O'Brien ampersand Gere companies tested a scouring decontamination system on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous wastes under the sponsorship of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) at DOE's K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scouring system removes fixed radioactive and hazardous contamination yet leaves the surface intact. Blasting residuals are treated using physical/chemical processes. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of the system was conducted on surfaces contaminated with uranium, technetium, heavy metals, and PCBs. Areas of concrete and metal surfaces were blasted. Residuals were dissolved in tap water and treated for radioactive, hazardous, and organochlorine constituents. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, aeration, solids settling, filtration, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. This system produced treated water and residual solid waste. Testing demonstrated that the system is capable of removing greater than 95% of radioactive and PCB surface contamination to below DOE's unrestricted use release limits; aqueous radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs were below DOE and USEPA treatment objectives after treatment. Waste residuals volume was decreased by 71 %. Preliminary analyses suggest that this system provides significant waste volume reduction and is more economical than alternative surface decontamination techniques that are commercially available or under development

  13. Squeezing molecular thin alkane lubrication films between curved solid surfaces with long-range elasticity: Layering transitions and wear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of alkane lubricants confined between two approaching solids are investigated by a model that accounts for the curvature and the elastic properties of the solid surfaces. We consider linear alkane molecules of different chain lengths, C3H8, C4H10, C8H18, C9H20, C10H22, C12H26 and C14...

  14. Hydrophilic-impermeable modified polyethylene terephthalate for selective endothelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouane, D.; Fafet, J. F.; Barbet, R.; Dieval, F.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to create a modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) responding to vascular implants’ requirements, mainly with a surface promoting selective endothelialization. The surface alteration was carried out by hydrophilic functionalization in an alkaline solution with the presence of specific surfactant (TA). The carboxylic groups resulting from this reaction were quantified by colorimetric titration using bleu toluidine O dye (TBO). A single-sided coating process was then optimized to cover the PET surface by micro spherical structures’ polymeric layer. This coating provided to the PET surface high impermeability to the water under a pressure of 120 mmHg and enhanced its hydrophilic property. This spherical topography reduced the adhesion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) by 37% and inhibited their proliferation after 3 days by 50%. The hydrophilic functionalized PET (PET-TA) surface decreased the MSC adhesion by 50% and promoted HUVEC attachment with a number twice more important than the number of HUVEC adhered onto non treated-PET.

  15. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte

  16. A Monte Carlo simulation of the exchange reaction between gaseous molecules and the atoms on a heterogeneous solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hisao

    1980-01-01

    A method of the Monte Carlo simulation of the isotopic exchange reaction between gaseous molecules and the atoms on an arbitrarily heterogeneous solid surface is described by employing hydrogen as an example. (author)

  17. Surface strontium enrichment on highly active perovskites for oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mutoro, Eva; Liu, Zhi; Grass, Michael E.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Christen, Hans M.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides have high catalytic activities for oxygen electrocatalysis competitive to platinum at elevated temperatures. However, little is known about the oxide surface chemistry that influences the activity near ambient oxygen partial pressures, which hampers the design of highly active catalysts for many clean-energy technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells. Using in situ synchrotron-based, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry changes, we show that the coverage of surface secondary phases on a (001)-oriented La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) film becomes smaller than that on an LSC powder pellet at elevated temperatures. In addition, strontium (Sr) in the perovskite structure enriches towards the film surface in contrast to the pellet having no detectable changes with increasing temperature. We propose that the ability to reduce surface secondary phases and develop Sr-enriched perovskite surfaces of the LSC film contributes to its enhanced activity for O 2 electrocatalysis relative to LSC powder-based electrodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Co-crystal formation between two organic solids on the surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, M. L.; Vu, T. H.; Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Hodyss, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments of Titan molecular materials, informed by modeling, can help us to understand the complex and dynamic surface processes occurring on this moon at cryogenic temperatures. We previously demonstrated that two common organic materials on Titan, ethane and benzene, form a unique and stable co-crystalline structure at Titan surface temperatures. We have now characterized a second co-crystal that is stable on Titan, this time between two solids: acetylene and ammonia. The co-crystal forms within minutes at Titan surface temperature, as evidenced by new Raman spectral features in the lattice vibration and C-H bending regions. In addition, a red shift of the C-H stretching mode suggests that the acetylene-ammonia co-crystal is stabilized by a network of C-H···N interactions. Thermal stability studies indicate that this co-crystal remains intact to >110 K, and experiments with liquid methane and ethane reveal the co-crystal to be resistant to fluvial or pluvial exposure. Non-covalently bound structures such as these co-crystals point to far more complex surface interactions than previously believed on Titan. New physical and mechanical properties (deformation, plasticity, density, etc.), differences in storage of key species (i.e., ethane versus methane), variations in surface transport and new chemical gradients can all result in diverse surface features and chemistries of astrobiological interest.

  19. Liquid-solid surface phase transformation of fluorinated fullerene on monolayer tungsten diselenide

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhibo

    2018-04-04

    Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures constructed by the integration of organic molecules and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have useful tunable properties for flexible electronic devices. Due to the chemically inert and atomically smooth nature of the TMD surface, well-defined crystalline organic films form atomically sharp interfaces facilitating optimal device performance. Here, the surface phase transformation of the supramolecular packing structure of fluorinated fullerene (C60F48) on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, from thermally stable liquid to solid phases as the coverage increases. Statistical analysis of the intermolecular interaction potential reveals that the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction induced by interfacial charge transfer and substrate-mediated interactions play important roles in stabilizing the liquid C60F48 phases. Theoretical calculations further suggest that the dipole moment per C60F48 molecule varies with the surface molecule density, and the liquid-solid transformation could be understood from the perspective of the thermodynamic free energy for open systems. This study offers insights into the growth behavior at 2D organic/TMD hybrid heterointerfaces.

  20. Ray splitting in the reflection and refraction of surface acoustic waves in anisotropic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every, A G; Maznev, A A

    2010-05-01

    This paper examines the conditions for, and provides examples of, ray splitting in the reflection and refraction of surface acoustic waves (SAW) in elastically anisotropic solids at straight obstacles such as edges, surface breaking cracks, and interfaces between different solids. The concern here is not with the partial scattering of an incident SAW's energy into bulk waves, but with the occurrence of more than one SAW ray in the reflected and/or transmitted wave fields, by analogy with birefringence in optics and mode conversion of bulk elastic waves at interfaces. SAW ray splitting is dependent on the SAW slowness curve possessing concave regions, which within the constraint of wave vector conservation parallel to the obstacle allows multiple outgoing SAW modes for certain directions of incidence and orientation of obstacle. The existence of pseudo-SAW for a given surface provides a further channel for ray splitting. This paper discusses some typical material configurations for which SAW ray splitting occurs. An example is provided of mode conversion entailing backward reflection or negative refraction. Experimental demonstration of ray splitting in the reflection of a laser generated SAW in GaAs(111) is provided. The calculation of SAW mode conversion amplitudes lies outside the scope of this paper.

  1. Modeling Replenishment of Ultrathin Liquid Perfluoro polyether Z Films on Solid Surfaces Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeed, M.S.; Kato, T.

    2014-01-01

    Applying the reptation algorithm to a simplified perfluoro polyether Z off-lattice polymer model an NVT Monte Carlo simulation has been performed. Bulk condition has been simulated first to compare the average radius of gyration with the bulk experimental results. Then the model is tested for its ability to describe dynamics. After this, it is applied to observe the replenishment of nano scale ultrathin liquid films on solid flat carbon surfaces. The replenishment rate for trenches of different widths (8, 12, and 16 nms for several molecular weights) between two films of perfluoro polyether Z from the Monte Carlo simulation is compared to that obtained solving the diffusion equation using the experimental diffusion coefficients of Ma et al. (1999), with room condition in both cases. Replenishment per Monte Carlo cycle seems to be a constant multiple of replenishment per second at least up to 2 nm replenished film thickness of the trenches over the carbon surface. Considerable good agreement has been achieved here between the experimental results and the dynamics of molecules using reptation moves in the ultrathin liquid films on solid surfaces.

  2. Liquid-solid surface phase transformation of fluorinated fullerene on monolayer tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhibo; Wang, Qixing; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Zheng, Yu Jie; Wang, Zhuo; Lin, Tingting; Chi, Dongzhi; Ding, Zijing; Huang, Yu Li; Thye Shen Wee, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures constructed by the integration of organic molecules and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have useful tunable properties for flexible electronic devices. Due to the chemically inert and atomically smooth nature of the TMD surface, well-defined crystalline organic films form atomically sharp interfaces facilitating optimal device performance. Here, the surface phase transformation of the supramolecular packing structure of fluorinated fullerene (C60F48 ) on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, from thermally stable liquid to solid phases as the coverage increases. Statistical analysis of the intermolecular interaction potential reveals that the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction induced by interfacial charge transfer and substrate-mediated interactions play important roles in stabilizing the liquid C60F48 phases. Theoretical calculations further suggest that the dipole moment per C60F48 molecule varies with the surface molecule density, and the liquid-solid transformation could be understood from the perspective of the thermodynamic free energy for open systems. This study offers insights into the growth behavior at 2D organic/TMD hybrid heterointerfaces.

  3. [Preparation of cysteine-click maltose modified silica as a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography material for the enrichment of glycopeptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhang, Weibing

    2017-07-08

    Because of the low abundance of glycoprotein and glycopeptide in complex biological samples, it is urgent to develop an efficient method for glycopeptide enrichment in comprehensive and in-depth glycoproteomes research. Herein, a novel hydrophilic silica was developed through surface modification with cysteine-click maltose (Cys-Mal@SiO 2 ). The developed hydrophilic silica was packed into a solid phase extraction (SPE) column, and applied to the highly selective enrichment and identification of N -linked glycopeptides. The Cys-Mal@SiO 2 demonstrated better identification capability over Cys@SiO 2 , Mal@SiO 2 and commercial hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in glycopeptide enrichment due to the synergistic effect of the two kinds of hydrophilic molecules. In the selective enrichment of tryptic digest from human immunoglobulin G, glycopeptides with higher signal-to-noises were detected by Cys-Mal@SiO 2 . In addition, 1551 unique glycopeptides with 906 N -glycosylation sites from 466 different N -linked glycoproteins were identified from the proteins extracted from mouse liver after the enrichment with Cys-Mal@SiO 2 . In contrast, the numbers of identified glycopeptides, glycoproteins and N -glycosylation sites identified by Cys@SiO 2 were 211, 67, 127 respectively less than by Cys-Mal@SiO 2 , and the corresponding numbers were 289, 76, 193 by Mal@SiO 2 . These results showed that the developed Cys-Mal@SiO 2 is a promising affinity material for N -glycoproteomics research of real complex biological samples.

  4. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  5. Nuclear microanalysis of 16O and 18O in near-surface regions of solids. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsel, G.

    The best suited nuclear technique for 18 O analysis is the direct observation of nuclear reactions. Here, instead of measuring an induced radioactivity, one observes the particles emitted as a result of the O 18 (p,α)N 15 reaction. The α particles which are produced may be detected with surface barrier semiconductor detectors; they present unit detection efficiency and allow one to realize large solid angles of detection, while their energy resolution is excellent. For getting O 18 /O 16 ratios, 16 O must also be measured. This is achieved in a similar way, using the O 16 (d,p) 17 O reaction [fr

  6. Photo-stimulated desorption from water and methane clusters on the surface of solid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa Ichiri; Matsumoto Dairo; Takekuma Shinichi; Tamura Reimi; Miura Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Photo-stimulated desorption of ions from methane and water heterocluster on the surface of solid neon was studied. The desorption yields of the variety of photo-desorbed species showed strong dependence on the composition and the size of the mother cluster. It was found that the presence of a water molecule in the cluster significantly enhanced, or was almost essential for, the desorption of any species observed. Systematic investigation of the correlation between the cluster size and the desorption yield of each ion has revealed the mother cluster which yields the each desorbed ion.

  7. Growth of binary solid solution single crystals and calculation of melt surface displacement velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamaliyev, Z.A.; Tahirov, V.I.; Hasanov, Z.Y.; Quliyev, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    A binary solid solution single crystal growth method has been worked out. Cylinder feeding alloy with complex content distribution and truncated cone crucible are used. Second component distribution coefficient is more than unit. Content distribution along grown crystal is found by solving continuity equation. After reaching dynamic equilibrium state second component concentration in grown crystal is saturated the value of which is less than the average ona in the feeding alloy. Using the method Ge-Si perfect single crystals has been grown. Calculation method of melt surface displacement velocity has been offered as well

  8. The Chemistry of Inorganic Precursors during the Chemical Deposition of Films on Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Seán T; Teplyakov, Andrew V; Zaera, Francisco

    2018-03-20

    The deposition of thin solid films is central to many industrial applications, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods are particularly useful for this task. For one, the isotropic nature of the adsorption of chemical species affords even coverages on surfaces with rough topographies, an increasingly common requirement in microelectronics. Furthermore, by splitting the overall film-depositing reactions into two or more complementary and self-limiting steps, as it is done in atomic layer depositions (ALD), film thicknesses can be controlled down to the sub-monolayer level. Thanks to the availability of a vast array of inorganic and metalorganic precursors, CVD and ALD are quite versatile and can be engineered to deposit virtually any type of solid material. On the negative side, the surface chemistry that takes place in these processes is often complex, and can include undesirable side reactions leading to the incorporation of impurities in the growing films. Appropriate precursors and deposition conditions need to be chosen to minimize these problems, and that requires a proper understanding of the underlying surface chemistry. The precursors for CVD and ALD are often designed and chosen based on their known thermal chemistry from inorganic chemistry studies, taking advantage of the vast knowledge developed in that field over the years. Although a good first approximation, however, this approach can lead to wrong choices, because the reactions of these precursors at gas-solid interfaces can be quite different from what is seen in solution. For one, solvents often aid in the displacement of ligands in metalorganic compounds, providing the right dielectric environment, temporarily coordinating to the metal, or facilitating multiple ligand-complex interactions to increase reaction probabilities; these options are not available in the gas-solid reactions associated with CVD and ALD. Moreover, solid surfaces act as unique "ligands", if these reactions are to be

  9. The Measurement of the Surface Energy of Solids by Sessile Drop Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvimontes, Alfredo

    2018-05-01

    A new physical method, the sessile drop accelerometry (SDACC) for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems, is tested and discussed in this study. The laboratory instrument and technique—a combination of a drop shape analyzer with high-speed camera and a laboratory drop tower- and the evaluation algorithms, were designed to calculate the interfacial energies as a function of the geometrical changes of a sessile droplet shape due to the effect of "switching off" gravity during the experiment. The method bases on Thermodynamics of Interfaces and differs from the conventional approach of the two hundred-years-old Young's equation in that it assumes a thermodynamic equilibrium between interfaces, rather than a balance of tensions on a point of the solid-liquid-gas contour line. A comparison of the mathematical model that supports the method with the widely accepted Young`s equation is discussed in detail in this study. The method opens new possibilities to develop surface characterization procedures by submitting the solid-liquid-system to artificial generated and uniform force fields.

  10. Oil sands tailings treatment via surface modification of solids with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soane, D.; Ware, W.; Mahoney, R.; Kincaid, K. [Soane Energy, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands fine tailings require large containment area and long-term storage. A recent directive has been established to reduce fluid tailings storage by 30 percent by 2012. This PowerPoint presentation described a method of treating oil sands tailings by modifying the surfaces of solids with polymers. The ATA process divided whole tailings into fines and coarse streams. The coarse stream was used to prepare anchor particles with a monolayer of tether polymers. An activator was added to the fine tailings in order to aggregate. The process cause a Velcro-like attraction between the activated fines and the tether-coated anchor particles. The solid ATA matrix trapped the fines and allowed water to drain more easily. Photographs of the process were provided. An analysis of the process demonstrated that 70 percent of the water in the tailings was recovered in less than 5 minutes. The water was clear, with less than 0.2 percent of suspended solids. The process is applicable to live tailings and mature fine tailings (MFT). tabs., figs.

