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Sample records for hydrological sensibility applied

  1. A method for estimation of hydrological sensibility applied in Golfo San Jorge basin. Province of Chubut. Argentina; Un metodo para estimar la sensibilidad hidrologica aplicado en la cuenca del Golfo San Jorge. Provincia de Chubut. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Scatizza, C.; Rojo, M.; Preiato, S. A.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-07-01

    A method developed and used in an area of Chubut Province is described. The object of the method is to determine the underground and surficial hydrological sensitivity in order to select the site of petroleum facilities with the least possible environmental hydric risk. It is based on the conjunction of the GOD method used to assess the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability (original version) and the proposed La Plata Method (MLP) for the surficial hydrological sensitivity. The latter method assigns numerical values based on landforms (positive and negative), slope percent and seasonality of the water regime, using a complexive range scale from zero to one. The Surficial Sensitivity factor results from the average of the three indicators and includes five categories, from low to extreme values. For a global coverage in the underground and surficial terrestrial arches (geo environmental map) it is proposed to compare the GOD values with those of the MLP method using a GIS, through the mathematical overlapping of two raster layers (map algebra) in each map pixel. In addition to the cartographic display, attribute tables can be used to estimate the environmental pollution in soils and waters, existing infrastructure and location of new facilities and drillings. The Arc Map 9.1 program was used due to its capacity for a permanent and quasi-automatic updating of thematic mapping. The map corresponding to Cerro for the initial position 2007 is presented as an example. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Monitoring the latent and sensible heat fluxes in vineyard by applying the energy balance model METRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Piqueras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.

  3. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  4. Hydrologic and water quality terminology as applied to modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of literature and examination in particular of terminology use in a previous special collection of modeling calibration and validation papers has been conducted to arrive at a list of consistent terminology recommended for writing about hydrologic and water quality model calibration and val...

  5. Sense and Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Two sisters of opposing temperament but who share the pangs of tragic love provide the subjects for Sense and Sensibility. Elinor, practical and conventional, the epitome of sense, desires a man who is promised to another woman. Marianne, emotional and sentimental, the epitome of sensibility, loses

  6. Hydrologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Hydro1ogi er den videnskab, der omhand1er jordens vand, dets forekomst, cirku1ation og forde1ing, dets kemiske og fysiske egenskaber samt indvirkning på omgivelserne, herunder dets relation ti1 alt liv på jorden. Således lyder en b1andt mange definitioner på begrebet hydrologi, og som man kan se...

  7. Applying hydrology to land management on the Valles Caldera National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Parmenter

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico has hosted extensive field hydrology research by scientists from the Center for Sustainability of semi- Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) at the University of Arizona. With the development of a detailed hydrologic understanding of VCNP's climate, geology,...

  8. Dynamic taxonomies applied to a web-based relational database for geo-hydrological risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G. M.; Nigrelli, G.; Bosio, A.; Chiarle, M.; Luino, F.

    2012-02-01

    In its 40 years of activity, the Research Institute for Geo-hydrological Protection of the Italian National Research Council has amassed a vast and varied collection of historical documentation on landslides, muddy-debris flows, and floods in northern Italy from 1600 to the present. Since 2008, the archive resources have been maintained through a relational database management system. The database is used for routine study and research purposes as well as for providing support during geo-hydrological emergencies, when data need to be quickly and accurately retrieved. Retrieval speed and accuracy are the main objectives of an implementation based on a dynamic taxonomies model. Dynamic taxonomies are a general knowledge management model for configuring complex, heterogeneous information bases that support exploratory searching. At each stage of the process, the user can explore or browse the database in a guided yet unconstrained way by selecting the alternatives suggested for further refining the search. Dynamic taxonomies have been successfully applied to such diverse and apparently unrelated domains as e-commerce and medical diagnosis. Here, we describe the application of dynamic taxonomies to our database and compare it to traditional relational database query methods. The dynamic taxonomy interface, essentially a point-and-click interface, is considerably faster and less error-prone than traditional form-based query interfaces that require the user to remember and type in the "right" search keywords. Finally, dynamic taxonomy users have confirmed that one of the principal benefits of this approach is the confidence of having considered all the relevant information. Dynamic taxonomies and relational databases work in synergy to provide fast and precise searching: one of the most important factors in timely response to emergencies.

  9. Anarchism, Schooling, and Democratic Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the question of schooling for democracy by, first, identifying at least one form of social character, dependent, after Marcuse, on the historical emergence of a "new sensibility." It then explores one pedagogical thread related to the emergence of this form of subjectivity over the course of the last two…

  10. Projected Irrigation Requirement Under Climate Change in Korean Peninsula by Apply Global Hydrologic Model to Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Lee, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding spatial distribution of irrigation requirement is critically important for agricultural water management. However, many studies considering future agricultural water management in Korea assessed irrigation requirement on watershed or administrative district scale, but have not accounted the spatial distribution. Lumped hydrologic model has typically used in Korea for simulating watershed scale irrigation requirement, while distribution hydrologic model can simulate the spatial distribution grid by grid. To overcome this shortcoming, here we applied a grid base global hydrologic model (H08) into local scale to estimate spatial distribution under future irrigation requirement of Korean Peninsula. Korea is one of the world's most densely populated countries, with also high produce and demand of rice which requires higher soil moisture than other crops. Although, most of the precipitation concentrate in particular season and disagree with crop growth season. This precipitation character makes management of agricultural water which is approximately 60% of total water usage critical issue in Korea. Furthermore, under future climate change, the precipitation predicted to be more concentrated and necessary need change of future water management plan. In order to apply global hydrological model into local scale, we selected appropriate major crops under social and local climate condition in Korea to estimate cropping area and yield, and revised the cropping area map more accurately. As a result, future irrigation requirement estimation varies under each projection, however, slightly decreased in most case. The simulation reveals, evapotranspiration increase slightly while effective precipitation also increase to balance the irrigation requirement. This finding suggest practical guideline to decision makers for further agricultural water management plan including future development of water supply plan to resolve water scarcity.

  11. Applying sequential Monte Carlo methods into a distributed hydrologic model: lagged particle filtering approach with regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Noh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation techniques have received growing attention due to their capability to improve prediction. Among various data assimilation techniques, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC methods, known as "particle filters", are a Bayesian learning process that has the capability to handle non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space models. In this paper, we propose an improved particle filtering approach to consider different response times of internal state variables in a hydrologic model. The proposed method adopts a lagged filtering approach to aggregate model response until the uncertainty of each hydrologic process is propagated. The regularization with an additional move step based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods is also implemented to preserve sample diversity under the lagged filtering approach. A distributed hydrologic model, water and energy transfer processes (WEP, is implemented for the sequential data assimilation through the updating of state variables. The lagged regularized particle filter (LRPF and the sequential importance resampling (SIR particle filter are implemented for hindcasting of streamflow at the Katsura catchment, Japan. Control state variables for filtering are soil moisture content and overland flow. Streamflow measurements are used for data assimilation. LRPF shows consistent forecasts regardless of the process noise assumption, while SIR has different values of optimal process noise and shows sensitive variation of confidential intervals, depending on the process noise. Improvement of LRPF forecasts compared to SIR is particularly found for rapidly varied high flows due to preservation of sample diversity from the kernel, even if particle impoverishment takes place.

  12. Applying Topographic Classification, Based on the Hydrological Process, to Design Habitat Linkages for Climate Change

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    Yongwon Mo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiversity surrogates has been discussed in the context of designing habitat linkages to support the migration of species affected by climate change. Topography has been proposed as a useful surrogate in the coarse-filter approach, as the hydrological process caused by topography such as erosion and accumulation is the basis of ecological processes. However, some studies that have designed topographic linkages as habitat linkages, so far have focused much on the shape of the topography (morphometric topographic classification with little emphasis on the hydrological processes (generic topographic classification to find such topographic linkages. We aimed to understand whether generic classification was valid for designing these linkages. First, we evaluated whether topographic classification is more appropriate for describing actual (coniferous and deciduous and potential (mammals and amphibians habitat distributions. Second, we analyzed the difference in the linkages between the morphometric and generic topographic classifications. The results showed that the generic classification represented the actual distribution of the trees, but neither the morphometric nor the generic classification could represent the potential animal distributions adequately. Our study demonstrated that the topographic classes, according to the generic classification, were arranged successively according to the flow of water, nutrients, and sediment; therefore, it would be advantageous to secure linkages with a width of 1 km or more. In addition, the edge effect would be smaller than with the morphometric classification. Accordingly, we suggest that topographic characteristics, based on the hydrological process, are required to design topographic linkages for climate change.

  13. Modern software approaches applied to a Hydrological model: the GEOtop Open-Source Software Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzini, Stefano; Endrizzi, Stefano; Cordano, Emanuele; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Dall'Amico, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The GEOtop hydrological scientific package is an integrated hydrological model that simulates the heat and water budgets at and below the soil surface. It describes the three-dimensional water flow in the soil and the energy exchange with the atmosphere, considering the radiative and turbulent fluxes. Furthermore, it reproduces the highly non-linear interactions between the water and energy balance during soil freezing and thawing, and simulates the temporal evolution of snow cover, soil temperature and moisture. The core components of the package were presented in the 2.0 version (Endrizzi et al, 2014), which was released as Free Software Open-source project. However, despite the high scientific quality of the project, a modern software engineering approach was still missing. Such weakness hindered its scientific potential and its use both as a standalone package and, more importantly, in an integrate way with other hydrological software tools. In this contribution we present our recent software re-engineering efforts to create a robust and stable scientific software package open to the hydrological community, easily usable by researchers and experts, and interoperable with other packages. The activity takes as a starting point the 2.0 version, scientifically tested and published. This version, together with several test cases based on recent published or available GEOtop applications (Cordano and Rigon, 2013, WRR, Kollet et al, 2016, WRR) provides the baseline code and a certain number of referenced results as benchmark. Comparison and scientific validation can then be performed for each software re-engineering activity performed on the package. To keep track of any single change the package is published on its own github repository geotopmodel.github.io/geotop/ under GPL v3.0 license. A Continuous Integration mechanism by means of Travis-CI has been enabled on the github repository on master and main development branches. The usage of CMake configuration tool

  14. Bibliography of borehole geophysics as applied to ground-water hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ticie A.; Dey, Joyce A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the references on borehole geophysics that are relevant to ground-water hydrology are contained in this bibliography, but it does not include every reference that is available under each subject heading; the literature is much too extensive to compile a complete listing. Some of the references may appear under more than one subject heading because the references commonly relate to more than one main topic. Many articles have been cross-referenced in order to assist the reader in locating an article. For example, the article entitled, 'Application of the acoustic televiewer to the characterization of hydraulic fractures in geothermal wells' is listed under both 'Acoustic televiewer,' and 'Geothermal'. The bibliography is intended to lead the reader to other articles on borehole-geophysical logging and related subjects, because each article cited also will have a list of references, which may be more specialized, covering many subjects with related applications, such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, electronics, acoustics, hydrology, and surface geophysics. However, not all of these related subject headings could be included in this bibliography.

  15. WaterWorld, a spatial hydrological model applied at scales from local to global: key challenges to local application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sophia; Mulligan, Mark

    2017-04-01

    WaterWorld is a widely used spatial hydrological policy support system. The last user census indicates regular use by 1029 institutions across 141 countries. A key feature of WaterWorld since 2001 is that it comes pre-loaded with all of the required data for simulation anywhere in the world at a 1km or 1 ha resolution. This means that it can be easily used, without specialist technical ability, to examine baseline hydrology and the impacts of scenarios for change or management interventions to support policy formulation, hence its labelling as a policy support system. WaterWorld is parameterised by an extensive global gridded database of more than 600 variables, developed from many sources, since 1998, the so-called simTerra database. All of these data are available globally at 1km resolution and some variables (terrain, land cover, urban areas, water bodies) are available globally at 1ha resolution. If users have access to better data than is pre-loaded, they can upload their own data. WaterWorld is generally applied at the national or basin scale at 1km resolution, or locally (for areas of products being available at 1km or 10km resolution or worse, which is rather coarse for local application. As part of the EartH2Observe project we have used WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data) at 1km resolution to provide an alternative input to WaterWorld's preloaded climate data. Here we examine the impacts of that on key hydrological outputs: water balance, water quality and outline the remaining challenges of using datasets like these for local scale application.

  16. Sistema multiagente sensible al contexto

    OpenAIRE

    Fraile Nieto, Juan Agustín

    2011-01-01

    [ES] En una sociedad claramente influenciada por las nuevas tecnologías, los nuevos avances en computación sensible al contexto han supuesto un cambio importante en los hábitos de interacción de los usuarios con los sistemas informáticos y la información contextual. Es necesario tener en cuenta que cualquier contexto puede proporcionar un escenario para la realización de tareas automatizadas. Al mismo tiempo, los sistemas tienden a ofrecer un soporte colaborativo a los usuarios en su entorno....

  17. Improvement of Hydrological Simulations by Applying Daily Precipitation Interpolation Schemes in Meso-Scale Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Szcześniak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based precipitation data are still the dominant input type for hydrological models. Spatial variability in precipitation can be represented by spatially interpolating gauge data using various techniques. In this study, the effect of daily precipitation interpolation methods on discharge simulations using the semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model over a 30-year period is examined. The study was carried out in 11 meso-scale (119–3935 km2 sub-catchments lying in the Sulejów reservoir catchment in central Poland. Four methods were tested: the default SWAT method (Def based on the Nearest Neighbour technique, Thiessen Polygons (TP, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW and Ordinary Kriging (OK. =The evaluation of methods was performed using a semi-automated calibration program SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Procedure Version 2 with two objective functions: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and the adjusted R2 coefficient (bR2. The results show that: (1 the most complex OK method outperformed other methods in terms of NSE; and (2 OK, IDW, and TP outperformed Def in terms of bR2. The median difference in daily/monthly NSE between OK and Def/TP/IDW calculated across all catchments ranged between 0.05 and 0.15, while the median difference between TP/IDW/OK and Def ranged between 0.05 and 0.07. The differences between pairs of interpolation methods were, however, spatially variable and a part of this variability was attributed to catchment properties: catchments characterised by low station density and low coefficient of variation of daily flows experienced more pronounced improvement resulting from using interpolation methods. Methods providing higher precipitation estimates often resulted in a better model performance. The implication from this study is that appropriate consideration of spatial precipitation variability (often neglected by model users that can be achieved using relatively simple interpolation methods can

  18. Sensible heat balance estimates of transient soil ice contents for freezing and thawing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content is an important component for winter soil hydrology. The sensible heat balance (SHB) method using measurements from heat pulse probes (HPP) is a possible way to determine transient soil ice content. In a previous study, in situ soil ice contents estimates with the SHB method were in...

  19. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  20. Epistemic Sensibility: Third Dimension of Virtue Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2012-01-01

    The author tries to argue how epistemic sensibility as virtue sensibility can complement virtue epistemology. Many philosophers interrelated virtue reliabilism (e.g., Brogaard, 2006) and virtue responsibilism (e.g., Code, 1987) to virtue epistemology as two dimensions with many diverging and a few converging characters. The possible new dimension…

  1. To render time sensible: transmissibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Emerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review-essay of Keith Moxey’s Visual Time: The Image in History (2013 addresses recent theoretical work on images, historiography, and temporality. It does so by critiquing preexisting methodological issues such as linear chronology, ekphrasis, and contemporaneity. In addition to reviewing how Moxey deals with the problematic of temporality in art historical practice, this review-essay develops its own methodological approach through the concept of transmissibility. Transmissibility is a theoretical methodology for how to approach the relation between temporality and artworks that draws on the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. Transmissibility stems from a desire to arrive at an art history capable of articulating the complex epistemic and aesthetic power of an artwork. In other words, an artwork as a material, expressive reality, a conjunction of content and expression, statement and visibility, sensible and intelligible. It remains to us as art historians to think a philosophy of history wherein artworks embody transmissibility (survival, anachronism, memory, becoming: the full complexity of temporality.

  2. Applied socio-hydrology using volunteer geographic information (VGI) to integrate ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiondo, Eduardo; Taffarello, Denise; Mohor, Guilherme; Guzmán, Diego; Câmara de Freitas, Clarissa; Fava, Maria Clara; Restrepo, Camilo; Abreu, Fernando; Batalini, Marina; Lago, Cesar; Abe, Narumi; Rosa, Altair

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology proposes to understand coupled human-water systems by conceptualizing its components to be dynamically connected by bi-directional feedbacks. For practical purposes, especially in developing countries of South America, socio-hydrology does integrate practical, empirical and theoretical fundamentals from citizens' knowledge and culture. This contribution shows South American examples of how volunteer geographic information (VGI) can help socio-hydrology to integrate emerging aspects with heavy feedbacks, exploding uncertainties and relevant scales of socio-hydrological scales. Here we select examples at different scales of using VGI to link aspects of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). On the one hand, we show some learning cases of EbA/VGI linked to socio-hydrology also related with water valuation, both monetary and non-monetary, under scenarios of changing conditions of land-use and land cover changes of strategic water supply systems in subtropical biomes. This example brings a bridge of VGI and EbA towards Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through water topics of securitization, insurance, smart cities and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). Thus, on the other hand, we also depict how VGI support applied elements for socio-hydrology on South American urban areas, capable of policy actions for DRR through SUDS at human-impacted biomes under extremes of droughts, floods and pollution. We here recommend yardsticks of learning conditions from these real examples of using VGI's knowledge and culture biases for a more resilient socio-hydrology, in order to create opportunities for theoretical, conceptual and applied nature of EbA and DRR with viable alliances from IAHS/Panta Rhei with UN/Sendai/DRR Framework and UN/Sustainable Development Goals. From these examples, however, seem plausible co-evolutionary dynamics with stakeholders if local-scale constraints, from sociopolitical nature, institutions' policies and

  3. Hydrological modelling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  4. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  5. Páramos: Hidrosistemas Sensibles

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    Mario A. Diaz- Granados

    2005-11-01

    presents an approximation to the hydrologic modeling of these hydrosystems, based on the integration of the AvSWAT model, a horizontal precipitation model, and a geographic information system. As a case study, the upper Blanco river basin was analyzed. This basin is one of the principal areas of the Chingaza páramo, the main Bogotá City water supply source. Protection of these ecosystems is stressed in order to preserve flow regimes, mainly those associated with dry conditions.

  6. Comparative analysis of the PRMS and J2000 hydrological models applied to the Sandspruit Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of distributed hydrological models to the semi-arid conditions in the Western Cape was investigated through the application of PRMS and J2000 in the Sandspruit Catchment. The Sandspruit is an annual river, with the catchment...

  7. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  8. A Combined Hydrological and Hydraulic Model for Flood Prediction in Vietnam Applied to the Huong River Basin as a Test Case Study

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    Dang Thanh Mai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined hydrological and hydraulic model is presented for flood prediction in Vietnam. This model is applied to the Huong river basin as a test case study. Observed flood flows and water surface levels of the 2002–2005 flood seasons are used for model calibration, and those of the 2006–2007 flood seasons are used for validation of the model. The physically based distributed hydrologic model WetSpa is used for predicting the generation and propagation of flood flows in the mountainous upper sub-basins, and proves to predict flood flows accurately. The Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS hydraulic model is applied to simulate flood flows and inundation levels in the downstream floodplain, and also proves to predict water levels accurately. The predicted water profiles are used for mapping of inundations in the floodplain. The model may be useful in developing flood forecasting and early warning systems to mitigate losses due to flooding in Vietnam.

  9. PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND SUTURELESS LARGE-INCISION MANUAL CATARACT EXTRACTION CHANGE CORNEAL SENSIBILITY

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    I Anom-Supradnya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with surgery as a definitive therapy. Incisions may damage the underlying tissue, including loss of corneal sensibility. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in corneal sensibility decreased in patients afterphacoemulsification and SLIMCE.Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial assessingchanges of corneal sensibility in immature senile cataract patients after phacoemulsification and SLIMCE at Sanglah and Indera Hospital Denpasar, Bali-Indonesia from March to August 2013. Surgeons and examiners are experienced ophthalmologists. Examiner did not know the initial datasubjects. Preoperative assessment of corneal sensibility on the first, eighth, and fifteenth days were assessed postoperative using Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Statistical analysis was performed by applying mean difference of two independent groups test with repeated measures of multiplecomparisons (ANOVA. Samples from each group were 17 eyes.Results: There were significant differences in corneal sensibility on the first day postoperative (33.2 mm, day 8 (-21.5 mm, day 15 (-11.8 mm in both groups. Decrease in corneal sensibility in both groups was significant (p = 0.001.There was decreasing in corneal sensibility with SLIMCE technique in the first (21.8 mm and eighth day (45.9 mm.Conclusion: In phacoemulsification technique, corneal sensibility was also decreased in the first (31.8mm and eighth day (50.6 mm but returned to preoperative values on day 15 in both groups. Decrease in corneal sensibility during follow-up period is influenced by cataract surgerytechnique (p = 0.017 and was higher in SLIMCE technique compared with phacoemulsification.

  10. Hydrologic data from an area southwest of Tallahassee, Florida, where municipal wastewater effluent is applied by spray irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurewicz, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of spray irrigation using municipal wastewater effluent on a ground-water system (in particular, on the water of the Floridan aquifer) were investigated. The area irrigated was 4 miles southwest of Tallahassee, Florida, on an area covered in part by pine forest and in part by selected grasses and forage crops. Hydrologic and geologic data were collected from 1972 to 1981. Hydrologic data include ground-water levels, water quality, and spray-irrigation rates. Ground-water level measurements were made at 60 wells. Water-quality samples were collected at 1 municipal wastewater effluent site, 3 springs, 17 soil sites, and 64 wells. Water-quality data were obtained from physical, chemical, and bacteriological analyses. Geologic data include geophysical logs and lithologic descriptions of 34 wells. (USGS)

  11. Treating the actions of children as sensible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte; Brouwer, Rineke; Day, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate patterns in interactions between children with communicative disabilities and their parents. The purpose is to demonstrate how, in play activities at home, parents with varying degrees of success make their children’s contributions sensible. A Conversation Analytic a...

  12. How synapses can enhance sensibility of a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protachevicz, P. R.; Borges, F. S.; Iarosz, K. C.; Caldas, I. L.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.; Lameu, E. L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Batista, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the dynamic range in a neural network modelled by cellular automaton. We consider deterministic and non-deterministic rules to simulate electrical and chemical synapses. Chemical synapses have an intrinsic time-delay and are susceptible to parameter variations guided by learning Hebbian rules of behaviour. The learning rules are related to neuroplasticity that describes change to the neural connections in the brain. Our results show that chemical synapses can abruptly enhance sensibility of the neural network, a manifestation that can become even more predominant if learning rules of evolution are applied to the chemical synapses.

  13. A Bayesian Uncertainty Framework for Conceptual Snowmelt and Hydrologic Models Applied to the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Marshall, L.

    2007-12-01

    In many mountainous regions, the single most important parameter in forecasting the controls on regional water resources is snowpack (Williams et al., 1999). In an effort to bridge the gap between theoretical understanding and functional modeling of snow-driven watersheds, a flexible hydrologic modeling framework is being developed. The aim is to create a suite of models that move from parsimonious structures, concentrated on aggregated watershed response, to those focused on representing finer scale processes and distributed response. This framework will operate as a tool to investigate the link between hydrologic model predictive performance, uncertainty, model complexity, and observable hydrologic processes. Bayesian methods, and particularly Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, are extremely useful in uncertainty assessment and parameter estimation of hydrologic models. However, these methods have some difficulties in implementation. In a traditional Bayesian setting, it can be difficult to reconcile multiple data types, particularly those offering different spatial and temporal coverage, depending on the model type. These difficulties are also exacerbated by sensitivity of MCMC algorithms to model initialization and complex parameter interdependencies. As a way of circumnavigating some of the computational complications, adaptive MCMC algorithms have been developed to take advantage of the information gained from each successive iteration. Two adaptive algorithms are compared is this study, the Adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm, developed by Haario et al (2001), and the Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis (DRAM) algorithm, developed by Haario et al (2006). While neither algorithm is truly Markovian, it has been proven that each satisfies the desired ergodicity and stationarity properties of Markov chains. Both algorithms were implemented as the uncertainty and parameter estimation framework for a conceptual rainfall-runoff model based on the

  14. Developing Methodologies for Applying TRMM-Estimated Precipitation Data to Hydrological Modeling of a South TX Watershed - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Previous experience with hydrological modeling in South Texas, which is located along the Texas-Mexico border, suggests that NWS ground measurements are too widely scattered to provide reliable precipitation input for modeling. In addition, a significant fraction of the study region is located at the edge of the coverage envelopes of the NWS NEXRAD weather radars present in the region limiting the accuracy of these systems to provide reliable precipitation estimates. Therefore, we are exploring whether TRMM estimated-precipitation data (3B42), in some form, can be used to support hydrological modeling in the Middle Rio Grande and Nueces River Basin watersheds. We have begun our modeling efforts by focusing on the middle Nueces watershed (7770 sq km). To model this largely rural watershed we selected the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three precipitation datasets were selected for our initial model runs that include: (1) nearest NWS cooperative hourly rain gauge data, (2) three hourly TRMM 3B42 estimated precipitation, and (3) combination TRMM 3B42/NWS rain gauge datasets in which ground measurements are used for three hourly periods lacking high quality satellite microwave precipitation estimates as determined from TRMM 3G68 data. Three dataset were aggregated into an average daily estimate of precipitation for each TRMM grid cell. Manual calibration of was completed achieving model results that yield realistic monthly and annual water balances with both gauge and satellite estimate precipitation datasets. In the future, we plan to use the newly developed automatic calibration routine for SWAT, which is based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm, to optimize modeled discharge results from this study.

  15. Stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinkingh, Marianne; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Objectives: To compare stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency with sensibility of the unaffected arm and hand. In addition, to evaluate the associations between stump sensibility, stump length and activity level. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Children and young

  16. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  17. Comparison of a one-at-a-step and variance-based global sensitivity analysis applied to a parsimonious urban hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.

    2014-12-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted on an existing parsimonious model aiming to reproduce flow in engineered urban catchments and sewer networks. The model is characterized by his parsimonious feature and is limited to seven calibration parameters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how different levels of sensitivity analysis can have an influence on the interpretation of input parameter relevance in urban hydrology, even for light structure models. In this perspective, we applied a one-at-a-time (OAT) sensitivity analysis (SA) as well as a variance-based global and model independent method; the calculation of Sobol indexes. Sobol's first and total effect indexes were estimated using a Monte-Carlo approach. We present evidences of the irrelevance of calculating Sobol's second order indexes when uncertainty on index estimation is too high. Sobol's method results showed that two parameters drive model performance: the subsurface discharge rate and the root zone drainage coefficient (Clapp exponent). Interestingly, the surface discharge rate responsible flow in impervious area has no significant relevance, contrarily to what was expected considering only the one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. This last statement is clearly not straightforward. It highlights the utility of carrying variance-based sensitivity analysis in the domain of urban hydrology, even when using a parsimonious model, in order to prevent misunderstandings in the system dynamics and consequent management mistakes.

  18. Wavelet and Fractal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature with Applications to Estimation of Surface Sensible Heat Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieldge, John

    2000-01-01

    Wavelet and fractal analyses have been used successfully to analyze one-dimensional data sets such as time series of financial, physical, and biological parameters. These techniques have been applied to two-dimensional problems in some instances, including the analysis of remote sensing imagery. In this respect, these techniques have not been widely used by the remote sensing community, and their overall capabilities as analytical tools for use on satellite and aircraft data sets is not well known. Wavelet and fractal analyses have the potential to provide fresh insight into the characterization of surface properties such as temperature and emissivity distributions, and surface processes such as the heat and water vapor exchange between the surface and the lower atmosphere. In particular, the variation of sensible heat flux density as a function of the change In scale of surface properties Is difficult to estimate, but - in general - wavelets and fractals have proved useful in determining the way a parameter varies with changes in scale. We present the results of a limited study on the relationship between spatial variations in surface temperature distribution and sensible heat flux distribution as determined by separate wavelet and fractal analyses. We analyzed aircraft imagery obtained in the thermal infrared (IR) bands from the multispectral TIMS and hyperspectral MASTER airborne sensors. The thermal IR data allows us to estimate the surface kinetic temperature distribution for a number of sites in the Midwestern and Southwestern United States (viz., San Pedro River Basin, Arizona; El Reno, Oklahoma; Jornada, New Mexico). The ground spatial resolution of the aircraft data varied from 5 to 15 meters. All sites were instrumented with meteorological and hydrological equipment including surface layer flux measuring stations such as Bowen Ratio systems and sonic anemometers. The ground and aircraft data sets provided the inputs for the wavelet and fractal analyses

  19. Applying local Green’s functions to study the influence of the crustal structure on hydrological loading displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dill, Robert; Klemann, Volker; Martinec, Zdeněk; Tesauro, M.

    The influence of the elastic Earth properties on seasonal or shorter periodic surface deformations due to atmospheric surface pressure and terrestrial water storage variations is usually modeled by applying a local half-space model or an one dimensional spherical Earth model like PREM from which a

  20. Rainfall-runoff modelling and palaeoflood hydrology applied to reconstruct centennial scale records of flooding and aquifer recharge in ungauged ephemeral rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a multi-source data approach for quantifying long-term flooding and aquifer recharge in ungauged ephemeral rivers. The methodology is applied to the Buffels River, at 9000 km2 the largest ephemeral river in Namaqualand (NW South Africa, a region with scarce stream flow records limiting research investigating hydrological response to global change. Daily discharge and annual flood series (1965–2006 were estimated from a distributed rainfall-runoff hydrological model (TETIS using rainfall gauge records located within the catchment. The model was calibrated and validated with data collected during a two year monitoring programme (2005–2006 at two stream flow stations, one each in the upper and lower reaches of the catchment. In addition to the modelled flow records, non-systematic flood data were reconstructed using both sedimentary and documentary evidence. The palaeoflood record identified at least 25 large floods during the last 700 yr; with the largest floods reaching a minimum discharge of 255 m3 s−1 (450 yr return period in the upper basin, and 510 m3 s−1 (100 yr return period in the lower catchment. Since AD 1925, the flood hydrology of the Buffels River has been characterised by a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of extreme floods, with palaeoflood discharges (period 1500–1921 five times greater than the largest modelled floods during the period 1965–2006. Large floods generated the highest hydrograph volumes, however their contribution to aquifer recharge is limited as this depends on other factors such as flood duration and storage capacity of the unsaturated zone prior to the flood. Floods having average return intervals of 5–10 yr (120–140 m3 s−1 and flowing for 12 days are able to fully saturate the Spektakel aquifer in the lower Buffels River basin. Alluvial aquifer storage capacity limiting potential recharge

  1. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    er river catchments in Nigeria graphical data [2]. A spatial hydrology which simulates the water flow and pecified region of the earth using GIS. In view of this, the use of modeling with GIS provides the platform to processes tailored towards hydrologic dely applied hydrological models for in recent time is the Soil and Water.

  2. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  3. Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux | Mengistu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For short canopies, latent energy flux may be estimated using a shortened surface energy balance from measurements of sensible and soil heat flux and the net irradiance at the surface. The surface renewal (SR) method for estimating sensible heat, latent energy, and other scalar fluxes has the advantage over other ...

  4. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  5. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  6. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  7. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  8. Spontaneous loss of sensibility of the lower lip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis-Bergsma, N.; Phan, T.T.; Witjes, M.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A young African male was referred after the spontaneous loss of sensibility to the left of the lower lip. Anaesthesia of the left lower alveolar nerve could be confirmed. X-rays did not reveal any signs of pathology in the left mandible while clinically the gingival was tender on palpation. He was

  9. Groundwater hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The international conference on Advances in Ground-Water Hydrology was held November 16-19, 1988, in Tampa, Fla. More than 320 scientists and engineers attended the conference, which was dedicated to the memory of the late C. V. Theis, formerly with the U.S. Geological Survey, an AGU Fellow, holder of the Robert E. Horton Medal, and member of the AGU Hydrology Section since 1934. The 3-day meeting had presentations by more than 100 speakers from Canada, Europe, and the U.S. The conference was organized to review advances in hydrology in the past 10 years. Discussions were held on the need for research and practical applications in groundwater hydrology for the 1990s. The conference was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Universities Council on Water Resources, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, American Geological Institute, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, American Water Resources Association, Geological Society of America, and International Association of Hydrogeologists.

  10. The CellFlux Storage Concept for Increased Flexibility in Sensible Heat Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter; Eck, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Packed beds using air at atmospheric pressure as heat transferring medium are the most cost effective systems for sensible heat storage. The basic idea of the CellFlux concept is to apply this concept also for liquid and/or pressurized primary HTFs by the introduction of an intermediate working fluid cycle. A heat exchanger is used for transferring energy between the primary HTF and the intermediate air cycle which eventually transfers the energy to a packed bed. The CellFlux concept...

  11. Isotope hydrology applied to evaluation of groundwater in arid areas. Development of instruments for evaluating endangered groundwater resources. Isotopenhydrologische Methoden zur Begutachtung von Grundwasser in Trockengebieten. Entwicklung eines Instrumentariums fuer die Beurteilung gefaehrdeter Vorkommmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, K.; Geyh, M.A.; Verhagen, B.T.; Wirth, K.

    1987-01-01

    Capture of underground water in arid or semi-arid areas in developing countries is essential to safeguarding life. In order to realize in time, or to prevent, endangerment of exploitable groundwater resources due to pollution or excess exploitation, isotope hydrology offers low-cost methods that are applied along with other methods. Their results contribute to determine the origin, mixing, residence time (or age), and pollution of endangered groundwater resources. The research report in hand uses the results of hydrochemical analyses and isotope hydrological data from hydrogeological studies made over some years by the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe in six selected countries: Jordan, Cyprus, Brazil, Sudan, Djibouti, Senegal. It also uses data of recent analyses of the years 1985 and 1986. Data evaluation is done applying modern, qualitative and quantitative methods of interpretation. The available long-term series of isotopic data are scanned for any early information on water quality deterioration that is not otherwise detected. The information thus obtained is a prerequisite of urgently needed measures for protecting the groundwater reserves.

  12. Hydrological modelling in forested systems | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological processes. The focus of this chapter is on process-based models and approaches, specifically 'forest hydrology models'; that is, physically based simulation tools that quantify compartments of the forest hydrological cycle. Physically based models can be considered those that describe the conservation of mass, momentum and/or energy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of forest hydrology modeling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. The focus of this chapter is on process-based models and approaches, specifically “forest hydrology models”, i.e., physically-based simulation tools that quantify compartments of the forest hydrological cycle.

  13. Being in uncertainty: cultivating a new sensibility in military education

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.; Higgins, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Preprint We consider the question: Is the military education keeping pace with the task of preparing military people for effective leadership in the emerging highly networked, highly unpredictable world? We examine the nature of the changing environment for military operations. We speculate about leadership identity needed in this environment, possible ways to cultivate the required sensibilities, and the possible role of technology in achieving it. We call for a conversation about how ...

  14. Evaporative Cooling Availability in Water Based Sensible Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Costelloe, Ben; Finn, Donal

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments have prompted a review of evaporative cooling technology as an effective means of cooling modern deep plan buildings. Prominent among these developments is the success of high temperature sensible cooling systems, such as chilled ceilings, which require a supply of cooling water at 14 to 18°C. Crucial to the success of evaporative cooling technology, as a significant means of cooling in modern applications, is the ability to generate cooling water, in an indirect circuit, ...

  15. Three symptoms of contemporary social sensibility in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Villegas Contreras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay various characteristics of social contemporary sensibility are analyzed. Three images depicting the recent violence in Mexico are assumed as symptoms. These images are examples of the manner in which violence and cruelty are presented by the media in the world today. They are a photograph from the Mexican weekly Proceso for an article involving femicide in Ciudad Juárez, the photograph of a student murdered during the Ayotzinapa events, in the Mexican state of Guerrero, and the work by the artist Teresa Margolles: PM 2010. Even though the images are shown on different mediums, the three allow for the problematization, each in its own way, of the production and reproduction of violence during recent years in Mexico. However, the three images can be used to exemplify the general contemporary assumption in regard to “lives that do not matter”. This violence corresponds in some instances to a lack of social sensibility that due to the media experience results in creating a distance between those of us who “see” cruelty as entertainment or a spectacle and those who are the victims of such cruelty. In other instances, violence is the correlate of a sensibility that accepts and legitimizes it thus allowing its reproduction.

  16. Taste sensibility to phenylthiocarbamide and its relationship to food preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maria Pandolfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foods like cabbage, broccoli, pepper and wine, containing proteins such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, cause a bitter taste in some people. Studies showed the relation between tasting profile and the development of obesity, and consequently leading to cardiovascular disease. Objective: Compare the differences in the taste sensibility to PTC present in some foods in individuals classified according to the nutritional status. Methods: One hundred fifty-three patients classified as eutrophic, overweight or obese received one drop of each PTC solution in the tongue, since the most diluted to the individual perception to bitter taste, in a total of 15 increasing grades. Results: Participants were predominantly middle-aged females, eutrophics and supertasters. It was found a correlation between PTC solution and red wine in the three groups evaluated (eutrophic, obese and overweight. Besides, eutrophic and obese that disliked wine had more sensibility to PTC. Conclusion: Our main finding showed that eutrophic and obese that disliked red wine had more sensibility to PTC. We did not find differences in the sensitivity to PTC for the other foods analyzed (fried foods, fruit and vegetables.