  11. Adhesion and friction in polymer films on solid substrates: conformal sites analysis and corresponding surface measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rong; Huang, Liangliang; Mineart, Kenneth P; Dong, Yihui; Spontak, Richard J; Gubbins, Keith E

    2017-05-21

    In this work, we present a statistical mechanical analysis to elucidate the molecular-level factors responsible for the static and dynamic properties of polymer films. This analysis, which we term conformal sites theory, establishes that three dimensionless parameters play important roles in determining differences from bulk behavior for thin polymer films near to surfaces: a microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , defined as the ratio of polymer-substrate interaction to polymer-polymer interaction; a dimensionless film thickness, H*; and dimensionless temperature, T*. The parameter α wx introduced here provides a more fundamental measure of wetting than previous metrics, since it is defined in terms of intermolecular forces and the atomic structure of the substrate, and so is valid at the nanoscale for gas, liquid or solid films. To test this theoretical analysis, we also report atomic force microscopy measurements of the friction coefficient (μ), adhesion force (F A ) and glass transition temperature (T g ) for thin films of two polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), on two planar substrates, graphite and silica. Both the friction coefficient and the glass transition temperature are found to increase as the film thickness decreases, and this increase is more pronounced for the graphite than for the silica surface. The adhesion force is also greater for the graphite surface. The larger effects encountered for the graphite surface are attributed to the fact that the microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , is larger for graphite than for silica, indicating stronger attraction of polymer chains to the graphite surface.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann model for thermal free surface flows with liquid-solid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, Elham; Koerner, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this work is to develop an algorithm to use the Lattice Boltzmann method for solving free surface thermal flow problems with solid/liquid phase changes. Approach: A multi-distribution function model is applied to simulate hydrodynamic flow and the coupled thermal diffusion-convection problem. Findings: The free surface problem, i.e. the reconstruction of the missing distribution functions at the interface, can be solved by applying a physical transparent momentum and heat flux based methodology. The developed method is subsequently applied to some test cases in order to assess its computational potentials. Practical implications: Many industrial processes involve problems where non-isothermal motion and simultaneous solidification of fluids with free surface is important. Examples are all castings processes and especially foaming processes which are characterized by a huge and strongly changing surface. Value: A reconstruction algorithm to treat a thermal hydrodynamic problem with free surfaces is presented which is physically transparent and easy to implement.

  13. Preparation and characterization of dopamine-decorated hydrophilic carbon black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lijun; Lu Yonglai [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Yiqing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Wencai, E-mail: wangw@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the bio-adhesive proteins secreted by mussels for attachment to almost all wet substrates, a facile method involving oxidative polymerization of dopamine was proposed to prepare highly hydrophilic carbon black (CB) particles. A self-assembled polydopamine (PDA) ad-layer was formed via the oxidative polymerization of dopamine on the surface of CB simply by dipping the CB into an alkaline dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. The process is simple, controllable, and environment-friendly. The surface composition and structure of the CB were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the CB was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the PDA ad-layer was successfully deposited on the CB surfaces. The PDA-functionalized CB (CB-PDA) gave a stable colloidal dispersion in water. Contact angle measurement results indicated that the hydrophilicity of CB was significantly improved after dopamine modification. TGA results confirmed that the modified CB maintained good heat resistance. The method provided a facile route to prepare hydrophilic CB having terminal hydroxyl groups.

  14. Impacts of Solid Waste Leachate on Groundwater and Surface Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the impacts of solid waste leachate on groundwater and surface water quality at unlined dumping site. Six leachate samples collected from different locations have average values of COD and BOD 2563 mg/L and 442 mg/L, respectively. Surface water samples were collected in two different seasons (rainy and non- rainy). Samples collected during non-rainy season were found to be more contaminated than rainy season. Soil samples collected from the depth of 1.5 m are contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe and Zn) and E.coli. Presence of E.coli shows that leachate has deteriorated groundwater quality. (author)

  15. Cavitation induced by high speed impact of a solid surface on a liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Tinguely, Marc; Rouvinez, Mathieu

    2009-11-01

    A solid surface may suffer from severe erosion if it impacts a liquid jet at high speed. The physics behind the erosion process remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of a gun bullet on a laminar water jet with the help of a high speed camera. The bullet has a flat front and 11 mm diameter, which is half of jet diameter. The impact speed was varied between 200 and 500 ms-1. Immediately after the impact, a systematic shock wave and high speed jetting were observed. As the compression waves reflect on the jet boundary, a spectacular number of vapour cavities are generated within the jet. Depending on the bullet velocity, these cavities may grow and collapse violently on the bullet surface with a risk of cavitation erosion. We strongly believe that this transient cavitation is the main cause of erosion observed in many industrial applications such as Pelton turbines.

  16. Measurement of integrated coefficients of ultracold neutron reflection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.V.; Kulagin, E.N.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    The method of measurement of the integrated coefficients of ultracold neutrons (UCN) reflection from solid surfaces is reported. A simple formula is suggested which expresses the integrated coefficients of UCN reflection from a given sample through the measured counting rate of the detector with and without strong absorber (polyethelene). The parameters are determined describing anisotropic and inhomogeneity properties of UCN reflection from Al, Mg, Pb, Zn, Mo, stainless steel, T and V are measured. The thickness of oxide layers is determined within the 5-10A accuracy limits from the experimental coefficients of UCN reflection from metals having on their surfaces the oxides with boundary velocity larger than that for the metal. It has been determined that the density of 5000 A layer of heavy ice freezed on aluminium is 0.83 +- 0.05 from the crystal ice density

  17. RX J1856.5-3754: A Strange Star with Solid Quark Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Renxin; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2003-01-01

    The featureless spectra of isolated 'neutron stars' may indicate that they are actually bare strange stars but a definitive conclusion on the nature of the compact objects cannot be reached until accurate and theoretically calculated spectra of the bare quark surface are known. However due to the complex nonlinearity of quantum chromodynamics it is almost impossible to present a definitive and accurate calculation of the density-dominated quark-gluon plasma from the first principles. Nevertheless it was suggested that cold quark matter with extremely high baryon density could be in a solid state. Within the realms of this possibility we have fitted the 500ks Chandra LETG/HRC data for the brightest isolated neutron star RX 51856.5-3754 with a phenomenological spectral model and found that electric conductivity of quark matter on the stellar surface is about 1.5 x 10(exp 16)/s.

  18. Synergistic effects in radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki

    1990-01-01

    A description is given on radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces, emphasizing synergistic effects arising from multi-species particle irradiation and from irradiation under complex environments. First, it is pointed out that synergisms can be treated by introducing the effects of material modification on radiation-induced particle ejection. As examples of the effects of surface modification on the sputtering induced by elastic encounters, sputtering of alloys and chemical sputtering of graphite are briefly discussed. Then the particle ejection induced by electronic encounters is explained emphasizing the difference in the behaviors from materials to materials. The possible synergistic effects of electronic and elastic encounters are also described. Lastly, we point out the importance of understanding the elementary processes of material-particle interaction and of developing computer codes describing material behaviors under irradiation. (author)

  19. Hydrophilic nanoporous polystyrenes and 1,2-polybutadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous polymers from ordered block copolymers having hydrophilic cavity surfaces were successfully prepared by two methodologies: ' 1. Nanoporous polystyrenes fromPtBA-b-PS diblock or PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS triblock copolymer precursors by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), or combination...... of living anionic polymerization~ and ATRP r~spectively. The one, PtBA block, can be modified to the hydrophilic PAA, where the dther, polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) block, can be fully degraded. Deprotection of the tert-butyl groups in PtBA and the selective etching of PDMS· chains were accomplished...... by applying HF or TFA in one step. Thus both the di- and triblock copolymers after such a treatment resulted. in nanoporous polystyrenes with hexagonal cavities of different nanosizes (6-11 nm, Figure 1). 2. Nanoporous I,2-polybutadienes (I,2-PB) by grafting various acrylic monomers onto the pore. surfaces...

  20. Polyethylene/hydrophilic polymer blends for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynda, E; Houska, M; Novikova, S P; Dobrova, N B

    1987-01-01

    Polyethylene blends with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)] or poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate) [poly(DHPMA)] were prepared by swelling polyethylene with HEMA or 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA) and by polymerization of the respective monomers. Poly(EPMA) in blends was hydrolysed to poly(DHPMA) with acetic acid. The blends had similar surface and bulk compositions. Swelling with water and surface wettability were proportional to the content of the hydrophilic component; at the same content the polyethylene/poly(DHPMA) blends appeared more hydrophilic than those of polyethylene/poly(HEMA). Thrombus formation in contact with blood examined ex vivo and in vivo was considerably slower on the blends than on unmodified polyethylene. The tests indicated optima in composition; the best biological response was achieved with the blends containing about 14% poly(HEMA) or 16% poly(DHPMA).

  1. Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Every

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.

  2. The air bubble entrapped under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.; Ootsuka, N.; Hatsuki, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We present experimental observations of the disk of air caught under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. By imaging the impact through an acrylic plate with an ultra-high-speed video camera, we can follow the evolution of the air disk as it contracts into a bubble under the centre of the drop. The initial size and contraction speed of the disk were measured for a range of impact Weber and Reynolds numbers. The size of the initial disk is related to the bottom curvature of the drop at the initial contact, as measured in free-fall. The initial contact often leaves behind a ring of micro-bubbles, marking its location. The air disk contracts at a speed comparable to the corresponding air disks caught under a drop impacting onto a liquid surface. This speed also seems independent of the wettability of the liquid, which only affects the azimuthal shape of the contact line. For some impact conditions, the dynamics of the contraction leaves a small droplet at the centre of the bubble. This arises from a capillary wave propagating from the edges of the contracting disk towards the centre. As the wave converges its amplitude grows until it touches the solid substrate, thereby pinching off the micro-droplet at the plate, in the centre of the bubble. The effect of increasing liquid viscosity is to slow down the contraction speed and to produce a more irregular contact line leaving more micro-bubbles along the initial ring.

  3. Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakulski, P; Pietrowicz, S

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen. (paper)

  4. Study on the surface electronic properties of Li-containing solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Fumio; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The electronic state of Li{sub 2}O surface will be modified by absorption and/or desorption of chemically-active species, such as H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The reactions induced by these species will involve some point defects in the solid. Whereas the high temperature Kelvin probe has proven to be quite effective in obtaining information on the surface reactions between gas and solid, an attempt is being made to incorporate numerical calculation to obtain further information which may not be easily done by experiments. The code employed in the present study is `CRYSTAL`, which employs a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock method. As a preliminary study, we tried to calculate the change of Fermi Energy as a function of the density of oxygen vacancy. The results revealed that the greater the density of oxygen vacancy, the larger the Fermi Energy of Li{sub 2}O, which was consistent with the experimental results obtained by high temperature Kelvin probe. (author)

  5. Experimental apparatus to investigate interactions of low energy ions with solid surfaces, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukakoshi, Osamu; Narusawa, Tadashi; Mizuno, Masayasu; Sone, Kazuho; Ohtsuka, Hidewo.

    1975-12-01

    Experimental apparatus to study the surface phenomena has been designed, which is intended to solve the vacuum wall problems in future thermonuclear fusion reactors and large experimental tokamak devices. An ion source and the beam transport optics are provided for bombarding solid target surface with an ion beam of energy from 0.1 to 6 keV. Measuring instruments include an ion energy analyser, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, an Auger electron spectrometer, an electro-micro-balance, a neutral particle energy spectrometer and its calibration system. Pumping system consists of oil-free ultrahigh vacuum pumps. Various kinds of experiments will be carried out by using the apparatus: 1) sputtering by low energy ion bombardment, 2) re-emission of the incident particles during and after ion bombardment, 3) release of adsorbed and occluded gases in the solids by ion bombardment, and 4) backscattering of fast ions. The combinations of measuring instruments for each experiment and their relative positions in the vacuum chamber are described through detailed drawings. The fundamental aspect in design of the ion beam transport optics for a low energy ion beam which can no longer neglect the space charge effect is also discussed. (auth.)

  6. Circumvention of the tumor membrane barrier to WR-2721 absorption by reduction of drug hydrophilicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.; Davis, M.E.; Glover, D.; Brown, D.Q.; Ritter, M.

    1982-01-01

    In attempting to account for the ability of most solid tumors to restrict the absorption of WR-2721, aminopropyl-aminoethylphosphorothioate, we examined a number of drug characteristics which might allow for this restriction, and observed that drug hypdrophilicity was a major contributing factor. When the highly hydrophilic WR-2721 was dephosphorylated, the drug became less hydrophilic and could readily cross tumor cell membranes. In addition, conventional radioprotectants, such as cysteine and mercaptoethylamine, were shown to be less hydrophilic than WR-2721 and also to cross tumor membranes readily. Therefore, drug hydrophilicity would appear to be the factor underlying the ability of WR-2721 to selectively protect normal tissues while most other protectors alter the radiation resistance of normal and tumor tissue alike. A red blood cell model for studying this problem in greater detail is described

  7. Uptake Coefficients of NO3 Radicals on Solid Surfaces of Sea-Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratpanche, F.; Sawerysyn, J.-P.

    1999-02-01

    Uptake coefficients of nitrate radicals (γ NO_3) have been measured by a technique involving a coated-wall flow tube with radical detection by E.P.R. spectrometry. The variation of NO3 concentration in the gas phase was followed indirectly by monitoring OH radicals produced by the titration reaction H + NO_3. The mean initial value of γ NO3 measured on solid NaCl surfaces was (1.7± 1.2)× 10-2) in the temperature range 258-301 K, while for solid NaBr surfaces the value was (0.11 ± 0.06) at 293 K. In each case, errors limits correspond to one standard deviation. For NaBr, a slight negative temperature dependence was observed over the investigated range, 243-293 K, which can be represented by γ_NO_3^NaBr = 1.6 ≤ft(begin{array}{l}+1.8 -0.9) × 10-3exp [(1210± 200)/T]. An analysis of the results shows that under some conditions the heterogeneous loss of nitrate radicals on sea-salt aerosol particles at ambient temperature could be competitive with their loss by homogeneous reaction in the marine troposphere at night. Les coefficients de capture des radicaux nitrate (γ NO_3) sur des surfaces de sels marins (NaCl et NaBr) ont été mesurés aux températures troposphériques en utilisant la technique du réacteur à écoulement à paroi recouverte couplée à un spectromètre de résonance paramagnétique électronique (R.P.E). La variation de la concentration en phase gazeuse des radicaux nitrate en présence des surfaces étudiées est suivie en mesurant le signal R.P.E des radicaux OH produits par la réaction de titrage H + NO3. Pour des températures comprises entre 258 et 301 K, la valeur moyenne du coefficient de capture initial (γ NO_3) sur des surfaces solides de NaCl est égal à (1.7± 1.2)× 10-2). Sur des surfaces solides de NaBr, (γ NO_3) est égal à (0.11 ± 0.06) à 293 K. L'incertitude correspond à une déviation standard. Par ailleurs, pour ce type de surfaces, une légère dépendance négative avec la température est observée dans la

  8. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by varying gas flow rate is proposed in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma treatment. • Without employing additional reactive gas, requiring more plasma power and longer treatment time, hydrophilicity of polyimide films was improved after the low-gas-flow plasma treatment. • The gas flow rate affects the hydrophilic properties of polymer surface by changing the discharge atmosphere in the particular geometry of the reactor developed. • Low-gas-flow induced wettability control suggests effective and economical plasma treatment. - Abstract: This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films

  9. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  10. Design and investigation of photo-induced super-hydrophilic materials for car mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiamchai, Pitak; Chindaudom, Pongpan; Horprathum, Mati; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol; Limsuwan, Pichet

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades, interests in various properties in titanium dioxide thin films have been growing rapidly. There have been several reports for TiO 2 thin films prepared on various media with photocatalytic and hydrophilic properties, in order to function as self-cleaning and/or anti-fogging materials. An obvious application is usually found in side-view car mirrors in the automobile industries. In this study, a number of photocatalytic TiO 2 films are prepared on soda-lime glasses for car mirrors by an electron-beam evaporation. The designs and development of the photocatalytic TiO 2 films, based on crystallinity, deposition rate, film thickness, film structure, and surface roughness are discussed. In comparison to the commercialized products, a systematic investigation procedure for the super-hydrophilic properties of the light-induced TiO 2 films for car mirrors has been developed, based on super-hydrophilicity, sustainability, self-cleaning property, and degradation of the samples. In addition, physical characterization by X-ray diffraction and surface roughness are also discussed. It has been found that most commercial products attain super-hydrophilicity only after exposed to ultraviolet and solar irradiation in less than 1 h. They can also maintain hydrophilicity after rigorous cleaning process. On the other hand, our prepared TiO 2 thin films demonstrate super-hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties after exposed to ultraviolet light for more than 2 h. According to the study, their anatase crystallinity, small grain size, and surface conditions all contributes to the excellent results. However, the prepared samples do not attain sufficient retention property to maintain their hydrophilicity. Conclusively, the designs of the TiO 2 films on car mirrors prove adequate to produce super-hydrophilic materials, which still degrade over normal usage. Nevertheless, our proposed investigation methods prove useful in quality evaluation in order to

  11. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu–isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-01-01

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal–amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu–isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal–amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu–isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile) 2 crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu–isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N 2 gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  12. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  13. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  14. Non-equilibrium dynamics of single polymer adsorption to solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panja, Debabrata; Barkema, Gerard T; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of polymers to surfaces is crucial for understanding many fundamental processes in nature. Recent experimental studies indicate that the adsorption dynamics is dominated by non-equilibrium effects. We investigate the adsorption of a single polymer of length N to a planar solid surface in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. We find that for weak adsorption energies the adsorption timescales ∼N (1+2ν)/(1+ν) , where ν is the Flory exponent for the polymer. We argue that in this regime the single chain adsorption is closely related to a field-driven polymer translocation through narrow pores. Surprisingly, for high adsorption energies the adsorption time becomes longer, as it scales as ∼N 1+ν , which is explained by strong stretching of the unadsorbed part of the polymer close to the adsorbing surface. These two dynamic regimes are separated by an energy scale that is characterized by non-equilibrium contributions during the adsorption process. (fast track communication)

  15. Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Technological Improvement of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pizzol, Carine; O'Reilly, Andre; Winter, Evelyn; Sonaglio, Diva; de Campos, Angela Machado; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal particles consisting of a matrix composed of solid (at room and body temperatures) lipids dispersed in aqueous emulsifier solution. During manufacture, their physicochemical properties may be affected by several formulation parameters, such as type and concentration of lipid, proportion of emulsifiers and amount of solvent. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of these variables on the preparation of SLN. A D-optimal Response Surface Methodology design was used to establish a mathematical model for the optimization of SLN. A total of 30 SLN formulations were prepared using the ultrasound method, and then characterized on the basis of their physicochemical properties, including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and Zeta Potential (s). Particle sizes ranged between 107 and 240 nm. All SLN formulations showed negative sigma and PI values below 0.28. Prediction of the optimal conditions was performed using the desirability function targeting the reduction of all responses. The optimized SLN formulation showed similar theoretical and experimental values, confirming the sturdiness and predictive ability of the mathematical model for SLN optimization.

  16. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  17. A solid phase radio immunoassay on hydrophobic membrane filters: detection of antibodies to gonocal surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambden, P.R.; Watt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) has been developed for detection of IgG antibodies to gonococcal outer membrane components. Gonococcal antigens was immobilised on a solid support by covalent coupling to CNBr-activated Sepharose in the presence of the detergent Triton X-100. Binding of specific antibody to the Sepharose-antigen complex was detected using radiolabelled Protein A as the antiglobulin. Protein A was labelled by radioacetylation with tritiated acetic anhydride, yielding a product of high specific activity and high stability. No detectable loss of activity was observed over a ten month period. The entire assay was performed on Mitex teflon hydrophobic membrane filters which held the Sepharose beads and aqueous supernatant as a discrete drop of liquid. The supernatants and incubation were easily and rapidly removed from the beads by suction on a specially-designed manifold system. This procedure removed the need for repeated and time-consuming centrifugations. Titres were obtained graphically from double log plots of cpm bound versus antiserum dilution by extrapolation of the straight line to a point corresponding to twice the control level of radioactivity binding. The assay proved to be a very reliable and simple procedure for the detection of IgG antibodies to gonococcal surface antigens. (Auth.)

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE BASED SOLID PROPELLANT GRAINS FORMULATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  19. The Impact of Solid Surface Features on Fluid-Fluid Interface Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Pore-scale fluid processes in geological media are critical for a broad range of applications such as radioactive waste disposal, carbon sequestration, soil moisture distribution, subsurface pollution, land stability, and oil and gas recovery. The continued improvement of high-resolution image acquisition and processing have provided a means to test the usefulness of theoretical models developed to simulate pore-scale fluid processes, through the direct quantification of interfaces. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography is used in combination with advanced visualization tools to characterize fluid distributions in natural geologic media. The studies revealed the presence of fluid-fluid interface associated with macroscopic features on the surfaces of the solids such as pits and crevices. These features and respective fluid interfaces, which are not included in current theoretical or computational models, may have a significant impact on accurate simulation and understanding of multi-phase flow, energy, heat and mass transfer processes.

  20. Controlled Clustering of Gold Nanoparticles using Solid-support for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyejin; Chae, Jinjoo; Jeong, Hong; Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoonsik

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated small clusters of gold nanoparticles by using solid-supported aggregation of gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au nanoclusters consisting mainly of dimers showed homogeneous characteristics in cluster size and SERS intensity. The SERS enhancement of 4-ABT molecules in an effective area within 2-nm gap appeared to be approximately 10. Detachment process by ultrasonication was successively carried out in order to use the nanoclusters as SERS probes. The possibility of these clusters as SERS probe was proved in terms of signal and cluster size. Single molecule-level sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was known approximately fifteen years ago. Ever since there have been many different applications benefiting from the ultra-high sensitivity such as single molecule detection, chemical sensing and bio-molecular probes. Especially, SERS has drawn much attention in bio-multiplexing probes owing to its unique optical characteristics claiming extremely narrow bandwidth, high sensitivity of light signals, and non-bleaching feature

  1. On the theory of diffraction of Maxwellian atomic beams by solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, F.O.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of diffraction of Maxwellian (thermal) atomic beams by solid surfaces, the usual assumption that the angular position of the maximum in a diffracted beam corresponds to the diffraction angle of atoms with the most probable de Broglie wavelength is examined, and compared with other possible criteria and with the correct result. It is concluded that, although this criterion may be the best simple one available, it is certainly bad in some situations; the reasons why, and the conditions under which, it is expected to be good are discussed. Also, it is shown that considerable care must be taken when shapes of diffracted beams and when angular positions of their maxima are calculated, because certain physical effects (which are always present) may change these shapes and positions in unexpected ways. The theory is compared with two sets of relatively modern experimental data, one set for which the fit is good, and another set for which a fit is impossible

  2. Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Jacobsen, N.; Fensholdt, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ligand immobilization on solid surfaces is an essential step in fields such as diagnostics, bio sensor manufacturing, and new material sciences in general. In this paper a photochemical approach based on anthraquinone as the chromophore is presented. Photochemical procedures offer special...... advantages as they are able to generate highly reactive species in an orientation specific manner. As presented here, anthraquinone (AQ) mediated covalent DNA immobilization appears to be superior to currently known procedures. A synthetic procedure providing AQ-phosphoramidites is presented. These reagents...... facilitate AQ conjugation during routine DNA synthesis, thus enabling the AQ-oligonucleotides to be immobilized in a very convenient and efficient manner. AQ-conjugated PCR primers can be used directly in PCR. When the PCR is performed in solution, the amplicons can be immobilized after the PCR. Moreover...

  3. Controlled Clustering of Gold Nanoparticles using Solid-support for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Chae, Jinjoo; Jeong, Hong [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoonsik [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We fabricated small clusters of gold nanoparticles by using solid-supported aggregation of gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au nanoclusters consisting mainly of dimers showed homogeneous characteristics in cluster size and SERS intensity. The SERS enhancement of 4-ABT molecules in an effective area within 2-nm gap appeared to be approximately 10. Detachment process by ultrasonication was successively carried out in order to use the nanoclusters as SERS probes. The possibility of these clusters as SERS probe was proved in terms of signal and cluster size. Single molecule-level sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was known approximately fifteen years ago. Ever since there have been many different applications benefiting from the ultra-high sensitivity such as single molecule detection, chemical sensing and bio-molecular probes. Especially, SERS has drawn much attention in bio-multiplexing probes owing to its unique optical characteristics claiming extremely narrow bandwidth, high sensitivity of light signals, and non-bleaching feature.

  4. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  5. Theoretical model of droplet wettability on a low-surface-energy solid under the influence of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The wettability of droplets on a low surface energy solid is evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Water-ethanol binary mixture drops of several volumes are used. In the experiment, the droplet radius, height, and contact angle are measured. Analytical equations are derived that incorporate the effect of gravity for the relationships between the droplet radius and height, radius and contact angle, and radius and liquid surface energy. All the analytical equations display good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that the fundamental wetting behavior of the droplet on the low surface energy solid can be predicted by our model which gives geometrical information of the droplet such as the contact angle, droplet radius, and height from physical values of liquid and solid.

  6. Study of strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    The chemical states of the surface of the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.85 Mg 0.15 O 3-δ (LSGM 1015) as prepared by solid-state synthesis was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that adventitious carbon did not interact with any of the constituent elements of LSGM 1015. Ga and La were found to exist in trivalent states. But, due to ionic bombardment presence of Mg could not be detected in the electrolyte surface

  7. Surface functionalization of solid state ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene through chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Rehman, Tayyiba; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Shaikh, Ahson Jabbar; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Raza, Rizwan; Waseem, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The surface of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was functionalized with styrene using chemical grafting technique. The grafting process was initiated through radical generation on base polymer matrix in the solid state by sodium thiosulfate, while peroxides formed at radical sites during this process were dissociated by ceric ammonium nitrate. Various factors were optimized and reasonably high level of monomer grafting was achieved, i.e., 15.6%. The effect of different acids as additive and divinyl benzene (DVB) as a cross-linking agent was also studied. Post-grafting sulfonation was conducted to introduce the ionic moieties to the grafted polymer. Ion-exchange capacity (IEC) was measured experimentally and is found to be 1.04 meq g-1, which is in close agreement with the theoretical IEC values. The chemical structure of grafted and functionalized polymer was characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal properties were investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal analysis depicts that the presence of radicals on the polymer chain accelerates the thermal decomposition process. The results signify that the chemical grafting is an effective tool for substantial surface modification and subsequent functionalization of polyethylene.

  8. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-10-01

    The crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism was confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.

  9. Standard test method for damage to contacting solid surfaces under fretting conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the studying or ranking the susceptibility of candidate materials to fretting corrosion or fretting wear for the purposes of material selection for applications where fretting corrosion or fretting wear can limit serviceability. 1.2 This test method uses a tribological bench test apparatus with a mechanism or device that will produce the necessary relative motion between a contacting hemispherical rider and a flat counterface. The rider is pressed against the flat counterface with a loading mass. The test method is intended for use in room temperature air, but future editions could include fretting in the presence of lubricants or other environments. 1.3 The purpose of this test method is to rub two solid surfaces together under controlled fretting conditions and to quantify the damage to both surfaces in units of volume loss for the test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5...

  10. Development of an opto-hydrodynamic process to remove nanoparticles from solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Daehwan; Ha, Jeonghong; Kim, Dongsik

    2013-01-01

    We developed a surface cleaning process to remove nanoscale contaminants as small as 10 nm from solid surfaces using a laser-induced micro liquid jet. In the process, laser-induced breakdown of a micron-sized water droplet (∼10 nl) produces a high-speed jet with speeds up to 1600 m/s liquid jet via an explosive vaporization process. Impingement of the liquid jet with atomized droplets on the contaminated substrate removes the nanoparticles under the hydrodynamic drag forces. The process parameters, including the incident laser energy and the position of the droplet relative to the laser focus, were optimized to maximize the cleaning power. Polystyrene latex particles 20, 30, or 90 nm in diameter and Al2O3 particles 10-50 nm in diameter were used to demonstrate the cleaning performance of the opto-hydrodynamic cleaning technique. The proposed cleaning process is expected to be useful for selectively cleaning local areas with minimal exposure to water.

  11. Rydberg-state reionization of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedeljkovic, Lj.D.; Nedeljkovic, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    Reionization rates of Rydberg states (n>>1 and l=0, 1, and 2) of multiply charged ionic projectiles escaping solid surfaces are calculated. These rates are obtained in an analytic form as a function of the ion-surface distance R. A phenomenological model of the reionization process, based on two-state quantum dynamics, is adopted for the vicinity of the potential barrier top. The results of calculations show that ionization rates for different Rydberg states are strictly localized and relatively separated. Universality of the reionization rate as a function of the scaling parameter α, describing the turning point configurations, is demonstrated. The reionization is discussed within the framework of a nonresonant population-reionization process at intermediate ionic velocities (v∼1 a.u.). The influence of reionization on the population of ionic Rydberg states is expressed in terms of a renormalized neutralization rate. It is demonstrated that the reionization effect significantly changes the population curves for all Rydberg states. The population curves obtained correlate with beam-foil experimental data concerning the S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII ions

  12. High-Speed Transport of Fluid Drops and Solid Particles via Surface Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Lih, Shyh-shiuh

    2012-01-01

    A compact sampling tool mechanism that can operate at various temperatures, and transport and sieve particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains with no moving parts, has been created using traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs) that are emitted by an inter-digital transducer (IDT). The generated waves are driven at about 10 MHz, and it causes powder to move towards the IDT at high speed with different speeds for different sizes of particles, which enables these particles to be sieved. This design is based on the use of SAWs and their propelling effect on powder particles and fluids along the path of the waves. Generally, SAWs are elastic waves propagating in a shallow layer of about one wavelength beneath the surface of a solid substrate. To generate SAWs, a piezoelectric plate is used that is made of LiNbO3 crystal cut along the x-axis with rotation of 127.8 along the y-axis. On this plate are printed pairs of fingerlike electrodes in the form of a grating that are activated by subjecting the gap between the electrodes to electric field. This configuration of a surface wave transmitter is called IDT. The IDT that was used consists of 20 pairs of fingers with 0.4-mm spacing, a total length of 12.5 mm. The surface wave is produced by the nature of piezoelectric material to contract or expand when subjected to an electric field. Driving the IDT to generate wave at high amplitudes provides an actuation mechanism where the surface particles move elliptically, pulling powder particles on the surface toward the wavesource and pushing liquids in the opposite direction. This behavior allows the innovation to separate large particles and fluids that are mixed. Fluids are removed at speed (7.5 to 15 cm/s), enabling this innovation of acting as a bladeless wiper for raindrops. For the windshield design, the electrodes could be made transparent so that they do not disturb the driver or pilot. Multiple IDTs can be synchronized to transport water or powder over larger

  13. Determination of the specific surface energy of oxides and glasses in the solid-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushechkin, S.; Karpman, M.