  17. Sensibility of the Stump in Adults With an Acquired Major Upper Extremity Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Willemijn; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Smit-Klaij, Frida; Bongers, Raoul M.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the sensibility of the stump in adults with an acquired major upper extremity amputation with the sensibility of the unaffected side and with the corresponding body parts of healthy controls, as well as to relate the sensibility of the stump to daily functioning. Design: A

  18. Relative implant volume and sensibility alterations after breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Vaena, Michel; Radwanski, Henrique N; Nunes, Daniel; Vargas, André F

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have provided diverging results regarding the factors that may affect sensibility after primary breast augmentation. Implant volume is believed to be an important factor, but the relation of implant size to breast volume has not been adequately addressed. In addition, the literature shows that a conflict exists when the periareolar and inframammary approaches are compared. This study aimed to refine the volumetric analysis comparing the implant and final breast size as well as the intrinsic association of these two factors with postoperative sensory alteration of the breast. A prospective study investigated patients who underwent aesthetic breast augmentation between June 2004 and October 2005 (i.e., a 16-month period) at the Ivo Pitanguy Institute. The sensibility in nine regions of the breast was tested before and after surgery using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Breast sizers were used to compare the pre- and postoperative breast volumes. Statistical analysis of the data took into consideration the relative volume of the implant, the surgical approach, the presence of minor complications, the breast-feeding history, and the subjective evaluation of sensory changes in the patients. A total of 37 patients who underwent breast augmentation were examined preoperatively. The relative volume of the implant was found to be associated with sensibility alterations. No difference was found between the periareolar and inframammary incision approaches. Other factors such as previous breast-feeding, minor complications, and subjective alterations were not associated with sensory alterations. The study findings suggest that larger implants and smaller breasts show an increased association with postoperative sensory alterations of the breast. Plastic surgeons and their patients should be aware of this possibility. Implant volume should be considered together with breast size to avoid sensory complications, and this is summarized in the concept of relative

  19. PHA reinforce sensible drinking in Alcohol Awareness Week

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Recent health figures show that 20% of adults surveyed admitted to drinking over the weekly alcohol limits (1)so the Public Health Agency is using Alcohol Awareness Week (14-20th November) to reinforce the importance of drinking sensibly and staying within safe alcohol limits.Government guidelines on safe drinking are 21 units per week for males and 14 units per week for females. Staying within these limits is important as excessive and binge drinking can lead, in the short term, to increased...

  20. Surface renewal analysis to obtain sensible heat flux in rice, maize and soybean canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, A.; Paw U, K.; Snyder, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thermal environment in the plant canopy affects plants' growth processes such as flowering and ripening. High temperatures often cause grain sterility and poor filling, and reduce crop production in tropical and temperate regions. With global warming predicted, these effects have become a major concern worldwide. In this study, surface renewal analysis, which is a novel method for estimating scalar fluxes, was applied to rice, maize and soybean canopies to understand the dynamics of sensible heat in crop canopies. Surface renewal analysis has advantages of (1) lower cost of equipment, (2) a shorter fetch requirement and (3) less disturbance in the field. The temperature of the atmosphere (T) at multiple heights was measured at 10 Hz with fine-wire thermocouples to calculate sensible heat flux (H) from the ramp pattern of T. Variations in H determined from the T measurements at canopy top was from -80 to 120 Wm-2 for rice, and it showed reasonable diurnal variation. However, H values determined from the T measurements within the canopies were smaller because of differences in temperature ramp frequency with height. These results suggest that not all turbulent structures penetrate deeply into canopies. The results for rice, maize and soybean canopies will be presented at the meeting.

  1. Hydrological cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  2. Subjectivity and vulnerability: reflections on the foundation of ethical sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Per

    2003-10-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of understanding the rudimentary elements of clinical sensitivity by investigating the works of Edmund Husserl and Emmanuel Levinas on sensibility. Husserl's theory of intentionality offers significant reflections on the role of pre-reflective and affective intuition as a condition for intentionality and reflective consciousness. These early works of Husserl, in particular his works on the constitution of phenomenological time and subjective time-consciousness, prove to be an important basis for Levinas' works on an ethics of alterity and infinite responsibility for the other person. In fact, it is difficult to understand the core of Levinasian ethics, of vulnerability as proximity, of ethical sensitivity as passivity and a suffering for the suffering of another, without understanding the influence from Husserl's work. Crucially, the paper will, on the basis of Levinasian ethics, establish an understanding of sensibility as vulnerability and receptivity that is fundamental also for understanding significant intuitions in clinical nursing. Clinical sensitivity and carefulness in nursing are shaped by the concrete and also bodily expressions of vulnerabilities in a receptivity that is pre-reflective and pre-ontological.

  3. Sibling rivalry, separation, and change in Austen's Sense and Sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick Hanly, Margaret Ann

    2016-08-01

    The paper explores a process of growth represented in the interplay of Jane Austen's characterizations of Marianne and Elinor Dashwood in Sense and Sensibility, approaching the text through the lens of psychoanalytic theories on oedipal sibling rivalry, separation, and processes of change. A close reading of Sense and Sensibility tracks Marianne Dashwood's repudiation of any 'second attachment' as the surface of an unconscious fantasy, denying a rival for the mother's love. A psychoanalytic view contrasts Marianne's lack of separation from her mother, her use of denial and projection, and her near death after losing the man she loves, with her older sister Elinor Dashwood's capacities for depression, reflection, and greater acceptance of loss and separation. The narrative portrays Mrs. Dashwood's identification with and idealization of her daughter Marianne, which contribute to her oedipal sibling 'victory'. In the language and structure of the novel, the projections, identifications, aggressions, and separations (conscious and unconscious) of the sisters in the vicissitudes of their adolescent loves and rivalries constitute a process of growth. Austen's novel brings to life, with the vividness and coherence of great literature, forces and fantasies in oedipal sibling rivalries, inspiring renewed attention to their subtle presence in the transference and countertransference of the psychoanalytic process. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Hydrology team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  5. [Sensibility of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesanović, Svetlana; Panajotović, Ljubomir; Garalejić, Elijana

    2008-06-01

    Congenital absence of vagina is a failure present in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome. Treatment of this anomaly includes nonoperative and operative procedures. McIndoe procedure uses split skin graft by Thiersch. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity (touch, warmness, coldness) of a vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome and compare it with the normal vagina. A total of 21 female persons with reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method and 21 female persons with normal vagina were observed. All female persons were devided into groups and subgroups (according to age). Sensibility to touch, warmness and coldness were examined, applying VonFrey's esthesiometer and termoesthesiometer for warmness and coldness in three regions of vagina (enter, middle wall, bothom). The number of positive answers was registrated by touching the mucosa regions for five seconds, five times. The obtained results showed that female patients with a reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method, felt touch at the middle part of wall and in the bottom of vagina better than patients with normal one. Also, the first ones felt warmness at the middle part of wall and coldness in the bottom of vagina, better than the patients with normal vagina. Other results showed no difference in sensibility between reconstructed and normal vagina. Various types of sensibility (touch, warmness, coldness) are better or the same in vaginas reconstructed by McIndoe method, in comparison with normal ones. This could be explaned by the fact that skin grafts are capable of recovering sensibility.

  6. Sensibility of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesanović Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Congenital absence of vagina is a failure present in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome. Treatment of this anomaly includes nonoperative and operative procedures. McIndoe procedure uses split skin graft by Thiersch. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity (touch, warmness, coldness of a vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome and compare it with the normal vagina. Methods. A total of 21 female persons with reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method and 21 female persons with normal vagina were observed. All female persons were divided into groups and subgroups (according to age. Sensibility to touch, warmness and coldness were examined, applying VonFrey's esthesiometer and termoesthesiometer for warmness and coldness in three regions of vagina (enter, middle wall, bothom. The number of positive answers was registrated by touching the mucosa regions for five seconds, five times. Results. The obtained results showed that female patients with a reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method, felt touch at the middle part of wall and in the bottom of vagina better than patients with normal one. Also, the first ones felt warmness at the middle part of wall and coldness in the bottom of vagina, better than the patients with normal vagina. Other results showed no difference in sensibility between reconstructed and normal vagina. Conclusion. Various types of sensibility (touch, warmness, coldness are better or the same in vaginas reconstructed by McIndoe method, in comparison with normal ones. This could be explained by the fact that skin grafts are capable of recovering sensibility.

  7. EXPLORING THE DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS’ CYBERBULLYING, CYBERVICTIMIZATION AND CYBERBULLYING SENSIBILITY LEVELS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OZGUR, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present research is to detect cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels of distance education students and analyze these levels with respect to several variables...

  8. The Relevance of Interoception in Chronic Tinnitus: Analyzing Interoceptive Sensibility and Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lau, Pia; Miesen, Miriam; Wunderlich, Robert; Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Wollbrink, Andreas; Gerlach, Alexander L; Junghöfer, Markus; Ehring, Thomas; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    .... Against this background, 20 participants suffering from chronic tinnitus and 20 matched healthy controls were tested with questionnaires, assessing interoceptive sensibility, and participated in two...

  9. Study of sensitivity and application of some tracers of use in hydrologic works; Estudio de sensibilidad y aplicacion de algunos trazadores de empleo en trabajos hidrologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, M.C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1980-05-15

    Inside the Industrial Applications Management, particularly in the Hydrology department, in the ININ outlined diverse problems are had in the study of underground waters and surface waters that either in a particular way, or in inter institutional collaboration (SARH, CFE, UNAM) it seen the necessity to solve this problem in the interconnection aspects in aquifer, expenses and contamination. One of the medullary parts that are had in this study is the applied evaluation of the tracer one that it presents two general aspects: a) determination method and b) Applicability depending on the land type that one has in the current to be applied. This study seeks according to: the sensibility reached with each one, and the evaluation of some other parameters like used time, cost and mainly realization feasibility at field level, to present some alternative for the use of them. (Author)

  10. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains an introduct......In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  11. The role of individual cyclones for atmospheric latent and sensible heat transport into the European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Stohl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The bulk of the atmospheric latent heat transport induced by extratropical cyclones is organized in the warm conveyor belt, also known as atmospheric rivers. In order to enhance the process understanding of atmospheric sensible and latent heat transport with these structures into the European Arctic, the magnitude and variability of the energy flux from individual cyclones in this region was studied. We applied a moisture source tracking algorithm embedded in the limited-area numerical weather prediction model (NWP) Climate High-Resolution Model (CHRM) to trace the evaporation sources and transport of water vapour from different latitude bands of the North Atlantic Ocean. September 2002 and December 2006 were chosen as initial analysis periods, since a particularly large number of cyclones (including former hurricanes) traveled within the North Atlantic storm track during these months. The main findings are that latent heat (LH) from more southerly source regions is transported at higher altitudes. Stronger storms draw latent heat from a larger area (further south), and the ensuing precipitation will hence on average originate from further south as well. Most long-range transport of LH occurs in the cold frontal bands. Individual cyclones are the main source of sub-monthly LH flux variability, and can cause up to 4-sigma variation of the mean flux. LH flux is almost permanently net positive (northward), unlike for sensible heat (SH) and other energy fluxes. Most LH that is "permanently" transferred to north of 60°N in the Atlantic storm track originates from directly south of that latitude, implying on average short atmospheric moisture lifetimes, and hence a fast energy turnover. We compare these findings to results from a Lagrangian moisture tracking method based on the FLEXPART model. Remarks with regard to differences in the transport conditions of latent head in such structures along the North American West Coast and the Norwegian West Coast will be made.

  12. CONOCIMIENTO SENSIBLE EN LA EXPRESIÓN CORPORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARA LOURDES PEÑA CASTRO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Con facilidad hacemos que el cuerpo hable y aunque parezca  una redundancia, vale la pena señalar que no hay posibilidad  de expresión fuera de lo corporal. ¿Pero qué es el cuerpo?  Resulta un tanto extraño que muchas de las aportaciones  sobre el tema, vengan de los filósofos nacidos en el mundo  de la medicina y la sicologia; sus reflexiones que se originan en los resultados realizados con sus pacientes,  «asombrosamente» concluyen que el cuerpo no es sólo  una realidad biológica, sino que además es una evidencia  personal, trascendente, sensible y expresiva.

  13. Decision support for sensible dosing in electronic prescribing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J J; Nwulu, U; Ferner, R E

    2012-08-01

    The sensible dosing of medicines can ensure that patients receive neither excessive doses leading to toxicity nor inappropriately low doses leading to undertreatment. Computerized prescribing systems with embedded decision support can check doses during prescription order entry and display alerts when the prescribed doses are out of range. We have been unable to identify any scheme for the systematic addition of dosing information to CPOE systems. We used pharmacological data to design an algorithm for dose range checking that we tested on a subset of medicines in an electronic prescribing system to ensure that the rules could be implemented in practice. We drafted an initial algorithm based on pharmacological principles, tested it on a subset of frequently prescribed drugs in an electronic prescribing system and then refined it. We considered which clinical decision support functions systems would require to be maximally effective. The final algorithm contained eleven broad factors. We tested it on 30 drug-route-form combinations, and it accommodated the information for all of these combinations. We also identified a variety of system functions that would be required for comprehensive dosing decision support. The dose range checking algorithm that we have derived from first principles will allow the clinical workflow and warnings to be constructed more effectively within systems to enhance patient safety. This will form a basis for the development of optimal schemes for adding decision support to prescribing systems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Can We Get Inside the Aesthetic Sensibility of the Archaic Past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Will

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about getting inside the sensibility of the archaic past.[1] Can we get into the creative mind of the painter of The Sorcerer? Can we reconstruct the sensibility of prehistoric humans? Can we recover the humor of the prehistoric artist? Can we do it? After all, sense equipment is the same in men and women of all ages, and though each age inflects its sense usages uniquely, there should remain an underlying continuity among sensibilities. Shouldn't we be able to return into earlier forms of those usages? Can we tell whether we have been successful in accomplishing that return? Can just getting inside the sensibility of the past be of use to us in our own quest for humanity?[2] Or is there some other justification for a regression into the sensibility of the past? I tackle those questions here.

  15. Morphological Texture Manipulation for The Evaluation of Human Visual Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Chie Muraki; Asano, Akira; Li, Liang; Fujimoto, Takako

    Since the surface texture of materials often affects human visual impressions as much as or more than the design, shape, or color properties, texture characteristics have been studied as features of object identification. We have been investigating the effect of texture on visual impression and objective identification using black fabrics that do not exhibit any effects of color. Our studies showed that visual impressions of texture correspond to complex micro-components and global structures of image features of those textures. Our results also showed that some important elements influence human visual impressions and identification of textures. Because of a variety of fibrous structures, it is not easy to provide a systematic analysis of clothing materials. Nevertheless, developing the method and collecting data on these elements and their effects using these image features will be important. To make this research applicable for wider use, we have been studying precisely what it is about an arbitrary texture that influences human visual impressions and sensibility. As a new step, in this paper, a texture is altered and transformed using the parameter estimation method of texture based on mathematical morphology, which is often used for extracting image components that are useful for representation and description. A texture is decomposed into a primitive and grain arrangement which correspond to local and global characteristics, respectively. Different textures are created by modifying the primitive and the arrangement to investigate the effects of modifications of local and global features. The relationship between the parameters and visual impressions of the modified textures were evaluated. This study shows that influence of both local and global structures of the texture along with their combinations and mutual interactions are important for identification of human visual impression.

  16. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  17. A dynamic aerodynamic resistance approach to calculate high resolution sensible heat fluxes in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ben; Grimmond, Sue; Kent, Christoph; Gabey, Andrew; Ward, Helen; Sun, Ting; Morrison, William

    2017-04-01

    Remotely sensed data from satellites have potential to enable high-resolution, automated calculation of urban surface energy balance terms and inform decisions about urban adaptations to environmental change. However, aerodynamic resistance methods to estimate sensible heat flux (QH) in cities using satellite-derived observations of surface temperature are difficult in part due to spatial and temporal variability of the thermal aerodynamic resistance term (rah). In this work, we extend an empirical function to estimate rah using observational data from several cities with a broad range of surface vegetation land cover properties. We then use this function to calculate spatially and temporally variable rah in London based on high-resolution (100 m) land cover datasets and in situ meteorological observations. In order to calculate high-resolution QH based on satellite-observed land surface temperatures, we also develop and employ novel methods to i) apply source area-weighted averaging of surface and meteorological variables across the study spatial domain, ii) calculate spatially variable, high-resolution meteorological variables (wind speed, friction velocity, and Obukhov length), iii) incorporate spatially interpolated urban air temperatures from a distributed sensor network, and iv) apply a modified Monte Carlo approach to assess uncertainties with our results, methods, and input variables. Modeled QH using the aerodynamic resistance method is then compared to in situ observations in central London from a unique network of scintillometers and eddy-covariance measurements.

  18. HYDROLOGY, SANDUSKY COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, TALLAHATCHIE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Hydrology, MECKLENBURG COUNTY, NC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, LAFAYETTE COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, LEE COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, GREENE County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, CUSTER COUNTY, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, WARREN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, Lawrence County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating ALood discharges for a ALood Insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, CITRUS COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, Cass COUNTY, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, CLAY COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, NEWTON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, CHISAGO COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, GLADES COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, Allegheny County, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, SCOTT COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, Butler COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, MUSKINGUM COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. Hydrology, ANDROSCOGGIN COUNTY, MAINE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, SUMNER COUNTY, TN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, HARVEYCOUNTY, KS USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, JACKSON COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, QUITMAN COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, STEARNS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, POWESHIEK COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  8. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-07-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  9. La pedagogía sensible y la imagen en movimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Schara

    2012-01-01

    La pedagogía sensible se produce como consecuencia de la necesidad de un modelo pertinente para la enseñanza del arte que pueda desplazar las concepciones tradicionales de la misma. En la pedagogía sensible, el hombre es una unidad perceptiva imaginativa y sensible, y las interacciones sociales con el entorno prevalecerán sobre la alienación y el aislamiento de la escuelatradicional. Se prestará una mayor atención a los aspectos motivacionales, recreativos y se resaltará la importancia de la ...

  10. Analysis of eco-hydrological control and feedback using data-derived entropic process networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Praveen, K.

    2007-12-01

    We hypothesize that plant ecosystems form self-organizing systems on the landscape which function to control their immediate surroundings towards the end of improving the efficiency of community carbon assimilation. Self- organization is difficult to define, but the concept requires the presence of feedbacks. Flows of control and feedbacks may be studied using network theory. This research uses entropy-based statistics of information flow to render the eco-hydrological system as a process network empirically derived from multivariate timeseries datasets. The resulting process network is analyzed to identify ecosystem controls and feedbacks and to separate different modes of system behavior. This approach is applied to the central corn belt eco-region using FLUXNET eddy-covariance timeseries data. Results indicate that plant respiration is a dominant controller of the interaction in the network of variables, including CO2 flux and sensible heat flux under well-watered conditions, and latent heat flux (but not CO2 flux) under drought conditions. Respiration is not controlled directly by other processes in the network, indicating that respiration is an independent (information-driven) mechanism of control by plants. Under drought conditions the ecosystem loses its ability to control CO2 assimilation through respiration, in agreement with the Ball-Berry model. CO2 flux inhabits a control feedback loop via latent and sensible heat flux, precipitation and cloud conditions, suggesting that carbon assimilation activity forms the basis of a self-organizing system spanning the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Our finding that plants regulate their environment and CO2 uptake by modifying respiration, and that carbon assimilation feeds back on itself via atmospheric processes, supports the hypothesis that this ecosystem is self-organizing.

  11. Data’s Intimacy: Machinic Sensibility and the Quantified Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, machines observe, record the world – not just for us, but sometimes instead of us (in our stead, and even indifferently to us humans. And yet, remain human. Correlationism may not be up to a comprehensive ontology, but the ways in which we encounter, and struggle to make some kind of sense of, machinic sensibility matters. The nature of that encounter is not instrumentality, or even McLuhanian extension, but a full-blown ‘relationship’ where the terms by which machines ‘experience’ the world, and communicate with each other, parametrises the conditions for our own experience. This essay will play out one such relationship currently in the making: the boom in self-tracking technologies, and the attendant promise of data’s intimacy. This essay proceeds in three sections, all of which draw on a larger research project into self-tracking and contemporary data epistemologies. It thus leverages observations from close reading of self-tracking’s publicisation in the mass media between 2007 and 2016; analysis of over fifty self-tracking products, some of it through self-experimentation; and interviews and ethnographic observation, primarily of the ‘Quantified Self’ connoisseur community. The first section examines the dominant public presentations of self-tracking in early twenty-first century discourse. This discourse embraces a vision of automated and intimate self-surveillance, which is then promised to deliver superior control and objective knowledge over the self. Next, I link these promises to the recent theoretical turns towards the agency of objects and the autonomous sensory capacities of new media to consider the implications of such theories – and the technological shifts they address – for the phenomenology of the new media subject. Finally, I return to self-tracking discourse to consider its own idealisation of such a subject – what I call ‘data-sense’. I conclude by calling for a more explicit public and

  12. Estimation of grass reference evaporation and sensible heat flux using surface renewal and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory: A simple implementation of an iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    An iterative method was applied to daily crop reference evaporation ETo. The method correctly evaluated the slope of the saturation water vapour pressure vs temperature relationship between surface temperature and air temperature. Using daily meterological data spanning several decades from four selected locations in Australia, South Africa and USA, differences in ETo estimates were noted with and without the iteration method applied. The largest difference, which occurred under high water vapour pressure deficit conditions, ranged from 1.65 mm/day for Griffith, Australia to 0.51 mm/day for Pretoria, South Africa. The aerodynamic component of the ETo equation was more affected by not applying the spreadsheet iterative procedure compared to the radiative component. Other spreadsheet examples of the iterative method employed included obtaining the roots of a depressed cubic polynomial in the air temperature surface renewal (SR) ramp. This value was used for the measurement of sensible heat flux using surface renewal. An iterative method, together with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) and surface-layer scintillometer (SLS) measurements in a mesic grassland, was also used to calculate the sensible heat flux. The simple iterative method is quick, accurate and convenient, easy to repeat following changes to equations or data, allows easy manipulation and allows convenient visual inspection of data and graphics. Sub-hourly measurements of sensible heat flux for the mesic grassland using SR and SLS MOST iterative methods compared favourably with Bowen ratio and eddy covariance measurements.

  13. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy–transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  14. Estimation of hydrologic properties of an unsaturated, fractured rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavetter, E.A.; Peters, R.R.

    1986-07-01

    In this document, two distinctly different approaches are used to develop continuum models to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both models provide methods for estimating rock-mass hydrologic properties. Comparisons made over a range of different tuff properties show good qualitative and quantitative agreement between estimates of rock-mass hydrologic properties made by the two models. This document presents a general discussion of: (1) the hydrology of Yucca Mountain, and the conceptual hydrological model currently being used for the Yucca Mountain site, (2) the development of two models that may be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of a fractured, porous rock mass, and (3) a comparison of the hydrologic properties estimated by these two models. Although the models were developed in response to hydrologic characterization requirements at Yucca Mountain, they can be applied to water movement in any fractured rock mass that satisfies the given assumptions.

  15. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  16. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  17. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected...... global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface...

  18. Network analysis applications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katie

    2017-04-01

    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  19. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  20. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  1. Hydrologic Services Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  2. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  3. Temporal-spatial characteristics of area-averaged sensible heat flux by Large Aperture Scintillometer over Hai River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J.; Liu, S. M.; Xu, Z. W.; Jia, L.; Ding, X. P.

    2010-09-01

    Due to the wide and deep application of Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS), the scintillation method exhibits as a robust technique in measuring area-averaged sensible heat fluxes. As the path length of LAS is comparable to the pixel size of satellite images and grid scale of hydrological models, the measurements are helpful for validation. Meanwhile LAS has the potential to explore the scale effect, especially to bridge the gap from local to regional flux measurement. In our analysis, the ground measurements including LAS, Eddy Covariance (EC) system and Automatic Weather System(AWS), as well as TM/MODIS satellite in Miyun, Guantao and Daxing sites over Hai River Basin from 2008-2009 were selected, which can represent three different heterogeneous surfaces in Hai River Basin. After data processing and quality control, continuous sensible heat flux (Hlas) data on Kilometers Scale were obtained over various surfaces. Based on the footprint model of LAS, the distribution of source area for LAS measurements had been analyzed over Miyun, Guantao and Daxing sites in January, April, July and October, 2008. And then the daily variation of Hlas in January, April, July and October in 2008 over the three sites have been analyzed; the value and tendency of variation in these months are different among these sites, which are in accordance with the local crop phenophases. From the comparison of daily mean net radiation (Rn) and Hlas from 2008-2009 over the three sites, it can be seen the seasonal variation of Hlas are consistent in these two years, however, Miyun site shows a single peak while Guantao and Daxing sites show double-peak variation of Hlas, which mainly due to the different crop phenophases and irrigation conditions. At last, the difference between Hlas and Hec in Miyun and Guantao sites had been discussed separately. In accordance with the underlying surfaces, the reasons for the difference between Hlas and Hec can be attributed to the energy balance ratio of EC

  4. Sensibility in the relations and interactions of teaching and learning to be and do nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Marlene Gomes; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; dos Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on proxemic feelings and feelings of detachment and ambiguity among professors-nurses concerning their experiences. This study aimed to reveal the meanings of sensibility held by being-professor-nurse in teaching and learning to be and do nursing. The theoretical-philosophical support is based on Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenological approach and the hermeneutics phenomenology of Paul Ricoeur was used. Nineteen professors-nurses from a Higher Education institution in the South of Brazil were interviewed between November and December 2006. Sensibility was revealed as the capacity to observe details in order to intervene in a situation the best way possible, and also as a way to break with exclusive models of the cognitive-instrumental rationality of science and technique, since sensibility is the basis for developing other ways of teaching and learning to be and do Nursing.

  5. La pedagogía sensible y la imagen en movimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Schara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La pedagogía sensible se produce como consecuencia de la necesidad de un modelo pertinente para la enseñanza del arte que pueda desplazar las concepciones tradicionales de la misma. En la pedagogía sensible, el hombre es una unidad perceptiva imaginativa y sensible, y las interacciones sociales con el entorno prevalecerán sobre la alienación y el aislamiento de la escuelatradicional. Se prestará una mayor atención a los aspectos motivacionales, recreativos y se resaltará la importancia de la innovación, la producción del conocimiento del arte, configurando los conflictos sociales y los planteamientos de los problemas de cada disciplina, no como situaciones aisladas, sino mutuamente solidarias, inter y transdisciplinarias.

  6. Evaluating spatial patterns in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian

    is not fully exploited by current modelling frameworks due to the lack of suitable spatial performance metrics. Furthermore, the traditional model evaluation using discharge is found unsuitable to lay confidence on the predicted catchment inherent spatial variability of hydrological processes in a fully...... the contiguous United Sates (10^6 km2). To this end, the thesis at hand applies a set of spatial performance metrics on various hydrological variables, namely land-surface-temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture. The inspiration for the applied metrics is found in related fields...

  7. La richesse du sensible: Stumpf contre les néokantiens

    OpenAIRE

    Dewalque, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Me focalisant sur la réception de l'esthétique transcendantale de Kant en Allemagne à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle, je confronte deux lectures concurrentes du kantisme: la lecture "déflationiste" des néokantiens, qui aboutit à une conception appauvrie du sensible, et la lecture "inflationiste" de Stumpf, qui fait du sensible un champ richement et intrinsèquement structuré. Peer reviewed

  8. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Model to Estimate Hydrologic Budget of Upper Klamath Lake Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed and accurate hydrologic budgets of lake or reservoirs are essential for sustainable water supply and ecosystem managements due to increasing water demand and uncertainties related to climate change. Ensuring sustainable water allocation to stakeholders requires accurate heat and hydrologic budgets. A number of micrometeorological methods have been developed to approximate heat budget components, such as evaporative and sensible heat loss, that are not directly measurable. Although micrometeorological methods estimate the sensible and evaporative loss well for stationary (i.e. ideal) condition, these methods can rarely be approximated for non-idealized condition. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ), developed at UC Davis, with the goal of correctly estimating the hydrologic budget of Upper Klamath Lake Oregon, USA. The measured and DLM-WQ estimated lake water temperatures and water elevation are in excellent agreement with correlation coefficient equals 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. Consistent with previous studies, the sensible and latent heat exchange coefficients were found to be site specific. Estimated lake mixing shows that the lake became strongly stratified during summer (between late April and the end of August). For the hypereutrophic shallow Upper Klamath Lake, longer stratification results in low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at the sediment surface causing DO sensitive habitat destruction and ecological problems. The updated DLM-WQ can provide quantitative estimates of hydrologic components and predict the effects of natural- or human-induced changes in one component of the hydrologic cycle on the lake supplies and associated consequences.

  9. Face Generation Using Emotional Regions for Sensibility Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Minori; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Kato, Shohei; Kunitachi, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hidenori

    We think that psychological interaction is necessary for smooth communication between robots and people. One way to psychologically interact with others is through facial expressions. Facial expressions are very important for communication because they show true emotions and feelings. The ``Ifbot'' robot communicates with people by considering its own ``emotions''. Ifbot has many facial expressions to communicate enjoyment. We developed a method for generating facial expressions based on human subjective judgements mapping Ifbot's facial expressions to its emotions. We first created Ifbot's emotional space to map its facial expressions. We applied a five-layer auto-associative neural network to the space. We then subjectively evaluated the emotional space and created emotional regions based on the results. We generated emotive facial expressions using the emotional regions.

  10. Development of a Historical Hydrological online research and application platform for Switzerland - Historical Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland (HHAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    It is planned to develop and maintain a historical hydrological online platform for Switzerland, which shall be specially designed for the needs of research and federal, cantonal or private institutions being interested in hydrological risk assessment and protection measures. The aim is on the one hand to facilitate the access to raw data which generally is needed for further historical hydrological reconstruction and quantification, so that future research will be achieved in significantly shorter time. On the other hand, new historical hydrological research results shall be continuously included in order to establish this platform as a useful tool for the assessment of hydrological risk by including the long term experience of reconstructed pre-instrumental hydrological extreme events like floods and droughts. Meteorological parameters that may trigger extreme hydrological events, like monthly or seasonally resolved reconstructions of temperature and precipitation shall be made accessible in this platform as well. The ultimate goal will be to homogenise the reconstructed hydrological extreme events which usually appeared in the pre anthropogenic influence period under different climatological as well as different hydrological regimes and topographical conditions with the present day state. Long term changes of reconstructed small- to extreme flood seasonality, based on municipal accounting records, will be included in the platform as well. This helps - in combination with the before mentioned meteorological parameters - to provide an increased understanding of the major changes in the generally complex overall system that finally causes hydrological extreme events. The goal of my presentation at the Historical Climatology session is to give an overview about the applied historical climatological and historical hydrological methodologies that are applied on the historical raw data (evidence) to reconstruct pre instrumental hydrological events and meteorological

  11. Theoretical study on separate sensible and latent cooling air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Jiazhen; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard [Center for Environmental Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, 3163 Glenn Martin Hall Bldg., College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The advantage of separating sensible and latent cooling (SSLC) via the use of separate cycles is saving energy by raising the evaporating temperature of the sensible cooling process. In this study, the pertinent characteristics of the SSLC system using two parallel vapor compression cycles were investigated. The requirement for high air flow rate through the sensible evaporator was the most important hardware design issue, since it might lead to a high air-side pressure drop. To address this issue, a new air distribution method, which could significantly reduce the pressure drop, was proposed to replace the conventional one. The heat exchanger modeling results demonstrated that sensible evaporators of the SSLC system could provide the equivalent cooling capacity at reduced air-side pressure drop to that of the conventional system without increasing the total heat transfer area. Although initial investment of the SSLC system is projected to be higher than the conventional system, the estimated operating cost of the SSLC system is lower than the conventional one because of the low energy consumption. (author)

  12. Correlation between Histological Status of the Pulp and Its Response to Sensibility Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mandana; Khayat, Akbar; Zamaheni, Sara; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests by correlating it with histologic pulp condition. Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms were performed on 65 permanent teeth that were scheduled to be extracted for periodontal, prosthodontic or orthodontic reasons. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable tooth conditions while irreversible pulpitis and necrosis were considered as untreatable conditions. The teeth were then extracted and sectioned for histological analysis of dental pulp. Histologic status and classification corresponded to the treatable or untreatable pulp condition. Comparisons between histological treatable and untreatable pulp condition were performed with chi-square analysis for sensibility test responses. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy to detect untreatable from treatable pulp condition were calculated for each test. A significant difference was detected in the normal and a sharp lingered response to heat and cold tests. There was significant difference in the negative response to EPT between histological groups. The kappa agreement coefficient between clinical and histological diagnosis of pulp condition was about 0.843 (Ppulpitis with a higher probability (NPV=63%-67% -54%, PPV=83%-91% -95% for heat, cold and EPT, respectively). Sensibility test results were more likely to diagnose pulpal disease or untreatable pulp conditions. However, to increase the diagnostic accuracy patient history, clinical signs and symptoms and also radiographic findings in conjunction with sensibility tests must be used. The result of this small study demonstrated a good agreement between clinical and histological pulp diagnosis.

  13. Impact of Dissociation and Sensible Heat Release on Pulse Detonation and Gas Turbine Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2001-01-01

    A thermodynamic cycle analysis of the effect of sensible heat release on the relative performance of pulse detonation and gas turbine engines is presented. Dissociation losses in the PDE (Pulse Detonation Engine) are found to cause a substantial decrease in engine performance parameters.

  14. Mean surface temperature prediction models for broiler chickens—a study of sensible heat flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Castro, Ariane Cristina; Vieira, Frederico Marcio Corrêa

    2014-03-01

    Body surface temperature can be used to evaluate thermal equilibrium in animals. The bodies of broiler chickens, like those of all birds, are partially covered by feathers. Thus, the heat flow at the boundary layer between broilers' bodies and the environment differs between feathered and featherless areas. The aim of this investigation was to use linear regression models incorporating environmental parameters and age to predict the surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas of broiler chickens. The trial was conducted in a climate chamber, and 576 broilers were distributed in two groups. In the first trial, 288 broilers were monitored after exposure to comfortable or stressful conditions during a 6-week rearing period. Another 288 broilers were measured under the same conditions to test the predictive power of the models. Sensible heat flow was calculated, and for the regions covered by feathers, sensible heat flow was predicted based on the estimated surface temperatures. The surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas can be predicted based on air, black globe or operative temperatures. According to the sensible heat flow model, the broilers' ability to maintain thermal equilibrium by convection and radiation decreased during the rearing period. Sensible heat flow estimated based on estimated surface temperatures can be used to predict animal responses to comfortable and stressful conditions.

  15. Exploring the Distance Education Students' Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization and Cyberbullying Sensibility Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present research is to detect cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels of distance education students and analyze these levels with respect to several variables. The research has been patterned on relational screening model. Study group consisted of 297 distance education students studying at university…

  16. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Based on measurements at Sodankyla Meteorological Observatory the regional (aggregated) momentum and sensible heat fluxes are estimated for two days over a site in Finnish Lapland during late winter. The forest covers 49% of the area. The study shows that the forest dominates and controls...

  17. Evaporation, sensible heat and canopy conductance of fallow savannah and patterned woodland in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Dolman, A.J.; Elbers, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of evaporation, sensible heat and canopy conductance of fallow savannah and patterned woodland in the Sahel is studied for the HAPEX-Sahel Intensive Observation Period. Both fallow savannah and patterned woodland reach evaporation rates of 4–5 mm day−1 during the rainy part of the IOP

  18. Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study: A Sensible Approach. The Bill Harp Professional Teachers Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    This concise book shares several sensible, logical, and meaningful approaches that guide young children to use the written coding system to read, spell, and make meaning of the English language coding system. The book demonstrates that phonics, spelling, and word study are essential parts of literacy learning. After an introduction, chapters are:…

  19. Estimation of sensible heat flux using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and ATSR measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Su, Z.; Hurk, van den B.; Menenti, M.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Baselga Yrisarry, J.J.; Ibanez, M.; Cuesta, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified version of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) as regards the use of radiometric data from space and presents the results of a large area validation study on estimated sensible heat flux, extended over several months. The improvements were made possible by the

  20. A Bayesian analysis of sensible heat flux estimation: Quantifying uncertainty in meteorological forcing to improve model prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali

    2013-05-01

    The influence of uncertainty in land surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed on the estimation of sensible heat flux is analyzed using a Bayesian inference technique applied to the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. The Bayesian approach allows for an explicit quantification of the uncertainties in input variables: a source of error generally ignored in surface heat flux estimation. An application using field measurements from the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 is presented. The spatial variability of selected input meteorological variables in a multitower site is used to formulate the prior estimates for the sampling uncertainties, and the likelihood function is formulated assuming Gaussian errors in the SEBS model. Land surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed were estimated by sampling their posterior distribution using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Results verify that Bayesian-inferred air temperature and wind speed were generally consistent with those observed at the towers, suggesting that local observations of these variables were spatially representative. Uncertainties in the land surface temperature appear to have the strongest effect on the estimated sensible heat flux, with Bayesian-inferred values differing by up to ±5°C from the observed data. These differences suggest that the footprint of the in situ measured land surface temperature is not representative of the larger-scale variability. As such, these measurements should be used with caution in the calculation of surface heat fluxes and highlight the importance of capturing the spatial variability in the land surface temperature: particularly, for remote sensing retrieval algorithms that use this variable for flux estimation.

  1. Facets of Hydrology II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Frank J.

    The editor states that this book should have a wide appeal to the research hydrologist, to operational hydrologists, and to those who have only a limited knowledge or are beginners in the study of hydrology. I agree with the editor that this publication should appeal to a large cross section of people whose interests lie in the various facets of hydrology.This publication takes a look at the newest interpretational tools available to hydrologists, such as environmental satellites. It considers a diverse menu of topics, such as sediment load of rivers, water resource systems, water quality monitoring, and the physical aspects of lakes. The volume also presents a look at international organizations that are concerned with worldwide water problems. The quality, quantity, and distribution of water over the globe is covered unde the topic headings “Large Scale Water Transfers,” “Technology Transfer in Hydrology,” and “The Organization of Hydrologic Services.”

  2. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  3. Global Hydrology Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GHRC is the data management and user services arm of the Global Hydrology and Climate Center. It encompasses the data and information management, supporting...

  4. Hydrologic Engineering Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), an organization within the Institute for Water Resources, is the designated Center of Expertise for the U.S. Army Corps of...

  5. Hydrological or economical obligation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorucci E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short comment is made about the obligation of the forest management plan in Italy, that was established as an economical (not hydrological obligation according to the Luzzatti law of 1910.

  6. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  7. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  8. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  9. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation, which constitutes ˜ 70 % of the total amount of freshwater consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) with an active crop model, two high-resolution (˜ 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat (LH), sensible heat (SH), and carbon fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed that the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer, with a LH increase of ˜ 100 W m-2 and a SH decrease of ˜ 60 W m-2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate is below 5 mm day-1, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm day-1, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC m-2 day-1, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by ˜ 0.8 gC m-2 day-1. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH, and NEE.

  10. Some guidelines for remote sensing in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing in the field of hydrology is beginning to be applied to significant problems, such as thermal pollution, in many programs of the Federal and State Governments as well as in operation of many private organizations. The purpose of this paper is to guide the hydrologist to a better understanding of how he may collect, synthesize, and interpret remote sensing data.

  11. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include…

  12. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  13. Scaling biodiversity responses to hydrological regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Heino, Jani; Ryder, Darren S; Chessman, Bruce C; Growns, Ivor O; Thompson, Ross M; Gido, Keith B

    2017-11-08

    Of all ecosystems, freshwaters support the most dynamic and highly concentrated biodiversity on Earth. These attributes of freshwater biodiversity along with increasing demand for water mean that these systems serve as significant models to understand drivers of global biodiversity change. Freshwater biodiversity changes are often attributed to hydrological alteration by water-resource development and climate change owing to the role of the hydrological regime of rivers, wetlands and floodplains affecting patterns of biodiversity. However, a major gap remains in conceptualising how the hydrological regime determines patterns in biodiversity's multiple spatial components and facets (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic). We synthesised primary evidence of freshwater biodiversity responses to natural hydrological regimes to determine how distinct ecohydrological mechanisms affect freshwater biodiversity at local, landscape and regional spatial scales. Hydrological connectivity influences local and landscape biodiversity, yet responses vary depending on spatial scale. Biodiversity at local scales is generally positively associated with increasing connectivity whereas landscape-scale biodiversity is greater with increasing fragmentation among locations. The effects of hydrological disturbance on freshwater biodiversity are variable at separate spatial scales and depend on disturbance frequency and history and organism characteristics. The role of hydrology in determining habitat for freshwater biodiversity also depends on spatial scaling. At local scales, persistence, stability and size of habitat each contribute to patterns of freshwater biodiversity yet the responses are variable across the organism groups that constitute overall freshwater biodiversity. We present a conceptual model to unite the effects of different ecohydrological mechanisms on freshwater biodiversity across spatial scales, and develop four principles for applying a multi-scaled understanding of

  14. Hydrological extremes and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  15. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  16. Acting, predicting and intervening in a socio-hydrological world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    This paper asks a simple question: if humans and their actions co-evolve with hydrological systems (Sivapalan et al., 2012), what is the role of hydrological scientists, who are also humans, within this system? To put it more directly, as traditionally there is a supposed separation of scientists and society, can we maintain this separation as socio-hydrologists studying a socio-hydrological world? This paper argues that we cannot, using four linked sections. The first section draws directly upon the concern of science-technology studies to make a case to the (socio-hydrological) community that we need to be sensitive to constructivist accounts of science in general and socio-hydrology in particular. I review three positions taken by such accounts and apply them to hydrological science, supported with specific examples: (a) the ways in which scientific activities frame socio-hydrological research, such that at least some of the knowledge that we obtain is constructed by precisely what we do; (b) the need to attend to how socio-hydrological knowledge is used in decision-making, as evidence suggests that hydrological knowledge does not flow simply from science into policy; and (c) the observation that those who do not normally label themselves as socio-hydrologists may actually have a profound knowledge of socio-hydrology. The second section provides an empirical basis for considering these three issues by detailing the history of the practice of roughness parameterisation, using parameters like Manning's n, in hydrological and hydraulic models for flood inundation mapping. This history sustains the third section that is a more general consideration of one type of socio-hydrological practice: predictive modelling. I show that as part of a socio-hydrological analysis, hydrological prediction needs to be thought through much more carefully: not only because hydrological prediction exists to help inform decisions that are made about water management; but also because

  17. On the Equality Assumption of Latent and Sensible Heat Energy Transfer Coefficients of the Bowen Ratio Theory for Evapotranspiration Estimations: Another Look at the Potential Causes of Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Irmak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET and sensible heat (H flux play a critical role in climate change; micrometeorology; atmospheric investigations; and related studies. They are two of the driving variables in climate impact(s and hydrologic balance dynamics. Therefore, their accurate estimate is important for more robust modeling of the aforementioned relationships. The Bowen ratio energy balance method of estimating ET and H diffusions depends on the assumption that the diffusivities of latent heat (KV and sensible heat (KH are always equal. This assumption is re-visited and analyzed for a subsurface drip-irrigated field in south central Nebraska. The inequality dynamics for subsurface drip-irrigated conditions have not been studied. Potential causes that lead KV to differ from KH and a rectification procedure for the errors introduced by the inequalities were investigated. Actual ET; H; and other surface energy flux parameters using an eddy covariance system and a Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (located side by side on an hourly basis were measured continuously for two consecutive years for a non-stressed and subsurface drip-irrigated maize canopy. Most of the differences between KV and KH appeared towards the higher values of KV and KH. Although it was observed that KV was predominantly higher than KH; there were considerable data points showing the opposite. In general; daily KV ranges from about 0.1 m2∙s−1 to 1.6 m2∙s−1; and KH ranges from about 0.05 m2∙s−1 to 1.1 m2∙s−1. The higher values for KV and KH appear around March and April; and around September and October. The lower values appear around mid to late December and around late June to early July. Hourly estimates of KV range between approximately 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.8 m2∙s−1 and that of KH ranges approximately between 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.7 m2∙s−1. The inequalities between KV and KH varied diurnally as well as seasonally. The inequalities were greater during the non

  18. Separate sensible and latent cooling system: A preliminary analysis of a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawaz, Kashif [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Separate sensible and latent cooling systems offer significant increases in the overall performance of cooling/dehumidification systems compared with conventional vapor-compression air-conditioning systems. Key to the energy efficiency of such systems is the performance of the heat and mass exchangers that provide sensible cooling and dehumidification. A novel design is proposed for dehumidification applications, deploying metal foam as a substrate coated with solid desiccants. The current report provides some preliminary information regarding the development of the technology and discusses factors such as manufacturing of desiccants, characterization of desiccants, and development of the metal foam heat exchanger. All three aspects provide the necessary infrastructure for further development and validation of the proposed concept.

  19. Dificultades que surgen en la comprensión del conocimiento sensible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moya Cañas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the reception in Thomas Aquinas of Aristotle's theory about the nature of sensible knowledge, being an act in which the subject perceives the form divested form its material component. The point of view is that of the act of knowledge itself. The author suggests that a proper and novel disclosure of this aristotelic formula will contribute to establish the essential characters of the act of knowledge, emphasizing its inmaterial nature instead of the peculiar inmutation which gives birth to it in the cognoscente. Following Aquinas, she submits to analysis the act of sensible knowledge not disregarding its organic or bodily context, finding features which —in her view— correspond to all kinds of human knowledge.

  20. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  1. Snow and Glacier Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye

    The study of snow and ice is rich in both fundamental science and practical applications. Snow and Glacier Hydrology offers something for everyone, from resource practitioners in regions where water supply depends on seasonal snow pack or glaciers, to research scientists seeking to understand the role of the solid phase in the water cycle and climate. The book is aimed at the advanced undergraduate or graduate-level student. A perusal of online documentation for snow hydrology classes suggests that there is currently no single text or reference book on this topic in general use. Instructors rely on chapters from general hydrology texts or operational manuals, collections of journal papers, or their own notes. This variety reflects the fact that snow and ice regions differ in climate, topography, language, water law, hazards, and resource use (hydropower, irrigation, recreation). Given this diversity, producing a universally applicable book is a challenge.

  2. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  3. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... hydrological and tested by assimilating synthetic hydraulic head observations in a catchment in Denmark. Assimilation led to a substantial reduction of model prediction error, and better model forecasts. Also, a new assimilation scheme is developed to downscale and bias-correct coarse satellite derived soil...

  4. Sensible Heat Flux Related to Variations in Atmospheric Turbulence Kinetic Energy on a Sandy Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FLUX RELATED TO VARIATIONS IN ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE KINETIC ENERGY ON A SANDY BEACH by Jessica S. Koscinski June 2017 Thesis Advisor...KINETIC ENERGY ON A SANDY BEACH 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jessica S. Koscinski 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Sensible heat flux, turbulence kinetic energy , surf zone 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  5. EXPLORING THE DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS’ CYBERBULLYING, CYBERVICTIMIZATION AND CYBERBULLYING SENSIBILITY LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    OZGUR, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present research is to detect cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels of distance education students and analyze these levels with respect to several variables. The research has been patterned on relational screening model. Study group consisted of 297 distance education students studying at university in Marmara region during fall term of 2012-2013 academic year. Data have been obtained via cyberbullying scale, cybervictimization scale and cyberb...

  6. Modelagem hidrológica determinística e estocástica aplicada à região hidrográfica do Xingu- Pará Deterministic and stochastic hydrological modeling applied to the Xingu river basin - Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Wallace Monteiro Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A modelagem hidrológica é uma importante ferramenta no planejamento e gerenciamento de programas de recursos hídricos de bacias hidrográficas. Neste trabalho, foi aplicado o modelo hidrológico determinístico mensal de dois parâmetros e o modelo estocástico, ARIMA, para simular a vazão mensal das sub-bacias da região hidrográfica do Xingu no Estado do Pará. O objetivo principal foi simular a vazão mensal através dos modelos e comparar os seus resultados. O modelo hidrológico determinístico aplicado possui uma estrutura simples e apresentou bons resultados, porém mostrou-se muito sensível a eventos extremos de precipitação. O modelo estocástico ARIMA, conseguiu capturar a dinâmica das séries temporais, apresentando resultados muito satisfatórios na simulação da vazão mensal nas estações da bacia. Ambos os modelos devem ser aplicados com cautela no período chuvoso, onde ocorrem os eventos extremos de precipitação e consequentemente vazões de pico.Hydrologic modeling is an important tool for the planning and management of water resources use in river basins. In this work, a two-parameter monthly deterministic hydrologic model and the stochastic model, ARIMA, were applied to simulate the monthly runoff of the Xingu river basin in the State of Pará. The main objective of this work is to simulate the monthly runoff using the two models and to compare their results. The applied hydrological deterministic model has a simple structure and presented good results, but seems to be very sensitive to extreme precipitation events. The stochastic model ARIMA was able to capture the dynamic of the temporal series, presenting very satisfactory results for the simulation of the monthly runoff at the basin stations. Both models should be applied with caution during the rainy season, when extreme precipitation events and consequently peaks of runoff occur.

  7. Hydrologic and Undernourisment Trends In Food Insecurity Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Mishra, V.; Davenport, F.

    2011-12-01

    As food prices rise, per capita harvested area diminishes and competition for limited resources mounts, the number of undernourished people has risen to more than a billion people. In this study, we target 80 potentially food insecure countries, examining hydrologic and undernourishment trends. For each country, primary cultivation areas are identified, and hydrologic variables extracted from simulations based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity model driven with the Princeton University climate data. Trends in runoff, soil moisture, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and temperature are evaluated. In addition to precipitation driven-aridity, the analysis also evaluates possible temperature-related shifts in sensible versus latent heat fluxes during energy-limited portions of the growing seasons. Changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow are also investigated. The undernourishment trends are explored using the FAO percent under-nourished formulation, which determines the fraction of the population falling below a critical caloric threshold by using national food balance sheets (quantity) and a caloric distribution based on economic equality. Trends in quantity and equity, and their effects on undernourishment are evaluated, and vulnerability to price volatility quantified. Finally, a sub-set of countries facing both hydrologic declines and undernourishment increases are identified as food security hotspots.

  8. The Relevance of Interoception in Chronic Tinnitus: Analyzing Interoceptive Sensibility and Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand tinnitus and distress associated with tinnitus, psychological variables such as emotional and cognitive processing are a central element in theoretical models of this debilitating condition. Interoception, that is, the perception of internal processes, may be such a psychological factor relevant to tinnitus. Against this background, 20 participants suffering from chronic tinnitus and 20 matched healthy controls were tested with questionnaires, assessing interoceptive sensibility, and participated in two tasks, assessing interoceptive accuracy: the Schandry task, a heartbeat estimation assignment, and a skin conductance fluctuations perception task assessing the participants’ ability to perceive phasic increases in sympathetic activation were used. To test stress reactivity, a construct tightly connected to tinnitus onset, we also included a stress induction. No differences between the groups were found for interoceptive accuracy and sensibility. However, the tinnitus group tended to overestimate the occurrence of phasic activation. Loudness of the tinnitus was associated with reduced interoceptive performance under stress. Our results indicate that interoceptive sensibility and accuracy do not play a significant role in tinnitus. However, tinnitus might be associated with a tendency to overestimate physical changes.

  9. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Study Design: Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Additionally, all patients filled a questionnaire to assess subjective perceptions. Results: Although patients did not perceive any sensibility impairments, a statistically significant decrease was detected when Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. This alteration was present at one week after the surgical procedure and fully recovered one month after the extraction. There were no variations regarding the gustatory function. Conclusions: Lower third molar removal under local anesthesia may cause light lingual sensibility impairment. Most of these alterations remain undetected to patients. These lingual nerve injuries are present one week after the extraction and recover one month after surgery. The taste seems to remain unaffected after these procedures. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar, nerve injury, paresthesia, surgical extraction PMID:22322520

  10. Exploring the Distance Education Students’ Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization and Cyberbullying Sensibility Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan OZGUR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research is to detect cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels of distance education students and analyze these levels with respect to several variables. The research has been patterned on relational screening model. Study group consisted of 297 distance education students studying at university in Marmara region during fall term of 2012-2013 academic year. Data have been obtained via cyberbullying scale, cybervictimization scale and cyberbullying sensibility scale. In the analysis of obtained data descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis H and correlation tests have been utilized. Obtained findings manifested that distance education students received low scores on cyberbullying and mid level scores from cybervictimization; that they possess high sensibility towards cyberbullying and there is statistically meaningful differentiation between cyberbullying and cybervictimization. It has also been detected that the increase in Internet usage has accelerating effect on cyberbullying and cybervictimization and that there is correlation between cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Furthermore it has been revealed that compared to female students male students are engaged in higher levels of cyberbullying and they become cybervictimized more frequently.

  11. Analyzing The Relationship Between Cyberbullying Sensibility And Cyber Victimization Levels Of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sezgin NARTGUN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between cyberbullying sensibility and cyber victimization levels of Anatolian high school students. The correlational research model was used in this study. The population of the study consists of 2013-2014 education year and 1917 Anatolian high school students in Hendek,Sakarya and 439 students were selected via random sampling method. In the study “The scale of sensibility related to Cyberbullying” which has there parts and developed by Tanrıkulu,Kınay and Arıcak (2001 and “The scale of Cyber Victimization” hich was developed by Arıcak, Tanrıkulu and Kınay (2012 were used to collect the data. The data of the research were analyzed by using SPSS for Windows 21.0 programme. For analyzing the data Kolmogororv Simirnov, mean, frequency, percentage, standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and Sperman Rho correlation tests were used. When the values were analyzed, it was determined that there is low and negative relation between cyberbullying sensibility and cyber victimization levels. And also it was obtained that there was statistically meaningful difference in variables of the study

  12. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-09-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Additionally, all patients filled a questionnaire to assess subjective perceptions. Although patients did not perceive any sensibility impairments, a statistically significant decrease was detected when Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. This alteration was present at one week after the surgical procedure and fully recovered one month after the extraction. There were no variations regarding the gustatory function. Lower third molar removal under local anesthesia may cause light lingual sensibility impairment. Most of these alterations remain undetected to patients. These lingual nerve injuries are present one week after the extraction and recover one month after surgery. The taste seems to remain unaffected after these procedures.

  13. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, DANE COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, Madison County, Missouri, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, MONO COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, MACON COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, WARREN COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, DALLAS COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, DEKALB COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, WOODBURY COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, SHELBY COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, MASON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, OUACHITA PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for the flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, WOODFORD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, HALE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, HOWELL COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, CRISP COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, GEORGETOWN COUNTY, SC, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, PIKE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, MAGOFFIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, LIMESTONE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, MITCHELL COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, HURON COUNTY, OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology, Sevier County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, CALLOWAY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, BRACKEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, FLEMING COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, MCCREARY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, Choctaw COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. From local hydrological process analysis to regional hydrological model application in Benin: Concept, results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, H.; Faß, T.; Giertz, S.; Junge, B.; Diekkrüger, B.; Reichert, B.; Skowronek, A.

    This paper presents the concept, first results and perspectives of the hydrological sub-project of the IMPETUS-Benin project which is part of the GLOWA program funded by the German ministry of education and research. In addition to the research concept, first results on field hydrology, pedology, hydrogeology and hydrological modelling are presented, focusing on the understanding of the actual hydrological processes. For analysing the processes a 30 km 2 catchment acting as a super test site was chosen which is assumed to be representative for the entire catchment of about 15,000 km 2. First results of the field investigations show that infiltration, runoff generation and soil erosion strongly depend on land cover and land use which again influence the soil properties significantly. A conceptual hydrogeological model has been developed summarising the process knowledge on runoff generation and subsurface hydrological processes. This concept model shows a dominance of fast runoff components (surface runoff and interflow), a groundwater recharge along preferential flow paths, temporary interaction between surface and groundwater and separate groundwater systems on different scales (shallow, temporary groundwater on local scale and permanent, deep groundwater on regional scale). The findings of intensive measurement campaigns on soil hydrology, groundwater dynamics and soil erosion have been integrated into different, scale-dependent hydrological modelling concepts applied at different scales in the target region (upper Ouémé catchment in Benin, about 15,000 km 2). The models have been applied and successfully validated. They will be used for integrated scenario analyses in the forthcoming project phase to assess the impacts of global change on the regional water cycle and on typical problem complexes such as food security in West African countries.

  11. Potential implications of climate change and urbanization on watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumo, D.; Arnone, E.; Francipane, A.; Caracciolo, D.; Noto, L. V.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a modeling framework able to analyze the alterations in watershed hydrology induced by two recurrent drivers for hydrological changes: climate change and urbanization. The procedure is based on the coupling of a stochastic weather generator with a land use change model for the generation of some hypothetical scenarios. The generated scenarios are successively used to force a physically-based and spatial distributed hydrological model to reconstruct the basin response under different conditions. Several potential climate alterations are simulated by imposing negative and positive variations in the mean annual precipitation and a simultaneous temperature increase. Urbanization is conceptualized by an increase in the impervious fraction of the basin. The procedure is applied to a large basin and a much smaller sub-basin; the results show how climate and land use changes may interact and affect the fundamental hydrological dynamics and how the processes governing basin hydrological response may change with spatial scale.

  12. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  13. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  14. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  15. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  16. Understanding the Hydrologic Response of a Coastal Plain Watershed to Forest Management and Climate Change in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Lu; Ge Sun; Devendra M. Amatya; S. V. Harder; Steve G. McNulty

    2006-01-01

    The hydrologic processes in wetland ecosystems are not well understood. There are also great concerns and uncertainties about the hydrologic response of wetlands to forest management and climate change. The objective of this study is to apply a hydrologic model to better understand the hydrologic processes of a low relief coastal forested watershed and its responses to...

  17. Curricula and Syllabi in Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This collection of papers is intended to provide a means for the exchange of information on hydrological techniques and for the coordination of research and data collection. The objectives and trends in hydrological education are presented. The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) Working Group on Education recommends a series of topics that…

  18. La definición: acceso a la substancia sensible en el pensamiento de Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mier y Terán de G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was the first philosopher who admitted a formal principle of permanence in the singular material being. The author -referring to Aristotle's thought- tries to show the "definition" as an access to the sensible substance.

  19. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Peters-Lidard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  20. Integrated time-lapse geoelectrical imaging of wetland hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S. S.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; House, A. R.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Roberts, C.; Gooddy, D. C.; Binley, A. M.; Chambers, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    Wetlands provide crucial habitats, are critical in the global carbon cycle, and act as key biogeochemical and hydrological buffers. The effectiveness of these services is mainly controlled by hydrological processes, which can be highly variable both spatially and temporally due to structural complexity and seasonality. Spatial analysis of 2-D geoelectrical monitoring data integrated into the interpretation of conventional hydrological data has been implemented to provide a detailed understanding of hydrological processes in a riparian wetland. A two-layered hydrological system was observed in the peat. In the lower part of the peat, upwelling of deeper groundwater from underlying deposits was considered the driver for a 30% increase in peat resistivity during Winter/Spring. In Spring/Summer there was a 60% decrease in resistivity in the near-surface peats due to plant transpiration and/or microbial activity. Water exchange between the layers only appeared to be initiated following large drops in the encircling surface water stage. For the first time, we demonstrated that automated interpretation of geoelectrical data can be used to quantify ground movement in the vertical direction. Here, we applied this method to quantify shrink-swell of expandable soils, affecting hydrological parameters, such as, porosity and permeability. This study shows that an integrated interpretation of hydrological and geophysical data can significantly improve the understanding of wetland hydrological processes. Potentially, this approach can provide the basis for the evaluation of ecosystem services and may aid in the optimization of wetland management strategies.

  1. Local hydrological information in gravity time series: reduction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, M.; Kroner, C.; Weise, A.; Jahr, T.; Krause, P.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological variations of up to some 10 nm•s2 represent significant, broadband, and integral information in temporal gravity observations. Thus, they can be considered as a valuable supplement to traditional hydrological point measurements. Of particular interest is to what extent such information can be used to improve the understanding of hydrological process dynamics and to evaluate distributed hydrological models. In this context, a new application of temporal gravity observations has been emerging: the study of natural hydrological mass changes and their underlying processes. Gravity data derived from GRACE satellite observations are affected by global and regional hydrological variations. Continuous recordings from superconducting gravimeters additionally contain information on local changes. Complementary to these data, repeated gravity observations on a local network contribute to gaining additional local information on spatial changes in hydrology and enabling a separation of the local hydrological influence from regional and global changes. To catch the local temporal hydrological influence on gravity of the hilly and geologically inhomogeneous surroundings of the superconducting gravimeter at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa, Germany, interdisciplinary research has been carried out. For an area of approximately 1.5Ã-1.5 km2 a hydrological catchment model was combined with a well-constrained gravimetric 3D modell, which is made up of nearly 29.000 triangles and achieves a resolution of 5 metres in the close vicinity of the gravimeter. These combined modelling was used jointly with repeated gravity observations on a local network to develop a high accuracy reduction for the local hydrological signal in the continuous recordings of the superconducting gravimeter with uncertainties of ±1.5 nm•s2 for rain events and ±2.5 nm•s2 for seasonal variations. Applying this reduction, the data of the superconducting gravimeter become suitable to be interpreted

  2. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat and carbon fluxes in semi-arid basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenghui; Zeng, Yujin

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation, which constitutes 70% of the total amount of fresh water consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting the land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5) with an active crop model, two high resolution ( 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on Latent Heat (LH), Sensible Heat (SH) and Carbon Fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere on the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity and viability of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer with a LH increase of 100 W/m2 and a SH decrease of 60 W/m2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate below 5 mm/day, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm/day, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC/m2/day, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by 0.8 gC/m2/day. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH and NEE. The study indicates that how a land surface model with high spatial resolution can represent crop growing and its effects over basin scale.

  3. [Socio-hydrology: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-yi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Fang, Xue-ning

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology is an interdiscipline of hydrology, nature, society and humanity. It mainly explores the two-way feedbacks of coupled human-water system and its dynamic mechanism of co-evolution, and makes efforts to solve the issues that human faces today such as sustainable utilization of water resources. Starting from the background, formation process, and fundamental concept of socio-hydrology, this paper summarized the features of socio-hydrology. The main research content of socio-hydrology was reduced to three aspects: The tradeoff in coupled human-water system, interests in water resources management and virtual water research in coupled human-water system. And its differences as well as relations with traditional hydrology, eco-hydrology and hydro-sociology were dwelled on. Finally, with hope to promote the development of socio-hydrology researches in China, the paper made prospects for the development of the subject from following aspects: Completing academic content and deepening quantitative research, focusing on scale studies of socio-hydrology, fusing socio-hydrology and eco-hydrology.

  4. Environmental sensibility maps of pipelines rows; Mapas de sensibilidade ambiental para faixas de dutos terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson J. de [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Avaliacao Ambiental IEGEN/EGE/EAMB; Ferreira Filho, Aluisio Teles; Ferreira, Vanderlei Cardoso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). SMS - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Braun, Oscar P.G.; Pereira Junior, Edson Rodrigues [Geodatum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    To subsidize its contingency plans for oil leaks, TRANSPETRO, subsidiary of PETROBRAS, set up an internal program with a big extension to obtain Environmental Sensibility Maps over a strip of twenty kilometers of width along more than five thousand kilometers of pipelines. Due to the pioneer characteristic of these natural survey (thematic cartography) it was opted a first approach for integration of this information in 1:50.000 scale. Based on a Geographical Information System (GIS), it was opted the supervised geo processing resources, compiling, firstly, the elevation, soil and geological maps for generation of the physical environment vulnerability units. Using a combination by weight average, ten vulnerability units were generated and were improved through aggregation in five units to decrease the complexity of the representation in map. These classes represent the combinations of variables of the physical environment that can be recognized by theirs corresponding landscapes. Based on interpretation of orbital LANDSAT TM images, aided by verifications in aerial photograph and a systematic survey of notable points of environmental observation (PVAs) along the pipelines, it was elaborated a general map of soil use and vegetable coverage. The classes of this theme were combined with the classes of physical vulnerability environment to generate five classes of Environmental Sensibility (Environmental Sensibility Maps). Over this theme, were attributed the representations of the main types of vegetable coverage and occupation of the soil, as well as the fauna and the other social-economics aspects, obtaining therefore a map with all the essential controller information of the environmental protection measures. (author)

  5. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus aureus sensible, con sensibilidad "BORDERLINE" y resistentes a la meticilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendoza Ticona

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las susceptibilidad a diversos antibacterianos de tres categorías de S. aureus según su sensibilidad a la meticilina. Materiales y Métodos: Se aislaron 76 cepas de S. aureus que colonizaban pacientes y personal de salud de tres servicios del Hospital Honorio Delgado de Arequipa, de los cuales 36 fueron sensibles a meticilina (MSSA, 15 con susceptibilidad "borderline" (BORSA y 25 fueron resistentes a la meticilina (MRSA. Se les sometió a antibiograma a 14 antibacterianos. Resultados: El único antibiótico al cual todas los aislamientos fueron sensibles fue vancomicina. Los MRSA fueron resistentes a todos los b-lactámicos excepto imipenem que obtuvo 64% de susceptibilidad. Los BORSA mantuvieron un 80% de sensibilidad a cefalotina y un 100% al imipenem. Los antibióticos cefalotina, imipenem, ciprofloxacina, cotrimoxazol, rifampicina, eritromicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, lincomicina y gentamicina tuvieron sensibilidades variables (p<0.01 entre las tres categorías; una mayor proporción de MSSA fue sensible a estos antibióticos, luego los BORSA y finalmente los MRSA. Las cepas multi-resistentes fueron mucho más frecuentes en los MRSA que en los otros dos grupos (p <0.01. Conclusión: Existe en nuestro medio cepas de S. aureus con resistencia "borderline" a meticilina. Hay diferencias entre la sensibilidad a diversos antimicrobianos entre los tres grupos de S. aureus. Esta diferenciación podría beneficiar una terapia antimicrobiana más racional. Se debe aplicar en todo aislamiento de S. aureus las recomendaciones internacionales para la detección de meticilino resistencia.

  6. Expresiones de lo sensible: lecturas en clave pedagógica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Gallo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge de un estudio hermenéutico sobre la educación del cuerpo cuyo objeto es analizar las condiciones de sensibilidad en clave pedagógica como ámbito de estudio de la Educación Corporal. En esta investigación se piensa lo sensible en relación con la educación a partir de una ruta filosófica, pedagógica y experiencial, por ello, el estudio de lo sensible se enmarca en el pensamiento filosófico de Federico Nietzsche y Gilles Deleuze, y la educación en la reflexión pedagógica de Jorge Larrosa y Fernando Bárcena. Con el análisis teórico documental que se realiza no se trata de reproducir conceptos ni ideas, sino de analizar aquellas situaciones en que la sensibilidad despliega otras maneras de pensar la educación porque la preocupación por las condiciones de sensibilidad pasa también por la necesidad de ver la estrecha relación que guarda el cuerpo y la Educación. Así, en este texto se exponen algunas prácticas corporales en clave pedagógica para hacer ver las potencias que se ejercen sobre el cuerpo. De conformidad con la dimensión simbólica del cuerpo, las prácticas corporales son, ante todo, simbologías corporales, son modos de decir del cuerpo que nos orientan para pensar una educación de lo sensible. Esta ruta experiencial del danzar, jugar y caminar permite abordar el análisis de la educación y del cuerpo desde experiencias que, quizás, están desposeídas de significado educativo, este modo de preocuparnos por lo pedagógico es una posibilidad para pensar una educación de lo sensible desde el cuerpo.

  7. PRESUPUESTOS SENSIBLES AL GÉNERO: EL CASO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arriola Medellín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo hacer una breve revisión de las iniciativas de presupuestos sensibles al género, tanto gubernamentales como las provenientes de las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil (OSC, desarrolladas en México durante el período comprendido entre el 2000 y el 2005, tomando como punto de partida el cuestionamiento de la supuesta neutralidad de las políticas macroeconómicas, particularmente, la política fiscal.

  8. Presupuestos sensibles al género: el caso de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arriola Medellín

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo hacer una breve revisión de las iniciativas de presupuestos sensibles al género, tanto gubernamentales como las provenientes de las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil (OSC, desarrolladas en México durante el período comprendido entre el 2000 y el 2005, tomando como punto de partida el cuestionamiento de la supuesta neutralidad de las políticas macroeconómicas, particularmente, la política fiscal.

  9. Jean-Marc Stebe, La médiation dans les banlieues sensibles

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert-Bresler, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Dans La médiation dans les banlieues sensibles, Jean-Marc Stébé, sociologue et auteur de trois ouvrages, également parus aux Presses universitaires de France – La réhabilitation de l’habitat social (1995), Le logement social (1998), La crise des banlieues (1999) –, invite à pénétrer les quartiers difficiles par la petite porte, celle de la loge du gardien-concierge. Deux importantes recherches, réalisées au sein des Entreprises sociales pour l’habitat (ESH), des Offices publics d’aménagement ...

  10. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  11. EFFICIENT HYDROLOGICAL TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  12. Evaluating catchment-scale hydrological modeling by means of terrestrial gravity observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, S.; Troch, P.A.; Bogaart, P.W.; Kroner, C.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Hasan et al., 2006) we applied time series analysis and distributed hydrological modeling techniques to investigate the effect of hydrological processes on observed terrestrial gravity residuals. In this study we apply terrestrial gravity observations (measured in one location)

  13. Comparison of Hydrological Cycle and Sensitivity Between Multiscale Modeling Frameworks with and without a Higher-order Turbulence Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Li, Zhujun

    2017-04-01

    Current conventional global climate models (GCMs) produce a weak increase in global mean precipitation with anthropogenic warming in comparison with the lower-tropospheric moisture increases. The motive of this study is to understand the relatively small differences in the hydrological sensitivity between two multiscale modeling frameworks (MMFs) that arise from the different treatments of turbulence in order to aid to the understanding of the large model spread among conventional GCMs. We compare the hydrological sensitivity and its energetic constraint from MMFs with (SPCAM-IPHOC) or without (SPCAM) an advanced higher-order turbulence closure. SPCAM-IPHOC simulates higher global hydrological sensitivity (3.7%/K) than SPCAM (3.0%/K) and GCMs (2.52±0.22%/K). This is mostly related to the higher sensitivity of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes and radiative cooling to surface warming and a higher ratio of latent heating to radiative cooling. The two MMFs differ greatly in the hydrological sensitivity over the tropical lands, where the simulated sensitivity of surface sensible heat fluxes to surface warming and CO2 increase in SPCAM-IPHOC is weaker than in SPCAM. Furthermore, the different divergences of dry static energy flux simulated by the two MMFs contribute to the difference in regional precipitation sensitivity between the two models. Implications of these results to conventional GCMs will be discussed at the meeting.

  14. OpenDA-WFLOW framework for improving hydrologic predictions using distributed hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Kockx, Arno; Hummel, Stef

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic predictions (Liu et al., 2012) and increase the potential for early warning and/or smart water management. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not yet been adequately or timely implemented in operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts for better informed real-world decision making. The objective of this work is to highlight the development of a generic linkage of the open source OpenDA package and the open source community hydrologic modeling framework Openstreams/WFLOW and its application in operational hydrological forecasting on various spatial scales. The coupling between OpenDA and Openstreams/wflow framework is based on the emerging standard Basic Model Interface (BMI) as advocated by CSDMS using cross-platform webservices (i.e. Apache Thrift) developed by Hut et al. (2016). The potential application of the OpenDA-WFLOW for operational hydrologic forecasting including its integration with Delft-FEWS (used by more than 40 operational forecast centers around the world (Werner et al., 2013)) is demonstrated by the presented case studies. We will also highlight the possibility to give real-time insight into the working of the DA methods applied for supporting the forecaster as mentioned as one of the burning issues by Liu et al., (2012).

  15. Computer-assisted mesh generation based on hydrological response units for distributed hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.; Gironás, J.

    2013-08-01

    Distributed hydrological models rely on a spatial discretization composed of homogeneous units representing different areas within the catchment. Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) typically form the basis of such a discretization. HRUs are generally obtained by intersecting raster or vector layers of land uses, soil types, geology and sub-catchments. Polylines maps representing ditches and river drainage networks can also be used. However this overlapping may result in a mesh with numerical and topological problems not highly representative of the terrain. Thus, a pre-processing is needed to improve the mesh in order to avoid negative effects on the performance of the hydrological model. This paper proposes computer-assisted mesh generation tools to obtain a more regular and physically meaningful mesh of HRUs suitable for hydrologic modeling. We combined existing tools with newly developed scripts implemented in GRASS GIS. The developed scripts address the following problems: (1) high heterogeneity in Digital Elevation Model derived properties within the HRUs, (2) correction of concave polygons or polygons with holes inside, (3) segmentation of very large polygons, and (4) bad estimations of units' perimeter and distances among them. The improvement process was applied and tested using two small catchments in France. The improvement of the spatial discretization was further assessed by comparing the representation and arrangement of overland flow paths in the original and improved meshes. Overall, a more realistic physical representation was obtained with the improved meshes, which should enhance the computation of surface and sub-surface flows in a hydrologic model.

  16. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  17. Adaptaciones de puestos de trabajo de centros de salud en trabajadores especialmente sensibles a riesgos laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Padilla Fortes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora los ajustes trabajo-persona realizados en trabajadores considerados especialmente sensibles a determinados riesgos laborales en el sector sanitario. El propósito de esta investigación fue ayudar a caracterizar las adaptaciones del puesto de trabajo con motivo de la comunicación de algún tipo de discapacidad o limitación de salud que interfiere en el desempeño de tareas. A lo largo del año 2012, en los centros de salud de un distrito de atención primaria se contabilizó un total de 46 trabajadores calificados especialmente sensibles que recibieron un promedio de 3,2 medidas de adaptación en el lugar y/o puesto de trabajo. Los hallazgos mostraron una amplia variedad de ajustes que incluyeron modificaciones en la organización del trabajo, en la forma de desempeñar las tareas, y en menor grado, cambios en los factores ambientales próximos al puesto y/o lugar de trabajo. Todas las medidas estuvieron encaminadas a facilitar la continuidad de la vida laboral dentro de unos límites compatibles con la seguridad y salud del trabajador. Nuestros resultados ofrecen una primera aproximación al conocimiento de los aspectos de gestión de las limitaciones de salud que menoscaban la capacidad de los trabajadores para responder a las demandas de trabajo.