    2000-01-01

    The production and application of coatings on glasses are used widely in technology. The coatings on glass are used for the regulation of optical, decorative, conducting and other technological and physical properties of glass. In particular, it is important to mention the application of glass fibres for the development of composite materials. However, the specific surface energy of glass and, consequently, its adhesion characteristics are relatively low. The values of these characteristics can be changed by the application of different metallic and nonmetallic coatings is characterised by high surface energy. To produce metallic coatings with the required adhesion strength of glass, it is necessary to have information on the specific surface energy of inorganic glass of different chemical composition. The determination of the relationships between the properties and composition of glass is one of the fundamental problems. At present, a large amount of investigations have been carried out into the investigations of the properties of glass in relation to its composition. However, the problem of establishment of relationships between the properties and composition of glass are especially difficult when examining multicomponent systems (technical glass). It is therefore, in to analyse in each case the properties of not the entire system has a whole but the variation of the properties with temperature of the individual components included in the system, the subsequent application of the additivity principle. The large majority of the glasses represent combinations of oxides of the elements of groups I-III and oxides of the transition metals, forming the mixtures, solid solutions of chemical compounds in the glass production process. Thus, analysis of the characteristics of oxides of the alkali, alkali-earth and transition metals makes it possible to obtain initial data for the evaluation of the surface energy, density, molecular mass of glass containing these oxides

  14. Electrochemical Control of Peptide Self-Organization on Atomically Flat Solid Surfaces: A Case Study with Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takakazu; So, Christopher R; Page, Tamon R; Starkebaum, David; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2018-02-06

    The nanoscale self-organization of biomolecules, such as proteins and peptides, on solid surfaces under controlled conditions is an important issue in establishing functional bio/solid soft interfaces for bioassays, biosensors, and biofuel cells. Electrostatic interaction between proteins and surfaces is one of the most essential parameters in the adsorption and self-assembly of proteins on solid surfaces. Although the adsorption of proteins has been studied with respect to the electrochemical surface potential, the self-assembly of proteins or peptides forming well-organized nanostructures templated by lattice structure of the solid surfaces has not been studied in the relation to the surface potential. In this work, we utilize graphite-binding peptides (GrBPs) selected by the phage display method to investigate the relationship between the electrochemical potential of the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and peptide self-organization forming long-range-ordered structures. Under modulated electrical bias, graphite-binding peptides form various ordered structures, such as well-ordered nanowires, dendritic structures, wavy wires, amorphous (disordered) structures, and islands. A systematic investigation of the correlation between peptide sequence and self-organizational characteristics reveals that the presence of the bias-sensitive amino acid modules in the peptide sequence has a significant effect on not only surface coverage but also on the morphological features of self-assembled structures. Our results show a new method to control peptide self-assembly by means of applied electrochemical bias as well as peptide design-rules for the construction of functional soft bio/solid interfaces that could be integrated in a wide range of practical implementations.

  15. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Imaging for Sensitive Detection of Multiple Pharmaceutical Solid-State Forms and Surface Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Dunja; Saarinen, Jukka; Rojalin, Tatu; Antikainen, Osmo; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J

    2017-11-07

    Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF TERNARY SYSTEM OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG IN VARIOUS HYDROPHILIC CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Shankaraiah MM; Venkatesh JS; Rangaraju D; C.Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to experiment the solid dispersion of poorly water soluble drug fenbendazole as model drug. Fenbendazole is an Antihelmintic drug (BCS class 2).The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution of Fenbendazole by solid dispersions consisting of the drug, a polymeric carrier, Binary and ternary system were prepared by kneading method using hydrophilic polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone K-25 (PVP K25), beta-cyclodextrin (BCD),mannitol and urea. The prepared form...

  17. Selectivity control of photosensitive structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions by changing the rate of surface recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, S A; Andreev, M Y; Lamkin, I A; Solomonov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of surface recombination on spectral sensitivity of structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions. Simulation of the effect for structures based on a p-n junction and a Schottky barrier was carried out. Photodetectors with different rates of surface recombination were fabricated by using different methods of preliminary treatment of the semiconductor surface. We experimentally demonstrated the possibility to control photodetector selectivity by altering the rate of surface recombination. The full width at half maximum was reduced by almost 4 times, while a relatively small decrease in sensitivity at the maximum was observed. (paper)

  18. Rheological and sensory properties of hydrophilic skin protection gels based on polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik-Pióro, Agnieszka; Kurpiewska, Joanna; Kułaszka, Agnieszka

    2018-03-01

    With the current increases in occupational skin diseases, literature data attesting the decreasing efficiency of barrier creams with respect to the manufacturer's declarations and legal regulations granting skin protection gels for employees, research is required to analyse and evaluate the recipes used for hydrophilic skin protection gels based on polyacrylates. This study investigated the rheological properties, pH and sensory perception of hydrophilic barrier gels based on polyacrylates. The acrylic acid derivatives used were good thickeners, and helped to form transparent gels of adequate durability. They could be used to create hydrophilic films on the surface of the skin to protect it against hydrophobic substances. A correlation was shown between the results of the rheological properties and the barrier properties of the gels. This confirms the possibility of monitoring the quality of the gels at the stage of recipe development. Polyacrylates are viable for use in industry to produce hydrophilic barrier creams suitable for skin protection.

  19. Controlling the Accumulation of Water at Oil-Solid Interfaces with Gradient Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Qiaomu; Mei, Ran Andy; Cai, Meirong; Heng, Jerry Y Y; Yang, Zhongqiang

    2017-07-13

    In this work, we demonstrate a strategy to control the accumulation of water in the oil-solid interface using a gradient coating. Gradient chemistry on glass surface is created by vapor diffusion of organosilanes, leading to a range of contact angles from 110 to 20°. Hexadecane is placed on the gradient substrate as an oil layer, forming a "water/hexadecane/gradient solid substrate" sandwich structure. During incubation, water molecules spontaneously migrate through the micrometer-thick oil layer and result in the formation of micrometer-sized water droplets at the oil-solid interface. It turns out that water droplets at more hydrophobic regions tend to be closer to a regular spherical shape, which is attributed to their higher contact angle with the hydrophobic substrate. However, along the gradient from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the water droplets gradually form more irregular shapes, as hydrophilic surfaces pin the edges of droplets to form a distorted morphology. It indicates that more hydrophilic surfaces containing more Si-OH groups lead to a higher electrostatic interaction with water and a higher growth rate of interfacial water droplets. This work provides further insights into the mechanism of spontaneous water accumulation at oil-solid interfaces and assists in the rational design for controlling such interfacial phenomenon.

  20. New pbysical methods used in the study of composition, electronic properties and surface phenomena of solid substances. I. Electronic spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toderean, A; Ilonca, Gh.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of different kinds of interactions between solids and fotonic, respectively electronic and ionic beams, leads to the development of many new, very sensitive, physical methods for the study of solids. This monograph tries to present some of these methods, useful in compositional analysis, in the study of electronic properties and of the surface processes of solid substances. This is done from the point of view both of physical phenomena underlying them and of the information obtainable with such methods. But the whole monograph is limited only to the methods based on the electronic properties of the elements existing in the solid probes studied and this paper presents only those of them in which the detected beam is an electronic one, like: ELS, DAPS, ILS, AES, AEAPS, INS, TSS, XPS and UPS. (authors)

  1. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  2. Detection alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with track solid detectors and with surface barrier detectors: efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.R.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of particle detection by solid track detectors, types of developing and analysis of results are presented. Efficiency measurements of alpha particle detection with Makrofol e and surface barrier detector are made. Detection of Cf-252 fission fragments is shown. (L.C.)

  3. Detection of alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with solid track detectors and surface barrier detector. Efficiency calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.E.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for particle detection by using track solid detector and also types of revealing and result analysis are presented concerned to Cf-252 fission fragments detection. Measurements of alpha particles detection efficiency using Makrofol E and surface barrier detector are performed. (L.C.J.A.)

  4. Hairy foam" : carbon nanofibers grown on solid foam. A fully accessible, high surface area, graphitic catalyst support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenmakers, P.W.A.M.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on solid carbon foam ("Hairy Foam") by catalytic decompn. of ethylene. The effect of nickel loading on fiber diam. and morphol., CNF coverage, and fiber layer thickness is studied using SEM and N2/Kr-physisorption. The surface area

  5. Time-resolved imaging of a compressible air disc under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    When a drop impacts on a solid surface, its rapid deceleration is cushioned by a thin layer of air, which leads to the entrapment of a bubble under its centre. For large impact velocities the lubrication pressure in this air layer becomes large

  6. Surfaces of solids and their interactions with gaseous ambients. An introduction to the theory and experimental methods, with some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgen, P.

    1977-10-01

    The physics and chemistry of ambient gases interacting with solid surfaces are discussed. The necessary theory and experimental techniques and apparatus used are described in detail. Results are presented for two semiconductor materials, silicon and zinc oxide. (W.D.L.)

  7. Optimization of Saccharomyces boulardii production in solid-state fermentation with response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii preparations are promising probiotics and clinical agents for animals and humans. This work focused on optimizing the nutritional conditions for the production of S. boulardii in solid-state fermentation by using classical and statistical methods. In single-factor experiments, the S. boulardii production was significantly increased by the addition of glucoamylase and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were found to be soluble starch and NH4Cl, respectively. The effects of the glucoamylase, soluble starch and NH4Cl on S. boulardii production were evaluated by a three-level three-factor Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM. The maximal yeast count (4.50 ×109CFU/g was obtained under the optimized conditions (198 U/g glucoamylase, 2.37% soluble starch and 0.9% NH4Cl, which was in a good agreement with the predicted value of the model. This study has provided useful information on how to improve the accumulation of yeast cells by RSM.

  8. Structure and adhesive properties of solid solution specimen surfaces based on bismuth tellurides after cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, M.G.; Rybina, L.N.; Dubrovina, A.N.; Abdinov, D.Sh.

    1988-01-01

    Structure and depth of broken layer, occuring at electroerosion cutting along ingot samples axis of Bi 2 Te 3 -Bi 2 Se 3 , Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 systems solid solutions (obtained by methods of directed crystallization and extrusion), and equilibrium contact angle θ, adhesion effort A and contact resistance r c of these crystals contacts with eutectic alloy of Bi-Sn system are investigated. Depth and structure of the broken layer were determined by means of stage-by-stage scouring-etching and X-ray investigation of cutting surface. It is shown, that etching during ∼50 c in large-block material eliminates polycrystalline layer, lattice bendings, resulting in Laue spots asterism, but does not remove their fragmentation and wash-out. Slots wash-out reduces, while fragmentation remains even after continuous etching. Etching with duration from ∼50 c up to 30-40 min practically does not change the character of polycrystalline samples diffraction pattern

  9. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1, entrapment efficiency (Y2 and drug release (Y3. SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV. The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %, Y2 (45-83 % and Y3 (49-86 % were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  10. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Afzal, Samina; Mahmood, Asif; Maheen, Safirah; Afzal, Khurram; Iqbal, Nabila; Andleeb, Mehwish; Abbas, Nazar

    2017-12-20

    For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and drug release (Y3). SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV). The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %), Y2 (45-83 %) and Y3 (49-86 %) were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas) suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  11. Selective solid-phase extraction of Hg(II) using silica gel surface - imprinting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.; Geng, T.; Hu, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent was synthesized by surface-imprinting technique for preconcentration and separation of Hg(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Compared to the traditional solid sorbents and non-imprinted polymer particles, the ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) have higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Hg(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Hg(II) was 29.89 mg g -1 and 11.21 mg g -1 , respectively. The highest selectivity coefficient for Hg(II) in the presence of Zn(II) exceeded 230. The detection limit (3σ) of the method was 0.25 μg L -1 . The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.5% for eight replicate determinations of 10 μg of Hg 2+ in 200 mL-in-volume water sample. The procedure was validated by performing the analysis of the certified river sediment sample (GBW 08603, China) using the standard addition method. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace mercury in Chinese traditional medicine and water samples with satisfactory results. (authors)

  12. Mobile magnetic particles as solid-supports for rapid surface-based bioanalysis in continuous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Sally A; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2009-11-07

    An extremely versatile microfluidic device is demonstrated in which multi-step (bio)chemical procedures can be performed in continuous flow. The system operates by generating several co-laminar flow streams, which contain reagents for specific (bio)reactions across a rectangular reaction chamber. Functionalized magnetic microparticles are employed as mobile solid-supports and are pulled from one side of the reaction chamber to the other by use of an external magnetic field. As the particles traverse the co-laminar reagent streams, binding and washing steps are performed on their surface in one operation in continuous flow. The applicability of the platform was first demonstrated by performing a proof-of-principle binding assay between streptavidin coated magnetic particles and biotin in free solution with a limit of detection of 20 ng mL(-1) of free biotin. The system was then applied to a mouse IgG sandwich immunoassay as a first example of a process involving two binding steps and two washing steps, all performed within 60 s, a fraction of the time required for conventional testing.

  13. On analogy between surface fracture energy and activaiton energy of bonding in solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatinsky, V.F.; Kopylov, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    This article makes an attempt on the basis of experimental data to compare the processes of failure and formation of a bond by comparing the energy consumptions going in one case or another into initial plastic deformation of a certain volume and the further interatomic interaction at the boundary (separation, formation of the bond). Two values characterizing the different processes - the unit failure energy γ and the activation energy for the formation of a bond Q - are compared. It has been established that the energy consumed for plastic deformation and adhesion interaction of atoms on the surface of microprojections and providing the formation of a bond in the solid-phase condition is close to the specific failure energy. The equality of energies consumed for the formation of a bond and failure allows to make use of any of those characteristics to calculate parameters of processes of the formation of a bond and failure. It seems to be convenient in the analysis of the failure process at a temperature when the ductility is high and methodically, the crack propagation is hard to investigate, in particular to estimate the volume of the preliminary failure zone. Having determined γ from the contact interaction data, the strength characteristics can be evaluated. (author)

  14. Probing molecular dynamics of metal borohydrides on the surface of mesoporous scaffolds by multinuclear high resolution solid state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Son-Jong, E-mail: Sonjong@cheme.caltech.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Sook [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); To, Magnus [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lee, Young-Su; Cho, Young Whan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyungkeun; Kim, Chul [Department of Chemistry, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-05

    Graphical abstract: In situ variable temperature multinuclear solid state NMR allows to probe surface wetting, diffusivity, and confinement of metal borohydrides into nanopores. - Abstract: Understanding of surface interactions between borohydride molecules and the surfaces of porous supports have gained growing attention for successful development of nano-confinement engineering. By use of in situ variable temperature (VT) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, molecular mobility changes of LiBH{sub 4} crystalline solid has been investigated in the presence of silica based and carbonaceous surfaces. Spin–spin J-coupling of {sup 1}H–{sup 11}B in LiBH{sub 4} was monitored in series of VT NMR spectra to probe translational mobility of LiBH{sub 4} that appeared to be greatly enhanced upon surface contact. Such enhanced diffusivity was found to be effective in the formation of solid solution and co-confinement with other metal borohydrides. Co-confinement of LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} mixture was demonstrated at temperature as low as 100 °C, much lower than the reported bulk eutectic melting temperature. The discovery adds a novel property of LiBH{sub 4} that has been proven to be highly versatile in many energy related applications.

  15. Effect of argon implantation on solid-state dewetting: control of size and surface density of silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Y; Borowik, Ł; Chevalier, N; Barbé, J-C

    2017-01-27

    Thermally induced solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin films on insulators is a process of prime interest, since it is capable of easily forming nanocrystals. If no particular treatment is performed to the film prior to the solid-state dewetting, it is already known that the size, the shape and the density of nanocrystals is governed by the initial film thickness. In this paper, we report a novel approach to control the size and the surface density of silicon nanocrystals based on an argon-implantation preliminary surface treatment. Using 7.5 nm thin layers of silicon, we show that increasing the implantation dose tends to form smaller silicon nanocrystals with diameter and height lower than 50 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Concomitantly, the surface density is increased by a factor greater than 20, going from 5 μm -2 to values over 100 μm -2 .

  16. Kinetic energy of ions produced with first-, second-, and multi-shot femtosecond laser ablation on a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Matsuo, Yukari; Kawai, Jun; Motobayashi, Tohru; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2007-01-01

    We report that the kinetic energy of samarium (Sm) atom and Sm + ion produced by femtosecond laser ablation of solid samarium is strongly dependent on the number of ablation laser shots in the range from 1 to 10. By ablating the fresh surface (i.e. 1st shot), we find the kinetic energy of both Sm and Sm + ion to be the largest (24 and 250 eV, respectively). Almost 10 times larger kinetic energy of Sm + ion than that of Sm clearly indicates the contribution of Coulomb explosion in the acceleration process. From the second shot, kinetic energies of Sm and Sm + ion are lower than those of the first shot and almost constant (ca. 12 and 80 eV, respectively). This behaviour suggests the change in the nature of the solid surface after femtosecond laser ablation, which can be explained by the amorphization of ablated sample surface reported in recent studies

  17. Surface Acoustic Bloch Oscillations, the Wannier-Stark Ladder, and Landau-Zener Tunneling in a Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-04-01

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry.