  18. Second law optimization of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system with a distributed storage element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.J.

    1986-07-01

    This numerical study defined the behavior of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system whose physical design and operation had been optimized to minimize the production of thermodynamic irreversibilities. It included the effects of transient conduction within the storage material. A dimensionless set of governing equations was defined for a complete storage-removal cycle that included the effects of entropy generation due to convection and viscous effects in the flowing fluid, two-dimensional transient conduction within the storage material, and to convection due to the discharged hot fluid coming to equilibrium with the environment during the storage period. A computer program was written to solve this equation set and this program was in turn controlled by a sophisticated optimization routine to determine a dimensionless storage time, flow channel half-height, and heat transfer coefficient that resulted in a minimum amount of availability destruction. The results of this analysis showed that entropy generation within the storage material due to transient conduction was a major contributor to the total thermal irreversibilities associated with the operation of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system. For the counterflow configuration and over the range of design variables examined, material entropy generation accounted for between 26% and 60% of the total thermal availability destruction that occurred during a complete storage-removal cycle. It was also shown that the storage material aspect ratio had a significant impact on the optimum design of a storage system. Its influence was second only to the fluid mass velocity.

  19. Bioactividad de microorganismos nativos sobre infecciones en naranjas de Penicillium digitatum resistente y sensible a fungicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Visintin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se expone fue evaluar tres microorganismos locales por su efecto supresor de podredumbres causadas por Penicillium digitatum sobre naranjas Valencia Late. Frutas en madurez comercial fueron inoculadas por heridas con 40 μl de suspensión microbiana a una concentración de 107-108 ufc/ml. Dos horas después, se aplicaron 20 μl de suspensión conteniendo 3,8 x 106 con/ml de Penicillium resistente y sensible a fungicidas de síntesis. Las frutas se incubaron durante 8 días, bajo condiciones de laboratorio usando un DCA de 5 tratamientos de 25 frutas, con 4 repeticiones. Se registró la incidencia acumulada de frutas podridas, se obtuvieron las tasas de infección ajustando las curvas de progreso a modelos matemáticos y el porcentaje de eficacia para cada tratamiento. La capacidad bioactiva de los agentes evaluados fue mayor sobre la cepa de Penicillium sensible a fungicidas. Dentro de los microorganismos nativos, CNOV1 bacteria obtenida del frutoplano de naranja, resultó el aislamiento más eficaz, logrando las menores incidencias de frutas sintomáticas y las menores tasas de infección sobre naranjas Valencia Late.

  20. Facial sensibility in adolescents with and without clefts 1 year after undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, J C; al-Qattan, M M; Pron, G

    1994-09-01

    Static two-point discrimination, pressure, and vibratory threshold values were measured at standard coordinates in the area corresponding to the infraorbital nerve distribution in 59 adolescents 1 year after undergoing LeFort I osteotomy. The patients were divided into three groups: those born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 30; mean age, 18 years; SD = 2); those with bilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 12; mean age, 19 years; SD = 3); and those without a cleft (n = 17; mean age, 19 years; SD = 3). One year after the osteotomy, none of the patients complained of altered sensibility in the maxillary vestibular mucosa, gingiva, or upper lip and cheek regions. No significant differences were found between the mean postoperative sensibility values of patients with and without clefts, indicating that the presence of clefting did not affect sensory recovery. Mean postoperative static two-point discrimination values were higher than preoperative values in all areas tested and in all patient groups. These results suggest that the sensory recovery, although incomplete, was strong enough to mask any subjective feelings of changes in sensory function.

  1. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with chronic, nontraumatic cervical spine pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, G D; Bagust, J

    2001-07-01

    To investigate cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility (head repositioning accuracy to subjective straight ahead) in patients with chronic, nontraumatic cervical spine pain. A prospective, 2-group, observational design. An outpatient chiropractic clinic in the United Kingdom. Eleven patients (6 men, 5 women; mean age +/- standard deviation, 41.1 +/- 13.3 yr; range, 18-55 yr) with chronic, nontraumatic cervical spine pain (mean duration, 24 +/- 18 mo), with no evidence of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy or any other neurologic disorder. Eleven asymptomatic, unimpaired volunteers (5 men, 6 women; mean age, 39.3 +/- 10.3 yr; range, 28-54 yr) with no history of whiplash or other cervical spine injury or pain served as controls. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was investigated by testing the ability of blindfolded participants to relocate accurately the head on the trunk, to a subjective straight-ahead position, after a near-maximal active movement of the head in the horizontal or vertical plane. The active cervical range of motion and the duration and intensity of neck pain were also recorded. Mann-Whitney U testing indicated that the patient (P) group was no less accurate in head repositioning than the control (C) group for all movement directions except flexion (median global positioning error [95% confidence interval], P = 5.7 degrees [5.03-9.10], C = 4.2 degrees [3.17-5.32]; p whiplash injury. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  2. Demonstration of a problem in estimating sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract by thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, F G; Manson, H J; Snellen, J W; Chang, K S

    1984-07-01

    We have investigated sensible respiratory loss, which is usually taken as the product of expired volume and the temperature difference between inspired and expired air (VE X delta T). Air temperature was measured with a 0.122 mm copper-constantan thermocouple mounted in the mouthpiece of a T-piece breathing system, and expired volume with a pneumotachograph. Changing air temperature (delta T) at the mouth and expired air volume (VE) were recorded simultaneously while the subject voluntarily breathed at different tidal volumes and rates. Inspired temperatures were controlled at 12.05 degrees C, 21.80 degrees C and 25.74 degrees C at a low dewpoint temperature of 4-5 degrees C. Temperature volume "loops" were constructed using an x-y plotter. The areas of each "loop" and enclosing rectangle (VE X delta T) were measured. The difference was divided by the weight of the rectangle to give the percentage of overestimation of sensible heat loss, which ranged from 5.5 to 17.2 per cent. The error increased significantly with decreasing tidal volume and increasing respiratory rate.

  3. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  4. Hydrological resiliency in the Western Boreal Plains: classification of hydrological responses using wavelet analysis to assess landscape resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Samantha; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hannah, David; Parkin, Geoff

    2017-04-01

    The Boreal represents a system of substantial resilience to climate change, with minimal ecological change over the past 6000 years. However, unprecedented climatic warming, coupled with catchment disturbances could exceed thresholds of hydrological function in the Western Boreal Plains. Knowledge of ecohydrological and climatic feedbacks that shape the resilience of boreal forests has advanced significantly in recent years, but this knowledge is yet to be applied and understood at landscape scales. Hydrological modelling at the landscape scale is challenging in the WBP due to diverse, non-topographically driven hydrology across the mosaic of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study functionally divides the geologic and ecological components of the landscape into Hydrologic Response Areas (HRAs) and wetland, forestland, interface and pond Hydrologic Units (HUs) to accurately characterise water storage and infer transmission at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Wavelet analysis is applied to pond and groundwater levels to describe the patterns of water storage in response to climate signals; to isolate dominant controls on hydrological responses and to assess the relative importance of physical controls between wet and dry climates. This identifies which components of the landscape exhibit greater magnitude and frequency of variability to wetting and drying trends, further to testing the hierarchical framework for hydrological storage controls of: climate, bedrock geology, surficial geology, soil, vegetation, and topography. Classifying HRA and HU hydrological function is essential to understand and predict water storage and redistribution through drought cycles and wet periods. This work recognises which landscape components are most sensitive under climate change and disturbance and also creates scope for hydrological resiliency research in Boreal systems by recognising critical landscape components and their role in landscape collapse or catastrophic

  5. Toward seamless hydrologic predictions across spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Samaniego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface and hydrologic models (LSMs/HMs are used at diverse spatial resolutions ranging from catchment-scale (1–10 km to global-scale (over 50 km applications. Applying the same model structure at different spatial scales requires that the model estimates similar fluxes independent of the chosen resolution, i.e., fulfills a flux-matching condition across scales. An analysis of state-of-the-art LSMs and HMs reveals that most do not have consistent hydrologic parameter fields. Multiple experiments with the mHM, Noah-MP, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP models demonstrate the pitfalls of deficient parameterization practices currently used in most operational models, which are insufficient to satisfy the flux-matching condition. These examples demonstrate that J. Dooge's 1982 statement on the unsolved problem of parameterization in these models remains true. Based on a review of existing parameter regionalization techniques, we postulate that the multiscale parameter regionalization (MPR technique offers a practical and robust method that provides consistent (seamless parameter and flux fields across scales. Herein, we develop a general model protocol to describe how MPR can be applied to a particular model and present an example application using the PCR-GLOBWB model. Finally, we discuss potential advantages and limitations of MPR in obtaining the seamless prediction of hydrological fluxes and states across spatial scales.

  6. Outdoor learning in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For understanding important concepts in hydrology often the most efficient way of learning are field experiments with student involvement. In this contribution, I look back on my personal experiences as a student, an assistant and a teacher and ask myself, with a long-term perspective, what worked and what didn't. Some of the experiments, which I find most useful, are described in more detail such as the estimation of hydraulic conductivities based on groundwater salt dilution and an experiment to demonstrate the difference between flood-wave velocity and water particle velocity. Furthermore, some general thoughts on challenges to generate a good learning environment out in the field are given.

  7. Cine militante:Del internacionalismo a la política sensible neoliberal / Militant Cinema: From Internationalism to Neoliberal Sensible Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Emmelhainz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available En los años sesenta, el cine militante buscó compartir y expandir estrategias y herramientas para la lucha política alrededor del mundo. Ici et ailleurs (1969- 1974, la película que Godard filmó con Jean-Pierre Gorin bajo el marco del Grupo Dziga Vertov y editó con Anne-Marie Miéville, no es solo un ejemplo de cine político de vanguardia, sino un recuento auto-reflexivo del resultado de las revoluciones aquí y en otro lado, del devenir de la militancia y el cine comprometido y de su repudio a mediados de los años setenta. En este ensayo, me enfoco en tres elementos que forman parte del legado del cine militante en general, y específicamente de Ici et ailleurs: primero, las lecciones que se pueden derivar de las ordalías derivadas de simpatizar, hablar o imaginar procesos políticos de otros, en otros lados. Segundo, el problema que Godard plantea en películas posteriores a Ici et ailleurs, a lo que llamo la «mediatización de la mediación», como la forma de activismo que siguió al rechazo del marxismo-leninismo como depositario de la política progresiva. Tercero, la no poco problemática transformación de la política de la imagen de Godard en la «política sensible» post-política, un nicho en la producción cultural que se ha dado la tarea de codificar actos políticos inestables en formas mediáticas, transformando la acción y enunciación política en cuestión de expresión.Palabras clave: cine militante, Jean-Luc Godard, Palestina, activismo, política sensible, post-política, compromiso político.Abstract:In the 1960s, militant cinema aimed to share and expand strategies and tools for the political struggle around the world. Ici et ailleurs (1969-1974, the film that Godard shot with Jean-Pierre Gorin within the Dziga Vertov’s Group and edited with Anne-Marie Miéville, it is not only an example of avant-garde political cinema, but also an auto-reflexive account of the outcome of revolutions here and elsewhere, of

  8. Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørn

    Integrated hydrological models are useful tools for water resource management and research, and advances in computational power and the advent of new observation types has resulted in the models generally becoming more complex and distributed. However, the models are often characterized by a high...... using both synthetic data and real observations. Groundwater head and stream discharge observations are assimilated in an integrated hydrological model, with the aim of updating the groundwater head, stream discharge and water level, and model parameters. When synthetically generated observations......, two bias-aware data assimilation algorithms are tested and were shown to successfully estimate the bias of most observations. The data assimilation framework was applied to real observations and an improvement in stream discharge was obtained compared to a deterministic model without data assimilation...

  9. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  10. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrological. Hydrological modeling tools have been increasingl modeling tools have been increasingl watershed watershed level. The application of these tools hav. The application of these tools hav sensing and G sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) eographical Information System (GIS) based models ...

  11. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  12. Soil-water evaporation dynamics determined with measurement of sensible heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-water evaporation is important in both the hydrologic cycle and the surface energy balance. Yet, routine measurements are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in evaporation. Recent improvements for fine-scale measurement of soil thermal propert...

  13. [The stated and non-stated on the part of the nurse-teacher being in the comprehension of sensibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Marlene Gomes; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Santos, Evangelia Kotzias Atherino Dos; Erdamann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to describe the stated and non-stated information in the comprehension of sensibility on the part of the nursing teacher-nurse being in the teaching of Nursing. The theoretical- philosophical reference was sought in the Phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and the methodological support was based on the hermeneutic phenomenology of Paul Ricoeur. Nineteen nursing teachers-nurses from a Public Institution of Higher Education in the south of Brazil were interviewed during the months of November and December 2006. Data analysis revealed sensibility as the base for the development of doing, thinking, caring and doing research. Without sensibility, the relations and interactions in teaching in Nursing will be only techniques and theories of healthcare.

  14. ¿Prevalece un vínculo, objetivo, entre la percepción sensible y los conceptos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Dolores Delgado Wise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La imposibilidad de alcanzar contenidos cognitivos por medio de la percepción sensible actualmente puede ser cuestionada. Se busca reconsiderar que el conocimiento obtenido por medio de la percepción sensible guarde contenidos de objetividad, expresables aún con los conceptos. Se señalan relaciones de correspondencia entre percepción sensible con lo dado y las posibilidades resguardadas en la simbolización. Dado que la conceptualización es la abstracción racional de dichas relaciones, se demuestra la existencia vinculatoria de tales relaciones. El conocimiento de las neuronas espejo confirma la existencia de tales relaciones objetivas de correspondencia. Ello pone en evidencia que el conocimiento tiene acceso parcial a la realidad misma y que tal conocimiento está lejos de una relatividad absoluta.

  15. Measurement techniques for sensible and latent heat transfer coefficients during wall condensation, a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.; Rij, H.M. van.

    1989-11-01

    Radioactive fission product release as the consequence of a severe accident with nuclear installations needs to be studied in considerable detail in order to predict the source term hazard with acceptable accuracy. As far as the research on the fission product behaviour in containments is concerned the international effort has been concentrated around two large experimental programmes, DEMONA and LACE. Results of the bench-mark on 'Post-test calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviour in DEMONA experiment B3 with various computer codes used in CEC member states', show still considerable differences and uncertainties due to poor knowledge of global heat transfer coefficients for the wall condensation in containments. The objective of this study is to provide an estimate of the accuracy with which the coefficient for sensible heat transfer during wall condensation can be measured. (H.W.). 15 refs.; 7 figs.; 9 tabs.

  16. Experimental investigation on AC unit integrated with sensible heat storage (SHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Hussin, A.; Zhubir, S.

    2017-10-01

    The growth in population and economy has increases the energy demand and raises the concerns over the sustainable energy source. Towards the sustainable development, energy efficiency in buildings has become a prime objective. In this paper, the integration of thermal energy storage was studied. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of an air conditioning unit integrated with sensible heat storage (SHS) system. The results were compared to the conventional AC systems in the terms of average electricity usage, indoor temperature and the relative humidity inside the experimented room (cabin container). Results show that the integration of water tank as an SHS reduces the electricity usage by 5%, while the integration of well-insulated water tank saves up to 8% of the electricity consumption.

  17. Quantitative paleoparasitology applied to archaeological sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín H Fugassa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three techniques to extract parasite remains from archaeological sediments were tested. The aim was to improve the sensibility of recommended paleoparasitological techniques applied in archaeological remains. Sediment collected from the pelvic girdle of a human body found in Cabo Vírgenes, Santa Cruz, Argentina, associated to a Spanish settlement founded in 1584 known as Nombre de Jesús, was used to search for parasites. Sediment close to the skull was used as control. The techniques recommended by Jones, Reinhard, and Dittmar and Teejen were used and compared with the modified technique presented here, developed to improve the sensibility to detect parasite remains. Positive results were obtained only with the modified technique, resulting in the finding of Trichuris trichiura eggs in the sediment.

  18. Towards a Postdigital Sensibility: How to get Moved by too Much Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Fleischer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the affective consequences of the new mode of instant access to enormous levels of musical recordings in digital format. It is suggested that this "musical superabundance" might weaken the individuals ability to be affected by music in everyday life, while at the same time leading to a renewed interest in collective experience, in ways which are not limited to established notions of musical "liveness". According to a theory of affect influenced by Spinoza, what is at stake is the capacity of the body to be affected by music. The article proposes that a renegotiated relationship between collective and individual modes of experiencing music can be conceptualized with help of Spinozas distinction between two kinds of affections: actions and passions. After scrutinizing the interface of hardware like Apples Ipod and online services like Spotify, the article proceeds by discussing three musical practices which can all be understood as responses to the superabundance of musical recordings: (1 the ascetic practice of "No Music Day"; (2 the revival of cassette culture; (3 the "bass materialism" associated with the music known as dubstep. While none of these approaches provide any solution to the problem of abundance, they can still be understood as attempts to cultivate a "postdigital sensibility". The article tries to conceptualize the postdigital in a way that transcends the narrower notion of "post-digital aesthetics" that has recently been gaining popularity. Finally, it is argued that such a sensibility has a political significance in its potential to subvert the contemporary processes of commodification.

  19. Sensible and Latent Heat Exchange at the Soil Surface Beneath a Maize Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Thomas John

    Soil heat and vapor exchange at the soil surface beneath a plant canopy was measured using heat and vapor source plates. Data from field and laboratory experiments were used to derive equations predicting interfacial heat and vapor transfer coefficients for inclusion in an existing, comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model, Cupid. Heat and vapor source plates constructed of anodized aluminum (305 by 864 mm by 13 mm thick) were installed level with the soil surface within a maize (Zea mays, L.) field to provide an area of known and controllable temperature and/or vapor pressure and sensible and/or latent heat flux. Sensible heat flux density was determined from an energy budget analysis while evaporation from wetted felt fabric on one plate's surface was used to determine the latent heat flux density. Flux measurements were combined with measured temperature and vapor pressure differences to determine the interfacial transfer coefficients. Field measurements were made during all stages of canopy development and were supplemented by extensive measurements of the local microclimate. Controlled forced convection experiments were also conducted in a wind tunnel using three levels of turbulence intensity and two arrays of aluminum roughness elements to assess the effects of turbulence and surface roughness on heat and mass transfer. Measured interfacial transfer coefficients during the field experiments ranged from 2 to 30 mm s ^{-1} over wind speeds of 5 to 280 cm s^{-1} measured 3 cm above the plate surface. Equations based on dimensionless parameters were developed and fit to the wind tunnel data, compared with the field data, and incorporated into the computer model. The new transfer coefficient relationships had less scatter and were more closely correlated to within -canopy wind speed than the previous formulations. Predictions of canopy microclimate characteristics were significantly improved as compared to those predictions obtained using transfer coefficients

  20. Hydrological modeling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Golden; G.R. Evenson; S. Tian; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and quantifying interactions among components of the forest hydrological cycle is complex and usually requires a combination of field monitoring and modelling approaches (Weiler and McDonnell, 2004; National Research Council, 2008). Models are important tools for testing hypotheses, understanding hydrological processes and synthesizing experimental data...

  1. A Tall-Tower Instrument for Mean and Fluctuating Velocity, Fluctuating Temperature and Sensible Heat Flux Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Thomson, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    For an ongoing elevated-source, urban-scale tracer experiment, an instrument system to measure the three-dimensional wind velocity and the turbulent sensible heat flux was developed. The wind velocity was measured with a combination of cup anemometer, propeller (vertical) and vane sensor. The tem......For an ongoing elevated-source, urban-scale tracer experiment, an instrument system to measure the three-dimensional wind velocity and the turbulent sensible heat flux was developed. The wind velocity was measured with a combination of cup anemometer, propeller (vertical) and vane sensor...

  2. Using a Regional Climate Model for the Simulation of Hydrologic Processes in the High Himalayan Wangchu Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, T.; Hank, T.

    2009-04-01

    monsoon climate in the more southern regions. Hydrological investigations in the Himalaya are predominantly limited by the low density of the meteorological measuring network. Nonetheless, the high mountain regions are considered to be sensitive indicators for the assessment of climate change effects and therefore the interest in studying the possible changes in those environments is high. In cooperation with the Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences (IAU) of the Goethe Universität Frankfurt (GUF), the Climate Local Model (CLM) was applied to provide meteorological input data for the landsurface model PROMET. To sensibly bridge the gap between the geometric resolutions of both models (CLM = 50 x 50 km, PROMET = 1 x 1 km), mass and energy conservative downscaling techniques were applied. Based on the meteorological data provided by the regional climate model, the major components of the landsurface water balance were calculated and analyzed for a 30 year time series from 1971 to the year 2000. Due to the scarcely available station data, the validation of the results proved difficult. The relatively small size of the catchment, compared to the spatial resolution of the regional climate model, of about 4.6 x 10³ km², led to high deviations of modelled and measured precipitation rates, which also affected the accuracy of the absolute discharge rates that were modelled for five different gauges of the Wangchu subcatchment. Nonetheless, the average seasonal dynamic of the discharge rates was well reproduced by the model compared to the measured data. Apart from the scaling issues, also problems of parameterisation contributed to the deviations. The applied model system was lacking detailed information on the distribution of different soil types within the catchment and had to resort to the relatively coarse global soil map provided by the FAO. The landcover map, being derived from remote sensing information provided by Brahmatwinn project partners, can be

  3. Uncertainty in hydrological change modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige

    Hydrological change modelling methodologies generally use climate models outputs to force hydrological simulations under changed conditions. There are nested sources of uncertainty throughout this methodology, including choice of climate model and subsequent bias correction methods. This Ph.......D. study evaluates the uncertainty of the impact of climate change in hydrological simulations given multiple climate models and bias correction methods of varying complexity. Three distribution based scaling methods (DBS) were developed and benchmarked against a more simplistic and commonly used delta...... change (DC) approach. These climate model projections were then used to force hydrological simulations under climate change for the island Sjælland in Denmark to analyse the contribution of different climate models and bias correction methods to overall uncertainty in the hydrological change modelling...

  4. Connecticut River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Connecticut River basin possesses some characteristics that make it unique for studying hydrologic issues that transcend scale. The watershed was first dramatically altered through natural processes (glaciation) and then heavily impacted by human stresses (dams, deforestation, acid precipitation/deposition), only to exhibit recent decades of return to a more natural state (reforestation, land conservation, stream restoration, pollution abatement, and dam removal). The watershed is sufficiently north to be classified as a cold region. More specifically to hydrology, the watershed exhibits the spectrum of flooding problems: ice dams, convective storms, hurricanes, rain on melting snow, and low pressure systems. The 28,000 square kilometer Connecticut River Watershed covers one third of the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The >640-km long rivers' headwaters start on the Canadian border at the Fourth Connecticut Lake, and flows southward to discharge in Long Island sound. The lower 100 km of river are tidally influenced. The Connecticut River is responsible for 70 % of the freshwater inflow to Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River is a sixth order stream that exhibits a dendritic pattern in an elongated scheme. This setting therefore affords many first and second order streams in almost parallel fashion, flowing west or east towards the central Connecticut River spine. There are 38 major tributaries to the mainstem Connecticut River, and 26 of these tributaries drain greater than 250 square kilometers. There is in excess of 30,000 km of perennially flowing stream length in the watershed. For more information, see: http://www.unh.edu/erg/connho/

  5. CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and its role in hydrologic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, D.; Helly, J. J.; Graham, W.; Kruger, A.; Kumar, P.; Lakshmi, V.; Lettenmaier, D.; Zheng, C.; Lall, U.; Piasecki, M.; Duffy, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Hydrologic Information System component of CUAHSI focuses on building a hydrologic information system to support the advancement of hydrologic science. This system is intended to help with rapidly acquiring diverse geospatial and temporal hydrologic datasets, integrating them into a hydrologic data model or framework describing a region, and supporting analysis, modeling and visualization of the movement of water and the transport of constituents through that region. In addition, the system will feature interfaces for advanced technologies like knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and also provide a comprehensive metadata description including a hydrologic ontology (HOW) for integration with the Semantic Web. The prototype region is the Neuse river basin in North Carolina. A "digital watershed" is to be built for this basin to help formulate and test the hydrologic data model at a range of spatial scales, from the scale of the whole basin down to the scale of individual experimental sites. This data model will be further developed and refined as additional hydrologic observatories are selected by CUAHSI. This will result in a consistent means for the characterization and comparison of processes in different geographic regions of the nation using a common data framework. The HIS will also provide a generalized digital library capability to manage collections of thematically-organized data from primary sources as well as derived analytical results in the form of data publications. The HIS will be designed from the beginning as an open federation of observatory-based collections that are interoperable with other data and digital library systems. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project involves collaboration among several CUAHSI member institutions, with the San Diego Supercomputer Center serving as the technology partner to facilitate the development of a prototype system.

  6. Depression Storage Thresholds in Prairie Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    An initial and essential step in hydrologic modeling is to decompose a watershed into its constituent channel and catchment segments and to measure the geometric andenvironmental properties of those segments. TOPAZ (Topographic Parameterization) is a widely used software system that processes digital elevation models todelineate channel and catchment segments and to measure their geometric properties. TOPAZ and similar software are now widely used in meso-scale hydrologic modeling. TOPAZ and similar software assume that surface depressions are errors in the digital elevation data and apply various techniques to fill those depressions and direct flow across the resulting surface. However, it is the case in many low-relief areas of the earth's surface that depressions are real features that function as significant storage reservoirs. These depressions are typically strung together by connecting channels and the filling of depressions represents major thresholds in changing the contributing area of streams. This paper examines some recent advances in digital terrain analysis for hydrologic model parameterization that address the role of depression storage thresholds in producing step-wise and major changes in watershed contributing areas.

  7. Proving the ecosystem value through hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, W.; Spachinger, K.; Porter, M.; Metzka, R.

    2008-11-01

    Ecosystems provide valuable functions. Also natural floodplains and river structures offer different types of ecosystem functions such as habitat function, recreational area and natural detention. From an economic stand point the loss (or rehabilitation) of these natural systems and their provided natural services can be valued as a damage (or benefit). Consequently these natural goods and services must be economically valued in project assessments e.g. cost-benefit-analysis or cost comparison. Especially in smaller catchments and river systems exists significant evidence that natural flood detention reduces flood risk and contributes to flood protection. Several research projects evaluated the mitigating effect of land use, river training and the loss of natural flood plains on development, peak and volume of floods. The presented project analysis the hypothesis that ignoring natural detention and hydrological ecosystem services could result in economically inefficient solutions for flood protection and mitigation. In test areas, subcatchments of the Danube in Germany, a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models with economic evaluation techniques was applied. Different forms of land use, river structure and flood protection measures were assed and compared from a hydrological and economic point of view. A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate flows to assess the extent of flood affected areas and damages to buildings and infrastructure as well as to investigate the impacts of levees and river structure on a local scale. These model results provided the basis for an economic assessment. Different economic valuation techniques, such as flood damage functions, cost comparison method and substation-approach were used to compare the outcomes of different hydrological scenarios from an economic point of view and value the ecosystem service. The results give significant evidence that natural detention must be evaluated as part of flood mitigation projects

  8. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  9. Modeling conditional covariance between meteorological and hydrological drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study introduces a bivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) approach to model the time varying second order moment or conditional variance-covariance link of hydrologic and meteorological drought. The standardized streamflow and rainfall time series are selected as drought indices and the bivariate diagonal BEKK model is applied to estimate the conditional variance-covariance structure between hydrologic and meteorological drought. Results of diagonal BEKK(1,1) model indicated that the conditional variance of meteorological drought is weak and much smaller than that for hydrological drought which shows a strong volatility effect. However both drought indices show a weak memory in the conditional variance. It is also observed that the conditional covariance between two drought indices is also weak and only shows a slight short run volatility effect. This may suggest the effect of basin features such as groundwater storage and physical characteristics which attenuate and modify the effect of meteorological drought on hydrologic drought in the basin scale. conditional correlation time series between meteorological and hydrologic drought at two selected stations monthly variation of conditional correlation between meteorological and hydrologic drought at two selected stations

  10. Multivariate missing data in hydrology - Review and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Aissia, Mohamed-Aymen; Chebana, Fateh; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources planning and management require complete data sets of a number of hydrological variables, such as flood peaks and volumes. However, hydrologists are often faced with the problem of missing data (MD) in hydrological databases. Several methods are used to deal with the imputation of MD. During the last decade, multivariate approaches have gained popularity in the field of hydrology, especially in hydrological frequency analysis (HFA). However, treating the MD remains neglected in the multivariate HFA literature whereas the focus has been mainly on the modeling component. For a complete analysis and in order to optimize the use of data, MD should also be treated in the multivariate setting prior to modeling and inference. Imputation of MD in the multivariate hydrological framework can have direct implications on the quality of the estimation. Indeed, the dependence between the series represents important additional information that can be included in the imputation process. The objective of the present paper is to highlight the importance of treating MD in multivariate hydrological frequency analysis by reviewing and applying multivariate imputation methods and by comparing univariate and multivariate imputation methods. An application is carried out for multiple flood attributes on three sites in order to evaluate the performance of the different methods based on the leave-one-out procedure. The results indicate that, the performance of imputation methods can be improved by adopting the multivariate setting, compared to mean substitution and interpolation methods, especially when using the copula-based approach.

  11. Optimal combinations of specialized conceptual hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Lal Shrestha, Durga; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    In hydrological modelling it is a usual practice to use a single lumped conceptual model for hydrological simulations at all regimes. However often the simplicity of the modelling paradigm leads to errors in represent all the complexity of the physical processes in the catchment. A solution could be to model various hydrological processes separately by differently parameterized models, and to combine them. Different hydrological models have varying performance in reproducing catchment response. Generally it cannot be represented precisely in different segments of the hydrograph: some models performed well in simulating the peak flows, while others do well in capturing the low flows. Better performance can be achieved if a model being applied to the catchment using different model parameters that are calibrated using criteria favoring high or low flows. In this work we use a modular approach to simulate hydrology of a catchment, wherein multiple models are applied to replicate the catchment responses and each "specialist" model is calibrated according to a specific objective function which is chosen in a way that forces the model to capture certain aspects of the hydrograph, and outputs of models are combined using so-called "fuzzy committee". Such multi-model approach has been already previously implemented in the development of data driven and conceptual models (Fenicia et al., 2007), but its perfomance was considered only during the calibration period. In this study we tested an application to conceptual models in both calibration and verification period. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of the result to the use of different weightings used in the objective functions formulations, and memberbship functions used in the committee. The study was carried out for Bagamati catchment in Nepal and Brue catchment in United Kingdoms with the MATLAB-based implementation of HBV model. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization genetic algorithm (Deb, 2001) was used to

  12. Climate Variability and Its Impact on Forest Hydrology on South Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl Trettin; Changsheng Li; Harbin Li

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the changes in hydrology of coastal forested wetlands induced by climate change is fundamental for developing strategies to sustain their functions and services. This study examined 60 years of climatic observations and 30 years of hydrological data, collected at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) in coastal South Carolina. We also applied a physically-...

  13. Comparison of sensible heat flux estimates using AVHRR with scintillometer measurements over semi-arid grassland in northwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, C.J.; Chehbouni, A.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Kerr, Y.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The problems associated with the validation of satellite-derived estimates of the surface fluxes are discussed and the possibility of using the large aperture scintillometer is investigated. Simple models are described to derive surface temperature and sensible heat flux from the advanced very high

  14. The Influence of Rain Sensible Heat and Subsurface Energy Transport on the Energy Balance at the Land Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollet, S.J.; Cvijanovic, I.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Maxwell, R.M.; Moene, A.F.; Bayer, P.

    2009-01-01

    In land surface models, which account for the energy balance at the land surface, subsurface heat transport is an important component that reciprocally influences ground, sensible, and latent heat fluxes and net radiation. In most models, subsurface heat transport parameterizations are commonly

  15. Cognitive capacity: no association with recovery of sensibility by Semmes Weinstein test score after peripheral nerve injury of the forearm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, Z. J.; Ultee, J.; Hovius, S. E. R.

    2010-01-01

    In the recovery process of sensibility after repair of a peripheral nerve injury of the forearm, not only age but also surgical repair techniques are of importance. If regenerating axons are misdirected, reorganisation or other adaptic processes are needed at the level of the somatosensory brain

  16. Wasted Potential: The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Supporting Safe, Sensible and Social Drinking among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Judy; Coghill, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Setting: The United Kingdom (UK) government has acknowledged that there is a problem with excess alcohol consumption, in particular amongst young people. Higher education is an important health promotion setting in which to explore not only how sensible drinking patterns can be facilitated and embedded in students' current lifestyles but also how…

  17. Data assimilation in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, Jean-Philippe

    Data assimilation is an invaluable tool in hydrological modelling as it allows to efficiently combine scarce data with a numerical model to obtain improved model predictions. In addition, data assimilation also provides an uncertainty analysis of the predictions made by the hydrological model...... with model non-linearities and biased errors. A literature review analyzes the most popular techniques and their application in hydrological modelling. Since bias is an important problem in groundwater modelling, two bias aware Kalman filters have been implemented and compared using an artificial test case...

  18. How do patchy snow covers affect turbulent sensible heat fluxes? - Numerical analysis and experimental findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Sebastian; Mott, Rebecca; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The surface energy balance of a snow cover significantly changes once the snow cover gets patchy. The substantial progress in knowledge about the surface energy balance of patchy snow covers is a mandatory requirement to reduce biases in flux parameterizations in larger scale meteorological or climatological models. The aim of this project was to numerically improve energy balance calculations late in the melting season when the spatial variability of turbulent fluxes is especially high owing to the complex feedback between bare/snow-covered areas and the atmosphere above. In order to account for the feedback between the atmosphere and the patchy snow-cover we calculated three-dimensional air temperature and wind velocity fields with the non-hydrostatic atmospheric model ARPS for an idealized flat test site initialized with different snow distributions and atmospheric conditions. The physics-based surface process model Alpine3D has been forced with these atmospheric fields close to the snow surface in order to resolve the small-scale spatial variability. We further initialized the model with atmospheric fields above the blending height as a reference case. The numerical analysis shows that for simulations initialized with fully-resolved atmospheric fields below the blending height, turbulent sensible heat fluxes are up to 50 W/m2 larger than for calculations forced without resolved atmospheric fields. This difference in turbulent sensible heat fluxes over snow increase with increasing number of snow patches and decreasing snow-cover fraction. This is mainly attributed to an increase in the mean near-surface air temperature over snow due to horizontal and vertical exchange processes induced by the heterogeneous land-surface. We used flux footprint estimations to analyse turbulence data measured during three ablation periods in the Dischma valley (Switzerland). This fundamental theory was deployed for eddy-covariance measurements revealing the origin of the measured

  19. Socio-Racial Sensibilities towards coloured subaltern sectors in the Spanish Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, Alejandro E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies from a longue durée perspective the articulation of anti-slavery sentiments and other socio-racial sensibilities within the Spanish Atlantic, from the first theological criticisms of the 16th century to the efforts to abolish slavery in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Spain, in the second half of the 19th century. We focus on the most significant cases of individuals who shared a white identity and who advocated against slavery, slave trade and socio-racial discrimination of Free Coloureds. We argue that the many egalitarian proposals made during the Spanish American revolutions and at the Cortes of Cádiz represent a second golden moment (after the ‘Mulatto Affaire’ during the French Revolution in the struggle for the granting of political equality to subaltern sectors the Atlantic World. In the end, we expect to provide a clearer picture of how the socio-racial sensibilities contributed to accelerate, or to postpone, the introduction of abolitionist or equalitarian measures vis-à-vis the coloured subaltern sectors in the Spanish Atlantic in the Late Modern Age.Este artículo estudia desde una perspectiva de longue durée la articulación de los sentimientos anti-esclavistas con otras sensibilidades socio-raciales en el Atlántico español, desde las primeras críticas teológicas del siglo xvi hasta los esfuerzos para abolir la esclavitud en Cuba, Puerto Rico y España, en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. El estudio se centra en los casos más significativos de individuos que compartían una identidad blanca y que abogaron contra la esclavitud, la trata de esclavos y la discriminación socio-racial de los libres de color. El mismo sostiene que las muchas propuestas igualitarias hechas durante las revoluciones hispanoamericanas y en las Cortes de Cádiz representan un segundo momento dorado (después del llamado ‘Asunto de los mulatos’ durante la Revolución Francesa en la lucha por el otorgamiento de igualdad política a

  20. Attribution of hydrologic trends using integrated hydrologic and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Brugger, D. R.; Silverman, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change has been detected in many regions of the world in the form of trends in annual streamflows, varying depths to the regional water table, or other alterations of the hydrologic balance. Most models used to investigate these changes implement sophisticated descriptions of the physical system but use simplified descriptions of the socioeconomic system. These simplifications come in the form of prescribed water diversions and land use change scenarios, which provide little insight into coupled natural-human systems and have limited predictive capabilities. We present an integrated model that adds realism to the description of the hydrologic system in agricultural regions by incorporating a component that updates the allocation of land and water to crops in response to hydroclimatic (water available) and economic conditions (prices of commodities and agricultural inputs). This component assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize their net revenues, thus justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of an empirical production function that captures the economic behavior of farmers. Because the model internalizes the feedback between climate, agricultural markets, and farming activity into the hydrologic system, it can be used to understand to what extent human economic activity can exacerbate or buffer the regional hydrologic impacts of climate change in agricultural regions. It can also help in the attribution of causes of hydrologic change. These are important issues because local policy and management cannot solve climate change, but they can address land use and agricultural water use. We demonstrate the model in a case study.

  1. Climate Variability and Its Impact on Forest Hydrology on South Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl C. Trettin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the changes in hydrology of coastal forested wetlands induced by climate change is fundamental for developing strategies to sustain their functions and services. This study examined 60 years of climatic observations and 30 years of hydrological data, collected at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF in coastal South Carolina. We also applied a physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE to better understand the hydrological responses to the observed climate variability. The results from both observation and simulation for the paired forested watershed systems indicated that the forest hydrology was highly susceptible to change due to climate change. The stream flow and water table depth was substantially altered with a change in precipitation. Both flow and water table level decreased with a rise in temperature. The results also showed that hurricanes substantially influenced the forest hydrological patterns for a short time period (several years as a result of forest damage.

  2. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  3. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology have used each model component in an offline mode where the models are run in sequential steps and one model serves as a boundary condition or data input source to the other. Within recent years a new field of research has emerged where efforts have been made to dynamically couple existing climate....... The modelling tool consists of a fully dynamic two-way coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model. The expected gain is twofold. Firstly, HIRHAM utilizes the land surface component of the combined MIKE SHE/SWET hydrology and land surface model (LSM), which is superior...

  4. Extreme hydrological events and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security – the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  5. Hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions group areas according to their similarity in landscape and climate characteristics. These characteristics represent variables assumed to...

  6. Fall Meeting Hydrology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger

    The AGU 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco offered the full range of subjects represented by the Hydrology Section's technical committees. The total number of papers was double the number of just 4 years ago. Sessions were well attended. The following highlights were prepared from material written by session organizers.There were 3 full days of papers on snow, ice, and permafrost. One highlight was the special session on new developments in glacier mass-balance studies, which was organized to compare existing methods and examine new techniques for assessing changes in ice mass of the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Current methods for assessing mass change of the ice sheets include satellite laser altimetry to detect surface-elevation changes, surface-based control volume methods to determine net ice flux in a region, and ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving to determine mass loss from the ice sheet. Using these techniques, it is difficult to tell whether the ice sheet is gaining or losing mass. Methods that use drainage basin inputs/outputs indicate a net mass increase, whereas methods that emphasize oceanographic estimates of ice-shelf melting suggest a net mass decrease and estimates based on satellite altimetry are equivocal.

  7. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  8. HOBE – a hydrological observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a short introducO on is given to the Danish hydrological observatory—HOBE. We describe characteristics of the catchment, which is subject to experimental and modeling investigations. An overview is given of the research reported in this special section of the journal, which includes...... 11 papers of original research covering precipitation, evapotranspiration, emission of greenhouse gasses, unsaturated flow, groundwater–surface water interaction, and climate change impacts on hydrology....

  9. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  10. Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-16

    May 16, 2009 ... Scenarios of present, intermediate and future climates for Southern Africa were analysed to evaluate potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics of rainfall that could be observed this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed in previous studies by applying ...

  11. Retrieval of Landuse and Hydrology-based Parameters from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landuse and hydrology-based information on the Volta Lake Basin have been retrieved from Satellite remote sensing data. The results obtained could be applied in Hydro-Geographical Information System models, such as the TOPMODEL, for water balance studies. Eight Synthetic Aperture Radar Precision Images of the ...

  12. Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scenarios of present, intermediate and future climates for Southern Africa were analysed to evaluate potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics of rainfall that could be observed this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed in previous studies by applying empirical ...

  13. Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-16

    May 16, 2009 ... time-step and for a spatial grid resolution of 0.25° over Southern Africa, comprising South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. In the study ... hydrological impacts of climate change will ultimately be assessed explicitly by applying the regional climate scenarios ... National Climate Change Response Strategy.

  14. 30 CFR 717.17 - Protection of the hydrologic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to drainage from access and haul roads located... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.17 Protection of the hydrologic system. The permittee shall plan and conduct underground coal mining and...

  15. Prosody Improves Detection of Spoonerisms Versus Both Sensible and Nonsense Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G; Raymakers, Erik P; Matthews-Saugstad, Krista M

    2017-03-01

    Prosody is the pattern of inflection, pitch, and intensity that communicates emotional meaning above and beyond the individual meanings of lexical items and gestures during spoken language. Research has often addressed prosody extending most clearly across multiple speech chunks and carrying properties specific to individual speakers and individual intents. However, prosody exerts effects on intended meaning even for relatively brief speech streams with minimal syntactic cues. The present work seeks to test whether prosody may actually clarify the intended meaning of a two-word phrase even when the basic phonemic sequence of the words is distorted. Thirty-eight undergraduate participants attempted to correctly categorize auditorily presented two-word phrases as belonging to one of three categories: nonsensical phrases; sensible phrases; and spoonerisms. Mixed Poisson modeling of cumulative accuracy found a significant positive interaction of prosody with phrase type indicating that conversational prosody made participants 8.27% more likely to accurately detect spoonerisms. Prosody makes spoken-language comprehension of two-word phrases more robust to distortions of phonemic sequence.

  16. Evolution of surface sensible heat over the Tibetan Plateau under the recent global warming hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihua; Huang, Gang; Fan, Guangzhou; Qu, Xia; Zhao, Guijie; Hua, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Based on regular surface meteorological observations and NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, this study investigates the evolution of surface sensible heat (SH) over the central and eastern Tibetan Plateau (CE-TP) under the recent global warming hiatus. The results reveal that the SH over the CE-TP presents a recovery since the slowdown of the global warming. The restored surface wind speed together with increased difference in ground-air temperature contribute to the recovery in SH. During the global warming hiatus, the persistent weakening wind speed is alleviated due to the variation of the meridional temperature gradient. Meanwhile, the ground surface temperature and the difference in ground-air temperature show a significant increasing trend in that period caused by the increased total cloud amount, especially at night. At nighttime, the increased total cloud cover reduces the surface effective radiation via a strengthening of atmospheric counter radiation and subsequently brings about a clear upward trend in ground surface temperature and the difference in ground-air temperature. Cloud-radiation feedback plays a significant role in the evolution of the surface temperature and even SH during the global warming hiatus. Consequently, besides the surface wind speed, the difference in ground-air temperature becomes another significant factor for the variation in SH since the slowdown of global warming, particularly at night.

  17. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A. S. C.; Dasilva, R. G.; Battiston Loureiro, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36°C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m-2. Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20°C. At air temperatures >30°C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  18. From Sensibility to Pathology: The Origins of the Idea of Nervous Music around 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    KENNAWAY, JAMES

    2014-01-01

    Healing powers have been ascribed to music at least since David’s lyre, but a systematic discourse of pathological music emerged only at the end of the eighteenth century. At that time, concerns about the moral threat posed by music were partly replaced by the idea that it could over-stimulate a vulnerable nervous system, leading to illness, immorality, and even death. During the Enlightenment, the relationship between the nerves and music was more often put in terms of refinement and sensibility than pathology. However, around 1800, this view was challenged by a medical critique of modern culture based on a model of the etiology of disease that saw stimulation as the principal cause of sickness. Music’s belated incorporation into that critique was made possible by a move away from regarding music as an expression of cosmic and social order toward thinking of it as quasi-electrical stimulation, something that was intensified by the political and cultural changes unleashed by the French Revolution. For the next hundred and fifty years, nervousness caused by musical stimulation was often regarded as a fully fledged Zivilisationskrankheit, widely discussed in psychiatry, music criticism, and literature. PMID:20219729

  19. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensible heat flux (H plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS and remote sensing (RS products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method performed well in converting EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. However, the method does not consider the path-weighting function in the EC- to LAS-scale kriging with the regression residue, which inevitably brought about a bias estimation. In this study, a weighted area-to-area regression kriging (WATA RK model is proposed to convert EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. It involves path-weighting functions of EC and LAS source areas in both regression and area kriging stages. Results show that WATA RK outperforms traditional methods in most cases, improving estimation accuracy. The method is considered to provide an efficient validation of RS H flux products.

  20. Conversation, characterisation and corpus linguistics: Dialogue in Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Hubbard

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a corpus-based exploration of the role that fictional dialogue plays in characterisation. The focus is on the two main characters of Austen’s Sense and Sensibility and (a the extent to which certain features of their dialogue can be said to tie in with general perceptions that Elinor represents the “sense” and Marianne the “sensibility” of the novel’s title; and (b the extent to which Austen can be said to have exploited these features to enable the sisters to speak with subtly differing voices. The features themselves were drawn from two linguistic frameworks, namely cohesion in text linguistics (specifically, the category of conjunctive cohesion as originated by Halliday and Hasan (1976, and the category of “involvement” in register analysis (most prominently, Biber 1988. The density of these features in each dialogue was calculated, compared statistically and salient differences considered in relation to the focal issues of the study. Although two of the five hypotheses formulated were not supported, the results overall provided strong indications that Austen successfully distinguishes between the sisters through their dialogue, and often in ways that link with less subtle, more explicit cues to their character that are given in the text. The study thus reveals how certain text-linguistic and register features can underpin characterisation in fiction, and in so doing explicates aspects of what it is that readers and literary critics respond to when they comment on characterisation in a novel.

  1. The Influence of Aircraft Speed Variations on Sensible Heat-Flux Measurements by Different Airborne Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sabrina; Bange, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Crawford et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 66:237-245, 1993) showed that the time average is inappropriate for airborne eddy-covariance flux calculations. The aircraft's ground speed through a turbulent field is not constant. One reason can be a correlation with vertical air motion, so that some types of structures are sampled more densely than others. To avoid this, the time-sampled data are adjusted for the varying ground speed so that the modified estimates are equivalent to spatially-sampled data. A comparison of sensible heat-flux calculations using temporal and spatial averaging methods is presented and discussed. Data of the airborne measurement systems , Helipod and Dornier 128-6 are used for the analysis. These systems vary in size, weight and aerodynamic characteristics, since the is a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the Helipod a helicopter-borne turbulence probe and the Dornier 128-6 a manned research aircraft. The systematic bias anticipated in covariance computations due to speed variations was neither found when averaging over Dornier, Helipod nor UAV flight legs. However, the random differences between spatial and temporal averaging fluxes were found to be up to 30 % on the individual flight legs.

  2. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  3. 2-way coupling the hydrological land surface model PROMET with the regional climate model MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zabel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most land surface hydrological models (LSHMs consider land surface processes (e.g. soil–plant–atmosphere interactions, lateral water flows, snow and ice in a spatially detailed manner. The atmosphere is considered as exogenous driver, neglecting feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs generally simulate land surface processes through coarse descriptions and spatial scales but include land–atmosphere interactions. What is the impact of the differently applied model physics and spatial resolution of LSHMs on the performance of RCMs? What feedback effects are induced by different land surface models? This study analyses the impact of replacing the land surface module (LSM within an RCM with a high resolution LSHM. A 2-way coupling approach was applied using the LSHM PROMET (1 × 1 km2 and the atmospheric part of the RCM MM5 (45 × 45 km2. The scaling interface SCALMET is used for down- and upscaling the linear and non-linear fluxes between the model scales. The change in the atmospheric response by MM5 using the LSHM is analysed, and its quality is compared to observations of temperature and precipitation for a 4 yr period from 1996 to 1999 for the Upper Danube catchment. By substituting the Noah-LSM with PROMET, simulated non-bias-corrected near-surface air temperature improves for annual, monthly and daily courses when compared to measurements from 277 meteorological weather stations within the Upper Danube catchment. The mean annual bias was improved from −0.85 to −0.13 K. In particular, the improved afternoon heating from May to September is caused by increased sensible heat flux and decreased latent heat flux as well as more incoming solar radiation in the fully coupled PROMET/MM5 in comparison to the NOAH/MM5 simulation. Triggered by the LSM replacement, precipitation overall is reduced; however simulated precipitation amounts are still of high uncertainty, both

  4. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    historical data from which to quantify the flow regime. Nevertheless, the authors worked with their legal team to fill in the blanks based on their knowledge of hydrology and ecology. One of the most important lessons learned by the authors is the importance of participating in the public process. Often, scientists shy away from such matters. Many of the principles that were applied were researched long ago. No research papers were generated by the case, but many were used to solidify arguments. It was gratifying to the authors to realize that the work product of their disciplines could be applied in a cooperative manner to address an issue with such profound implications. It was a clear demonstration that ecohydrology, the linkage of hydrology and ecology, was much preferred as a way to address a complicated legal issue.

  5. Hypothesis tests for hydrologic alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Croteau, Kelly E.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrologic systems can be altered by anthropogenic and climatic influences. While there are a number of statistical frameworks for describing and evaluating the extent of hydrologic alteration, here we present a new framework for assessing whether statistically significant hydrologic alteration has occurred, or whether the shift in the hydrologic regime is consistent with the natural variability of the system. Four hypothesis tests based on shifts of flow duration curves (FDCs) are developed and tested using three different experimental designs based on different strategies for resampling of annual FDCs. The four hypothesis tests examined are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Kuiper (K), confidence interval (CI), and ecosurplus and ecodeficit (Eco). Here 117 streamflow sites that have potentially undergone hydrologic alteration due to reservoir construction are examined. 20 years of pre-reservoir record is used to develop the critical value of the test statistic for type I errors of 5% and 10%, while 10 years of post-alteration record is used to examine the power of each test. The best experimental design, based on calculating the mean annual FDC from an exhaustive jackknife resampling regime, provided a larger number of unique values of each test statistic and properly reproduced type I errors. Of the four tests, the CI test consistently had the highest power, while the K test had the second highest power; KS and Eco always had the lowest power. The power of the CI test appeared related to the storage ratio of the reservoir, a rough measure of the hydrologic alteration of the system.

  6. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  7. Simulating hydrological responses with a physically based model in a mountainous watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical and distributed approach was proposed by Reggiani et al. (1998 to describe the hydrological responses at the catchment scale. The rigorous balance equations for mass, momentum, energy and entropy are applied on the divided spatial domains which are called Representative Elementary Watershed (REW. Based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics, Reggiani (1999 put forward several constitutive relations of hydrological processes. Associated with the above equations, the framework of a physically based distributed hydrological model was established. The crucial step for successfully applying this approach is to develop physically based closure relations for these terms and simplify the set of equations. The paper showed how a theoretical hydrological model based on the REW method was applied to prosecute the hydrological response simulation for a humid watershed. The established model was used to carry on the long-term (daily runoff forecasting and short-term (runoff simulation of storm event hydrological simulation in the studied watershed and the simulated results were analysed. These results and analysis proved that this physically based distributed hydrological model can produce satisfied simulation results and describe the hydrological responses correctly. Finally, several aspects to improve the model demonstrated by the results and analysis were put forward which would be carried out in the future.

  8. Feasibility of a novel functional sensibility test as an assisted examination for determining precision pinch performance in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Yun Hsu

    Full Text Available To understand the feasibility of a novel functional sensibility test for determining precision pinch performance in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, this study investigates the validity, sensitivity and specificity of functional sensibility derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA test. Participants include 70 clinically defined carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS patients with 119 involved hands and 70 age- and gender-matched controls. To examine the discriminating ability of the functional sensibility test, the differences in the ability of pinch force adjustments to the inertial load of handling object between CTS and control subjects are analyzed. The results of functional sensibility are correlated with the severity of CTS to establish concurrent validity. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve is constructed to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed test. The functional sensibility score significantly discriminates the patients and control groups (respectively, 12.94±1.72 vs. 11.51±1.15N in peak pinch force (FPPeak, p<0.001; 2.92±0.41 vs. 2.52±0.24 in force ratio, p<0.001 and is moderately correlated (r = 0.42-0.54, p<0.001 with the results of traditional sensibility tests (touch-pressure threshold and two-point discrimination test. In addition, there is a statistical difference in the results of functional sensibility (p<0.001 among the subgroups of CTS severity based on electrophysiological study. The sensitivity and specificity are 0.79 and 0.76, respectively, for the functional sensibility test. The areas under the ROC curve are 0.85 and 0.80 for the force ratio and FPPeak, respectively. In conclusion, the functional sensibility test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool for determining both the sensibility and precision pinch performance of hands for the patients with CTS.

  9. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  10. Assessing Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2

  11. Neglect of the foreign invisible: Historiography and the navigation of conflicting sensibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2015-05-01

    This essay is intended first as a contribution to historiography, and only second as a contribution to the history of developmental psychology. It is therefore a discussion--primarily--of the doing of the history of psychology, rather than of its content. Briefly put: American psychology, including its associated approaches to the history of psychology, is not adequately equipped to benefit fully from the contributions of foreign scholars. To make the resulting argument clear, two archive-driven microhistories are reviewed, contrasted, augmented with new archival research, and synthesized: Yeh Hsueh's (2004) examination of the nomination process at Harvard University that led to the awarding of an honorary doctorate to Jean Piaget in 1936, and Marc Ratcliff and Paloma Borella's (2013) examination-just recently published in French-of a similar process that resulted in Piaget's hiring at Geneva in 1929 and his eventual promotion in 1940. Comparing the authors' different approaches to similar content then affords this article's larger argument: we need to broaden our sensibilities so we can see high-quality foreign contributions for what they are. Several interesting insights result if we do. Among them: although Piaget's theory is today mistakenly criticized for being asocial, and this serves as justification for countering his early works with Vygotsky's posthumous critique, it emerges from these archival studies that Piaget may have in fact chosen to present himself and his work as nonsociological (when this was not the case) for reasons unrelated to his intellectual project. Such examples then broaden the discussion of "neglect of the foreign invisible" to include suppression--even censorship (by self or other)--which in turn reflects the primary problem afforded by internationalization: by what standards are we to judge the contributions of "foreigners" into "our" discipline? (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. An inter-comparison of six latent and sensible heat flux products over the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejiang Yu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The latent heat fluxes (LHF and sensible heat fluxes (SHF over the Southern Ocean from six different data sets are inter-compared for the period 1988–2000. The six data sets include three satellite-based products, namely, the second version of the Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes data set (GSSTF-2, the third version of the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS-3 and the Japanese Ocean Fluxes Data Sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO; two global reanalysis products, namely, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 data set (NCEP-2 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Re-analysis data set (ERA-40; and the Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Fluxes for the Global Oceans data set (OAFlux. All these products reveal a similar pattern in the averaged flux fields. The zonal mean LHF fields all exhibit a continuous increase equatorward. With an exception of HOAPS-3, the zonal mean SHF fields display a minimum value near 50°S, increasing both pole- and equatorward. The differences in the standard deviation for LHF are larger among the six data products than the differences for SHF. Over the regions where the surface fluxes are significantly influenced by the Antarctic Oscillation and the Pacific–South American teleconnection, the values and distributions of both LHF and SHF are consistent among the six products. It was found that the spatial patterns of the standard deviations and trends of LHF and SHF can be explained primarily by sea–air specific humidity and temperature differences; wind speed plays a minor role.

  13. A safe, sensible and social AHRSE: New Labour and alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2007-10-01

    When the Labour government came to power in the UK in 1997, it took over high and rising levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Contrary to 'old Labour''s views on alcohol policy, New Labour did nothing to reverse this trend, and, if anything, exacerbated it. Since New Labour has been in power, alcohol has become 40% more affordable; consumption has increased by 14% and alcohol-related deaths have increased by over 40%. New Labour viewed alcohol-related harm as a question of individual responsibility and, as expressed in its long awaited 2004 alcohol harm reduction strategy (commonly known as AHRSE), viewed partnerships with the alcohol industry as the solution to reducing harm. Ten years on we have safe, sensible and social, the 3Ss, AHRSE's next steps. On first reading it would seem that the government has learnt nothing from its mistakes of the previous ten years, and in its approach to alcohol policy continues to disable the public interest. Nevertheless, there remain areas where science might inform policy, including health sector policy where there is an emphasis on early diagnosis and treatment, and transport policy, where reducing the legal blood alcohol level to the European Commission maximum recommended level of 0.5g/L is again on the agenda. The 3Ss propose an independent review of the evidence of the relationship between alcohol price, promotion and harm. However, unless this fully reviews the international evidence of the relationship between the economic and physical availability of alcohol, the marketing of alcohol and alcohol related harm, AHRSE and its successor will continue to be a recipe for ineffectiveness.

  14. Sense and Sensibility: The Case for the Nationwide Inclusion of Engineering in the K-12 Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Batterson, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive status of the United States is inextricably linked to innovation just as innovation is inseparable from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To stay competitive in innovation requires that the United States produce a 21st century workforce complete with requisite education, training, skills, and motivation. If we accept a priori that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are crucial to competitiveness and innovation and that, in terms of innovation, mathematics, science, and engineering are interdependent, why are mathematics and science uniformly ubiquitous in the K-12 curriculum while engineering is conspicuously absent? We are passionate in our belief that the uniform addition of engineering to the K-12 curriculum will help ensure that the nation has "the right" 21st Century workforce. Furthermore, we believe that a nationwide effort, led by a coalition of engineering academics, practitioners, and societies is required to turn this goal into reality. However, accomplishing this goal necessitates, as we are reminded by the title of Jane Austen's timeless novel, "Sense and Sensibility", a workable solution that seeks the "middle ground" between passion and reason. We begin our paper by making two essential points: Engineers are not scientists. Engineering exists separate from science, has its own specialized knowledge community apart from science, and it is largely responsible for many of the most significant advancements and improvements in the quality of our life. Our workable solution requires that K-12 education, nationwide, accommodate the inclusion of engineering as a stand alone curriculum and we offer three reasons to support our position: (1) workforce development, (2) stimulating interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and careers, and (3) creating a technologically literate society. We conclude with some thoughts on how this important goal can be accomplished.

  15. A system for vertical profile measurements of sensible heat and chemical concentrations near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyppoenen, M.; Walden, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The design, construction and measurements of a computer controlled system applicable to flux measurements of a scalar quantity by the gradient technique are described. Accuracy requirements for the measured variables which are used for flux calculations are considered, together with some practical aspects concerning data storage and control. The construction includes the hardware and the data acquisition, sample intake, and temperature measurement systems. The measurements comprise laboratory tests of the temperature probes and the hardware as well as field tests over wheat and grass land for temperature and wind speed and ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentration profiles. The hardware takes care of most of the operation and only the necessary part is done by the software. The data acquisition system is flexible, accepting the input of either digital and/or analog signals. It also controls the whole system, storing all the data in a single data file. The sample intake unit is designed to take continuous samples in to the monitors as well as grab samples into the canisters. Samples can be selected from one to four levels with no dead volumes in the sampling tubes. The temperature measurement system is constructed using a pair of temperature probes, Pt-100, which are connected to the same signal processing card, in order to remove the offset of the electronic components as well as the bias associated with single probes. This ensures the accuracy of the probes down to 0.005 deg C. According to the field measurements, the relative error limits for the sensible heat fluxes varied from 7 to 20 % in an unstable atmospheric situation. For the ozone flux, the error limits varied from 20 to 100 %, indicating a much poorer accuracy of the monitor compared to the temperature probes. (orig.) 16 refs.

  16. La academia sensible: experiencias y encuentro de saberes en la universidad venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith Caldera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se abre un mundo de posibilidades por los senderos de una crisis epistémica-social, que permea los espacios universitarios y cotidianos. Urge por lo señalado, estudiar lo académico en el contexto universitario venezolano y dentro de ello la investigación, la reflexión crítica de la práctica y la formación profesional. Son estos aspectos que han sufrido derivas y deben ser repensados en un nuevo marco de sensibilidades. Algunos autores relevantes que fundamentan la resemantización de la relación entre universidad y comunidad son: Foucault (1970, Martínez (2000, Téllez (2001, Maffesoli (2004, Larrosa (2003 y Dussel (2001. Por tal motivo, en este ensayo, a partir de la reflexión hermenéutica se aspira resignificar la academia, proponiendo las experiencias y vivencias compartidas para la construcción de saberes comuniversitarios que respondan a los imperativos del clima cultural del presente. Se concluye que la experiencia como vivencia y su narrativa confiere a la academia nuevas metáforas éticas y estéticas de autovaloración y valoración del otro. De allí, la invitación a viajar por las sendas de lo vivido, donde la creatividad permita la metamorfosis y proyección hacia una universidad sensible. Corresponde, pues, proyectar a la universidad como ser pensante, reflexiva, facultada para construir y deconstruir su cultura, productora de saberes, en la medida en que convive en sociedad.

  17. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4: Atmospheric Response to Arctic SHFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Catrin M. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, John J. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, Elizabeth N. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2016-12-10

    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  18. How the Young Hydrologic Society can rejuvenate hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H.; Berghuijs, W. R.; Smoorenburg, M.; Harrigan, S.; Muller, H.; Dugge, J.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community aims to understand the complex movement, distribution and quality of water around the world. Especially with climate change, suppressed food security and environmental degradation, hydrologists play an important role in sustainable water resources management. To achieve this, worldwide collaboration between researchers is a crucial necessity. For example, IAHS' "Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB)" and "Panta Rei" initiatives have shown that working together leads to fruitful results. However, hydrology struggles to unify, with its different research perspectives, myriad of organizations and diverse array of focus areas. Furthermore, within the active hydrologic community, young scientists are underrepresented and often not well connected. Active involvement of those who will deal with tomorrow's water issues is the key to building bridges between generations and the variety of hydrologic research fields. Therefore, the Young Hydrologic Society (YHS) was founded with the following goal: 'Bringing young scientists from around the world together to contribute to the scientific and organizational unification of the global hydrologic community' To realize this, YHS has set itself 4 main objectives: - Function as the link between existing and future student initiatives within the major organizations (e.g. EGU, AGU, IAHS, etc.), - Connect early career scientists (e.g. MSc, PhD, Post-Doc) at an early stage in their career, - Stimulate bottom-up research initiatives, - Create a voice of the young hydrologists in the global scientific debate. YHS is already supported by some of the world's most prominent hydrologists and organizations. But, to make YHS a real success, we need you to spread the word and get involved in the YHS initiative. Get connected, get inspired and get involved!

  19. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  20. Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

  1. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Magnus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Methods Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Results Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion, global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p Conclusion In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance. Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are imperfect measures of functional proprioceptive impairments. Validity of (and procedures for using these

  2. Observed trends in the hydrologic regime of Alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Antoine; Renard, Benjamin; Lang, Michel

    2010-05-01

    A European trans-national project, AdaptAlp, has been set up since 2008 in order to study the impacts of climate change in the Alps and to assess adaptation strategies. One of the objectives of this project is to study past and present changes in the hydrologic regime of Alpine rivers. This poster presents preliminary results of a trend analysis over the whole Alpine area. A new dataset of more than two hundred discharge time series has been collected over the six countries of the alpine space: Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and France. These series are made up of at least forty years of daily record and are related to undisturbed catchments. This dataset covers the whole spectrum of hydrological regimes existing in the Alps (from glacier- to mixed rainfall/snow regimes). In a second step, a set of hydrologic indices has been defined to characterize the hydrologic regime in terms of low, medium and high flows. In particular, these indices describe the drought severity (in terms of duration, intensity and volume deficit) and seasonality, the volume and timing of snowmelt, floods intensity and seasonality. A statistical trend test is finally applied for each hydrologic indice at each site. Consistent trends affecting the timing of snowmelt-dominated streamflow are found all over the Alps. Spring floods appear earlier in the season and tend to be longer in duration. Winter droughts tend to be shorter and less severe in terms of volume deficit.

  3. Improvements of Physically-Based Hydrological Modelling using the ACRU Agro-Hydrological Modelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, C. M. T.; Kienzle, S. W.; Xu, W.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The uncertainty of future water availability due to climate change in the Upper Oldman River Basin in Alberta, Canada, and downstream users is considered in this study. A changing climate can significantly perturb hydrological response within a region, thereby affecting the available water resources within southern Alberta. The ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system is applied to simulate historical (1950-2010) and future (2041-2070) streamflows and volumes of a major irrigation reservoir. Like many highly complex, process-based distributed models, major limitations include the data availability and data quality at finer spatial resolutions. With the use of a scripting language, certain limitations can be greatly reduced. Three phases of the project will be emphasized. First, the assimilation of solar radiation, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed daily data into the Canadian 10KM daily climate data that contains daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature data for the period 1950-2010, so as to enable potential evapotranspiration calculations using the Penman-Monteith equation. Second, the downscaling of five regional climate model (RCM) data to match the 10KM spatial resolution was undertaken. Third, a total of 1722 hydrological response units (HRUs) were delineated within the 4403 km2 large upper Oldman River Basin. In all phases of model input data parameterization and calibration, the automation of known external procedures greatly decreased erroneous model inputs and increased the efficiency of validating the quality of input data to be used within the ACRU model.

  4. Spatial resolution considerations for urban hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, G.; Kokkonen, T.; Valtanen, M.; Setälä, H.; Koivusalo, H.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological model simulations can be applied to evaluate the performance of low impact development (LID) tools in urban areas. However, the assessment for large-scale urban areas remains a challenge due to the required high spatial resolution and limited availability of field measurements for model calibration. This study proposes a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model (SWMM) with sufficiently high spatial resolution and direct accessibility of model parameters for LID performance simulation applicable to a large-scale ungauged urban area. Based on calibrated high-resolution models for three small-scale study catchments (6-12 ha), we evaluated how constraints implied by large-scale urban modelling, such as data limitations, affect the model results. The high-resolution surface representation, resulting in subcatchments of uniform surface types, reduced the number of calibration parameters. Calibration conducted independently for all catchments yielded similar parameter values for same surface types in each study catchment. These results suggest the applicability of the parameter values calibrated for high resolution models to be regionalized to larger, ungauged urban areas. The accessibility of surface specific model parameters for LID simulation is then also retained. Conducted perturbations in spatial resolution through sewer network truncation showed that while the runoff volume was mostly unaffected by resolution perturbations, lower resolutions resulted in over-simulation of peak flows due to excessively rapid catchment response to storm events. Our results suggest that a hydrological model where parameter values are adopted from high-resolution models and that is developed based on a minimum conduit diameter of 300 mm provides good simulation performance and is applicable to large-scale urban areas with reasonable effort.

  5. Exploring the linkage between drought, high temperatures, and hydrologic sensitivities: A case study of the 2012 Great Plains drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, B.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of drought is associated with agricultural loss, water supply shortfalls, and other economic impacts. Here we explore the physical relationships between precipitation deficits, high temperatures, and hydrologic responses as a pathway to better anticipate drought impacts. Current methodologies to predict hydrologic scarcity include local monitoring of river flows, remote sensing of land-surface wetness, drought indices, expert judgment, climate indices (e.g. SST-relationships) and the application of hydrologic models. At longer lead times, predictions of drought have most frequently been made on the basis of GCM ensembles, with subsequent downscaling of those to scales over which hydrologic predictions can be made. This study focuses on two important aspects of drought. First, we explore the causal hydro-climatic timeline of a drought event, namely (a) the lack of precipitation, which serves to reduce soil moisture and produce (b) a skewed Bowen ratio, i.e. comparatively more sensible heating (warming) with less ET, resulting in (c) anomalously warm conditions. We seek to assess the extent to which the lack of precipitation contributes to warming temperatures, and the further effects of that warming on hydrology and the severity of drought impacts. An ensemble of GCM simulations will be used to explore the evolution of the land surface energy budget during a recent Great Plains drought event, which will subsequently be used to drive a hydrologic model. Second, we examine the impacts of the critical assumptions relating climatic variables with water demand, specifically the relationship between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and temperature. The common oversimplification in relating PET to temperature is explored against a more physically consistent energy balance estimate of PET, using the Penman-Monteith approach and the hydrologic impacts are presented. Results from this work are anticipated to have broad relevance for future water management

  6. Improved understanding and prediction of the hydrologic response of highly urbanized catchments through development of the Illinois Urban Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Joshua; Schmidt, Arthur

    2011-08-01

    What happens to the rain in highly urbanized catchments? That is the question that urban hydrologists must ask themselves when trying to integrate the hydrologic and hydraulic processes that affect the hydrologic response of urban catchments. The Illinois Urban Hydrologic Model (IUHM) has been developed to help answer this question and improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic response in highly urbanized catchments. Urban catchments are significantly different than natural watersheds, but there are similarities that allow features of the pioneering geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph concept developed for natural watersheds to be adapted to the urban setting. This probabilistically based approach is a marked departure from the traditional deterministic models used to design and simulate urban sewer systems and does not have the burdensome input data requirements that detailed deterministic models possess. Application of IUHM to the CDS-51 catchment located in the village of Dolton, Illinois, highlights the model's ability to predict the hydrologic response of the catchment as well as the widely accepted SWMM model and is in accordance with observed data recorded by the United States Geological Survey. In addition, the unique structure and organization of urban sewer networks make it possible to characterize a set of ratios for urban catchments that allow IUHM to be applied when detailed input data are not available.

  7. Enhancing Hydrologic Modelling in the Coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Modelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Voogt, James A.; Myint, Soe

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization modifies surface energy and water budgets, and has significant impacts on local and regional hydroclimate. In recent decades, a number of urban canopy models have been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to capture urban land-surface processes. Most of these models are inadequate due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes. Here, we implement physically-based parametrizations of urban hydrological processes into the single layer urban canopy model in the WRF model. The new single-layer urban canopy model features the integration of, (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation from paved surfaces, and (4) the urban oasis effect. The new WRF-urban modelling system is evaluated against field measurements for four different cities; results show that the model performance is substantially improved as compared to the current schemes, especially for latent heat flux. In particular, to evaluate the performance of green roofs as an urban heat island mitigation strategy, we integrate in the urban canopy model a multilayer green roof system, enabled by the physical urban hydrological schemes. Simulations show that green roofs are capable of reducing surface temperature and sensible heat flux as well as enhancing building energy efficiency.

  8. USDA-ARS Hydrology Laboratory MISWG Hydrology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Current research being conducted in remote sensing techniques for measuring hydrologic parameters and variables deals with runoff curve numbers (CN), evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. The CN and ET research utilizes visible and infrared measurements. Soil moisture investigations focus on the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Supporting world hydrology: Activities of International Hydrological Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, John C.

    When George Bernard Shaw, through the exertions of professor Higgins, caused Eliza Doolittle to recite “The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain,” he was most probably completely unaware of the hydrological consequences of the event. Not so the several agencies that together make up the Spanish hydrological service and are listed in the INFOHYDRO Manual [World Meteorological Organization, 1987]. They and their counterparts in the 159 other member countries of the World Meteorological Organization are intimately involved in routinely observing, recording, analyzing and forecasting the procession of hydrological phenomena that occur within their territories (Figure 1). These phenomena include floods and droughts, soil erosion, pollution incidents, landslides, avalanches, river ice formation and its break up in the spring. These agencies are also involved in water-resource assessment—just how much of the precipitation is available for man to use, primarily from the water draining out of a basin as river flows, and also from the water stored within it. When these responsibilities that link water issues with a variety of environmental matters are added to assessments of water usage in the different sectors, then the wide ranging and important responsibilities of hydrological services become very apparent. Perhaps Shaw was prudent in restricting Eliza's utterances, rather than lacking in perspective—“prolonged precipitation in Peru provokes problems for operational hydrology” would not have exercised her vowels to the same extent.