  18. Combination of (M)DSC and surface analysis to study the phase behaviour and drug distribution of ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Joke; Scurr, David J; Chen, Xinyong; Amssoms, Katie; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Miscibility of the different compounds that make up a solid dispersion based formulation play a crucial role in the drug release profile and physical stability of the solid dispersion as it defines the phase behaviour of the dispersion. The standard technique to obtain information on phase behaviour of a sample is (modulated) differential scanning calorimetry ((M)DSC). However, for ternary mixtures (M)DSC alone is not sufficient to characterize their phase behaviour and to gain insight into the distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a two-phased polymeric matrix. MDSC was combined with complementary surface analysis techniques, specifically time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three spray-dried model formulations with varying API/PLGA/PVP ratios were analyzed. MDSC, TOF-SIMS and AFM provided insights into differences in drug distribution via the observed surface coverage for 3 differently composed ternary solid dispersions. Combining MDSC and surface analysis rendered additional insights in the composition of mixed phases in complex systems, like ternary solid dispersions.

  19. Monolayer self-assembly at liquid-solid interfaces: chirality and electronic properties of molecules at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amabilino, David B; Gomar-Nadal, Elba; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepcio; Iavicoli, Patrizia; PuigmartI-Luis, Josep; Feyter, Steven De; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M; Mamdouh, Wael; Psychogyiopoulou, Krystallia; Xu Hong; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Linares, Mathieu; Minoia, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of supramolecular assemblies at the boundary between solids and liquids is a process which encompasses a variety of systems with diverse characteristics: chemisorbed systems in which very strong and weakly reversible bonds govern the assembly and physisorbed aggregates which are dynamic thanks to the weaker interactions between adsorbate and surface. Here we review the interest and advances in the study of chiral systems at the liquid-solid interface, and also the application of this configuration for the study of systems of interest in molecular electronics, self-assembled from the bottom up

  20. Advanced LWIR hyperspectral sensor for on-the-move proximal detection of liquid/solid contaminants on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Jay P.; Dixon, John; Dupuis, Julia R.; Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    Sensor technologies capable of detecting low vapor pressure liquid surface contaminants, as well as solids, in a noncontact fashion while on-the-move continues to be an important need for the U.S. Army. In this paper, we discuss the development of a long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-10.5 μm) spatial heterodyne spectrometer coupled with an LWIR illuminator and an automated detection algorithm for detection of surface contaminants from a moving vehicle. The system is designed to detect surface contaminants by repetitively collecting LWIR reflectance spectra of the ground. Detection and identification of surface contaminants is based on spectral correlation of the measured LWIR ground reflectance spectra with high fidelity library spectra and the system's cumulative binary detection response from the sampled ground. We present the concepts of the detection algorithm through a discussion of the system signal model. In addition, we present reflectance spectra of surfaces contaminated with a liquid CWA simulant, triethyl phosphate (TEP), and a solid simulant, acetaminophen acquired while the sensor was stationary and on-the-move. Surfaces included CARC painted steel, asphalt, concrete, and sand. The data collected was analyzed to determine the probability of detecting 800 μm diameter contaminant particles at a 0.5 g/m2 areal density with the SHSCAD traversing a surface.

  1. Tratamento de superfície de tubos de poliamida 11 com chama para deposição de revestimento hidrofílico biomédico Flame surface treatment of polyamide 11 tubes for the deposition of biomedical hydrophilic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar F. M. Martins

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O processo para obtenção de uma camada polimérica hidrofílica sobre um componente polimérico pode ser basicamente dividido em: tratamento de superfície do substrato, aplicação e cura do revestimento. O tratamento de superfície se faz necessário em função da grande diferença de polaridade comumente apresentada entre os materiais que compõem este conjunto e da baixa energia livre de superfície inerente aos principais materiais utilizados como substrato, fatores estes que dificultam a adesão entre eles. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a influência da técnica de tratamento de superfície através de exposição à chama sobre a tentativa de aumento da energia livre de superfície de tubos de poliamida 11. Amostras foram submetidas ao tratamento durante 5, 10, 20, 30 e 60 segundos, e posteriormente caracterizadas por goniometria, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, espectroscopia de infravermelho e resistência ao risco da camada depositada. Amostras não tratadas foram analisadas como parâmetro de controle das modificações. Os resultados mostraram um aumento da molhabilidade e rugosidade da superfície, além de uma melhoria na adesão da camada hidrofílica após o tratamento.The process of obtaining a hydrophilic polymer coating on a polymeric component or product can be basically divided into: the substrate surface treatment, the coating application and the cross-linking. The substrate surface treatment is crucial due to the possible large difference in polarity between the polymers and the substrate materials, which commonly have low free surface energy and may severely hamper adhesion. This study evaluated the influence of flame surface treatment for the attempt of increasing the free energy surface of polyamide 11 tubes. Samples were submitted to treatment for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, and subsequently characterized by goniometry, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and scratch resistance of the deposited

  2. Solid-Core, Gas-Cooled Reactor for Space and Surface Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The solid-core, gas-cooled, Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) reactor is developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures. The Mo-14%Re reactor core is loaded with uranium nitride fuel in enclosed cavities, cooled by He-30%Xe, and sized to provide 550 kWth for seven years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector disassembles upon impact on water or soil. In addition to decreasing the reactor and shadow shield mass, Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials added to the reactor core ensure that it remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident. With a 0.1 mm thick boron carbide coating on the outside surface of the core block and 0.25 mm thick iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks, the reflector outer diameter is 43.5 cm and the combined reactor and shadow shield mass is 935.1 kg. With 12.5 atom% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide intersititial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating, the S and 4 reactor has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, and a total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 atom% europium-151 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter europium-151 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick europium-151 sesquioxide coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respectively

  3. The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion of solid surfaces for systems with and without liquid lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samoilov, V. N.; Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Persson, B. N. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics results for the interaction between two solid elastic walls during pull-off for systems with and without octane (C8H18) lubricant. We used two types of substrate-flat and corrugated-and varied the lubricant coverage from similar to1/8 to similar to4 ML (monolayers...

  4. Phase diagram of supercooled water confined to hydrophilic nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2012-07-01

    We present a phase diagram for water confined to cylindrical silica nanopores in terms of pressure, temperature, and pore radius. The confining cylindrical wall is hydrophilic and disordered, which has a destabilizing effect on ordered water structure. The phase diagram for this class of systems is derived from general arguments, with parameters taken from experimental observations and computer simulations and with assumptions tested by computer simulation. Phase space divides into three regions: a single liquid, a crystal-like solid, and glass. For large pores, radii exceeding 1 nm, water exhibits liquid and crystal-like behaviors, with abrupt crossovers between these regimes. For small pore radii, crystal-like behavior is unstable and water remains amorphous for all non-zero temperatures. At low enough temperatures, these states are glasses. Several experimental results for supercooled water can be understood in terms of the phase diagram we present.

  5. Modelling the influence of the gas to melt ratio on the fraction solid of the surface in spray formed billets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini

    2006-01-01

    the atomisation stage taking thermal coupling into consideration and the deposition of the droplets at the surface of the billet taking geometrical aspects such as shading into account. The coupling between these two models is accomplished by ensuring that the total droplet size distribution of the spray......In this paper, the relationship between the Gas to Melt Ratio (GMR) and the solid fraction of an evolving billet surface is investigated numerically. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed integrated procedure for modelling the entire spray forming process. This model includes...... is the summation of “local” droplet size distributions along the r-axis of the spray cone. The criterion for a successful process has been a predefined process window characterised by a desired solid fraction range at a certain distance from the atomizer. Inside this process window, the gas and melt flows have...

  6. Ultralow Friction with Hydrophilic Polymer Brushes in Water as Segregated from Silicone Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication is essential to minimize damage to underlying material and ensure low energy dissipation in biological and man-made mechanical sys- tems. Surface grafting of hydrophilic polymer brushes is a powerful means to render materials that are slippery in aqueous environments. However, presently......, as the hydrophilic polymer brushes are generated from an internal source of the material, excellent grafting stability and restoring capabilities are revealed even under harsh tribostress. The film can easily be applied to elastomers, metals, and ceramic substrates by spin- or drip-coating. Obtained sliding fric......- tion coefficients ( μ ) are 0.001–0.05 for soft contacts depending on substrate, load, counter surface, pH, and salinity. Between the two types of hydrophilic polymer chains, PAA shows far superior lubricity compared to PEG, which is rationalized by the larger reduction of total free energy...

  7. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes at the solid surface; Analyse quantitative de l'hydrogene et de ses isotopes a la surface des solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI), Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    Because of the importance of the effects bound to the hydrogen presence in materials it is particularly important to determine with accuracy the surface and volume distribution of hydrogen. Meanwhile the electronic structure of the hydrogen (one electron) do not allow to use many characterization techniques as the electrons spectroscopies or the X micro analysis. The author presents other possible techniques. (A.L.B.)

  8. Record Charge Carrier Diffusion Length in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids via Mutual Dot-To-Dot Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Graham H; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-06-03

    Through a combination of chemical and mutual dot-to-dot surface passivation, high-quality colloidal quantum dot solids are fabricated. The joint passivation techniques lead to a record diffusion length for colloidal quantum dots of 230 ± 20 nm. The technique is applied to create thick photovoltaic devices that exhibit high current density without losing fill factor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effects of biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on the hydrophobicity of solid surfaces and infection behaviours of plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Koitabashi, M; Nakamura, J; Fukuoka, T; Sakai, H; Abe, M; Kitamoto, D; Kitamoto, H

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) on the hydrophobicity of solid surfaces, their suppressive activity against the early infection behaviours of several phytopathogenic fungal conidia, and their suppressive activity against disease occurrences on fungal host plant leaves. The changes in the hydrophobicity of plastic film surfaces resulting from treatments with MEL solutions (MEL-A, MEL-B, MEL-C and isoMEL-B) and synthetic surfactant solutions were evaluated based on the changes in contact angles of water droplets placed on the surfaces. The droplet angles on surfaces treated with MELs were verified to decrease within 100 s after placement, with contact angles similar to those observed on Tween 20-treated surfaces, indicating decreases in surface hydrophobicity after MEL treatments. Next, conidial germination, germ tube elongation and the formation of appressorium of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Colletotrichum dematium, Glomerella cingulata and Magnaporthe grisea were evaluated on plastic surfaces that were pretreated with surfactant solutions. On the surfaces of MEL-treated plastic film, inhibition of conidial germination, germ tube elongation, and suppression of appressoria formation tended to be observed, although the level of effect was dependent on the combination of fungal species and type of MEL. Inoculation tests revealed that the powdery mildew symptom caused by B. graminis f. sp. tritici was significantly suppressed on wheat leaf segments treated with MELs. MELs exhibited superior abilities in reducing the hydrophobicity of solid surfaces, and have the potential to suppress powdery mildew in wheat plants, presumably due to the inhibition of conidial germination. This study provides significant evidence of the potential for MELs to be used as novel agricultural chemical pesticides. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Development of a dc low pressure D- surface-conversion source using a 10-cm-diameter solid barium converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.W.; Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; deVries, G.J.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Lietzke, A.F.; Steele, W.F.; van Os, C.F.A.; Wells, R.P.; Williams, M.D.

    1991-09-01

    A D - surface-conversion source using a solid barium converter is designed for steady-state operation to produce 200 mA of D - . A similar ion source of twice the size as the one discussed here will meet the requirements set by the present US-ITER neutral beam injector design. Among the possible types of ion sources being considered for the US-ITER neutral beam design, the barium converter surface-conversion source is the only kind that does not use cesium in the discharge. This absence of cesium will minimize the number of accelerator breakdowns. 15 refs., 4 figs

  11. Uncertainty in solid precipitation and snow depth prediction for Siberia using the Noah and Noah-MP land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Zupanski, Milija

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the uncertainties associated with land surface processes in an ensemble predication context. Specifically, we compare the uncertainties produced by a coupled atmosphere-land modeling system with two different land surface models, the Noah- MP land surface model (LSM) and the Noah LSM, by using the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF) data assimilation system as a platform for ensemble prediction. We carried out 24-hour prediction simulations in Siberia with 32 ensemble members beginning at 00:00 UTC on 5 March 2013. We then compared the model prediction uncertainty of snow depth and solid precipitation with observation-based research products and evaluated the standard deviation of the ensemble spread. The prediction skill and ensemble spread exhibited high positive correlation for both LSMs, indicating a realistic uncertainty estimation. The inclusion of a multiple snowlayer model in the Noah-MP LSM was beneficial for reducing the uncertainties of snow depth and snow depth change compared to the Noah LSM, but the uncertainty in daily solid precipitation showed minimal difference between the two LSMs. The impact of LSM choice in reducing temperature uncertainty was limited to surface layers of the atmosphere. In summary, we found that the more sophisticated Noah-MP LSM reduces uncertainties associated with land surface processes compared to the Noah LSM. Thus, using prediction models with improved skill implies improved predictability and greater certainty of prediction.

  12. Formation of the prebiotic molecule NH2CHO on astronomical amorphous solid water surfaces: accurate tunneling rate calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Kästner, Johannes

    2016-10-26

    Investigating how formamide forms in the interstellar medium is a hot topic in astrochemistry, which can contribute to our understanding of the origin of life on Earth. We have constructed a QM/MM model to simulate the hydrogenation of isocyanic acid on amorphous solid water surfaces to form formamide. The binding energy of HNCO on the ASW surface varies significantly between different binding sites, we found values between ∼0 and 100 kJ mol -1 . The barrier for the hydrogenation reaction is almost independent of the binding energy, though. We calculated tunneling rate constants of H + HNCO → NH 2 CO at temperatures down to 103 K combining QM/MM with instanton theory. Tunneling dominates the reaction at such low temperatures. The tunneling reaction is hardly accelerated by the amorphous solid water surface compared to the gas phase for this system, even though the activation energy of the surface reaction is lower than the one of the gas-phase reaction. Both the height and width of the barrier affect the tunneling rate in practice. Strong kinetic isotope effects were observed by comparing to rate constants of D + HNCO → NHDCO. At 103 K we found a KIE of 231 on the surface and 146 in the gas phase. Furthermore, we investigated the gas-phase reaction NH 2 + H 2 CO → NH 2 CHO + H and found it unlikely to occur at cryogenic temperatures. The data of our tunneling rate constants are expected to significantly influence astrochemical models.

  13. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a water...

  14. Evaluation of a solid-phase RIA technique and a solid-phase ELISA technique for demonstrating hepatitis-B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranckx, R.; Cole, J.; Peetermans, M.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivities of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA), a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and a haemagglutination test (RPHA) for the detection of the hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) were compared (1) by screening a panel of 300 sera (97 positives and 203 negatives), and (2) by titrating serial dilutions of 10 positive sera. Ninety-seven sera were positive by RIA, 95% were detected by ELISA and 81% were detected by RPHA. In the serial dilutions, the average end-points of the titrations were 0.005ng/ml for RIA, 0.01ng/ml for ELISA and 0.04 ng/ml for RPHA. It can be concluded that the sensitivity of the ELISA test is intermediate between that of the RIA and the RPHA. The ELISA and the RPHA tests seem to be a little more sensitive for the detection of subtype ay than for the detection of subtype ad. (author)

  15. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  16. On the hydrophilicity of electrodes for capacitive energy extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai; Kong, Xian; Tsinghua University, Beijing; Liu, Honglai; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Capmix technique for energy extraction is based on the cyclic expansion of electrical double layers to harvest dissipative energy arising from the salinity difference between freshwater and seawater. Its optimal performance requires a careful selection of the electrical potentials for the charging and discharging processes, which must be matched with the pore characteristics of the electrode materials. While a number of recent studies have examined the effects of the electrode pore size and geometry on the capacitive energy extraction processes, there is little knowledge on how the surface properties of the electrodes affect the thermodynamic efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Capmix processes using the classical density functional theory for a realistic model of electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions allow us to identify optimal operation parameters for capacitive energy extraction with porous electrodes of different surface hydrophobicity. Finally, in agreement with recent experiments, we find that the thermodynamic efficiency can be much improved by using most hydrophilic electrodes.

  17. Atomic force microscopy imaging of polyurethane nanoparticles onto different solid substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddin Fritzen-Garcia, Mauricia; Giehl Zanetti-Ramos, Betina; Schweitzer de Oliveira, Cristian; Soldi, Valdir; Avelino Pasa, Andre; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique suited for characterizing nanoparticles on solid surfaces because it offers the capability of 3D visualization and quantitative information about the topography of the samples. In the present work, contact-mode AFM has been applied to imaging polyurethane nanoparticles formulated from a natural triol and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The colloidal polymeric system was deposited on mica, hydrophilic and hydrophobic silicon solid substrates to evaluate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Our data showed that the nanoparticles were better distributed on mica and hydrophilic silicon. From the analysis of line-scan profiles we obtained different values for the ratio between the diameter and the height of the nanoparticles, indicating that the shape of the particles depends on the interaction between the nanoparticles and the substrate

  18. Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on the Surface Roughness of Solid State Recycled Aluminum Alloy 6061 Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state recycling through hot extrusion is a promising technique to recycle machining chips without remelting. Furthermore, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP technique coupled with the extruded recycled billet is introduced to enhance the mechanical properties of recycled samples. In this paper, the surface roughness of solid state recycled aluminum alloy 6061 turning chips was investigated. Aluminum chips were cold compacted and hot extruded under an extrusion ratio (ER of 5.2 at an extrusion temperature (ET of 425°C. In order to improve the properties of the extruded samples, they were subjected to ECAP up to three passes at room temperature using an ECAP die with a channel die angle (Φ of 90°. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz of the processed recycled billets machined by turning was investigated. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness of the machined specimens for four materials conditions, namely, extruded billet and postextrusion ECAP processed billets to one, two, and three passes. Quadratic models were developed to relate the machining parameters to surface roughness, and a multiobjective optimization scheme was conducted to maximize material removal rate while maintaining the roughness below a preset practical value.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of the hydrophobin SC3 at a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Jiang; Robillard, George T.; Mark, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrophobins are small (similar to 100 aa) proteins that have an important role in the growth and development of mycelial fungi. They are surface active and, after secretion by the fungi, self-assemble into amphipathic membranes at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces, reversing the hydrophobicity of

  20. Surface Hydrophilicity-Dependent Water Adsorption on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers of C7-CH3 and C7-COOH Residues. A Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szöri, M.; Roeselová, Martina; Jedlovszky, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 39 (2011), s. 19165-19177 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09064; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : molecular simulation * wetting * soft organic surfaces Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.805, year: 2011

  1. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Gay-Perret

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field.

  2. Recovery of phosphonate surface contaminants from glass using a simple vacuum extractor with a solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Scott, Jill R.; Rae, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A field vacuum extractor (FVE) nondestructively samples surface-adsorbed organics. → The FVE creates a modest vacuum over the surface, volatilizing surface organics. → A solid phase microextraction fiber (SPME) collects volatilized organics. → The SPME is easily analyzed using GC/MS. → The FVE enables collection chemical signatures from hard-to-sample surfaces. - Abstract: Recovery of chemical contaminants from fixed surfaces for analysis can be challenging, particularly if it is not possible to acquire a solid sample to be taken to the laboratory. A simple device is described that collects semi-volatile organic compounds from fixed surfaces by creating an enclosed volume over the surface, then generating a modest vacuum. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is then inserted into the evacuated volume where it functions to sorb volatilized organic contaminants. The device is based on a syringe modified with a seal that is used to create the vacuum, with a perforable plunger through which the SPME fiber is inserted. The reduced pressure speeds partitioning of the semi-volatile compounds into the gas phase and reduces the boundary layer around the SPME fiber, which enables a fraction of the volatilized organics to partition into the SPME fiber. After sample collection, the SPME fiber is analyzed using conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The methodology has been used to collect organophosphorus compounds from glass surfaces, to provide a simple test for the functionality of the devices. Thirty minute sampling times (ΔT vac ) resulted in fractional recovery efficiencies that ranged from 10 -3 to >10 -2 , and in absolute terms, collection of low nanograms was demonstrated. Fractional recovery values were positively correlated to the vapor pressure of the compounds being sampled. Fractional recovery also increased with increasing ΔT vac and displayed a roughly logarithmic profile, indicating that an

  3. Effects of membrane composition on release of model hydrophilic compound from osmotic delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, N; Ozalp, Y; Ozkan, Y

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effects of surface-active agents in different types and concentrations, added into the coating solution, on release of model hydrophilic compound have been examined. For this purpose, the tablets, prepared with the use of methylene blue as a model substance, were coated by spray coating technique with cellulose acetate solution containing polyethylene glycol 400 as a plasticizer. In addition, cetylpyridinium chloride as cationic surface-active agent and sodium lauryl sulphate as anionic surface-active agent were added into coating solution in different concentrations. After creating a delivery orifice by a microdrill on the tablets, release of model hydrophilic compound was tested by the USP paddle method. The data obtained were evaluated according to the different kinetics and the mechanism of release from the preparations was examined. The surface properties of the coating material were investigated by scanning electron microscope taken before and after the contact with medium fluid, as well as the mechanical properties by tensile tests. In conclusion, it has been found that the cationic surface active agent, cetylpyridinium chloride reduced the lag time, observed during the release of model hydrophilic compound, as a result of its enhancing effect on wettability of tablets by reducing the contact angle between the medium fluid and the coating material. On the other hand, the anionic surface active agent, sodium lauryl sulphate has been inactivated possibly due to the interaction with model hydrophilic compound that has cationic properties and/or substances contained in membrane composition; thus, the lag time has not decreased and furthermore, a significant decrease in the delivery rate of model hydrophilic compound has been observed.

  4. Direct simulation of liquid–gas–solid flow with a free surface lattice Boltzmann method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogner, S.P.M.; Harting, J.D.P.; Rüde, U.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of liquid–gas–solid flows is uncommon due to the considerable computational cost. As the grid spacing is determined by the smallest involved length scale, large grid sizes become necessary–in particular, if the bubble–particle aspect ratio is on the order of 10 or larger.

  5. Research on Hydrophilic Nature of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on Polysulfone Membrane Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, L. G.; Vlad, M.; Baltă, Ş.

    2018-06-01

    The membranes used in wastewater filtration are obtained from polymers, this technique is widely applied because of the small installations and low costs as against conventional systems. The polymeric membranes have high mechanical strength and flexibility, but is a challenge to improve in the same time the permeability and retention capacity of the membranes. A process that can improve the membrane properties is the addition of additives to the polymer solution, resulting in noticeable changes in the resulting membrane structure. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a highly hydrophilic polymer, used as a food additive that acts as stabilizer and thickening agent, which brings improvements in membrane properties. This study analyses the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the casting solution of the prepared membranes. The polymer solution was prepared from polysulfone (PSf) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at different concentrations. The membranes were obtained by phase inversion method. The PSf/PVP/NMP membranes with different concentrations were characterized by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, morphological structure and permeation tests. The results show that the hydrophilic nature of PVP improve the pure water flux, the contact angle and exhibit a higher anti-fouling property.

  6. Lennard–Jones interactions between nano-rod like particles at an arbitrary orientation and an infinite flat solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamady, Saleem; Hijazi, Abbas; Atwi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    An analytical expression for the Lennard–Jones interaction between nano-rods and an infinite flat solid surface is presented. Starting from the elementary Lennard–Jones interaction between two particles, and taking the shape of the nano-rod to be a filled cylinder of radius r and length L, the obtained expression was valid for arbitrary orientation of the nano-rod at variable elevation from the surface. By differentiating the potential with respect to the orientation and elevation we were able to extract the torque and force, respectively, exerted on the nano-rods when approaching a flat surface. The derivation is subjected to the assumption of additivity and approximated for some limiting case

  7. Size matters: influence of the size of nanoparticles on their interactions with ligands immobilized on the solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2010-03-16

    The correlation between the size of biotinylated nanoparticles and their affinity in relation to interactions with the solid surface was investigated. The silica particles with a diameter of 50-200 nm containing amino groups on the surface were labeled with different quantities of biotin. The affinity properties of biotinylated nanoparticles were studied using a Biacore 3000 instrument equipped with a streptavidin-coated sensor chip (SA chip). It was shown that the increase in the particle size from 50 to 200 nm reduced the affinity (K(D)) of biotin-streptavidin interactions from 1.2 x 10(-12) to 1.2 x 10(-10) M. It was found that the particles with higher concentrations of immobilized biotin on particle surfaces demonstrated stronger binding with streptavidin.

  8. Intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles fabricated via alkaline hydrolysis of crosslinked polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Crosslinked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanolatex, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 84 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.06, was successfully synthesized at a high monomer concentration and low surfactant content via a modified emulsion polymerization. Three measurements were adopted to control the nucleation and growth processes. Taking advantage of the chemical activity of nitrile groups, intelligent hydrophilic polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated via simple alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the crosslinked PAN nanolatex. Dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and TEM observations were used to monitor the changes in the composition, structure, and morphology of the nanoparticles during the hydrolysis process. The sizes, chemical composition, morphology, and pH-responsive behavior of the intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles could be adjusted by simply changing the hydrolysis time. As the hydrolysis was prolonged, the following nanoparticles could be obtained, crosslinked PAN nanoparticles with hydrophilic surfaces, amphiphilic nanoparticles with a hydrophobic PAN core and a hydrophilic polymeric shell composed of acrylamide and acrylic acid units, or carboxylic polyacrylamide nanoparticles. These modified nanoparticles all display good hydrophilicity, good biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, as well as carboxyl functional groups, and thus are ideal candidates for various biomedical applications

  9. Intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles fabricated via alkaline hydrolysis of crosslinked polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: zhyw@dhu.edu.cn; Wu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J. [Donghua University, State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Chemical Fibers Research Institute (China)

    2013-07-15

    Crosslinked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanolatex, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 84 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.06, was successfully synthesized at a high monomer concentration and low surfactant content via a modified emulsion polymerization. Three measurements were adopted to control the nucleation and growth processes. Taking advantage of the chemical activity of nitrile groups, intelligent hydrophilic polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated via simple alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the crosslinked PAN nanolatex. Dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and TEM observations were used to monitor the changes in the composition, structure, and morphology of the nanoparticles during the hydrolysis process. The sizes, chemical composition, morphology, and pH-responsive behavior of the intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles could be adjusted by simply changing the hydrolysis time. As the hydrolysis was prolonged, the following nanoparticles could be obtained, crosslinked PAN nanoparticles with hydrophilic surfaces, amphiphilic nanoparticles with a hydrophobic PAN core and a hydrophilic polymeric shell composed of acrylamide and acrylic acid units, or carboxylic polyacrylamide nanoparticles. These modified nanoparticles all display good hydrophilicity, good biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, as well as carboxyl functional groups, and thus are ideal candidates for various biomedical applications.

  10. Ion desorption phenomena induced by various types of multiply charged projectiles and by photons on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyec, Y. Le.

    1991-01-01

    Ion desorption experiments are described in two regions of primary ion velocities corresponding to two distinct classes of interaction mechanism. At low speeds, atomic collisions take place, at higher speeds than the electron velocity, electronic collisions occur. Experiments with fast ions above 0.2 MeV/u are described, using 32 S and 235 U ions obtained in a cyclotron and a linear accelerator. Emission of H + ions from solid surfaces is measured and analyzed, and applied to the determination of the charge state of a fast ion in a solid. Experiments using single atomic and polyatomic, keV ions, and organic and CsI cluster ions as projectiles are also presented. Finally, laser desorption is discussed. (R.P.) 81 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Refractive-index determination of solids from first- and second-order critical diffraction angles of periodic surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichner, Christoph; Kador, Lothar; Schedl, Andreas E.; Neuber, Christian; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard ® 184) and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025 ∘ results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ⋅ 10 −4 . Information on the sample thickness is not required

  12. Development of hydrophilic dental wax without surfactant using a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Dental wax (DW), a low-melting and high-molecular-weight organic mixture, is widely used in dentistry for forming moulds of teeth. Hydrophilicity is an important property for DW, as a wet dental investment is used to surround the wax before wax burnout is performed. However, recent attempts to improve the hydrophilicity of DW using a surfactant have resulted in the reduced mechanical properties of the dental investment, leading to the failure of the dental restoration. This study applied a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) for DW surface treatment and investigated its effect on both DW hydrophilicity and the dental investment's mechanical properties. The results showed that the application of the AAPPJ significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the DW, and that the results were similar to that of cleaner-treated DW using commercially available products with surfactant. A surface chemical analysis indicated that the improvement of hydrophilicity was related to an increase in the number of oxygen-related bonds on the DW surface following the removal of carbon hydrate in both AAPPJ and cleaner-treated DW. However, cleaner treatment compromised the mechanical property of the dental investment when the dental investment was in contact with the treated DW, while the AAPPJ treatment did not. Therefore, the use of AAPPJ to treat DW is a promising method for accurate dental restoration, as it induces an improvement in hydrophilicity without harming the dental investment. (paper)

  13. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  14. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Biocompatibility of Dental Zirconia Ceramics by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chou Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties play a critical role in influencing cell responses to a biomaterial. The objectives of this study were (1 to characterize changes in surface properties of zirconia (ZrO2 ceramic after oxygen plasma treatment; and (2 to determine the effect of such changes on biological responses of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63. The results indicated that the surface morphology was not changed by oxygen plasma treatment. In contrast, oxygen plasma treatment to ZrO2 not only resulted in an increase in hydrophilicity, but also it retained surface hydrophilicity after 5-min treatment time. More importantly, surface properties of ZrO2 modified by oxygen plasma treatment were beneficial for cell growth, whereas the surface roughness of the materials did not have a significant efficacy. It is concluded that oxygen plasma treatment was certified to be effective in modifying the surface state of ZrO2 and has the potential in the creation and maintenance of hydrophilic surfaces and the enhancement of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  15. Multiple atomic scale solid surface interconnects for atom circuits and molecule logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachim, C; Martrou, D; Gauthier, S; Rezeq, M; Troadec, C; Jie Deng; Chandrasekhar, N

    2010-01-01

    The scientific and technical challenges involved in building the planar electrical connection of an atomic scale circuit to N electrodes (N > 2) are discussed. The practical, laboratory scale approach explored today to assemble a multi-access atomic scale precision interconnection machine is presented. Depending on the surface electronic properties of the targeted substrates, two types of machines are considered: on moderate surface band gap materials, scanning tunneling microscopy can be combined with scanning electron microscopy to provide an efficient navigation system, while on wide surface band gap materials, atomic force microscopy can be used in conjunction with optical microscopy. The size of the planar part of the circuit should be minimized on moderate band gap surfaces to avoid current leakage, while this requirement does not apply to wide band gap surfaces. These constraints impose different methods of connection, which are thoroughly discussed, in particular regarding the recent progress in single atom and molecule manipulations on a surface.