  10. Observational constraints on Arctic boundary-layer clouds, surface moisture and sensible heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Boisvert, L.; Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dry, cold environment and dynamic surface variations make the Arctic a unique but difficult region for observations, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Spaceborne platforms have been the key vantage point to capture basin-scale changes during the recent Arctic warming. Using the AIRS temperature, moisture and surface data, we found that the Arctic surface moisture flux (SMF) had increased by 7% during 2003-2013 (18 W/m2 equivalent in latent heat), mostly in spring and fall near the Arctic coastal seas where large sea ice reduction and sea surface temperature (SST) increase were observed. The increase in Arctic SMF correlated well with the increases in total atmospheric column water vapor and low-level clouds, when compared to CALIPSO cloud observations. It has been challenging for climate models to reliably determine Arctic cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 and assuming a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process with generalized subgrid-scale variability for total water content, we were able to produce a cloud distribution that is more consistent with the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. More importantly, the modified schemes decrease (increase) the cloud water (ice) content in mixed-phase clouds, which help to improve the modeled CRF and energy budget at the surface, because of the dominant role of the liquid water in CRF. Yet, the coupling between Arctic low clouds and the surface is complex and has strong impacts on ABL. Studying GPS/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) refractivity profiles in the Arctic coldest and driest months, we successfully derived ABL inversion height and surface-based inversion (SBI) frequency, and they were anti-correlated over the Arctic Ocean. For the late summer and early fall season, we further analyzed Japanese R/V Mirai ship measurements and found that the open-ocean surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) can explain 10 % of the ABL height variability, whereas mechanisms such as cloud

  11. The responsiveness of sensibility and strength tests in patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Leanne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical measures of sensory and motor function are used alongside patient-rated questionnaires to assess outcomes of carpal tunnel decompression. However there is a lack of evidence regarding which clinical tests are most responsive to clinically important change over time. Methods In a prospective cohort study 63 patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression were assessed using standardised clinician-derived and patient reported outcomes before surgery, at 4 and 8 months follow up. Clinical sensory assessments included: touch threshold with monofilaments (WEST, shape-texture identification (STI™ test, static two-point discrimination (Mackinnon-Dellon Disk-Criminator and the locognosia test. Motor assessments included: grip and tripod pinch strength using a digital grip analyser (MIE, manual muscle testing of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis using the Rotterdam Intrinsic Handheld Myometer (RIHM. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ was used as a patient rated outcome measure. Results Relative responsiveness at 4 months was highest for the BCTQ symptom severity scale with moderate to large effects sizes (ES = -1.43 followed by the BCTQ function scale (ES = -0.71. The WEST and STI™ were the most responsive sensory tests at 4 months showing moderate effect sizes (WEST ES = 0.55, STI ES = 0.52. Grip and pinch strength had a relatively higher responsiveness compared to thenar muscle strength but effect sizes for all motor tests were very small (ES ≤0.10 or negative indicating a decline compared to baseline in some patients. Conclusions For clinical assessment of sensibility touch threshold assessed by monofilaments (WEST and tactile gnosis measured with the STI™ test are the most responsive tests and are recommended for future studies. The use of handheld myometry (RIHM for manual muscle testing, despite more specifically targeting thenar muscles, was less responsive than grip or tripod

  12. On the exchange of sensible and latent heat between the atmosphere and melting snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Wood, David; Rottinghaus, Daniel; Wohlfahrtd, Georg; Goulden, Michael; Ward, Helen

    2018-01-01

    The snow energy balance is difficult to measure during the snowmelt period, yet critical for predictions of water yield in regions characterized by snow cover. Robust simplifications of the snowmelt energy balance can aid our understanding of water resources in a changing climate. Research to date has demonstrated that the net turbulent flux (FT) between a melting snowpack and the atmosphere is negligible if the sum of atmospheric vapor pressure (ea) and temperature (Ta) equals a constant, but it is unclear how frequently this situation holds across different sites. Here, we quantified the contribution of FT to the snowpack energy balance during 59 snowmelt periods across 11 sites in the FLUXNET2015 database with a detailed analysis of snowmelt in subarctic tundra near Abisko, Sweden. At the Abisko site we investigated the frequency of occurrences during which sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (λE) are of (approximately) equal but opposite sign, and if the sum of these terms, FT, is therefore negligible during the snowmelt period. H approximately equaled -λE for less than 50% of the melt period and FT was infrequently a trivial term in the snowmelt energy balance at Abisko. The reason is that the relationship between observed ea and Ta is roughly orthogonal to the “line of equality” at which H equals -λE as warmer Ta during the melt period usually resulted in greater ea. This relationship holds both within melt periods at individual sites and across different sites in the FLUXNET2015 database, where FTcomprised less than 20% of the energy available to melt snow, Qm, in 44% of the snowmelt periods studied here. FT/Qm was significantly related to the mean ea during the melt period, but not mean Ta, and FT tended to be near 0 W m−2 when ea averaged ca. 0.5 kPa. FT may become an increasingly important term in the snowmelt energy balance across many global regions as warmer temperatures are projected to cause snow

  13. Turbulent Fluxes of Sensible Heat Measured by Research UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Bange, J.

    2009-09-01

    Research aircraft equipped for turbulence measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are suitable platforms to measure area-representative mean values and statistical moments of second order - like variance, spectral distribution and turbulent fluxes - in situ i.e. without the use of any theoretical assumptions. Since manned research aircraft are expensive the use of small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or mini aerial vehicles (MAV) is attractive. Such research UAV are able to measure vertical profiles of the lower troposphere, for instance. The next, more challenging league is the measurement of the turbulent fluctuations of the wind vector and simultaneously at least one scalar quantity in order to calculate turbulent fluxes using eddy covariance. To do this, fast and accurate sensors are required, with small weight, small dimensions and small power consumption, in order to be operated on a small research UAV. Beside absolute and relative measurement accuracy, the response time of the sensors has to be short (in the order of several 10 Hz) to resolve turbulent eddies also in stable stratification (i.e. sub-metre range). Since light, small and fast sensors for air humidity and trace gases are not available currently, the first step is to measure the vertical flux of sensible heat H. Beside a slow (about 1 Hz) water vapour sensor, the automatically operating meteorological mini aerial vehicles (M2AV) are equipped with two temperature sensors and a wind measurement unit. One of the temperature sensors is slow but offers a high absolute accuracy, while the fast sensor (up to 100 Hz) has a high relative accuracy but is unstable in time. The two signals are blended using a complementary filter. The wind vector can be calculated using the inertial velocity (aircraft speed relative to the earth) and the true airspeed (aircraft speed relative to the airflow). The true airspeed of M2AV is computed from five-hole-probe pressure measurements whereas the aircraft

  14. Using sonic anemometer temperature to measure sensible heat flux in strong winds

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    S. P. Burns

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sonic anemometers simultaneously measure the turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind (w' and sonic temperature (Ts', and are commonly used to measure sensible heat flux (H. Our study examines 30-min heat fluxes measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer above a subalpine forest. We compared H calculated with Ts to H calculated with a co-located thermocouple and found that, for horizontal wind speed (U less than 8 m s−1, the agreement was around ±30 W m−2. However, for U ≈ 8 m s−1, the CSAT H had a generally positive deviation from H calculated with the thermocouple, reaching a maximum difference of ≈250 W m−2 at U ≈ 18 m s−1. With version 4 of the CSAT firmware, we found significant underestimation of the speed of sound and thus Ts in high winds (due to a delayed detection of the sonic pulse, which resulted in the large CSAT heat flux errors. Although this Ts error is qualitatively similar to the well-known fundamental correction for the crosswind component, it is quantitatively different and directly related to the firmware estimation of the pulse arrival time. For a CSAT running version 3 of the firmware, there does not appear to be a significant underestimation of Ts; however, a Ts error similar to that of version 4 may occur if the CSAT is sufficiently out of calibration. An empirical correction to the CSAT heat flux that is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the Ts error is presented. Within a broader context, the surface energy balance is used to evaluate the heat flux measurements, and the usefulness of side-by-side instrument comparisons is discussed.

  15. Hydrological Cycle Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

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    Ahmad Wedyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nature-inspired optimization algorithm called the Hydrological Cycle Algorithm (HCA is proposed based on the continuous movement of water in nature. In the HCA, a collection of water drops passes through various hydrological water cycle stages, such as flow, evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. Each stage plays an important role in generating solutions and avoiding premature convergence. The HCA shares information by direct and indirect communication among the water drops, which improves solution quality. Similarities and differences between HCA and other water-based algorithms are identified, and the implications of these differences on overall performance are discussed. A new topological representation for problems with a continuous domain is proposed. In proof-of-concept experiments, the HCA is applied on a variety of benchmarked continuous numerical functions. The results were found to be competitive in comparison to a number of other algorithms and validate the effectiveness of HCA. Also demonstrated is the ability of HCA to escape from local optima solutions and converge to global solutions. Thus, HCA provides an alternative approach to tackling various types of multimodal continuous optimization problems as well as an overall framework for water-based particle algorithms in general.

  16. Mobile Phone Based Participatory Sensing in Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.

  17. Hydrologic Impact Of Subsurface Drainage Of Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, B. S.; Johannsen, C. J.; Bowling, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Although subsurface drainage has benefited agricultural productions in many regions of the U.S., there are also concerns about the potential impacts of these systems on watershed hydrology and water quality. This study was focused on tile lines identification and hydrologic response of subsurface drainage systems for the Agronomy Center for Research and Education (ACRE), West Lafayette, Indiana and the Southeastern Purdue Agriculture Center (SEPAC) in southeastern, Indiana. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a remote sensing methodology for automatic detection of tile lines from aerial photographs and to evaluate the Distributed Hydrology Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to analyze the hydrologic response of tile drained fields. A step-wise approach was developed to first use different image enhancement techniques to increase the visual distinction of tile lines from other details in the image. A new classification model was developed to identify locations of subsurface tiles using a decision tree classifier which compares the multiple data sets such as enhanced image data, land use class, soil drainage class, hydrologic group and surface slope. Accuracy assessment of the predicted tile map was done by comparing the locations of tile drains with existing historic maps and ground-truth data. The overall performance of decision tree classifier model coupled with other pre- and post- classification methods shows that this model can be a very effective tool in identifying tile lines from aerial photographs over large areas of land. Once the tile map was created, the DHSVM was applied to ACRE and SEPAC respectively to see the hydrological impact of the subsurface drainage network. Observed data for 3-years (1998-2000) at ACRE and for 6-years (1993-1998) at SEPAC were used to calibrate and validate the model. The model was simulated for three scenarios: 1) baseline scenario (no tiles), 2) with known tile lines and 3) with tile lines created through

  18. Land classification based on hydrological landscape units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharari, S.; Fenicia, F.; Hrachowitz, M.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of hydrological landscape classification based on dominant runoff mechanisms. Three landscape classes are distinguished: wetland, hillslope and plateau, corresponding to three dominant hydrological regimes: saturation excess overland flow, storage excess sub-surface

  19. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CLARK COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. DCS Hydrology Submission for Cortland County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Monroe County, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Putnam County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Meigs County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Jackson County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology Submission for Yankton County, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  7. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for Duval County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Albany County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS HYDROLOGY,SULLIVAN COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. DCS Hydrology Submission for Cass County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Washita County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submission for Denton TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, ST. CLAIR COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Harmon County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CHAMPAIGN COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. DCS Hydrology Submission for Dutchess County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. DCS Hydrology, Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, FREMONT COUNTY,IA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. DCS Hydrology Submittal for Socorro County NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Clay County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Shelby County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Medina County, Ohio

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Colfax County, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology Submission for Oglethorpe County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submission for RUSK COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. DCS Hydrology Submission for Murray County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for Heard County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CLARE COUNTY, MI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submission for Orleans LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. DCS Hydrology Submission for GRATIOT COUNTY, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, BOX ELDER COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submission for Wyoming County PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. Spatial and temporal variations in glacier hydrology on Storglaciaeren, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Naeslund, Jens-Ove (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of the current research project was to provide a framework of real conditions within which to interpret theory and extrapolate likely conditions beneath a future ice sheet over Fennoscandia. The purpose of this report is to summarize the experimental work on glacier hydrology and basal hydraulic conditions performed on Storglaciaeren, northern Sweden, during the years 1990-2006. Surface fed subglacial hydrological systems are extremely dynamic because the input rates of rain and temperature-controlled surface melt fluctuate, and the geometry of flow paths is constantly changing due to ice deformation which tends to open and close the flow paths. The hydrological system of a glacier is quite unusual because since liquid water flows through conduits made of its solid phase (ice). Understanding the expected dynamic range of a glacier's hydrological system is best studied by in situ measurements. The processes studied on Storglaciaeren can be expected to apply to ice sheet scale, albeit on different spatial scales. Since Storglaciaeren is a polythermal glacier with a large fraction of ice below freezing and at the melting point and with a surface-fed hydrological system of conduits and tunnels, results apply to the lower elevation regions where the surface is composed of ice (ablation zone) rather than composed of snow (accumulation zone) found at higher elevations of the glaciers and ice sheets, Therefore, our results apply to the ablation zone of the past Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. In this report we discuss the measurements made to assess the subglacial conditions that provide a potential analogue for conditions under the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. For this purpose field work was performed on from 2003 to 2006 yielding subglacial water pressure measurements. We have included a large quantity of unpublished data from Storglaciaeren from different research projects conducted since 1990. Together these data provide a picture of the temporal and spatial water

  15. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  16. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  17. Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Ryan; Vermeulen, Bart; Muh, Taufik; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C.C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; Lanen, van Henny A.J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the

  18. Applied Macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains a course in applied macroeconomics. Macroeconomic theory is applied to real world cases. Students are expected to compute model results with the help of a spreadsheet program. To that end the book also contains descriptions of the spreadsheet applications used, such as linear

  19. Hydrological drought types in cold climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Van A.F.; Ploum, S.W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A.K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Lanen, Van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the

  20. Hydrologic processes influencing meadow ecosystems [chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Lord; David G. Jewett; Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic regime exerts primary control on riparian meadow complexes and is strongly influenced by past and present geomorphic processes; biotic processes; and, in some cases, anthropogenic activities. Thus, it is essential to understand not only the hydrologic processes that operate within meadow complexes but also the interactions of meadow hydrology with other...

  1. The impacts of bias correction on uncertain future changes in hydrological drought characteristics across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Gemma; Guillod, Benoit; Freer, Jim; Dadson, Simon; Jones, Richard; Hall, Jim; Wagener, Thorsten; Woods, Ross; Howden, Nicholas; Musuuza, Jude

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological simulations derived from future climate projections provide valuable tools to quantify future changes in hydrological extremes and inform water resource management decisions. However, quantifying future changes in hydrological extremes is challenging as they often rely on climate model simulations of the weather today and in the future. As historical and future climate predictions are often subject to considerable uncertainties and biases this can lead to incorrect and biased hydrological projections, especially when propagated through a hydrological model. In this study, we aim to evaluate the sensitivity of future changes in drought characteristics to potential biases in the forcing data from climate model simulations. To achieve this, a HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) based hydrological model, dynamic TOPMODEL, is driven by simulated current and future rainfall and potential evapotranspiration time series from a hydro-meteorological drought event set produced using the weather@home regional climate modelling system. We assess the skill of the climate model to reproduce the frequency, severity and duration of droughts for a historical baseline period (1974 - 2004) by comparing hydrological simulations driven using 100 sequences of spatio-temporally consistent weather from the weather@home drought event set to hydrological simulations driven by observational data. We show how biases in drought characteristics vary spatially and temporally for a number of UK catchments and apply a bias correction to resolve the seasonal climate model biases. We then run 100 sequences for two future time slices (2030s and 2080s) through the hydrological model using the uncorrected and bias corrected drought event sets to investigate how the bias corrections affects our interpretation of future changes in drought characteristics across the UK. Finally, we discuss the significance of these results for climate change impact studies assessing future changes in hydrological

  2. Multi-source hydrological soil moisture state estimation using data fusion optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2017-07-01

    Reliable estimation of hydrological soil moisture state is of critical importance in operational hydrology to improve the flood prediction and hydrological cycle description. Although there have been a number of soil moisture products, they cannot be directly used in hydrological modelling. This paper attempts for the first time to build a soil moisture product directly applicable to hydrology using multiple data sources retrieved from SAC-SMA (soil moisture), MODIS (land surface temperature), and SMOS (multi-angle brightness temperatures in H-V polarisations). The simple yet effective local linear regression model is applied for the data fusion purpose in the Pontiac catchment. Four schemes according to temporal availabilities of the data sources are developed, which are pre-assessed and best selected by using the well-proven feature selection algorithm gamma test. The hydrological accuracy of the produced soil moisture data is evaluated against the Xinanjiang hydrological model's soil moisture deficit simulation. The result shows that a superior performance is obtained from the scheme with the data inputs from all sources (NSE = 0.912, r = 0.960, RMSE = 0.007 m). Additionally, the final daily-available hydrological soil moisture product significantly increases the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency by almost 50 % in comparison with the two most popular soil moisture products. The proposed method could be easily applied to other catchments and fields with high confidence. The misconception between the hydrological soil moisture state variable and the real-world soil moisture content, and the potential to build a global routine hydrological soil moisture product are discussed.

  3. Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.

  4. The effect of misleading surface temperature estimations on the sensible heat fluxes at a high Arctic site – the Arctic Turbulence Experiment 2006 on Svalbard (ARCTEX-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lüers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed rapid climate warming in the Arctic requires improvements in permafrost and carbon cycle monitoring, accomplished by setting up long-term observation sites with high-quality in-situ measurements of turbulent heat, water and carbon fluxes as well as soil physical parameters in Arctic landscapes. But accurate quantification and well adapted parameterizations of turbulent fluxes in polar environments presents fundamental problems in soil-snow-ice-vegetation-atmosphere interaction studies. One of these problems is the accurate estimation of the surface or aerodynamic temperature T(0 required to force most of the bulk aerodynamic formulae currently used. Results from the Arctic-Turbulence-Experiment (ARCTEX-2006 performed on Svalbard during the winter/spring transition 2006 helped to better understand the physical exchange and transport processes of energy. The existence of an atypical temperature profile close to the surface in the Arctic spring at Svalbard could be proven to be one of the major issues hindering estimation of the appropriate surface temperature. Thus, it is essential to adjust the set-up of measurement systems carefully when applying flux-gradient methods that are commonly used to force atmosphere-ocean/land-ice models. The results of a comparison of different sensible heat-flux parameterizations with direct measurements indicate that the use of a hydrodynamic three-layer temperature-profile model achieves the best fit and reproduces the temporal variability of the surface temperature better than other approaches.

  5. Hydrology for everyone: Share your knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Dogulu, Canay

    2015-04-01

    Hydrology, the science of water, plays a central role in understanding the function and behaviour of water on the earth. Given the increasingly complex, uncertain, and dynamic nature of this system, the study of hydrology presents challenges in solving water-related problems in societies. While researchers in hydrologic science and engineering embrace these challenges, it is important that we also realize our critical role in promoting the basic understanding of hydrology concepts among the general public. Hydrology is everywhere, yet, the general public often lacks the basic understanding of the hydrologic environment surrounding them. Essentially, we believe that a basic level of knowledge on hydrology is a must for everyone and that this knowledge might facilitate resilience of communities to hydrological extremes. For instance, in case of flood and drought conditions, which are the most frequent and widespread hydrological phenomena that societies live with, a key aspect of facilitating community resilience would be to create awareness on the hydrological, meteorological, and climatological processes behind floods and droughts, and also on their potential implications on water resources management. Such knowledge awareness can lead to an increase in individuals' awareness on their role in water-related problems which in turn can potentially motivate them to adopt preparedness behaviours. For these reasons, embracing an approach that will increase hydrologic literacy of the general public should be a common objective for the hydrologic community. This talk, hopefully, will motivate researchers in hydrologic science and engineering to share their knowledge with the general public. We, as early career hydrologists, should take this responsibility more than anybody else. Start teaching hydrology now and share your knowledge with people around you - friends, family, relatives, neighbours, and others. There is hydrology for everyone!

  6. Some safe and sensible shortcuts for efficiently upscaled updates of existing elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Aasbjerg Nielsen, Allan

    2013-04-01

    through the processor, individually contributing to the nearest grid posts in a memory mapped grid file. Algorithmically this is very efficient, but it would be even more efficient if we did not have to handle so much data. Another of our recent case studies focuses on this. The basic idea is to ignore data that does not tell us anything new. We do this by looking at anomalies between the current height model and the new point cloud, then computing a correction grid for the current model. Points with insignificant anomalies are simply removed from the point cloud, and the correction grid is computed using the remaining point anomalies only. Hence, we only compute updates in areas of significant change, speeding up the process, and giving us new insight of the precision of the current model which in turn results in improved metadata for both the current and the new model. Currently we focus on simple approaches for creating a smooth update process for integration of heterogeneous data sets. On the other hand, as years go by and multiple generations of data become available, more advanced approaches will probably become necessary (e.g. a multi campaign bundle adjustment, improving the oldest data using cross-over adjustment with newer campaigns). But to prepare for such approaches, it is important already now to organize and evaluate the ancillary (GPS, INS) and engineering level data for the current data sets. This is essential if future generations of DEM users should be able to benefit from future conceptions of "some safe and sensible shortcuts for efficiently upscaled updates of existing elevation models".

  7. The interactions among vegetation, hydrological processes and human activities: from socio-hydrological perspective at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Lin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Runoff is one of the important processes to govern the structure of ecohydrology. But the human activities are changing the flow regime significantly in the changing environment. The ecological flow is the minimum flow or flow regime to maintain the ecological function or environmental services in the water resources management of the river basin. In the socio-hydrological system, the ecological functions and environmental services, which are chosen to maintain, are determined by the preference of the society, which is making the trade-off among the values of riparian vegetation, fish, river landscape, water supply, hydropower, navigation and so on, in the specified stage of the society development. As the society develops, the preference of the value will change and the ecological functions and environmental services which are chosen to maintain will change. So with the new preference of the value, the ecological flow designed by decision-maker will change. As a result, the ecological flow will change with the development of the society. The processes to determine and implement the ecological flow are the processes of the interactions among vegetation, hydrological processes and human activities. The ecological flow should be the flow scheme that is dynamically changing for the decision-makers of river basin management in the socio-hydrological system. So a modeling framework will be proposed to simulate and predict the evolution processes of the socio-hydrological system and applied in a river basin in China. At reach scale and river basin scale, the feedbacks of hydrological processes, vegetation and human activities are achieved from different loops. The effect of the change that may happen in the preference of the value on the ecological flow and evolution processes of the socio-hydrological system is discussed.

  8. Restoration Hydrology: Synthesis of Hydrologic Data for Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of hydrologic data from various sources into a common cyber-infrastructure is essential for hydrologic synthesis in support of aquatic habitat restoration. With a compilation of all USGS watershed stream gauging records and all NOAA precipitation records for California, long-term as well as short-term watershed data can be made available for habitat restoration plans. This data synthesis would be tedious based on prior technology and thus was not frequently undertaken in the past. A few examples illustrate the essential role of cyber-infrastructure in restoration hydrology. When annual precipitation and runoff are examined for Coastal California watersheds, there is a near constancy in actual annual evapotranspiration that is watershed scale invariant over drainage areas from 1 to 3000 square kilometers. Another example examines stream baseflow recession in multiple streams where agricultural practices have changed over the last 40 years. These analyses are quantifying the magnitude of the human-induced change. Maintaining stream baseflows in summer months in central California coastal streams is essential for migratory fish habitat restoration, and the availability of an appropriate cyber-infrastructure significantly eases that assessment. The final example where data management was essential in habitat assessment was an examination of early spring river flows that had daily fluctuations caused by agricultural needs for frost protection in grape vineyards. Farmers anticipated frost conditions by night-time water extractions which in combination with low river flows negatively impacted the stream habitat for salmonids. These applications of cyber-infrastructure are being handed off to resource agency personnel to have them directly engage in restoration hydrology.

  9. The open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganeshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multi-year Japanese cruise-ship observations from R/V Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean–atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime, yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure followed by the highly stable (stratus regime. Overall, it can explain  ∼  10 % of the open-ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the R/V Mirai for

  10. The Open-Ocean Sensible Heat Flux and Its Significance for Arctic Boundary Layer Mixing During Early Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Wu, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL) clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multiyear Japanese cruise-ship observations from RV Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean-atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime), yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure) followed by the highly stable (stratus) regime. Overall, it can explain 10 of the open ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative) mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the RV Mirai for better understanding and

  11. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  12. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Duffy, Chris; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Reproducibility is a foundational principle in scientific research. The ability to independently re-run an experiment helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings, and evolve (or reject) hypotheses and models of how environmental systems function, and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. Yet in computational hydrology (and in environmental science more widely) the code and data that produces published results are not regularly made available, and even if they are made available, there remains a multitude of generally unreported choices that an individual scientist may have made that impact the study result. This situation strongly inhibits the ability of our community to reproduce and verify previous findings, as all the information and boundary conditions required to set up a computational experiment simply cannot be reported in an article's text alone. In Hutton et al 2016 [1], we argue that a cultural change is required in the computational hydrological community, in order to advance and make more robust the process of knowledge creation and hypothesis testing. We need to adopt common standards and infrastructures to: (1) make code readable and re-useable; (2) create well-documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; (3) make code and workflows available, easy to find, and easy to interpret, using code and code metadata repositories. To create change we argue for improved graduate training in these areas. In this talk we reflect on our progress in achieving reproducible, open science in computational hydrology, which are relevant to the broader computational geoscience community. In particular, we draw on our experience in the Switch-On (EU funded) virtual water science laboratory (http://www.switch-on-vwsl.eu/participate/), which is an open platform for collaboration in hydrological experiments (e.g. [2]). While we use computational hydrology as

  13. Diseño de plataformas sensibles empleando grafeno y nanopartículas metálicas

    OpenAIRE

    Dalfovo, María Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Existe una gran necesidad de detectar analitos en diversas áreas tales como el monitoreo ambiental, el diagnóstico de enfermedades, la seguridad en alimentos, hasta potenciales amenazas químicas y biológicas, las cuales demandan a la ciencia y tecnología a que se desarrollen nuevos materiales (dispositivos) que posean propiedades superlativas. En este contexto, la presente Tesis aborda el uso de plataformas sensibles las cuales emplean nanopartículas (NPs) protegidas con grupos orgá...

  14. Definición de un framework para aplicaciones web con navegación sensible a concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vázquez, Iván

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de esta tesis es demostrar que es posible crear una estructura de soporte definida, que de ahora en adelante llamaremos Framework, cuyo núcleo es un conjunto de clases o librerías mediante las cuales se pueda desarrollar aplicaciones Web con navegación sensible a concerns de manera rápida, ordenada y segura. Partiendo del objetivo fundamental explicado en el punto anterior, obtenemos las siguientes contribuciones: - Dar a conocer el estado actual de los sitios y aplicac...

  15. Ingeniería de requerimientos aplicada a sistemas sensibles al contexto : Revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Panizzi, Marisa D.; Viñas, María Soledad

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación consiste en proponer un modelo para la especificación de requerimientos para un sistema sensible al contexto. Este tipo de sistemas, que adaptan su comportamiento en función de los cambios captados en el entorno, resultan complejos a la hora de entender y definir el dominio de la aplicación. Los métodos tradicionales de ingeniería de requerimientos no contemplan ciertas necesidades, propias de estas aplicaciones, como ser entre otras la definición ...

  16. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  17. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.H. Liu; C.F. Ahlers

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples.

  18. Climate change effects on the hydrological regime of small non-perennial river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumo, Dario; Caracciolo, Domenico; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V

    2016-01-15

    Recent years have been witnessing an increasing interest on global climate change and, although we are only at the first stage of the projected trends, some signals of climate alteration are already visible. Climate change encompasses modifications in the characteristics of several interrelated climate variables, and unavoidably produces relevant effects on almost all the natural processes related to the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate variations on the streamflow regime of small river basins in Mediterranean, seasonally dry, regions. The paper provides a quantitative evaluation of potential modifications in the flow duration curves (FDCs) and in the partitioning between surface and subsurface contributions to streamflow, induced by climate changes projected over the next century in different basins, also exploring the role exerted by different soil–vegetation compositions. To this aim, it is used a recent hydrological model, which is calibrated at five Sicilian (Italy) basins using a past period with available streamflow observations. The model is then forced by daily precipitation and reference evapotranspiration series representative of the current climatic conditions and two future temporal horizons, referring to the time windows 2045–2065 and 2081–2100. Future climatic series are generated by a weather generator, based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models. The results show how the projected climatic modifications are differently reflected in the hydrological response of the selected basins, implying, in general, a sensible downshift of the FDCs, with a significant reduction in the mean annual streamflow, and substantial alterations in streamflow seasonality and in the relative importance of the surface and subsurface components. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime of ephemeral rivers could have important implications for the water resource management and

  19. Terminology gap in hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Water is central to life on Earth. People have been trying to understand how water moves in the hydrosphere throughout the human history. In the 9th century BC, the famous Greek poet Homer described the hydrological cycle in Iliad as "okeanos whose stream bends back in a circle" with a belief that rivers are ocean-fed from subterranean seas. Later, Aristotle (4th century BC) claimed that most of the water came from underground caverns in which air was transformed into water. It was only until 1674, French scientist Perrault developed the correct concept of the water cycle. In modern times, scientists are interested in understanding the individual processes of the hydrological cycle with a keen focus on runoff which supplies water to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Currently, the prevailing concepts on runoff processes include 'infiltration excess runoff' and 'saturation excess runoff'. However, there is no term to describe another major runoff due to the excess beyond the soil water holding capacity (i.e., the field capacity). We argue that a new term should be introduced to fill this gap, and it could be called 'holding excess runoff' which is compatible with the convention. This new term is significant in correcting a half-century misnomer where 'holding excess runoff' has been incorrectly named as 'saturation excess runoff', which was introduced by the Xinanjiang model in China in 1960s. Similar concept has been adopted in many well-known hydrological models such as PDM and HBV in which the saturation refers to the field capacity. The term 'holding excess runoff' resolves such a common confusion in the hydrological community.

  20. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  1. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benito, J.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2015), s. 3517-3539 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : flood frequency-analysis * ne iberian peninsula * reconstructing peak discharges * extreme floods * climate-change * ardeche river * catastrophic floods * documentary sources * paleoflood record * spanish rivers Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2015

  2. Feedbacks between hydrological heterogeneity and bioremediation induced biogeochemical transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, A.; Hubbard, S.S.; Williams, K.H.; Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.

    2009-04-15

    For guiding optimal design and interpretation of in-situ treatments that strongly perturb subsurface systems, knowledge about the spatial and temporal patterns of mass transport and reaction intensities are important. Here, a procedure was developed and applied to time-lapse concentrations of a conservative tracer (bromide), an injected amendment (acetate) and reactive species (iron(II), uranium(VI) and sulfate) associated with two field scale biostimulation experiments, which were conducted successively at the same field location over two years. The procedure is based on a temporal moment analysis approach that relies on a streamtube approximation. The study shows that biostimulated reactions can be considerably influenced by subsurface hydrological and geochemical heterogeneities: the delivery of bromide and acetate and the intensity of the sulfate reduction is interpreted to be predominantly driven by the hydrological heterogeneity, while the intensity of the iron reduction is interpreted to be primarily controlled by the geochemical heterogeneity. The intensity of the uranium(VI) reduction appears to be impacted by both the hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. Finally, the study documents the existence of feedbacks between hydrological heterogeneity and remediation-induced biogeochemical transformations at the field scale, particularly the development of precipitates that may cause clogging and flow rerouting.

  3. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be

  4. Use of hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling for ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Kuebler, L.; Ahmed, S.; Chang, M.-L.; Engel, V.; Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementation of unprecedented projects for restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem are underway and the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of restoration alternatives has become essential for success of restoration efforts. In view of the complex nature of the South Florida water resources system, regional-scale (system-wide) hydrologic models have been developed and used extensively for the development of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In addition, numerous subregional-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models have been developed and are being used for evaluating project-scale water management plans associated with urban, agricultural, and inland costal ecosystems. The authors provide a comprehensive summary of models of all scales, as well as the next generation models under development to meet the future needs of ecosystem restoration efforts in South Florida. The multiagency efforts to develop and apply models have allowed the agencies to understand the complex hydrologic interactions, quantify appropriate performance measures, and use new technologies in simulation algorithms, software development, and GIS/database techniques to meet the future modeling needs of the ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Socio-hydrological flood models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendrecht, Marlies; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Long-term feedbacks between humans and floods may lead to complex phenomena such as coping strategies, levee effects, call effects, adaptation effects, and poverty traps. Such phenomena cannot be represented by traditional flood risk approaches that are based on scenarios. Instead, dynamic models of the coupled human-flood interactions are needed. These types of models should include both social and hydrological variables as well as other relevant variables, such as economic, environmental, political or technical, in order to adequately represent the feedbacks and processes that are of importance in human-flood systems. These socio-hydrological models may play an important role in integrated flood risk management by exploring a wider range of possible futures, including unexpected phenomena, than is possible by creating and studying scenarios. New insights might come to light about the long term effects of certain measures on society and the natural system. Here we discuss a dynamic framework for flood risk and review the models that are presented in literature. We propose a way forward for socio-hydrological modelling of the human-flood system.

  6. Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Mark; Pierson, Fred; Hernandez, Mariano; Al-Hamdan, Osama; Weltz, Mark; Spaeth, Ken; Wei, Haiyan; Stone, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    Soil loss rates on rangelands are considered one of the few quantitative indicators for assessing rangeland health and conservation practice effectiveness. An erosion model to predict soil loss specific for rangeland applications has been needed for many years. Most erosion models were developed from croplands where the hydrologic and erosion processes are different, largely due to much higher levels of heterogeneity in soil and plant properties at the plot scale and the consolidated nature of the soils. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) was designed to fill that need. RHEM is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of a single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes under normal and fire-impacted rangeland conditions, it adopts a new splash erosion and thin sheet-flow transport equation developed from rangeland data, and it links the model hydrologic and erosion parameters with rangeland plant communities by providing a new system of parameter estimation equations based on 204 plots at 49 rangeland sites distributed across 15 western U.S. states. Recent work on the model is focused on representing intra-storm dynamics, using stream-power as the driver for detachment by flow, and deriving parameters for after-fire conditions.

  7. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  8. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  9. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Sarenius, Susan; Källman, Tiia; Järvelä, Irma; von Wendt, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS), are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals. PMID:15826308

  10. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    absorbed solar and net thermal radiative exchanges at the Earth's surface. Globally averaged, this surface radiation balance is positive, since radiative absorption, scattering and emission in the climate system act to generate an energy surplus at the surface and an energy deficit in the atmosphere (Liepert 2010). Evaporation, or more precisely its energy equivalent, the latent heat flux, is the main process that compensates for this imbalance between surface and atmosphere, since the latent heat dominates the convective energy flux over sensible heating. The radiative energy surplus at the surface is thus mainly consumed by evaporation and moist convection and subsequently released in the atmosphere through condensation. This implies that any alterations in the available radiative energy will induce changes in the water fluxes. Our focus in this editorial is therefore on the surface radiation balance as the principal driver of the global hydrological cycle. Note that this energetic view is in agreement with that of Richter and Xie (2008) who argue that the spatial and temporal behaviour of the process of evaporation is controlled by surface and atmospheric properties such as atmospheric stability, wind speed, moisture deficit and moisture availability. From radiation theory it is expected that with increasing radiative absorption due to abundance of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and consequent warming, the emission of thermal energy from the atmosphere towards the surface is increasing (known as downward thermal radiation). This enhances the radiative energy surplus at the surface, and, where surface water is not limited, fuels evaporation besides warming the Earth's surface. The enhanced greenhouse effect therefore tends to accelerate the hydrological cycle, as also shown in many climate model simulations with increasing levels of greenhouse gases (e.g., IPCC 2007, but also see Yang et al 2003, Andrews et al 2009). We can assume that the increase in

  11. SWOT Hydrology in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Destaerke, D.; Butler, D. M.; Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission Education Program will participate in the multinational, multiagency program, Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE). GLOBE is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education community of over 24,000 schools in more than 100 countries. Over 1.5 million students have contributed more than 23 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in inquiry-based science projects. The objectives of the program are to promote the teaching and learning of science; enhance environmental awareness, literacy and stewardship; and contribute to science research and environmental monitoring.SWOT will measure sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. This new SWOT-GLOBE partnership will focus on the limnology aspects of SWOT. These measurements will be useful in monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment.GLOBE's cadre of teachers are trained in five core areas of Earth system science, including hydrology. The SWOT Education teams at NASA and CNES are working with the GLOBE Program implementers to develop and promote a new protocol under the Hydrology topic area for students to measure attributes of surface water bodies that will support mission science objectives. This protocol will outline and describe a methodology to measure width and height of rivers and lakes.This new GLOBE protocol will be included in training to provide teachers with expertise and confidence in engaging students in this new scientific investigation. Performing this additional measurement will enhance GLOBE students experience in scientific investigation, and will provide useful measurements to SWOT researchers that can support the SWOT mission research goals.SWOT public engagement will involve communicating the value of its river and lake height measurements, lake water storage, and river

  12. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  13. Estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration Using an Agro-Hydrological Model and Remote Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa yaghoobzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in quantification of water balance at awatershed, plain and regional scale. Moreover, it is important in terms ofmanaging water resources such as water allocation, irrigation management, and evaluating the effects of changing land use on water yields. Different methods are available for ET estimation including Bowen ratio energy balance systems, eddy correlation systems, weighing lysimeters.Water balance techniques offer powerful alternatives for measuring ET and other surface energy fluxes. In spite of the elegance, high accuracy and theoretical attractions of these techniques for measuring ET, their practical use over large areas might be limited. They can be very expensive for practical applications at regional scales under heterogeneous terrains composed of different agro-ecosystems. To overcome aforementioned limitations by use of satellite measurements are appropriate approach. The feasibility of using remotely sensed crop parameters in combination of agro-hydrological models has been investigated in recent studies. The aim of the present study was to determine evapotranspiration by two methods, remote sensing and soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP model for wheat fields located in Neishabour plain. The output of SWAP has been validated by means of soil water content measurements. Furthermore, the actual evapotranspiration estimated by SWAP has been considered as the “reference” in the comparison between SEBAL energy balance models. Materials and Methods: Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was used to estimate actual ET fluxes from Modis satellite images. SEBAL is a one-layer energy balance model that estimates latent heat flux and other energy balance components without information on soil, crop, and management practices. The near surface energy balance equation can be approximated as: Rn = G + H + λET Where Rn: net radiation (Wm2; G

  14. Comparison of Sensible Heat Fluxes Measured by a Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance System over a Heterogeneous Farmland in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensible heat is an important component in surface energy partitioning over the land surface. This paper compared the sensible heat fluxes measured by a large aperture scintillometer system (LAS and an eddy covariance system (EC over a rice paddy with a patch of mulberry seedlings in the east China coastal region during the period from 13 September–11 October 2015. During the observation period, easterlies and northerlies prevailed, and 96% easterlies and northerlies had a speed of 0–6 m s−1. The sensible heat fluxes measured by the two systems reflected that the value of HLAS generally was inclined to be larger than HEC with the average difference of 20.30 W m−2, and the uncertainty for two instruments was less than 17 W m−2. Analysis of the average footprint resulted that the mulberry seedling field always had a higher contribution to LAS than that to EC, which could be the reason that HLAS was always larger than HEC. During the days when the contributions of the mulberry seedling field to the two systems were close to each other, the sensible heat flux measurements of the two instruments were similar. The case analysis on typical sunny days showed that there would be larger sensible heat fluxes over the mulberry seedling field than in the rice paddy field especially under larger net radiation conditions.