  16. Investigation of inelastic scattering of ultracold neutrons with small energy transfer at solid state surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagin, E.V.; Muzychka, A.Yu.; Nekhaev, G.V.; Strelkov, A.V.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Nesvizhevskij, V.V.; Tal'daev, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of neutrons with small energy transfer of ∼10 -7 eV was investigated using gravitational UCN spectrometer. The probability of such a process at stainless steel and beryllium surfaces was measured. It was also estimated at copper surface. The measurement showed that the detected flux of neutrons scattered at beryllium and copper surfaces is ∼ 2 times higher at room temperature compared to that at the liquid nitrogen temperature. (author)

  17. Surfaces Relief Profilometry of Solid Objects by Sweeping of a Laser Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Mendoza-Villegas, Paloma G.; Ojeda-González, Daniel; Almazán-Cuellar, Saúl; Corral-Martínez, Luis F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser system for the digitalization and three-dimensional reconstruction of solid objects. The first step consists of applying on the object a linear sweeping of a thin laser line using a laser diode with 635 nm and 5 mW, a motorized stage for linear displacement of 138 mm, and a controller with RS232 interface. The next step consists of capturing and transmitting the image of the deformed line on the object to a computer. For this step was used a monochrome camera CCD, and an image acquisition board. The last step consists of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the solid object. All the corresponding algorithms were implemented using the programming language LabVIEW.

  18. Impact of Beads and Drops on a Repellent Solid Surface: A Unified Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S.; Fromental, J.-M.; Mora, S.; Phou, Ty; Ramos, L.; Ligoure, C.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate freely expanding sheets formed by ultrasoft gel beads, and liquid and viscoelastic drops, produced by the impact of the bead or drop on a silicon wafer covered with a thin layer of liquid nitrogen that suppresses viscous dissipation thanks to an inverse Leidenfrost effect. Our experiments show a unified behavior for the impact dynamics that holds for solids, liquids, and viscoelastic fluids and that we rationalize by properly taking into account elastocapillary effects. In this framework, the classical impact dynamics of solids and liquids, as far as viscous dissipation is negligible, appears as the asymptotic limits of a universal theoretical description. A novel material-dependent characteristic velocity that includes both capillary and bulk elasticity emerges from this unified description of the physics of impact.

  19. Surface Self-Assembly and Properties of Monolayers Formed by Reverse Poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) Triblock Copolymers with Lengthy Hydrophilic Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villar-Alvarez, Eva; Freire, Adriana Cambón; Blanco, Mateo

    2017-01-01

    for the former at low surface transfer pressures, evolving to continent-like structures first and then dewetted structures as the transfer pressure increases. Conversely, for BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21 copolymers micelle formation is noted at lower transfer pressures than the shortest counterparts......, and the formed micelles appear to be elongated, interconnected and with larger thickness. As the transfer pressure increases, attractive micellar interactions are enhanced and then-lead to formation of a dense network of interconnected micelles, first followed by an evolvement to continent-like and dewetted...

  20. Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Joel Z; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-12-01

    The topography of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using topography parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of topography parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface topography in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d(2)/d(3)) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d(1)/d(3)). This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the topography of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that absolute rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface topography alone. To identify independent sets of topography parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) and computed a suite of common topography parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E[s], can serve to uniquely determine d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D>1.5 (which corresponds to D>2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface topography becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface topography are not independent and any single topography parameter contains all of the available mechanistic

  1. Characterizing the recovery of a solid surface after tungsten nano-tendril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G. M.; van Eden, G. G.; Kesler, L. A.; De Temmerman, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Woller, K. B.

    2015-08-01

    Recovery of a flat tungsten surface from a nano-tendril surface is attempted through three techniques; a mechanical wipe, a 1673 K annealing, and laser-induced thermal transients. Results were determined through SEM imaging and elastic recoil detection to assess the helium content in the surface. The mechanical wipe leaves a ∼0.5 μm deep layer of nano-tendrils on the surface post-wipe regardless of the initial nano-tendril layer depth. Laser-induced thermal transients only significantly impact the surface morphology at heat loads of 35.2 MJ/m2 s1/2 or above, however a fully flat or recovered surface was not achieved for 100 transients at this heat load despite reducing the helium content by a factor of ∼7. A 1673 K annealing removes all detectable levels of helium but sub-surface voids/bubbles remain intact. The surface is recovered to a nearly flat state with only some remnants of nano-tendrils re-integrating into the surface remaining.

  2. Characterizing the recovery of a solid surface after tungsten nano-tendril formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, G.M.; Eden, G.G. van; Kesler, L.A.; De Temmerman, G.; Whyte, D.G.; Woller, K.B.

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of a flat tungsten surface from a nano-tendril surface is attempted through three techniques; a mechanical wipe, a 1673 K annealing, and laser-induced thermal transients. Results were determined through SEM imaging and elastic recoil detection to assess the helium content in the surface. The mechanical wipe leaves a ∼0.5 μm deep layer of nano-tendrils on the surface post-wipe regardless of the initial nano-tendril layer depth. Laser-induced thermal transients only significantly impact the surface morphology at heat loads of 35.2 MJ/m 2 s 1/2 or above, however a fully flat or recovered surface was not achieved for 100 transients at this heat load despite reducing the helium content by a factor of ∼7. A 1673 K annealing removes all detectable levels of helium but sub-surface voids/bubbles remain intact. The surface is recovered to a nearly flat state with only some remnants of nano-tendrils re-integrating into the surface remaining

  3. Characterizing the recovery of a solid surface after tungsten nano-tendril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, G.M., E-mail: wright@psfc.mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Eden, G.G. van [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kesler, L.A. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Whyte, D.G.; Woller, K.B. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Recovery of a flat tungsten surface from a nano-tendril surface is attempted through three techniques; a mechanical wipe, a 1673 K annealing, and laser-induced thermal transients. Results were determined through SEM imaging and elastic recoil detection to assess the helium content in the surface. The mechanical wipe leaves a ∼0.5 μm deep layer of nano-tendrils on the surface post-wipe regardless of the initial nano-tendril layer depth. Laser-induced thermal transients only significantly impact the surface morphology at heat loads of 35.2 MJ/m{sup 2} s{sup 1/2} or above, however a fully flat or recovered surface was not achieved for 100 transients at this heat load despite reducing the helium content by a factor of ∼7. A 1673 K annealing removes all detectable levels of helium but sub-surface voids/bubbles remain intact. The surface is recovered to a nearly flat state with only some remnants of nano-tendrils re-integrating into the surface remaining.

  4. Determination of Optimal Parameters for Diffusion Bonding of Semi-Solid Casting Aluminium Alloy by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewploy Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid state welding techniques available are prone to gas porosity problems. To avoid this solid state bonding is usually an alternative of preference. Among solid state bonding techniques, diffusion bonding is often employed in aluminium alloy automotive parts welding in order to enhance their mechanical properties. However, there has been no standard procedure nor has there been any definitive criterion for judicious welding parameters setting. It is thus a matter of importance to find the set of optimal parameters for effective diffusion bonding. This work proposes the use of response surface methodology in determining such a set of optimal parameters. Response surface methodology is more efficient in dealing with complex process compared with other techniques available. There are two variations of response surface methodology. The one adopted in this work is the central composite design approach. This is because when the initial upper and lower bounds of the desired parameters are exceeded the central composite design approach is still capable of yielding the optimal values of the parameters that appear to be out of the initially preset range. Results from the experiments show that the pressing pressure and the holding time affect the tensile strength of jointing. The data obtained from the experiment fits well to a quadratic equation with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 94.21%. It is found that the optimal parameters in the process of jointing semi-solid casting aluminium alloy by using diffusion bonding are the pressing pressure of 2.06 MPa and 214 minutes of the holding time in order to achieve the highest tensile strength of 142.65 MPa

  5. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  7. Competitive adsorption of monoclonal antibodies and nonionic surfactants at solid hydrophobic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapp, Sebastian J; Larsson, Iben; van de Weert, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies from the IgG subclasses one and two were compared in their adsorption behavior with hydrophobic surfaces upon dilution to 10 mg/mL with 0.9% NaCl. These conditions simulate handling of the compounds at hospital pharmacies and surfaces encountered after preparation, such ....... and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci....

  8. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Hydroxyl groups on the surface of Li{sub 2}O were studied by using a diffuse reflectance method with Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy at high temperature up to 973K under controlled D{sub 2}O or D{sub 2} partial pressure. It was found that hydroxyl groups could exist on Li{sub 2}O surface up to 973K under Ar atmosphere. Under D{sub 2}O containing atmosphere, only the sharp peak at 2520cm{sup -1} was observed at 973K in the O-D stretching vibration region. Below 973K, multiple peaks due to the surface -OD were observed and they showed different behavior with temperature or atmosphere. Multiple peaks mean that surface is not homogeneous for D{sub 2}O adsorption. Assignment of the observed peaks to the surface bonding structure was also discussed. (author)

  9. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  10. Photoelectron transport in the surface region of solids: universal analytical formalism for quantitative applications of electron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, A

    2015-01-01

    An advanced analytical theory describing electron transport in the surface region of solids may have accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories, however such an approach requires knowledge of a parameter called the single scattering albedo. This parameter is material dependent and can be calculated from the elastic mean free path and transport mean free path for signal electrons. An attempt is made to derive a simple expression that accurately describes the energy dependence of single scattering albedo in a wide energy range from 50 eV to 30 keV for 78 elemental solids. For these solids and the considered energy range, the mean percentage deviations between the reference values and values calculated from the fitted function were found to be generally well below 1%; the largest value of this deviation was equal to 0.86% (europium). Calculation of the single scattering albedo with high accuracy requires only five fitted coefficients for a given element. Recommendations are also given for calculations of this parameter for compounds. Different predictive formulas expressed in terms of the single scattering albedo are briefly discussed. (paper)

  11. Unraveling the Role of Transport, Electrocatalysis, and Surface Science in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Srikanth [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This final report for project FE0009656 covers the period from 10/01/2012 to 09/30/2015 and covers research accomplishments on the effects of carbon dioxide on the surface composition and structure of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), specifically La1-xSrxFeyCo1- yO3-δ (LSCF). Epitaxially deposited thin films of LSCF on various single-crystal substrates have revealed the selective segregation of strontium to the surface thereby resulting in a surface enrichment of strontium. The near surface compositional profile in the films have been measured using total x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and show that the kinetics of strontium segregation are higher at higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Once the strontium segregates to the surface, it leads to the formation of precipitates of SrO which convert to SrCO3 in the presence of even modest concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This has important implications for the performance of SOFCs which is discussed in this report. These experimental observations have also been verified by Density Functional Theory calculations (DFT) which predict the conditions under which SrO and SrCO3 can occur in LSCF. Furthermore, a few cathode compositions which have received attention in the literature as alternatives to LSCF cathodes have been studied in this work and shown to be thermodynamically unstable under the operating conditions of the SOFCs.

  12. Hydrophilic cobalt sulfide nanosheets as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen and hydrogen evolution in electrolysis of alkaline aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingchao; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Shicai

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophilic medium and precursors were used to synthesize a hydrophilic electro-catalyst for overall water splitting. The cobalt sulfide (Co 3 S 4 ) catalyst exhibits a layered nanosheet structure with a hydrophilic surface, which can facilitate the diffusion of aqueous substrates into the electrode pores and towards the active sites. The Co 3 S 4 catalyst shows excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The assembled water electrolyzer based on Co 3 S 4 exhibits better performance and stability than that of Pt/C-RuO 2 catalyst. Thereforce the hydrophilic Co 3 S 4 is a highly promising bifunctional catalyst for the overall water splitting reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced solubility and bioavailability of sibutramine base by solid dispersion system with aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Xun; Jang, Ki-Young; Kang, Wonku; Bae, Kyoungjin; Lee, Mann Hyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Jee, Jun-Pil; Park, Young-Joon; Oh, Dong Hoon; Seo, Youn Gee; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Jong Oh; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-01-01

    To develop a novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility bioavailability, various solid dispersions were prepared with water, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), poloxamer and citric acid using spray-drying technique. The effect of HPMC, poloxamer and citric acid on the aqueous solubility of sibutramine was investigated. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersion were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction. The dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats of solid dispersion were evaluated compared to the sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate-loaded commercial product (Reductil). The sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion gave two type forms. Like conventional solid dispersion system, one type appeared as a spherical shape with smooth surface, as the carriers and drug with relatively low melting point were soluble in water and formed it. The other appeared as an irregular form with relatively rough surface. Unlike conventional solid dispersion system, this type changed no crystalline form of drug. Our results suggested that this type was formed by attaching hydrophilic carriers to the surface of drug without crystal change, resulting from changing the hydrophobic drug to hydrophilic form. The sibutramine-loaded solid dispersion at the weight ratio of sibutramine base/HPMC/poloxamer/citric acid of 5/3/3/0.2 gave the maximum drug solubility of about 3 mg/ml. Furthermore, it showed the similar plasma concentration, area under the curve (AUC) and C(max) of parent drug, metabolite I and II to the commercial product, indicating that it might give the similar drug efficacy compared to the sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate-loaded commercial product in rats. Thus, this solid dispersion system would be useful to deliver poorly water-soluble sibutramine base with enhanced bioavailability.

  14. Protecting group and switchable pore-discriminating adsorption properties of a hydrophilic-hydrophobic metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohideen, M Infas H; Xiao, Bo; Wheatley, Paul S; McKinlay, Alistair C; Li, Yang; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Aldous, David W; Cessford, Naomi F; Düren, Tina; Zhao, Xuebo; Gill, Rachel; Thomas, K Mark; Griffin, John M; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Morris, Russell E

    2011-04-01

    Formed by linking metals or metal clusters through organic linkers, metal-organic frameworks are a class of solids with structural and chemical properties that mark them out as candidates for many emerging gas storage, separation, catalysis and biomedical applications. Important features of these materials include their high porosity and their flexibility in response to chemical or physical stimuli. Here, a copper-based metal-organic framework has been prepared in which the starting linker (benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) undergoes selective monoesterification during synthesis to produce a solid with two different channel systems, lined by hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The material reacts differently to gases or vapours of dissimilar chemistry, some stimulating subtle framework flexibility or showing kinetic adsorption effects. Adsorption can be switched between the two channels by judicious choice of the conditions. The monoesterified linker is recoverable in quantitative yield, demonstrating possible uses of metal-organic frameworks in molecular synthetic chemistry as 'protecting groups' to accomplish selective transformations that are difficult using standard chemistry techniques.

  15. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity on surface-decorated perovskite thin films for solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Surface-decoration of perovskites can strongly affect the oxygen reduction activity, and therefore is a new and promising approach to improve SOFC cathode materials. In this study, we demonstrate that a small amount of secondary phase on a (001) La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) surface can either significantly activate or passivate the electrode. LSC (001) microelectrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition on a (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate were decorated with La-, Co-, and Sr-(hydr)oxides/carbonates. "Sr"-decoration with nanoparticle coverage in the range from 50% to 80% of the LSC surface enhanced the surface exchange coefficient, k q, by an order of magnitude while "La"- decoration and "Co"-decoration led to no change and reduction in k q, respectively. Although the physical origin for the enhancement is not fully understood, results from atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the observed k q enhancement for "Sr"-decorated surfaces can be attributed largely to catalytically active interface regions between surface Sr-enriched particles and the LSC surface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Biomimetic and Functionally Responsive Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    2010-03-01

    Controlling the surface morphology of solids and manufacturing of functional surfaces with special responsive properties has been the subject of intense research. We report a methodology for creating multifunctionally responsive surfaces by irradiating silicon wafers with femtosecond laser pulses and subsequently coating them with different types of functional conformal coatings. Such surfaces exhibit controlled dual-scale roughness at the micro- and the nano-scale, which mimics the hierarchical morphology of water repellent natural surfaces. When a simple alkylsilane coating is utilized, highly water repellent surfaces are produced that quantitatively compare to those of the Lotus leaf. When a polymer brush is ``grafted from" these surfaces based on a pH-sensitive polymer, the surfaces can alter their behavior from super-hydrophilic (after immersion in a low pH buffer) to super-hydrophobic and water-repellent (following immersion to a high pH buffer). We quantify the water repellency of such responsive systems by drop elasticity measurements whereas we demonstrate that the water repellent state of such surface requires appropriate hydrophobicity of the functionalizing polymer. When a photo-responsive azobenzene-type polymer is deposited, a dynamic optical control of the wetting properties is obtained and the surface can be switched from super-hydrophilic (following UV irradiation) to hydrophobic (following green irradiation). In all the above cases we show that the principal effect of roughness is to cause amplification of the response to the different external stimuli.