  15. Investigation of the energy-based theory of runoff in arctic regions with a hydrological model that couples the heat and water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, W. L.; Endrizzi, S.; Marsh, P.

    2010-12-01

    Runoff production is strongly dependent on the ground-thawing process in most arctic and subarctic permafrost regions covered by taiga and tundra, where the ground contains a relatively thin (i.e. 0.05-1.0 m) organic layer, overlying mineral sediment. The organic layer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity, in contrast to the lower hydraulic conductivity of the underlying mineral sediment. As a consequence, hillslope drainage occurs predominantly below the ground surface, and, in particular, between the relatively impermeable frost table and the ground surface. In addition, in the first 0.2-0.3 m below the surface, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the organic soil decreases by approximately 2 orders of magnitude with increasing depth. Early in the thaw period, when the frost table is still relatively close to the ground surface, lateral flow therefore occurs in the portion of the active layer with highest hydraulic conductivity. Later in the thaw season, as a result of the deepening of the frost table, the lateral flow rate is substantially lower since horizontal drainage occurs through the portion of soil with low hydraulic conductivity. This process has been conceptualized as the energy-based theory of runoff, and can only be investigated with a model that couples the heat and water flow equations in the soil. The GEOtop distributed hydrological model is a grid-based model with a complete surface energy balance scheme that accounts for variations in both the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, as well as for variations in radiant fluxes. The model also has a coupled subsurface heat and water flux scheme that is able to route water and energy both vertically between a large number of soil layers, and horizontally between grids. The model has been applied and tested with satisfying results in 3 different basins in the Canadian Arctic: Trail Valley Creek (NWT) located just North of treeline in the Mackenzie delta, Big Lake (NWT) in

  16. Hydrologic behavior of model slopes with synthetic water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Lourenço, Sérgio D. N.; Cleall, Peter J.; Chui, Ting Fong May; Ng, Angel K. Y.; Millis, Stuart W.

    2017-11-01

    In the natural environment, soil water repellency decreases infiltration, increases runoff, and increases erosion in slopes. In the built environment, soil water repellency offers the opportunity to develop granular materials with controllable wettability for slope stabilization. In this paper, the influence of soil water repellency on the hydrological response of slopes is investigated. Twenty-four flume tests were carried out in model slopes under artificial rainfall; soils with various wettability levels were tested, including wettable (Contact Angle, CA 90°). Various rainfall intensities (30 mm/h and 70 mm/h), slope angles (20° and 40°) and relative compactions (70% and 90%) were applied to model the response of natural and man-made slopes to rainfall. To quantitatively assess the hydrological response, a number of measurements were made: runoff rate, effective rainfall rate, time to ponding, time to steady state, runoff acceleration, total water storage and wetting front rate. Overall, an increase in soil water repellency reduces infiltration and shortens the time for runoff generation, with the effects amplified for high rainfall intensity. Comparatively, the slope angle and relative compaction had only a minor contribution to the slope hydrology. The subcritical water repellent soils sustained infiltration for longer than both the wettable and water repellent soils, which presents an added advantage if they are to be used in the built environment as barriers. This study revealed substantial impacts of man-made or synthetically induced soil water repellency on the hydrological behavior of model slopes in controlled conditions. The results shed light on our understanding of hydrological processes in environments where the occurrence of natural soil water repellency is likely, such as slopes subjected to wildfires and in agricultural and forested slopes.

  17. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, M. H.; T. Mathevet; J. Thielen; Pappenberger, F.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Cascading uncertainty in meteo-hydrological modelling chains for forecasting and integrated flood risk assessment is an essential step to improve the quality of hydrological forecasts. Although the best methodology to quantify the total predictive uncertainty in hydrology is still debated, there is a common agreement that one must avoid uncertainty misrepresentation and miscommunication, as well as misinterpretation of information by users. Several recent studies point...

  18. Thermodynamic limits of hydrologic cycling within the Earth system: concepts, estimates and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic cycle results from the combination of energy conversions and atmospheric transport, and the laws of thermodynamics set limits to both. Here, we apply thermodynamics to derive the limits of the strength of hydrologic cycling within the Earth system and about the properties and processes that shape these limits. We set up simple models to derive analytical expressions of the limits of evaporation and precipitation in relation to vertical and horizontal differences in solar radiative forcing. These limits result from a fundamental trade-off by which a greater evaporation rate reduces the temperature gradient and thus the driver for atmospheric motion that exchanges moistened air from the surface with the drier air aloft. The limits on hydrologic cycling thus reflect the strong interaction between the hydrologic flux, motion, and the driving gradient. Despite the simplicity of the models, they yield estimates for the limits of hydrologic cycling that are within the observed magnitude, suggesting that the global hydrologic cycle operates near its maximum strength. We close with a discussion of how thermodynamic limits can provide a better characterization of the interaction of vegetation and human activity with hydrologic cycling.

  19. Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.

    2006-12-01

    The CyberEnviroNet research group at The University of Iowa includes around 25 scientists and engineers from Geography, Geoscience, Computer Science, and various Engineering Departments. The group leads diverse research and education projects involving "cyberinfrastructure" applied to water-resource and environmental concerns. Members of this group actively participate in the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) and the Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER), ongoing NSF-supported activities and initiatives. Most activities are led by IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR) and the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER). An outcome of the CyberEnviroNet group activities is the emerging Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory at the headwaters of Iowa's Clear Creek. It is envisioned that this process-based observatory will support the scientific investigation of relevant components of water cycle processes. Cyberinfrastructure is a complex concept that is difficult to narrowly define. However, this project will create a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. It is a system that integrates a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. The creation of this multi-faceted system raises important questions: 1. Will such a system benefit the testing of scientific hypotheses in the areas of "envirohydrology" and hydrology? 2. If the answer is "yes", do we know how to assemble, operate, manage, and make it cost effective? 3. If the answers are "yes", then does it make sense for the hydrologic and

  20. Investigación en Progreso: Ingeniería de Software en el Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Sensibles al Contexto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D. Panizzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones han ido evolucionando independientemente de cuál sea su dominio de aplicación, actualmente nos encontramos con aplicaciones que pueden brindar servicios de acuerdo a la ubicación, tiempo y perfil del usuario. Este tipo de aplicaciones que brindan estos servicios se las conoce como Aplicaciones Sensibles al Contexto (CA – Context Aware, en este tipo de aplicaciones predominan los dispositivos móviles y el perfil del usuario. La evolución varía en función de la forma de uso de la computadora, es decir que se brinden servicios a pedido del usuario o que se brinden servicios de manera automática. Para acompañar la evolución de este tipo de aplicaciones, la Ingeniería de Software ha focalizado sus esfuerzos en aspectos relacionados a separar la aplicación de todo lo concerniente a la captación, interpretación, control y supervisión de la información contextual. Es decir que desde el punto de vista del diseño, se separe la conducta sensible al contexto de la conducta propia de la aplicación con el propósito de que ambos tipos de aplicaciones pueden evolucionar en forma independiente además de reducir el tiempo de desarrollo en este tipo de sistemas. Este proyecto presenta una sub línea, la cual orientará sus aportes, en la consolidación de un framework de gestión contextual de dos o tres variables de contexto como por ejemplo: la ubicación, considerando la construcción de la documentación relevante que lo respalde como así también su fase de experimentación con una aplicación que permitirá a los usuarios de la comunidad universitaria UM hacer uso de los servicios ofrecidos por la misma. La segunda sub línea, se vincula al Área de la Ingeniería de Requisitos, pretendiendo obtener un modelo para la especificación de requisitos de software para sistemas sensibles al contexto.

  1. Advancements in Hydrology and Erosion Process Understanding and Post-Fire Hydrologic and Erosion Model Development for Semi-Arid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. Jason; Pierson, Frederick B.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Nearing, Mark A.; Hernandez, Mariano; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Goodrich, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Fire activity continues to increase in semi-arid regions around the globe. Private and governmental land management entities are challenged with predicting and mitigating post-fire hydrologic and erosion responses on these landscapes. For more than a decade, a team of scientists with the US Department of Agriculture has collaborated on extensive post-fire hydrologic field research and the application of field research to development of post-fire hydrology and erosion predictive technologies. Experiments funded through this research investigated the impacts of fire on vegetation and soils and the effects of these fire-induced changes on infiltration, runoff generation, erodibility, and soil erosion processes. The distribution of study sites spans diverse topography across grassland, shrubland, and woodland landscapes throughout the western United States. Knowledge gleaned from the extensive field experiments was applied to develop and enhance physically-based models for hillslope- to watershed-scale runoff and erosion prediction. Our field research and subsequent data syntheses have identified key knowledge gaps and challenges regarding post-fire hydrology and erosion modeling. Our presentation details some consistent trends across a diverse domain and varying landscape conditions based on our extensive field campaigns. We demonstrate how field data have advanced our understanding of post-fire hydrology and erosion for semi-arid landscapes and highlight remaining key knowledge gaps. Lastly, we briefly show how our well-replicated experimental methodologies have contributed to advancements in hydrologic and erosion model development for the post-fire environment.

  2. Low flow hydrology: a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2001-01-10

    Full Text Available seasonal low-flow event does not necessarily constitute a drought, although some researchers refer to a continuous low-flow period in one year as an annual drought (e.g. Zelenhasic and Salvai, 1987; Clausen and Pearson, 1995; Tallaksen et al., 1997...., 1984; Bingham, 1986; Aucott et al., 1987; Rogers and Armbruster, 1990). In some of these studies, V.U. Smakhtin / Journal of Hydrology 240 (2001) 147–186 149 streams flowing through different types of unconsoli- dated sedimentary rocks, were found...

  3. Hydrological Characteristics of Kaligarang Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarno Soewarno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of research concerning hydrological characteristic in the Garang Catchment Area. At present tha catchment area is often facing the problem of flooding in the dense populated area with cause a lot of loos in Semarang City. This research is aimed at studying hydrological harateristic in the Garang Catchment Area. Hydrological data are obtain from direct measurement at the stream gauging stations in the Garang Catchment Area and collected from Balai Hidrologi Office at Pusat Litbang Teknologi Sumber Daya Air in Bandung and from Hydrological Unit of Central Java Province. From this research were known the rainfall depth, their distribution and their return period; runoff coefficient; streamflow volume; dependable flow; flood discharge characteristi; and minimum discharge. From the some occuring flood indicates of the runoff coefficient is about 0.70. The water volume wasted to the sea is about 195 million m3/year. Yearly average of the dependable flow at stream gaunging stations: Garang – Pajangan  is about 2.28 m3/sec; Garang – Patemon is about 0.92 m3/sec and Kreo – Pancur is about 1.26 m3/sec. Yearly mean of annual flood discharge at Garang – Pajangan is about 435 m3/sec. The maximum capacity of river channel is about 485 m3/sec. The flood discharge characteristic are as follows: time of travel of flood is generally one km/hour approximately, rising time is about 3 hours and time of recession is about 6 – 11 hours. The floods, they are generally occur at the night. Flush flood of 1022 m3/sec occured on January 26, 1990 is estimated on 50 year return period, with 15 year return period of rainfall. The range of minimum discharge is about 0.43 – 3.15 m3/sec. The maximum discharge is about 47.2 – 1118 times of the minimum discharge. Design of the dam in Kreo River at Jatibarang and Kripik River at Mundingan, also increasing of the reforestation area in the upstream catchment are an alternative to reduce the

  4. An international standard conceptual model for sharing references to hydrologic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert; Dornblut, Irina; Smith, Darren

    2012-03-01

    SummaryConcepts such as catchment, basin, watershed and river are commonly understood in many fields of discourse, but are described differently according to the focus on various aspects of the hydrology phenomenon. The effective exchange of hydrologic data containing references to hydrologic features requires standardised semantics of the concepts that allow identification of these features. Here, the scope of common approaches to information modelling of hydrologic features is examined, and is compared to the requirements for feature identification in multiple contexts. A conceptual model is presented that reconciles the underlying differences in representation of hydrologic features and levels of detail in typical datasets. By providing a stable and common referencing system for hydrologic features, the model will assist in the organization of observation and modelling of such features, and in the aggregation of generated data on a global, regional, national or basin scale. The model encompasses a number of approaches used in different contexts to identify and model hydrologic features and enforce the semantics of relationships between different levels of detail. Thus, it provides a semantic framework for common feature identifiers to be developed and embedded in individual data products, while providing the flexibility to model complex hydrological processes at fine detail. The common identifiers can be used in aggregating data generated using high-detail models of processes, and in partitioning large and complex hydrologic feature datasets into local study areas. Different local models can be applied according to the dominant hydrologic processes and the amount of hydrometric monitoring available for each region. The model is intended to form the basis for standard practices under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization Commission for Hydrology. It is presented here to invite further testing, feedback and engagement in the process of its

  5. Hydrological improvements for nutrient and pollutant emission modeling in large scale catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllering, S.; Ihringer, J.

    2012-04-01

    An estimation of emissions and loads of nutrients and pollutants into European water bodies with as much accuracy as possible depends largely on the knowledge about the spatially and temporally distributed hydrological runoff patterns. An improved hydrological water balance model for the pollutant emission model MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) (IWG, 2011) has been introduced, that can form an adequate basis to simulate discharge in a hydrologically differentiated, land-use based way to subsequently provide the required distributed discharge components. First of all the hydrological model had to comply both with requirements of space and time in order to calculate sufficiently precise the water balance on the catchment scale spatially distributed in sub-catchments and with a higher temporal resolution. Aiming to reproduce seasonal dynamics and the characteristic hydrological regimes of river catchments a daily (instead of a yearly) time increment was applied allowing for a more process oriented simulation of discharge dynamics, volume and therefore water balance. The enhancement of the hydrological model became also necessary to potentially account for the hydrological functioning of catchments in regard to scenarios of e.g. a changing climate or alterations of land use. As a deterministic, partly physically based, conceptual hydrological watershed and water balance model the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) (USGS, 2009) was selected to improve the hydrological input for MoRE. In PRMS the spatial discretization is implemented with sub-catchments and so called hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are the hydrotropic, distributed, finite modeling entities each having a homogeneous runoff reaction due to hydro-meteorological events. Spatial structures and heterogeneities in sub-catchments e.g. urbanity, land use and soil types were identified to derive hydrological similarities and classify in different urban and rural HRUs. In this way the

  6. Hydrological data assimilation using Extreme Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Quilty, John; Adamowski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    state variables (snow calorific deficit and the percentage of the watershed covered by snow). In order to verify the general applicability of the proposed method, it is applied to five watersheds in contrasting hydro-climatic contexts (e.g., nordic, semi-arid, humid, and temperate). We show that the ELMs can be used to successfully update GR4J's state variables, in all cases. Considering the ensemble mean as a deterministic forecast, the Mean Absolute Error between simulated and observed streamflow can be reduced by up to 30 %. We also show that the success of the method is highly dependent on adequate selection of input variables for the ELMs. Overall, this new data assimilation method offers good performance with low computational costs. References Thiboult, A., Anctil, F. and Boucher, M.-A. (2016) Accounting for three sources of uncertainty in ensemble hydrological forecasting, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20(5), 1809-1825. Zang, K. and Liu, M. (2015) Outlier-robust extreme learning machine for regression problems, Neurocomputing, 151, part 3, 1519-1527.

  7. Integrated hydrological modelling of the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge...... for scenario analysis of the effect of different cropping rotations, irrigation intensity, and other water management options, like the implementation of the South to North Water Transfer (SNWT) project. The model analysis verified that groundwater tables in the region are subject to steep declines (up to 1 m....../yr) due to decades of intensive exploitation of the groundwater resources for crop irrigation, primarily the widespread crop rotation of irrigated winter wheat and mostly rainfed summer maize. The SNWT project mitigates water stress in Shijiazhuang city and areas adjacent to wastewater canals but cannot...

  8. Implementation of evapotranspiration data assimilation with catchment scale distributed hydrological model via an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lei; Zhan, Chesheng; Xia, Jun; Wang, Tiejun; Gippel, Christopher J.

    2017-06-01

    Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is a crucial component of terrestrial water cycles. The most common methods of estimating catchment-scale ETa are remote sensing and hydrological models. These methods have limitations when applied at the catchment scale due to coarse resolutions of data and uncertainties in model predictions. Data assimilation techniques that combine complementary information from hydrological models and observed data can overcome some of the limitations. These techniques have been used in many hydrological modeling studies, but few have applied data assimilation to ETa within a distributed precipitation-runoff catchment modeling framework. This paper proposes a catchment scale ETa data assimilation technique (termed ET-DA) that assimilates remotely sensed ETa data into a distributed time-variant gain hydrological model (DTVGM-ET) for improving hydrological model simulations. The DTVGM-ET improved the ETa computation on the basis of a nonlinear soil water availability function to establish an explicit time response relationship between ETa and soil moisture for implementing the ETa assimilation. The proposed ET-DA system was tested in the Upper Huai River Basin (UHRB), China using data from 2000 to 2012. Through synthetic simulation experiments, the capability of ET-DA for obtaining accurate, continuous time series of ETa estimates and achieving assimilation feedback on soil moisture and streamflow was examined. The results demonstrated that ET-DA provided improved regional ETa monitoring capability, and assimilation of ETa into the hydrological model led to improved model predictions of soil moisture and streamflow.

  9. Performance of multiple hydrologic models under climate change in the Yongdam Catchment, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Park, D. K.; Damtew, G. T.; Kim, Y. O.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic models are frequently employed when observing the effects of climate change in water resources. As with climate change research, sources of uncertainty plays a major role in the accuracy of flow projections. A source of uncertainty is the performance of the parameters for the hydrologic models applied with comparison to the observed values. This study observes the performance of multiple hydrologic models and parameter estimation under climate change scenarios for the Yongdam catchment in South Korea. A combination of three hydrologic models are observed using different calibration methods. Mode'le du Ge`nie Rural a' 4 parame'tres Journalier (GR4J), Identification of unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, evapotranspiration, and streamflow (IHACRES), and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are used with Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 regional climate model projections are compared with the observed values. Parameter estimation methods were applied and uncertainty analysis was performed. The performance of the hydrologic models were also compared through categorized flow for different phases of the hydrograph (high flow, moist flow, mid-range flow, dry flow, and low flow). This study employs the use of Seoul National University - Climate change impact Assessment for Hydrology Library, SNU-CAHL, for multi-model flow generation under climate change in the R programming language. SNU-CAHL is a library tool to automate flow generation and performance studies. AcknowledgementThis study is supposed by the Korean Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program (project number: 2014001310007)".

  10. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...

  11. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...

  12. Sensibility and resistance profiles to antibiotics of pathogens isolated in a hospital unit of food and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Marques Di Primio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensibility and resistance profiles to antibiotics of pathogens isolated in a hospital unit of food and nutrition. It was evaluated as sample spots, with repetitions, environmental samples, utensils, equipment, manipulators’ hands and usually diet that would be served to the hospitalized patients. In the evaluated samples, coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CPS and Gram negative bacillus were enumerated, and also, it was possible to isolate Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial of less efficiency for CPS was oxacillin and penicillin-G, and for Klebsiella spp ampicillin e cephalothin. It should be emphasized that it was found strains multiresistants of CPS, Klebsiella spp and E. coli. The hospital unit of food and nutrition was evaluated as microbiological inadequate in several points, and it was verified resistance profiles to antibiotics of pathogens isolated in this unit.

  13. Régimen sensible corporizado. Las prácticas corporales reflexivas en Medellín desde 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Castro Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el modo de configuración y dinámica de un régimen sensible corporizado develado a través de prácticas corporales reflexivas desplegadas en Medellín desde la década de 1980. A partir de un acercamiento genealógico y etnográfico se estudia la matriz material-simbólica de las prácticas estudiadas, así como sus modos de introducción, apropiación y consumo que configuran los rasgos de un régimen estésico-político. Este régimen estimula procesos de subjetivación como de control que pasan por la percepción y el cuerpo. Se trata de la construcción de cuerpos sensibles que conciertan formas de autonomía individual con formas de gobierno de la vida relacionadas con el bienestar, el urbanismo social, la productividad y la salud. El aporte a los estudios de la historia del cuerpo en Medellín, consiste en ir más allá de los discursos para analizarlo, a partir de las mismas prácticas corporales como performances, incluyendo la experiencia de los practicantes, como una manera de mostrar el carácter constitutivo y constituyente de la corporalidad en la producción de conocimiento como de la experiencia individual y social.

  14. Evaluation of Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration Estimates Using a Surface Layer Scintillometer and a Large Weighing Lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry E. Moorhead

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET are important for optimal irrigation water management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Common ET sensing methods include Bowen Ratio, Eddy Covariance (EC, and scintillometers. Large weighing lysimeters are considered the ultimate standard for measurement of ET, however, they are expensive to install and maintain. Although EC and scintillometers are less costly and relatively portable, EC has known energy balance closure discrepancies. Previous scintillometer studies used EC for ground-truthing, but no studies considered weighing lysimeters. In this study, a Surface Layer Scintillometer (SLS was evaluated for accuracy in determining ET as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes, as compared to a large weighing lysimeter in Bushland, TX. The SLS was installed over irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench for the period 29 July–17 August 2015 and over grain corn (Zea mays L. for the period 23 June–2 October 2016. Results showed poor correlation for sensible heat flux, but much better correlation with ET, with r2 values of 0.83 and 0.87 for hourly and daily ET, respectively. The accuracy of the SLS was comparable to other ET sensing instruments with an RMSE of 0.13 mm·h−1 (31% for hourly ET; however, summing hourly values to a daily time step reduced the ET error to 14% (0.75 mm·d−1. This level of accuracy indicates that potential exists for the SLS to be used in some water management applications. As few studies have been conducted to evaluate the SLS for ET estimation, or in combination with lysimetric data, further evaluations would be beneficial to investigate the applicability of the SLS in water resources management.

  15. Hydrologic Forecasting and Hydropower Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmosta, M. S.; Voisin, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Coleman, A.; Mishra, V.; Schaner, N. A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydroelectric power production is one of many competing demands for available water along with other priority uses such as irrigation, thermoelectric cooling, municipal, recreation, and environmental performance. Increasingly, hydroelectric generation is being used to offset the intermittent nature of some renewable energy sources such as wind-generated power. An accurate forecast of the magnitude and timing of water supply assists managers in integrated planning and operations to balance competing water uses against current and future supply while protecting against the possibility of water or energy shortages and excesses with real-time actions. We present a medium-range to seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasting system where uncertainty in forecasts is addressed explicitly. The integrated forecast system makes use of remotely-sensed data and automated spatial and temporal data assimilation. Remotely-sensed snow cover, observed snow water equivalent, and observed streamflow data are used to update the hydrologic model state prior to the forecast. In forecast mode, the hydrology model is forced by calibrated ensemble weather/climate forecasts. This system will be fully integrated into a water optimization toolset to inform reservoir and power operations, and guide environmental performance decision making. This flow forecast system development is carried out in agreement with the National Weather Service so that the system can later be incorporated into the NOAA eXperimental Ensemble Forecast Service (XEFS).

  16. Reducing equifinality of hydrological models by integrating Functional Streamflow Disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Stefan; Apel, Heiko; Nied, Manuela; Carl, Peter; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    A universal problem of the calibration of hydrological models is the equifinality of different parameter sets derived from the calibration of models against total runoff values. This is an intrinsic problem stemming from the quality of the calibration data and the simplified process representation by the model. However, discharge data contains additional information which can be extracted by signal processing methods. An analysis specifically developed for the disaggregation of runoff time series into flow components is the Functional Streamflow Disaggregation (FSD; Carl & Behrendt, 2008). This method is used in the calibration of an implementation of the hydrological model SWIM in a medium sized watershed in Thailand. FSD is applied to disaggregate the discharge time series into three flow components which are interpreted as base flow, inter-flow and surface runoff. In addition to total runoff, the model is calibrated against these three components in a modified GLUE analysis, with the aim to identify structural model deficiencies, assess the internal process representation and to tackle equifinality. We developed a model dependent (MDA) approach calibrating the model runoff components against the FSD components, and a model independent (MIA) approach comparing the FSD of the model results and the FSD of calibration data. The results indicate, that the decomposition provides valuable information for the calibration. Particularly MDA highlights and discards a number of standard GLUE behavioural models underestimating the contribution of soil water to river discharge. Both, MDA and MIA yield to a reduction of the parameter ranges by a factor up to 3 in comparison to standard GLUE. Based on these results, we conclude that the developed calibration approach is able to reduce the equifinality of hydrological model parameterizations. The effect on the uncertainty of the model predictions is strongest by applying MDA and shows only minor reductions for MIA. Besides

  17. Towards a hydrologically motivated soil texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge

    2010-05-01

    Soil texture classification is not designed for hydrological purposes, e.g. for hydrological modelling. Hydrological model applications based on classified soil textures have revealed that different soil texture classes within the same classification system induce different uncertainties with respect to simulated water balances. As a consequence, there is a need to think about required similarity in texture classifications. In different regions of the world, different soil texture classification systems have been developed. These different classification systems divide the soil texture triangle in different numbers of differently shaped soil texture classes. These texture classifications are based on pedological background and practical reasons with respect to soil mapping and analyses. In comparison, a possible soil texture classification motivated by soil hydrology should be based on similarity in hydrological fluxes or in the soil water regime. Therefore, this presentation proposes a procedure how to evaluate the appropriateness of currently used texture classifications and how to derive a new soil texture classification based on a similar behaviour of soils with respect to hydrological processes. Long-term hydrological modelling of water balance terms using the 1-D SVAT scheme SIMULAT serve as the basis of a similarity analysis of 5050 possible realisations of the soil texture triangle (1% grid). Cluster analysis is used for analysing similar hydrological behaviour of theoretical soil columns. Spatial patterns of similar realisations (=clusters) in the soil texture triangle based on annual water balance terms are compared to those based on soil hydraulic parameters and current soil texture classes. The results show that clusters based on soil hydraulic parameterisation are relatively similar to current soil texture classification schemes while hydrological model simulations suggest differing spatial patterns of similar behaviour over the soil texture triangle

  18. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  19. ¿Son las mujeres más sensibles a los derechos de los animales? Sobre los vínculos entre el animalismo y el feminismo

    OpenAIRE

    Balza,Isabel; Garrido, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will present on the one hand, the data about women’s presence in animal rights movements in Spain; on the other hand, we will try to find explanatory frameworks that clarify which are the link that connects feminist sensibility to animal rights sensibility. We have made a survey on the percentage of women in the membership of the most important animal rights defense organizations in Spain and, with these results, we have made a review of different theoretical frameworks which...

  20. Impacts of Forest Fires and Climate Variability on the Hydrology of an Alpine Medium Sized Catchment in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Johanna; Ludwig, Ralf; Kienzle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hydrology of Castle River in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Temperature and precipitation data are analyzed regarding a climate trend between 1960 and 2010 and a general warming is identified. Observed streamflow has been declining in reaction to a decreasing snow cover and increasing evapotranspiration. To simulate the hydrological processes in the watershed, the physically based hydrological model WaSiM (Water Balance Simulation Model) is applied. Calibra...

  1. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  2. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  3. Hydrological and geomorphological controls of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. W.; Macklin, M. G.; Thomas, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria risk is linked inextricably to the hydrological and geomorphological processes that form vector breeding sites. Yet environmental controls of malaria transmission are often represented by temperature and rainfall amounts, ignoring hydrological and geomorphological influences altogether. Continental-scale studies incorporate hydrology implicitly through simple minimum rainfall thresholds, while community-scale coupled hydrological and entomological models do not represent the actual diversity of the mosquito vector breeding sites. The greatest range of malaria transmission responses to environmental factors is observed at the catchment scale where seemingly contradictory associations between rainfall and malaria risk can be explained by hydrological and geomorphological processes that govern surface water body formation and persistence. This paper extends recent efforts to incorporate ecological factors into malaria-risk models, proposing that the same detailed representation be afforded to hydrological and, at longer timescales relevant for predictions of climate change impacts, geomorphological processes. We review existing representations of environmental controls of malaria and identify a range of hydrologically distinct vector breeding sites from existing literature. We illustrate the potential complexity of interactions among hydrology, geomorphology and vector breeding sites by classifying a range of water bodies observed in a catchment in East Africa. Crucially, the mechanisms driving surface water body formation and destruction must be considered explicitly if we are to produce dynamic spatial models of malaria risk at catchment scales.

  4. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  5. Steponas Kolupaila's contribution to hydrological science development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiuškevičius, Gintaras

    2017-08-01

    Steponas Kolupaila (1892-1964) was an important figure in 20th century hydrology and one of the pioneers of scientific water gauging in Europe. His research on the reliability of hydrological data and measurement methods was particularly important and contributed to the development of empirical hydrological calculation methods. Kolupaila was one of the first who standardised water-gauging methods internationally. He created several original hydrological and hydraulic calculation methods (his discharge assessment method for winter period was particularly significant). His innate abilities and frequent travel made Kolupaila a universal specialist in various fields and an active public figure. He revealed his multilayered scientific and cultural experiences in his most famous book, Bibliography of Hydrometry. This book introduced the unique European hydrological-measurement and computation methods to the community of world hydrologists at that time and allowed the development and adaptation of these methods across the world.

  6. Towards realistic representation of hydrological processes in integrated WRF-urban modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    To meet the demand of the ever-increasing urbanized global population, substantial conversion of natural landscapes to urban terrains is expected in the next few decades. The landscape modification will emerge as the source of many adverse effects that challenge the environmental sustainability of cities under changing climatic patterns. To address these adverse effects and to develop corresponding adaptation/mitigation strategies, physically-based single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) has been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) platform. However, due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes, simulation of urban climatology by current coupled WRF/SLUCM is inevitably inadequate. Aiming at improving the accuracy of simulations, in this study we implement physically-based parameterization of urban hydrological processes into the model, including (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation over water-holding engineered pavements, (4) urban oasis effect, and (5) green roof. In addition, we use an advanced Monte Carlo approach to quantify the sensitivity of urban hydrological modeling to parameter uncertainties. Evaluated against field observations at four major metropolitan areas, results show that the enhanced model is significantly improved in accurately predicting turbulent fluxes arising from built surfaces, especially the latent heat flux. Case studies show that green roof is capable of reducing urban surface temperature and sensible heat flux effectively, and modifying local and regional hydroclimate. Meanwhile, it is efficient in decreasing energy loading of buildings, not only cooling demand in summers but also heating demand in winters, through the combined evaporative cooling and insulation effect. Effectiveness of green roof is found to be limited by availability of water resources and highly sensitive to surface roughness heights. The enhanced WRF/SLUCM model

  7. Sense or Sensibility?: How Commitment Mediates the Role of Self-Service Technology on Loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Olsen, Line Lervik

    It has been well documented that employing self-service technology (SST) results in considerable cost savings but few studies have examined its impact on consumers’ behavior. We apply a well-recognized model from the field of services marketing in an SST context. We examine how the established relationships between satisfaction, affective and calculative commitments, and loyalty are affected when the service is provided through a technology interface as opposed to service personnel. We then present two alternative perspectives on the role of SST. The first is based on the predominant assumption that SST is a moderator of the relationship between customer loyalty and its drivers, while the other rests on the assumption that SST is just another context and that its role in affecting customer loyalty is mediated by drivers of loyalty. A cross-sectional study conducted in the banking industry shows that SST does not change everything. The classical model of how customers evaluate services and the predictors of loyalty are replicated in the SST setting. Interestingly, SST does not have a direct influence on loyalty by itself but its effects are mediated by commitment. However, it is the affective commitment that is more important in forming loyalty toward the service provider.

  8. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Abstract Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier...

  9. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  10. Hydrological Aspects of Electromagnetic Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baden G. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting Electromagnetic (EM surveys - Electromagnetic induction techniques have now largely replaced previous descriptive, and largely subjective, techniques used for soil salinity surveys. The question then is a matter of how to interpret the EM data. A very clear linkage exists between Apparent Electrical Conductivity (ECa and the total soluble salts in the upper soil profile. This, in turn, can be interpreted as reflecting the degree of vertical/ lateral leaching of soluble salts, or of salt accumulation in the profile. Topography, depth to groundwater and groundwater salinity also appear to affect ECa, although they are not suited to rapid survey techniques and do not necessarily have a direct relationship with either the total salt content of the upper soil profile or the ECa values. The interpretation of isoconductivity maps in terms of the degree of leaching of the soil profile from point to point provides an added hydrological management perspective to EM soil salinity surveys.

  11. Eco-hydrological Modeling in the Framework of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    A blueprint methodology for studying climate change impacts, as inferred from climate models, on eco-hydrological dynamics at the plot and small catchment scale is presented. Input hydro-meteorological variables for hydrological and eco-hydrological models for present and future climates are reproduced using a stochastic downscaling technique and a weather generator, "AWE-GEN". The generated time series of meteorological variables for the present climate and an ensemble of possible future climates serve as input to a newly developed physically-based eco-hydrological model "Tethys-Chloris". An application of the proposed methodology is realized reproducing the current (1961-2000) and multiple future (2081-2100) climates for the location of Tucson (Arizona). A general reduction of precipitation and a significant increase of air temperature are inferred. The eco-hydrological model is successively applied to detect changes in water recharge and vegetation dynamics for a desert shrub ecosystem, typical of the semi-arid climate of south Arizona. Results for the future climate account for uncertainties in the downscaling and are produced in terms of probability density functions. A comparison of control and future scenarios is discussed in terms of changes in the hydrological balance components, energy fluxes, and indices of vegetation productivity. An appreciable effect of climate change can be observed in metrics of vegetation performance. The negative impact on vegetation due to amplification of water stress in a warmer and dryer climate is offset by a positive effect of carbon dioxide augment. This implies a positive shift in plant capabilities to exploit water. Consequently, the plant water use efficiency and rain use efficiency are expected to increase. Interesting differences in the long-term vegetation productivity are also observed for the ensemble of future climates. The reduction of precipitation and the substantial maintenance of vegetation cover ultimately

  12. Climate change effects on the hydrological regime of small non-perennial river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumo, Dario, E-mail: dario.pumo@unipa.it; Caracciolo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.caracciolo@unipa.it; Viola, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.viola77@unipa.it; Noto, Leonardo V., E-mail: leonardo.noto@unipa.it

    2016-01-15

    Recent years have been witnessing an increasing interest on global climate change and, although we are only at the first stage of the projected trends, some signals of climate alteration are already visible. Climate change encompasses modifications in the characteristics of several interrelated climate variables, and unavoidably produces relevant effects on almost all the natural processes related to the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate variations on the streamflow regime of small river basins in Mediterranean, seasonally dry, regions. The paper provides a quantitative evaluation of potential modifications in the flow duration curves (FDCs) and in the partitioning between surface and subsurface contributions to streamflow, induced by climate changes projected over the next century in different basins, also exploring the role exerted by different soil–vegetation compositions. To this aim, it is used a recent hydrological model, which is calibrated at five Sicilian (Italy) basins using a past period with available streamflow observations. The model is then forced by daily precipitation and reference evapotranspiration series representative of the current climatic conditions and two future temporal horizons, referring to the time windows 2045–2065 and 2081–2100. Future climatic series are generated by a weather generator, based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models. The results show how the projected climatic modifications are differently reflected in the hydrological response of the selected basins, implying, in general, a sensible downshift of the FDCs, with a significant reduction in the mean annual streamflow, and substantial alterations in streamflow seasonality and in the relative importance of the surface and subsurface components. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime of ephemeral rivers could have important implications for the water resource management and

  13. A double-layer hydrological model dedicated to glacier sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fleurian, B.; Gagliardini, O.; Lemeur, E.; Durand, G.

    2009-12-01

    Field observations show that subglacial hydrology and glacier dynamics are tightly linked. The basal friction law that controls sliding velocities via subglacial water-pressure has been developed but, unfortunately, subglacial water pressure cannot be easily assessed. In the existing physically-based hydrological models, the effective pressure is even set to zero, which prevents from using these models to accurately compute the basal water pressure. In the proposed approach, the water pressure is computed from Darcy's equations for a confined aquifer. These equations are applied to two different layers. The first one features a classical sediment drainage system. The second one, with an appropriate equivalent conductivity, consist of an efficient channel-type drainage system. This second layer is activated when the effective pressure tends toward zero and allows the drainage of the excess of water from the sediment layer. This hydrological model is coupled with a full Stokes ice flow model including a water-pressure dependant friction law used to compute the basal boundary condition. This modelling attempt is first carried out over a synthetic bedrock which is consistent with the specific characteristics of an Antarctic test outlet glacier. These characteristics result from a preliminary survey carried out during the 2007-2009 field seasons on the Astrolabe glacier (Terre Adélie French sector) in the framework of the DACOTA programme.

  14. Global quantifiction of vegetation rooting depth for hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuting, Yuting; Donohue, Randall; McVicar, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Plant rooting depth (Zr) is a key parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models, yet the global spatial distribution of Zr is largely unknown due to the difficulties in its direct measurement. Moreover, Zr observations are usually only representative of a single plant or several plants, which can differ greatly from the effective Zr over a modelling unit (e.g., catchment or grid-box). Here, we provide a global parameterization of an analytical Zr model that balances the marginal carbon cost and benefit of deeper roots, and produce a climatological (i.e., 1982-2010 average) global Zr map. To test the Zr estimates, we apply the estimated Zr in a highly transparent hydrological model (i.e., the Budyko-Choudhury-Porporato (BCP) model) to estimate mean annual actual evapotranspiration (E) across the globe. We then compare the estimated E with both water balance-based E observations at 32 major catchments and satellite grid-box retrievals across the globe. Our results show that the BCP model, when implemented with Zr estimated herein, optimally reproduced the spatial pattern of E at both scales and provides improved model outputs when compared to BCP model results from two already existing global Zr datasets. These results suggest that our Zr estimates can be effectively used in state-of-the-art hydrological models, and potentially biogeochemical models, where the determination of Zr currently largely relies on biome type-based look-up tables.

  15. Hydrological modeling of the Jiaoyi watershed (China) using HSPF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001-2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R (2)), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin.

  16. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  17. Uncertainty analysis for satellite derived sensible heat fluxes and scintillometer measurements over Savannah environment and comparison to mesoscale meteorological simulation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, A.; Kunstmann, H.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Moene, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Three methods for estimating instantaneous sensible heat flux (H) over Savannah environment in West Africa were compared: first, satellite derived estimations using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) method [Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., Menenti, M., Feddes, R.A., Holtslag, A.A.M., 1998a.

  18. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON THE CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUXES ABOVE A PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, CA. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractFluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were measured by the eddy covariance method above a young ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA) over two growing seasons (1 June¯10 September 1997 and 1 May&#...

  19. Estimating sensible heat exchange between screen-covered canopies and the atmosphere using the surface renewal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Achiman, Ori; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Screenhouses and screen-covers are widely used in arid and semi-arid agriculture to protect crops from direct solar radiation and high wind speed, and to increase water use efficiency. However, accurate estimation of crop water use under screens is still a challenge. The most reliable method that directly measures evapotranspiration, the Eddy Covariance (EC), is both expensive and complex in data collection and processing. This renders it unfeasible for day to day use by farmers. A simpler alternative is the Surface Renewal (SR) technique which utilizes high frequency temperature readings of low-cost fine-wire thermocouples, to estimate the sensible heat flux. Assuming energy conservation and employing relatively cheap complementary measurements, the evapotranspiration can be estimated. The SR technique uses a structure function mathematical analysis that filters out noise and involves a time lag parameter to provide amplitude and time period of a ramp-like temperature signal. This behavior arises from the detachment of air parcels that have been heated or cooled near the surface and sequentially renewed by air parcels from above. While the SR technique is relatively simple to employ, it requires calibration against direct measurements. The aim of this research is to investigate the applicability of the SR technique in two different types of commonly used screenhouses in Israel. Two field campaigns were carried out: In the first campaign we studied a banana plantation grown in a shading screenhouse located in the coastal plain of northern Israel. The second campaign was located in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel, where a pepper plantation cultivated in an insect-proof screenhouse, with a much denser screen, was examined. In the two campaigns, SR sensible heat flux estimates were calibrated against simultaneous eddy covariance measurements. To optimize the SR operation, in each campaign fine-wire (50-76 μm) exposed T-type thermocouples were placed at

  20. An examination of the effects of various noise on physiological sensibility responses by using human EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Lee, J. K.; Son, T. Y.; Hwang, S. H.; Choi, H. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S. [Hyundai Motor Company, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    to classic piano. The results of the subjective evaluation were similar to those of the EEG signal analysis. The results from this study may contribute to apply this method to actual products which are closely related to human-machine-interface (HMI) like air-conditioner, car, and so on. So, our experiment was designed for its own purpose.

  1. Hydrology Applications of the GRACE missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Ivins, E. R.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    NASA and their German space agency partners have a rich history of global gravity observations beginning with the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002. The science goals of the mission include providing monthly maps of variations in the gravity field, where the major time-varying signal is due to water motion in the Earth system. GRACE has a unique ability to observe the mass flux of water movement at monthly time scales. The hydrology applications of the GRACE mission include measurements of seasonal storage of surface and subsurface water and evapotranspiration at the land-ocean-atmosphere boundary. These variables are invaluable for improved modeling and prediction of Earth system processes. Other mission-critical science objectives include measurements that are a key component of NASA's ongoing climate measuring capabilities. Successful strategies to enhance science and practical applications of the proposed GRACE-Follow On (GRACE-FO) mission, scheduled to launch in 2017, will require engaging with and facilitating between representatives in the science, societal applications, and mission planning communities. NASA's Applied Sciences Program is supporting collaboration on an applied approach to identifying communities of potential and of practice in order to identify and promote the societal benefits of these and future gravity missions. The objective is to engage applications-oriented users and organizations and enable them to envision possible applications and end-user needs as a way to increase the benefits of these missions to the nations. The focus of activities for this applications program include; engaging the science community in order to identify applications and current and potential data users, developing a written Applications Plan, conducting workshops and user tutorials, providing ready access to information via web pages, developing databases of key and interested users/scientists, creating printed materials

  2. Why hydrological predictions should be evaluated using information theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Weijs

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic predictions are becoming increasingly popular in hydrology. Equally important are methods to test such predictions, given the topical debate on uncertainty analysis in hydrology. Also in the special case of hydrological forecasting, there is still discussion about which scores to use for their evaluation. In this paper, we propose to use information theory as the central framework to evaluate predictions. From this perspective, we hope to shed some light on what verification scores measure and should measure. We start from the ''divergence score'', a relative entropy measure that was recently found to be an appropriate measure for forecast quality. An interpretation of a decomposition of this measure provides insight in additive relations between climatological uncertainty, correct information, wrong information and remaining uncertainty. When the score is applied to deterministic forecasts, it follows that these increase uncertainty to infinity. In practice, however, deterministic forecasts tend to be judged far more mildly and are widely used. We resolve this paradoxical result by proposing that deterministic forecasts either are implicitly probabilistic or are implicitly evaluated with an underlying decision problem or utility in mind. We further propose that calibration of models representing a hydrological system should be the based on information-theoretical scores, because this allows extracting all information from the observations and avoids learning from information that is not there. Calibration based on maximizing utility for society trains an implicit decision model rather than the forecasting system itself. This inevitably results in a loss or distortion of information in the data and more risk of overfitting, possibly leading to less valuable and informative forecasts. We also show this in an example. The final conclusion is that models should preferably be explicitly probabilistic and calibrated to maximize the

  3. Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Laaha, G.

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of a drought are generally dependent on the severity of the hydrological drought event, which can be expressed by streamflow drought duration or deficit volume. For prediction and the selection of drought sensitive regions, it is crucial to know how streamflow drought severity relates to climate and catchment characteristics. In this study we investigated controls on drought severity based on a comprehensive Austrian dataset consisting of 44 catchments with long time series of hydrometeorological data (on average around 50 year) and information on a large number of physiographic catchment characteristics. Drought analysis was performed with the variable threshold level method and various statistical tools were applied, i.e. bivariate correlation analysis, heatmaps, linear models based on multiple regression, varying slope models, and automatic stepwise regression. Results indicate that streamflow drought duration is primarily controlled by storage, quantified by the Base Flow Index or by a combination of catchment characteristics related to catchment storage and release, e.g. geology and land use. Additionally, the duration of dry spells in precipitation is important for streamflow drought duration. Hydrological drought deficit, however, is governed by average catchment wetness (represented by mean annual precipitation) and elevation (reflecting seasonal storage in the snow pack and glaciers). Our conclusion is that both drought duration and deficit are governed by a combination of climate and catchment control, but not in a similar way. Besides meteorological forcing, storage is important; storage in soils, aquifers, lakes, etc. influences drought duration and seasonal storage in snow and glaciers influences drought deficit. Consequently, the spatial variation of hydrological drought severity is highly dependent on terrestrial hydrological processes.

  4. Hydrologic Evaluation of a Humid Climate Poplar Phytoremediation Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K.; Rabideau, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The emplacement of hybrid poplar trees to function as phytoremediation barriers is an appealing and sustainable groundwater management strategy because of low maintenance costs and the potential to extract large amounts of groundwater without pumping. While the effectiveness of poplar barriers has been assessed by groundwater quality monitoring, less attention has been given to physical hydrologic evaluations needed to improve barrier designs. In this research, a five year hydrologic evaluation was conducted at a poplar phytoremediation site in western NY, with the goal of quantifying ETg (evapotranspiration from groundwater) as a measure of the barrier's effectiveness in a humid climate. To consider transpiration from both vadose zone and groundwater, the hydrologic evaluation included four components: physical ET measurements, theoretical ET calculations, analysis of diurnal groundwater table fluctuations, and vadose zone modeling. The direct measurements of ETT (total) were obtained using sap flow meters installed on multiple trees within the barrier. These data were interpreted using a regression model that included theoretical ET calculations and site-specific measurements of weather parameters and poplar trunk area. Application of this model was challenged by the spatial variation in rooting depth as determined by tree excavations. To further quantify the removal of groundwater by the phytobarrier (ETg), the White Method was applied to interpret diurnal groundwater fluctuations from monitoring wells located within the barrier, in conjunction with a variably saturated-saturated flow model configured to confirm water extraction from ETg. Taken together, the results of this five year hydrologic evaluation highlight the complexity in quantifying humid climate groundwater extraction, as a large number of variables were found to influence these rates. Improved understanding of these controls will contribute to improved barrier designs that maximize ETg.

  5. Why hydrological predictions should be evaluated using information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, S. V.; Schoups, G.; van de Giesen, N.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic predictions are becoming increasingly popular in hydrology. Equally important are methods to test such predictions, given the topical debate on uncertainty analysis in hydrology. Also in the special case of hydrological forecasting, there is still discussion about which scores to use for their evaluation. In this paper, we propose to use information theory as the central framework to evaluate predictions. From this perspective, we hope to shed some light on what verification scores measure and should measure. We start from the ''divergence score'', a relative entropy measure that was recently found to be an appropriate measure for forecast quality. An interpretation of a decomposition of this measure provides insight in additive relations between climatological uncertainty, correct information, wrong information and remaining uncertainty. When the score is applied to deterministic forecasts, it follows that these increase uncertainty to infinity. In practice, however, deterministic forecasts tend to be judged far more mildly and are widely used. We resolve this paradoxical result by proposing that deterministic forecasts either are implicitly probabilistic or are implicitly evaluated with an underlying decision problem or utility in mind. We further propose that calibration of models representing a hydrological system should be the based on information-theoretical scores, because this allows extracting all information from the observations and avoids learning from information that is not there. Calibration based on maximizing utility for society trains an implicit decision model rather than the forecasting system itself. This inevitably results in a loss or distortion of information in the data and more risk of overfitting, possibly leading to less valuable and informative forecasts. We also show this in an example. The final conclusion is that models should preferably be explicitly probabilistic and calibrated to maximize the information they provide.

  6. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  7. Hydrologic Connectivity Estimated throughout the Nation's River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is a key concept that integrates longitudinal transport in rivers with vertical and lateral exchanges between rivers and hyporheic zones, riparian wetlands, floodplains, and ponded aquatic ecosystems. Desirable levels of connectivity are thought to be associated with rivers that are well-connected longitudinally while also being well connected vertically and laterally with marginal waters where carbon and nutrients are efficiently transformed, and where aquatic organisms feed, or are reared, or take refuge during floods. But what is the proper balance between longitudinal and vertical and lateral connectivity? We took a step towards quantifying hydrologic connectivity using the model NEXSS (Gomez-Velez and Harvey, 2014, GRL) applied throughout the nation's rivers. NEXSS simulates vertical and lateral connectivity and compares it with longitudinal transport along the river's main axis. It uses as inputs measured network topology for first to eighth order channels, river hydraulic geometry, sediment grain size, bedform types and sizes, estimated hydraulic conductivity of sediments, and estimates of reaction rates such as denitrification. Results indicate that hyporheic flow is large enough to exchange a river's entire volume many times within a river network, which increases biogeochemical opportunities for nutrient processing and attenuation of contaminants. Also, the analysis demonstrated why and where (i.e., in which physiographic regions of the nation) are hyporheic flow and solute reactions the greatest. The cumulative influence of hydrologic connectivity on water quality is expressed by a dimensionless index of reaction significance. Our quantification of hydrologic connectivity adds a physical basis that supports water quality modeling, and also supports scientifically based prioritization of management actions (e.g. stream restoration) and may support other types of actions (e.g. legislative actions) to help conserve healthy functional

  8. Implications of the methodological choices for hydrologic portrayals of climate change over the contiguous United States: Statistically downscaled forcing data and hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Mendoza, Pablo A.; Newman, Andrew J.; Nijssen, Bart; Livneh, Ben; Hay, Lauren E.; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    Continental-domain assessments of climate change impacts on water resources typically rely on statistically downscaled climate model outputs to force hydrologic models at a finer spatial resolution. This study examines the effects of four statistical downscaling methods [bias-corrected constructed analog (BCCA), bias-corrected spatial disaggregation applied at daily (BCSDd) and monthly scales (BCSDm), and asynchronous regression (AR)] on retrospective hydrologic simulations using three hydrologic models with their default parameters (the Community Land Model, version 4.0; the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, version 4.1.2; and the Precipitation–Runoff Modeling System, version 3.0.4) over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Biases of hydrologic simulations forced by statistically downscaled climate data relative to the simulation with observation-based gridded data are presented. Each statistical downscaling method produces different meteorological portrayals including precipitation amount, wet-day frequency, and the energy input (i.e., shortwave radiation), and their interplay affects estimations of precipitation partitioning between evapotranspiration and runoff, extreme runoff, and hydrologic states (i.e., snow and soil moisture). The analyses show that BCCA underestimates annual precipitation by as much as −250 mm, leading to unreasonable hydrologic portrayals over the CONUS for all models. Although the other three statistical downscaling methods produce a comparable precipitation bias ranging from −10 to 8 mm across the CONUS, BCSDd severely overestimates the wet-day fraction by up to 0.25, leading to different precipitation partitioning compared to the simulations with other downscaled data. Overall, the choice of downscaling method contributes to less spread in runoff estimates (by a factor of 1.5–3) than the choice of hydrologic model with use of the default parameters if BCCA is excluded.

  9. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling: 2. Application and experimental insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio

    2011-11-01

    In this article's companion paper, flexible approaches for conceptual hydrological modeling at the catchment scale were motivated, and the SUPERFLEX framework, based on generic model components, was introduced. In this article, the SUPERFLEX framework and the "fixed structure" GR4H model (an hourly version of the popular GR4J model) are applied to four hydrologically distinct experimental catchments in Europe and New Zealand. The estimated models are scrutinized using several diagnostic measures, ranging from statistical metrics, such as the statistical reliability and precision of the predictive distribution of streamflow, to more process-oriented diagnostics based on flow-duration curves and the correspondence between model states and groundwater piezometers. Model performance was clearly catchment specific, with a single fixed structure unable to accommodate intercatchment differences in hydrological behavior, including seasonality and thresholds. This highlights an important limitation of any "fixed" model structure. In the experimental catchments, the ability of competing model hypotheses to reproduce hydrological signatures of interest could be interpreted on the basis of independent fieldwork insights. The potential of flexible frameworks such as SUPERFLEX is then examined with respect to systematic and stringent hypothesis-testing in hydrological modeling, for characterizing catchment diversity, and, more generally, for aiding progress toward a more unified formulation of hydrological theory at the catchment scale. When interpreted in physical process-oriented terms, the flexible approach can also serve as a language for dialogue between modeler and experimentalist, facilitating the understanding, representation, and interpretation of catchment behavior.

  10. Some thoughts on building, evaluating and constraining hydrologic models from catchment to continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    We increasingly build and apply hydrologic models that simulate systems beyond the catchment scale. Such models run at regional, national or even continental scales. They therefore offer opportunities for new scientific insights, for example by enabling comparative hydrology or connectivity studies, and for water management, where we might better understand changes to water resources from larger scale activities like agriculture or from hazards such as droughts. However, these models also require us to rethink how we build and evaluate them given that some of the unsolved problems from the catchment scale have not gone away. So what role should such models play in scientific advancement in hydrology? What problems do we still have to resolve before they can fulfill their role? What opportunities for solving these problems are there, but have not yet been utilized? I will provide some thoughts on these issues in the context of the IAHS Panta Rhei initiative and the scientific challenges it has set out for hydrology (Montanari et al., 2013, Hydrological Sciences Journal; McMillan et al., 2016, Hydrological Sciences Journal).

  11. Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    Research scientists claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. While this indicates higher living standards, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently. Dr. Sandra Postel directs the independent Global Water Policy Project, as well as the Center for the Environment at Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called "water-stressed" countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The United Nations declared the years 2005 - 2015 as the "Water for Life" decade. It is also interesting and important to observe that the Oil - Rich Middle - East suffers from water scarcity to the maximum extent. It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. In excess of 10,000 desalination plants operate around the world in more than a hundred countries, but such a process is expensive and may seem prohibitive for developing countries with limited resources. Farmers can cut water usage by adopting the method known as drip irrigation which is known to be highly efficient. Drip Irrigation was pioneered by Israel and the Israeli farmers documented their efficiency by reducing the water used for irrigation by more than 30 percent. Unfortunately the rest of the world has failed to follow the lead set by this Great Jewish Nation. Worldwide, hardly 1percent of irrigated land utilizes efficient drip irrigation techniques. The problem lies in the fact that water is considered to be a free

  12. Should the landscape or the modeler define hydrological model structure? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, M.

    2009-12-01

    In most applications of hydrological models the same model structure is applied everywhere even though the model is unable to provide a faithful description of all occurring hydrological processes. Insights gained from experimental hydrology are rarely used directly to define the structure of hydrological models. Instead, more complex, distributed physically-based models use simple look-up tables to relate the parameters of each structural model element to soil and land-cover information without sufficiently evaluating these relationships. Still, the models are expected to generate the correct processes pattern within the landscape based on the fixed model structure with local parameterization. However, as for example the generation of surface runoff shows, the resulting pattern of the process is often incorrect because the model fails to predict the variable dynamics of soil saturation correctly. Another approach could be to have the landscape and climate define the model structure and hence directly guide selection and description of relevant hydrological processes. From our long experience in experimental hydrology we have collected a wealth of knowledge and data to predict, for example, if a specific hillslope that has developed over a known geologic formation within a specific climate generates surface or subsurface runoff during a storm. If we are able to predict the location of dominating hydrological processes based on landscape information, we could use this “map” of hydrological processes to define or adjust the model structure representing a specific process. This approach would be particularly powerful in ungauged basins. This contribution will compare the two approaches, introduce different methods how landscape can define model structure, and discuss strategies to identify regional differences in perceptual models and to determine the suitability of different model structures in different regions.

  13. On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: The potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.

  14. Hydrologic Response to Climatic and Vegetation Change in an Extreme Alpine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, B.; Badger, A.; Molotch, N. P.; Bueno de Mesquita, C.; Suding, K.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain hydrology and ecology are uniquely sensitive to climate change. This presentation will examine how changes in climate have altered land cover and hydrology in the Green Lakes Valley, an alpine catchment for which approximately 80% of the annual precipitation ( 950 mm/yr) falls as snow. In these environments vegetation has two way interaction with hydrology: its distribution is driven by patterns of snowpack and water availability while it functions to modulate hydrologic responses by alterating land-atmosphere interaction. Long-term climate trends indicate warming, earlier snowmelt, and longer snow-free growing seasons. High-resolution aerial photography from 1972 and 2008 identified vegetation encroachment as shrubs and trees have increased in vigor and density in the tundra, while herbaceous tundra plants have colonized high-elevation bare ground. To understand modulations to physical hydrology from climate and biophysical responses, we apply a 20-m resolution fully-distributed hydrologic model. Through the use of observed meteorology (radiation, humidity, temperature and precipitation) an hourly climatology was created. Realizations from a stochastic ensemble of this climatology together with trends from long-term observations are used to characterize historical hydrologic response and project future changes. Through temperature and precipitation change experiments, alterations to the annual water cycle are presented—indicating the importance of annual snowpack evolution on both the surface and sub-surface hydrology, particularly through seasonal water storage. Probabilistic land cover change scenarios are developed that project how further vegetation encroachment modulates surface water fluxes and sediment yields. Lastly, the context of these results are compared with hydrometeorological research from other differing alpine and ecological regions.

  15. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. H. Liu

    2003-04-03

    This Model Report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and documents validation of the active fracture model (AFM). This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Sections 1.10.2, 1.10.3, and 1.10.8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift for Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. The AFM is validated on the basis of experimental observations and theoretical developments. This report is a revision of an Analysis Model Report, under the same title, as a scientific analysis with Document Identifier number ANL-NBS-HS-000002 (BSC 2001 [159725]) that did not document activities to validate the AFM. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report ''Calibrated Properties Model'' (BSC 2003 [160240]). The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual permeability grids as documented in the Scientific Analysis Report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2003 [160109]). The resulting calibrated property sets and numerical grids from these reports will be used in the Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model (UZ Model), and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. The fracture and matrix properties developed in this Model Report include: (1) Fracture properties (frequency, permeability, van Genuchten a and m parameters, aperture, porosity, and interface area) for each UZ Model layer; (2

  16. [Preliminary validation of the French translation of anxiety sensibility index-revised (ASI-R)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvard, M; Ayxères-Vighetto, A; Dupont, H; Aupetit, J; Portalier, S; Arrindell, W

    2003-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity represents a stimulus-outcome expectancy that reflects individual differences in the propensity to experience fear in response to one's arousal-related bodily sensations. It refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms that are based on beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social or psychological consequences. Anxiety sensitivity occupies an important place in theory and research on panic and related interoceptive fear disorders. Findings from this body of research indicate that this construct may act as a specific vulnerability variable in the development of panic attacks and anxiety symptoms. However, anxiety sensitivity theory also has been applied to understanding mood disorders and chronic pain disorders. Thus, as a psychological construct, anxiety sensitivity holds specific relevance to understanding panic disorders and general relevance for expanding knowledge about negative emotional functioning in other pathologies. All the research on anxiety sensitivity has been completed with the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). The review of the literature using this instrument suggested that anxiety sensitivity has three lower-order factors that all load on a single higher-order factor. The lower-order factors represent Physical-Concerns, Mental Incapacitation Concerns, and Social Concerns, and the higher-order factor represents the global anxiety sensitivity construct (21). Taylor and Cox (22) suggested that this questionnaire was not designed on an a priori basis to measure the identified lower-order factors. The low number of items for the Social and Mental Incapacitation dimensions of the 16-item ASI often leads to relatively lower levels of reliability compared to the third dimension. To address this issue, Taylor and Cox (22) developed an expanded measure of the anxiety sensitivity construct. The 36-item Revised Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-R) maintains the same format as the 16-item ASI, but expands the number of

  17. Monitoring sensible heat flux over urban areas in a high-altitude city using Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junping; Timmermans, Wim J.; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Bob; Pema, Tsering

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization leads to modifications of surface energy balance which governs the momentum, heat and mass transfer between urban canopy layer and the atmosphere, thus impacts dynamic processes in the urban ABL and ultimately influence the local, regional and even global climate. It is essential to obtain accurate urban ABL observations to enhance our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction process over the urban area and help to improve the prediction ability of numerical model. However, up to now, there are rarely observations in high latitude cities. In one of the highest cities in the world, Lhasa, Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements have been ongoing since 10 August 2016 and a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) started to work on 12 November 2016, in addition to a UHI network which has been running since 2012. Taking advantage of these observations, this poster will estimate and analyze the surface energy balance in the winter of 2016 in Lhasa, with an emphasis on sensible heat flux. An analytical footprint model and the radiative surface temperature retrieved from Landsat 8 will be employed to compare EC and LAS measurements.

  18. In-situ Modelisation of a Greenhouse Climate Including Sensible Heat, Water Vapour and CO2 Balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi-Triki N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While thermal structures such as greenhouses are complex to model under transient conditions because of coupled heat and mass (H2O and CO2 exchanges between their different parts, systems theory allows a simple analysis of the input/output behaviour of the model. In particular, parameters of the reduced dynamic models can be derived from in-situ measurements on these systems. This paper describes an application of the systems approach to a greenhouse climate model which incorporates CO2 balance, crop transpiration and photosynthesis and the effects of heating, CO2 enrichment, natural ventilation and evaporative cooling. In a first stage, system parameters such as the equivalent thermal mass, the wind dependent coefficient of natural ventilation and the various heat exchange coefficients were identified in situ from sequences of input-output data concerning the heat and water vapour balance, recorded over the crop production period from December to July. Good agreement between measured and computed values of air temperature, air humidity was observed. In a second stage, we have considered simultaneously the sensible heat, water vapour and CO2 exchanges and tested the model against experimental data measured using a commercial greenhouse climate control computer. The identified values of the physical and physiological parameters are close the theoretical values and the accuracy of temperature, humidity and CO2 content is rather good.

  19. Thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Fellows, Spenser R; Frank, Alexander J; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. More than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. We measured rectal (T(r)) and surface (T(s)) temperatures of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat transfer for different body regions (head, body, wings, and tail membrane). Bats' T(r) decreased from 36.8°C during emergence flights to 34.4°C during returns, and T(s) scaled positively with ambient temperature (T(a)). Total radiative heat loss from bats was significantly greater for a radiative sink to the night sky than for a sink with temperature equal to T(a). We found that free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, on average, do not dissipate heat from their wings by convection but instead dissipate radiative heat (L) to the cloudless night sky during flight ([Formula: see text] W). However, within the range of T(a) measured in this study, T. brasiliensis experienced net heat loss between evening emergence and return flights. Regional hypothermia reduces heat loss from wings that are exposed to potentially high convective fluxes. Additional research is needed to establish the role of wings in evaporative cooling during flight in bats.

  20. Potential and limitations of using soil mapping information to understand landscape hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Terribile

    2011-12-01

    databases if full potential is to be achieved. Further, all the case studies agree on the appropriate degree of complexity of the soil hydrological model to be applied. We also emphasise that effective interaction between pedology and hydrology to address landscape hydrology requires (i greater awareness of the hydrological community about the type of soil information behind a soil map or a soil database, (ii the development of a better quantitative framework by the pedological community for evaluating hydrological features, and (iii quantitative information on soil spatial variability.

  1. New Observational Tools and Datasources for Hydrology: Hydrological data Unlocked by Tinkering

    OpenAIRE

    Hut, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in scientific understanding follow a cyclic pattern where new observational techniques lead to novel theoretical insight. From novel theories, in turn, hypotheses are derived that cannot be tested using current observations and thus create a demand for even newer observational techniques. Hydrology has recently experienced a period of great advances in theoretical understanding with hydrological models gaining considerably in complexity. Currently, the state of the hydrological scien...

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Hydrology Education in a Changing World - The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Brian; Wagener, Thorsten; Marshall, Lucy; McGuire, Kevin; Meixner, Thomas; Weiler, Markus; Gooseff, Michael; Kelleher, Christa; Gregg, Susan

    2010-05-01

    ‘It takes a village to raise a child', but who does it take to educate a hydrologist who can solve today's and tomorrow's problems? Hydrology is inherently an interdisciplinary science, and therefore requires interdisciplinary training. We believe that the demands on current and future hydrologists will continue to increase, while training at undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace. How do we, as university faculty, educate hydrologists capable of solving complex problems in an interdisciplinary environment considering that current educators have often been taught in narrow traditional disciplines? We suggest a unified community effort to change the way that hydrologists are educated. The complexity of the task is ever increasing. Analysis techniques and tools required for solving emerging problems have to evolve away from focusing mainly on the analysis of past behavior because baselines are shifting as the world changes. The difficulties of providing an appropriate education are also increasing, especially given the growing demands on faculty time. To support hydrology educators and improve hydrology education, we have started a faculty community of educators (REACH) and implemented the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA, http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty as they educate hydrologists that can solve interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced as students. Our current objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for university hydrology education, based on modern pedagogical standards, freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and capacity building. In this presentation we discuss the results of a recent survey on current hydrology education (to compare with the state of

  3. Differences in the hydrological cycle and sensitivity between multiscale modeling frameworks with and without a higher-order turbulence closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Li, Zhujun; Cheng, Anning; Blossey, Peter N.; Stan, Cristiana

    2017-09-01

    Current conventional global climate models (GCMs) produce a weak increase in global-mean precipitation with anthropogenic warming in comparison with the lower tropospheric moisture increases. The motive of this study is to understand the differences in the hydrological sensitivity between two multiscale modeling frameworks (MMFs) that arise from the different treatments of turbulence and low clouds in order to aid to the understanding of the model spread among conventional GCMs. We compare the hydrological sensitivity and its energetic constraint from MMFs with (SPCAM-IPHOC) or without (SPCAM) an advanced higher-order turbulence closure. SPCAM-IPHOC simulates higher global hydrological sensitivity for the slow response but lower sensitivity for the fast response than SPCAM. Their differences are comparable to the spreads of conventional GCMs. The higher sensitivity in SPCAM-IPHOC is associated with the higher ratio of the changes in latent heating to those in net atmospheric radiative cooling, which is further related to a stronger decrease in the Bowen ratio with warming than in SPCAM. The higher sensitivity of cloud radiative cooling resulting from the lack of low clouds in SPCAM is another major factor in contributing to the lower precipitation sensitivity. The two MMFs differ greatly in the hydrological sensitivity over the tropical lands, where the simulated sensitivity of surface sensible heat fluxes to surface warming and CO2 increase in SPCAM-IPHOC is weaker than in SPCAM. The difference in divergences of dry static energy flux simulated by the two MMFs also contributes to the difference in land precipitation sensitivity between the two models.

  4. Development of a hydrological model for simulation of runoff from catchments unbounded by ridge lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vema, Vamsikrishna; Sudheer, K. P.; Chaubey, I.

    2017-08-01

    Watershed hydrological models are effective tools for simulating the hydrological processes in the watershed. Although there are a plethora of hydrological models, none of them can be directly applied to make water conservation decisions in irregularly bounded areas that do not confirm to topographically defined ridge lines. This study proposes a novel hydrological model that can be directly applied to any catchment, with or without ridge line boundaries. The model is based on the water balance concept, and a linear function concept to approximate the cross-boundary flow from upstream areas to the administrative catchment under consideration. The developed model is tested in 2 watersheds - Riesel Experimental Watershed and a sub-basin of Cedar Creek Watershed in Texas, USA. Hypothetical administrative catchments that did not confirm to the location of ridge lines were considered for verifying the efficacy of the model for hydrologic simulations. The linear function concept used to account the cross boundary flow was based on the hypothesis that the flow coming from outside the boundary to administrative area was proportional to the flow generated in the boundary grid cell. The model performance was satisfactory with an NSE and r2 of ≥0.80 and a PBIAS of <25 in all the cases. The simulated hydrographs for the administrative catchments of the watersheds were in good agreement with the observed hydrographs, indicating a satisfactory performance of the model in the administratively bounded areas.

  5. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  6. Estimating real-time predictive hydrological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Flood early warning systems provide a potentially highly effective flood risk reduction measure. The effectiveness of early warning, however, is affected by forecasting uncertainty: the impossibility of knowing, in advance, the exact future state of hydrological systems. Early warning systems

  7. Hydrologic Data Sites for Iron County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the USGS (United States Geologic Survey), NWIS (National Water Inventory System) Hydrologic Data Sites for Iron County, Utah. The scope and purpose of...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for Lincoln County, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The hydrology dataset for Lincoln County, Oregon includes proposed 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year discharges for Salmon River, Schooner Creek, Drift Creek, Siletz...

  9. Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James; Pfister, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Well-posed hypothesis tests have spurred major advances in hydrological theory. However, a random sample of recent research papers suggests that in hydrology, as in other fields, hypothesis formulation and testing rarely correspond to the idealized model of the scientific method. Practices such as "p-hacking" or "HARKing" (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known) are major obstacles to more rigorous hypothesis testing in hydrology, along with the well-known problem of confirmation bias - the tendency to value and trust confirmations more than refutations - among both researchers and reviewers. Hypothesis testing is not the only recipe for scientific progress, however: exploratory research, driven by innovations in measurement and observation, has also underlain many key advances. Further improvements in observation and measurement will be vital to both exploratory research and hypothesis testing, and thus to advancing the science of hydrology.

  10. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  11. Hydrologic time and sustainability of shallow aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; ,

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of water and short intervals of time are coeval events that began about 6000 BC in Mesopotamia. Even though time and hydrology have been intimately entwined, with time terms in the denominator of many hydrologic parameters, hydrology's a priori claim to time has not been consummated. Moreover, time takes on a greater importance now than in the past as the focus shifts to small site-scale aquifers whose sustainability can be physically and chemically threatened. One of the challenges for research in hydrogeology is to establish time scales for hydrologic phenomena such as infiltration rates, groundwater flow rates, rates of organic and inorganic reactions, and rates of groundwater withdrawal over the short term, and the long term and to understand the consequences of these various time scales. Credible monitoring programs must consider not only the spatial scale, but also the time scale of the phenomena being monitored.

  12. U.S.V.I. Hydrological Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile comprises the watershed boundaries, or hydrological units and their physical and erosion related characteristics for the U.S. Virgin Islands

  13. Hydrologic Responses to Land Use Change in the Loess Plateau: Case Study in the Upper Fenhe River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang Lu; Songbing Zou; Zuodong Qin; Yonggang Yang; Honglang Xiao; Yongping Wei; Kai Zhang; Jiali Xie

    2015-01-01

    We applied an integrated approach to investigate the impacts of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on hydrology at different scales in the Loess Plateau of China. Hydrological modeling was conducted for the LULC maps from remote sensing images at two times in the Upper Fenhe River watershed using the SWAT model. The main LULC changes in this watershed from 1995 to 2010 were the transformation of farmland into forests, grassland, and built-up land. The simulation results showed that forest...

  14. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Wetter, O.

    2017-01-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimation...

  15. Genetic Programming for Automatic Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadalawada, Jayashree; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    One of the recent challenges for the hydrologic research community is the need for the development of coupled systems that involves the integration of hydrologic, atmospheric and socio-economic relationships. This poses a requirement for novel modelling frameworks that can accurately represent complex systems, given, the limited understanding of underlying processes, increasing volume of data and high levels of uncertainity. Each of the existing hydrological models vary in terms of conceptualization and process representation and is the best suited to capture the environmental dynamics of a particular hydrological system. Data driven approaches can be used in the integration of alternative process hypotheses in order to achieve a unified theory at catchment scale. The key steps in the implementation of integrated modelling framework that is influenced by prior understanding and data, include, choice of the technique for the induction of knowledge from data, identification of alternative structural hypotheses, definition of rules, constraints for meaningful, intelligent combination of model component hypotheses and definition of evaluation metrics. This study aims at defining a Genetic Programming based modelling framework that test different conceptual model constructs based on wide range of objective functions and evolves accurate and parsimonious models that capture dominant hydrological processes at catchment scale. In this paper, GP initializes the evolutionary process using the modelling decisions inspired from the Superflex framework [Fenicia et al., 2011] and automatically combines them into model structures that are scrutinized against observed data using statistical, hydrological and flow duration curve based performance metrics. The collaboration between data driven and physical, conceptual modelling paradigms improves the ability to model and manage hydrologic systems. Fenicia, F., D. Kavetski, and H. H. Savenije (2011), Elements of a flexible approach

  16. Hydrologic Drought Decision Support System (HyDroDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrologic drought decision support system (HyDroDSS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) for use in the analysis of hydrologic variables that may indicate the risk for streamflows to be below user-defined flow targets at a designated site of interest, which is defined herein as data-collection site on a stream that may be adversely affected by pumping. Hydrologic drought is defined for this study as a period of lower than normal streamflows caused by precipitation deficits and (or) water withdrawals. The HyDroDSS is designed to provide water managers with risk-based information for balancing water-supply needs and aquatic-habitat protection goals to mitigate potential effects of hydrologic drought. This report describes the theory and methods for retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis, rank correlation analysis, and drought-projection analysis. All three methods are designed to inform decisions made by drought steering committees and decisionmakers on the basis of quantitative risk assessment. All three methods use estimates of unaltered streamflow, which is the measured or modeled flow without major withdrawals or discharges, to approximate a natural low-flow regime. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis can be used by water-resource managers to evaluate relations between withdrawal plans and the potential effects of withdrawal plans on streams at one or more sites of interest in an area. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis indicates the historical risk of being below user-defined flow targets if different pumping plans were implemented for the period of record. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis also indicates the risk for creating hydrologic drought conditions caused by use of a pumping plan. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis is done by calculating the net streamflow depletions from withdrawals and discharges and applying these depletions

  17. Developing a parameterization approach of soil erodibility for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  18. Quantile hydrologic model selection and model structure deficiency assessment : 2. Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pande, S.

    2013-01-01

    Quantile hydrologic model selection and structure deficiency assessment is applied in three case studies. The performance of quantile model selection problem is rigorously evaluated using a model structure on the French Broad river basin data set. The case study shows that quantile model selection

  19. Phosphorus dynamics in lowland streams as a response to climatic, hydrological and agricultural land use gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Teixeira-de Mello, F.

    2015-01-01

    contrasting climate and hydrological regimes (temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay). We applied two alternative nutrient sampling programmes (high frequency composite sampling and low frequency instantaneous-grab sampling) and three alternative methods to estimate exported P from the catchments. A source...

  20. Developing soil erodibility prediction equations for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...