  18. Time-resolved imaging of a compressible air disc under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2015-09-07

    When a drop impacts on a solid surface, its rapid deceleration is cushioned by a thin layer of air, which leads to the entrapment of a bubble under its centre. For large impact velocities the lubrication pressure in this air layer becomes large enough to compress the air. Herein we use high-speed interferometry, with 200 ns time-resolution, to directly observe the thickness evolution of the air layer during the entire bubble entrapment process. The initial disc radius and thickness shows excellent agreement with available theoretical models, based on adiabatic compression. For the largest impact velocities the air is compressed by as much as a factor of 14. Immediately following the contact, the air disc shows rapid vertical expansion. The radial speed of the surface minima just before contact, can reach 50 times the impact velocity of the drop.

  19. Preparation and Properties of Mercury Film Electrodes on Solid Amalgam Surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Fojta, Miroslav; Barek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, 17-18 (2010), s. 1967-1973 ISSN 1040-0397. [International Conference on Modern Electroanalytical Methods. Prague, 09.12.2009-14.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : voltammetry * solid and paste amalgam * Mercury film electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  20. Flow conditioning for improved optical propagation of beams through regions bounded by surfaces of high solidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, H.F.; Albrecht, G.F.; Freitas, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A flow conditioning system has been designed to maximize the thermal homogeneity in an enclosed region through which a laser beam must propagate. In the present application, such an enclosed region exists between the Nd:glass disks of a high average power solid-state laser amplifier. Experiments have been conducted on a test facility to quantify the magnitude of the beam losses due to thermal scattering. It is shown that the intensity of the incoherent light which is thermally scattered from this region can be reduced to less than 0.1% of the incident-beam intensity under apropriate flow and cooling conditions

  1. The effects of disordered structure on the solubility and dissolution rates of some hydrophilic, sparingly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharraf, M; Sebhatu, T; Nyström, C

    1999-01-15

    The effects of experimental design on the apparent solubility of two sparingly soluble hydrophilic compounds (barium sulphate and calcium carbonate) were studied in this paper. The apparent solubility appeared to be primarily dependent on the amount of solute added to the solvent in each experiment, increasing with increased amounts. This effect seems to be due to the existence of a peripheral disordered layer. However physico-chemical methods used in the present study were not able to unambiguously verify the existence of any disorder in the solid state structure of the drugs. At higher proportions of solute to solvent, the solubility reached a plateau corresponding to the solubility of the disordered or amorphous molecular form of the material. Milling the powders caused the plateau to be reached at lower proportions of solute to solvent, since this further disordered the surface of the drug particles. It was also found that the apparent solubility of the drugs tested decreased after storage at high relative humidities. A model for describing the effects of a disordered surface layer of varying thickness and continuity on the solubility of a substance is presented. This model may be used as a method for detection of minute amount of disorder, where no other technique is capable of detecting the disordered structure. It is suggested that recrystallisation of the material occurs via slow solid-state transition at the surface of the drug particle; this would slowly reduce the apparent solubility of the substance at the plateau level to the thermodynamically stable value. A biphasic dissolution rate profile was obtained. The solubility of the disordered surface of the particles appeared to be the rate-determining factor during the initial dissolution phase, while the solubility of the crystalline core was the rate-determining factor during the final slower phase.

  2. Optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide in the inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste by using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Nik Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Balakrishnan, Venugopal [Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Alkarkhi, Abbas F.M. [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad Rajion, Zainul [School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar, E-mail: akmomar@usm.my [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. • Inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste using supercritical carbon dioxide. • Reduction of the hazardous exposure of clinical solid waste. • Optimization of the supercritical carbon dioxide experimental conditions. - Abstract: Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO{sub 2} sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO{sub 2}-treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO{sub 2} exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials.

  3. Optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide in the inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste by using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Nik Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Alkarkhi, Abbas F.M.; Ahmad Rajion, Zainul; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. • Inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste using supercritical carbon dioxide. • Reduction of the hazardous exposure of clinical solid waste. • Optimization of the supercritical carbon dioxide experimental conditions. - Abstract: Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO 2 sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO 2 -treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO 2 exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials

  4. Design of Rotary Atomizer Using Characteristics of Thin Film Flow on Solid Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Boo Seong; Kim, Bo Hung [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A disc-type rotary atomizer affords advantages such as superior paint transfer efficiency, uniformity of paint pattern and particle size, and less consumption of compressed air compared to a spray-gun-type atomizer. Furthermore, it can be applied to all types of painting materials, and it is suitable for large-scale processes such as car painting. The painting quality, which is closely related to the atomizer performance, is determined by the uniformity and droplet size in accordance with the design of the bell disc surface. This study establishes the basics of how to design a surface by modeling the operating bell disc's RPM, diameter, surface angle, and film thickness considering dye characteristics such as the viscosity, density, and surface affinity.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Srikanth [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  6. Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and the compositional and structural analysis of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.A. van den; Armour, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The physics of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) and its application as a surface analytical technique are reviewed. It is shown that compositional and short-range structural information can be obtained by choosing experimental conditions which optimize the contributions of single and double (or multiple) collisions, respectively. The LEIS technique allows mass analysis in a straightforward way, possesses a high surface selectivity but is unable to provide quantitative information in isolation due to scattering cross-section uncertainties and not easily quantifiable charge exchange effects. Structural information regarding adsorbate positions on single crystal surfaces and the short-range substrate structure (including damaged and reconstructed surfaces) can be obtained by exploiting shadowing and/or multiple scattering phenomena. The progress made in recent years in this area is charted. It is shown that computer simulations often play an important role in this type of study. Effects, such as charge exchange, inelastic energy loss and ion beam surface perturbations, which complicate the use of low energy ion scattering for surface analysis are discussed in detail. The present status of the technique in the different areas of study is indicated. (author)

  7. Synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles on a solid surface: Atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huizhen; Lian Wenping; Song Yonghai; Chen Shouhui; Chen Lili; Wang Li

    2010-01-01

    In this work, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles had been synthesized on DNA network/mica and mica surface, respectively. The synthesis was carried out by first dropping a mixture of zinc acetate and DNA on a mica surface for the formation of the DNA networks or zinc acetate solution on a mica surface, and subsequently transferring the sample into a heated thiourea solution. The Zn 2+ adsorbed on DNA network/mica or mica surface would react with S 2- produced from thiourea and form ZnS nanoparticles on these surfaces. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the ZnS nanoparticles in detail. AFM results showed that ZnS nanoparticles distributed uniformly on the mica surface and deposited preferentially on DNA networks. It was also found that the size and density of ZnS nanoparticles could be effectively controlled by adjusting reaction temperature and the concentration of Zn 2+ or DNA. The possible growth mechanisms have been discussed in detail.

  8. Cellular automaton simulation of the diffusive motion of bacteria and their adhesion to nanostructures on a solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Emura, Chie; Oya, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    The growth of a biofilm begins with the adhesion of bacteria to a solid surface. Consequently, biofilm growth can be managed by the control of bacterial adhesion. Recent experimental studies have suggested that bacterial adhesion can be controlled by modifying a solid surface using nanostructures. Computational prediction and analysis of bacterial adhesion behavior are expected to be useful for the design of effective arrangements of nanostructures for controlling bacterial adhesion. The present study developed a cellular automaton (CA) model for bacterial adhesion simulation that could describe both the diffusive motion of bacteria and dependence of their adhesion patterns on the distance between nanostructures observed in experimental studies. The diffusive motion was analyzed by the moment scaling spectrum theory, and the present model was confirmed to describe subdiffusion behavior due to obstacles. Adhesion patterns observed in experimental studies can be successfully simulated by introducing CA rules to describe a mechanism by which bacteria tend to move to increase the area of contact with nanostructures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical characterization of solid polymer electrolyte membrane surfaces in LiFePO4 half-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Thein; He, Ruixuan; Peng, Fang; Dunn, William E.; Kyu's Group Team, Dr.

    High temperature (60 °C) capacity retention of succinonitrile plasticized solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in a LiFePO4 half-cell was investigated with or without lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) modification. Various symmetric cells and half-cells were studied under different thermal and electrochemical conditions. At room temperature cycling, the unmodified PEM in the half-cell appeared stable up to 50 cycles tested. Upon cycling at 60 °C, the capacity decays rapidly and concurrently the cell resistance increased. The chemical compositions of the solid PEM surfaces on both cathode and anode sides were analyzed. New IR bands (including those belonged to amide) were discerned on the unmodified PEM surface of the Li electrode side at 60 °C suggestive of side reaction, but no new bands develop during room temperature cycling. To our astonishment, the side reaction was effectively suppressed upon LiBOB addition (0.4 wt%) into the PEM, contributing to increased high temperature capacity retention at 60°C. Plausible mechanisms of capacity fading and improved cycling performance due to LiBOB modification are discussed.

  10. The wetting of planar solid surfaces by symmetric binary mixtures near bulk gas-liquid coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the wetting of planar, nonselective solid substrates by symmetric binary mixtures where the attraction strength between like molecules of components A and B is the same, that is ε AA ε BB AB vertical bar ≤ vertical bar ε AA vertical bar, that is by varying the attraction between a pair of unlike molecules. By means of mean-field lattice density functional calculations we observe a rich wetting behaviour as a result of the interplay between ε AB and the attraction of fluid molecules by the solid substrate ε W . In accord with previous studies we observe complete wetting only above the critical end point if the bulk mixture exhibits a moderate to weak tendency to liquid-liquid phase separation even for relatively strong fluid-substrate attraction. However, in this case layering transitions may arise below the temperature of the critical end point. For strongly phase separating mixtures complete wetting is observed for all temperatures T ≥0 along the line of discontinuous phase transitions in the bulk

  11. Breakup Behavior of a Capillary Bridge on a Hydrophobic Stripe Separating Two Hydrophilic Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Maximilian; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    The breakup dynamics of a capillary bridge on a hydrophobic area between two liquid filaments occupying two parallel hydrophilic stripes is studied experimentally. In addition calculations with the finite-element software Surface Evolver are performed to obtain the corresponding stable minimal surfaces. Droplets of de-ionized water are placed on substrates with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes of different width. Their volume decreases by evaporation. This results in a droplet shaped as the letter ``H'' covering two hydrophilic stripes separated by one hydrophobic stripe. The width of the capillary bridge d(t) on the hydrophobic stripe during the breakup process is observed using a high-speed camera mounted on a bright-field microscope. The results of the experiments and the numerical studies show that the critical width dcrit, indicating the point where the capillary bridge becomes unstable, mainly depends on the width ratio of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. It is found that the time derivative of d(t) first decreases after dcrit has been reached. The final breakup dynamics then follows a t 2 / 3 scaling. We kindly acknowledge the financial support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Centre 1194 ``Interaction of Transport and Wetting Processes'', Project A02a.

  12. A space-charge treatment of the increased concentration of reactive species at the surface of a ceria solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurhelle, Alexander F.; Souza, Roger A. de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Tong, Xiaorui; Mebane, David S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Klein, Andreas [Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-11-13

    A space-charge theory applicable to concentrated solid solutions (Poisson-Cahn theory) was applied to describe quantitatively as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure published data obtained by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the concentration of Ce{sup 3+} (the reactive species) at the surface of the oxide catalyst Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}. In contrast to previous theoretical treatments, these calculations clearly indicate that the surface is positively charged and compensated by an attendant negative space-charge zone. The high space-charge potential that develops at the surface (>0.8 V) is demonstrated to be hardly detectable by XPS measurements because of the short extent of the space-charge layer. This approach emphasizes the need to take into account defect interactions and to allow deviations from local charge neutrality when considering the surfaces of oxide catalysts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Vicinage effects in energy loss and electron emission during grazing scattering of heavy molecular ions from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian; Miskovic, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    Vicinage effects in the energy loss and the electron emission spectra are studied in the presence of Coulomb explosion of swift, heavy molecular ions, during their grazing scattering from a solid surface. The dynamic response of the surface is treated by means of the dielectric theory within the specular reflection model using the plasmon pole approximation for the bulk dielectric function, whereas the angle-resolved energy spectra of the electrons emitted from the surface are obtained on the basis of the first-order, time-dependent perturbation theory. The evolution of the charge states of the constituent ions in the molecule during scattering is described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Brandt-Kitagawa model. The molecule scattering trajectories and the corresponding Coulomb explosion dynamics are evaluated for the cases of the internuclear axis being either aligned in the beam direction or randomly oriented in the directions parallel to the surface. Our calculations show that the vicinage effect in the energy loss is generally weaker for heavy molecules than for light molecules. In addition, there is clear evidence of the negative vicinage effect in both the energy loss and the energy spectra of the emitted electrons for molecular ions at lower speeds and with the axis aligned in the direction of motion

  14. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Chemical Engineering (Tianjin) Tianjin 300072 (China); Yao, Fanglian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Wencheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatin onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds (method a). To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, PEGMAs were grafted onto the scaffold surface by SI-ATRP. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by method b. The gelatin modified scaffolds exhibited high hydrophilicity, low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity, and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation capacity. They might have potential applications as tissue engineering scaffolds for artificial blood vessels. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic scaffolds were prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilization of gelatins. • Grafting PEGMA enhanced the immobilization amount of gelatin

  15. Solid-state surface luminescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on cellulose diacetate matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.; Volkova, Elena V.; Khurshudyan, Grachia N.; Suska-Malawska, Malgorzata; Gubina, Tamara I.

    2018-04-01

    The spectral-kinetic characteristics of luminescence of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) sorbed from a "water-organic solvent" medium on cellulose diacetate (CDA) matrices were studied. A significant increase in the fluorescence signal on the CDA matrix was observed for 13 PAHs in comparison with aqueous solutions. The highest detection sensitivity was found for pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(k)fluoranthene. The fluorescence spectra of two PAH indicator pairs (anthracene-phenanthrene and pyrene-fluoranthene) used to control toxicant emission sources were studied with the simultaneous presence of isomers in the analyte, depending on the excitation wavelength. For both isomer pairs, it has been found that the spectra of their solid-state luminescence overlap insignificantly, the characteristic peaks do not coincide and do not overlap, the sensitivities of detection are close to each other, which makes it possible to consider this technique as promising to control PAH contamination sources.

  16. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface. The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface....... The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. [S1063-651X...

  18. Defined wetting properties of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Nadja; Coriand, Luisa; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Optical surfaces equipped with specific functional properties have attracted increasing importance over the last decades. In the light of cost reduction, hydrophobic self-cleaning behavior is aspired. On the other side, hydrophilic properties are interesting due to their anti-fog effect. It has become well known that such wetting states are significantly affected by the surface morphology. For optical surfaces, however, this fact poses a problem, as surface roughness can induce light scattering. The generation of optical surfaces with specific wetting properties, hence, requires a profound understanding of the relation between the wetting and the structural surface properties. Thus, our work concentrates on a reliable acquisition of roughness data over a wide spatial frequency range as well as on the comprehensive description of the wetting states, which is needed for the establishment of such correlations. We will present our advanced wetting analysis for nanorough optical surfaces, extended by a vibration-based procedure, which is mainly for understanding and tailoring the wetting behavior of various solid-liquid systems in research and industry. Utilizing the relationships between surface roughness and wetting, it will be demonstrated how different wetting states for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be realized on optical surfaces with minimized scatter losses.

  19. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    The nature of -OH on the surface of Li{sub 2}O was analyzed with the ab-initio quantum chemical calculation technique. Calculation results showed that the stretching vibration of O-H is affected by the chemical species around the -OH. (author)

  20. The kinetics of formation and transformation of silver atoms on solid surfaces subjected to ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in ESR-assisted studies of the kinetics of formation and transformation of silver atoms generated by γ-irradiation of silver-containing carriers. Three types of dependences have been established: