WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrogen treatment poluchenie

  1. Hydrogen heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choong-Nyeon

    2000-12-01

    This study introduces the hydrogen heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing materials and its applicability for practical use. This treatment is somewhat different from normal heat treatment because of the interaction between metal atoms and hydrogen. Since hydrogen can be removed very fast by pumping it out the hydrogen-induced new lattice phase which can not be obtained without hydrogen can be preserved in a meta-stable state. A thermodynamic interpretation of the hydrogen heat treatment established previously was reformulated for graphical and analytical methods and applied to Pd-Pt-H and Pd-Ag-H alloy systems and a fair correlation between the calculation and experimental results was shown. The feasibility of applying the thermodynamic interpretation to intermetallic compounds-hydrogen systems was also discussed.

  2. The Clinical Application of Hydrogen as a Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Atsuyoshi; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Knaup, Emily; Naito, Hiromichi; Nishiyama, Chihiro; Yamakawa, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Kohei; Terado, Michihisa; Sato, Keiji; Ugawa, Toyomu; Nakao, Atsunori

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that molecular hydrogen is a particularyl effective treatment for various disease models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury; as a result, research on hydrogen has progressed rapidly. Hydrogen has been shown to be effective not only through intake as a gas, but also as a liquid medication taken orally, intravenously, or locally. Hydrogen's effectiveness is thus multifaceted. Herein we review the recent research on hydrogen-rich water, and we examine the possibilities for its clinical application. Now that hydrogen is in the limelight as a gaseous signaling molecule due to its potential ability to inhibit oxidative stress signaling, new research developments are highly anticipated.

  3. Influence of hydrogen treatment on SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    reduction (SCR) process, i.e. the catalytic removal of NOx from the flue gas. A series of experiments was conducted to reveal the impact on the NO SCR activity of a industrial DeNOX catalyst (3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2) by treatment of H2. Standard conditions were treatment of the SCR catalyst for 60 min with three...... different concentrations of H2 (0-2%) in a 8% O2/N2 mixture, where the SCR activity was measured before and after the hydrogen treatment. The results show that the activity of the SCR catalyst is only negligible affected during exposure to the H2/O2 gas and in all cases it returned reversibly to the initial...... NOx conversion (temporarily higher) after reexposure to the standard NO SCR gas. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) suggests that a fraction of both V(IV) and V(V) were reduced to V(III) during exposure to 2% H2 + 8% O2. However, the distribution of vanadium in oxidation state V(III)-V(V) quickly...

  4. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide waste treatment by microwave plasma-chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from industrial acid-gas waste streams is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is derived from research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. This process has several advantages over the current Claus-plus-tail-gas-cleanup technology, which burns the hydrogen to water. The primary advantage of the proposal process is its potential for recovering and recycling hydrogen more cheaply than the direct production of hydrogen. Since unconverted hydrogen sulfide is recycled to the plasma reactor, the plasma-chemical process has the potential for sulfur recoveries in excess of 99% without the additional complexity of the tail-gas-cleanup processes associated with the Claus technology. There may also be some environmental advantages to the plasma-chemical process, because the process purge stream would primarily be the carbon dioxide and water contained in the acid-gas waste stream. Laboratory experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide have demonstrated the ability of the process to operate at or above atmospheric pressure with an acceptable hydrogen sulfide dissociation energy. Experiments with a wide range of acid-gas compositions have demonstrated that carbon dioxide and water are compatible with the plasma-chemical dissociation process and that they do not appear to create new waste-treatment problems. However, carbon dioxide does have negative impacts on the overall process. First, it decreases the hydrogen production, and second, it increases the hydrogen sulfide dissociation energy.

  6. Non-thermal plasma treatment of hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, L.J.; Hartvigsen, J.; Elangovan, S. [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a non-thermal plasma reforming process to treat hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in heavy hydrocarbons. H{sub 2}S is present in natural gas, petroleum, and various process gases. It is an unwanted compound that is generally removed using an amine extraction process followed by a Claus process. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a GlidArc plasma reformer to recover some of the hydrogen from the H{sub 2}S. Non-thermal plasma reforming breaks hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and elemental sulphur. Ceramatec has established the catalytic nature of the non-thermal plasma generated by its GlidArc plasma reformer. This treatment process is still in the laboratory stage, but it offers the possibility of a new method to treat acid gas that will provide an opportunity to recover hydrogen that is currently burned to water during the Claus sulphur removal process. Ceramatec, in conjunction with Albin Czernichowski of ECP in France, has demonstrated the ability to reform a variety of hydrocarbons using the non-thermal plasma catalyzed reaction. The plasma reaction can be initiated in either a partial oxidation or steam reforming mode. Multiple hydrocarbons can be processed by the same unit with only control parameters changing to meet the requirements of the individual hydrocarbons being processed. Although a tested unit did not accomplish complete conversion, some additional options will be tested that are expected to increase the conversion under an existing program operated by the United States Department of Energy. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Hydrogen plasma treatment of silicon dioxide for improved silane deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Madaan, Nitesh; Jensen, David S; Kunzler, Shawn C; Linford, Matthew R

    2013-03-19

    We describe a method for plasma cleaning silicon surfaces in a commercial tool that removes adventitious organic contamination and enhances silane deposition. As shown by wetting, ellipsometry, and XPS, hydrogen, oxygen, and argon plasmas effectively clean Si/SiO2 surfaces. However, only hydrogen plasmas appear to enhance subsequent low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silanes. Chemical differences between the surfaces were confirmed via (i) deposition of two different silanes: octyldimethylmethoxysilane and butyldimethylmethoxysilane, as evidenced by spectroscopic ellipsometry and wetting, and (ii) a principal components analysis (PCA) of TOF-SIMS data taken from the different plasma-treated surfaces. AFM shows no increase in surface roughness after H2 or O2 plasma treatment of Si/SiO2. The effects of surface treatment with H2/O2 plasmas in different gas ratios, which should allow greater control of surface chemistry, and the duration of the H2 plasma (complete surface treatment appeared to take place quickly) are also presented. We believe that this work is significant because of the importance of silanes as surface functionalization reagents, and in particular because of the increasing importance of gas phase silane deposition.

  8. Influence of thermo hydrogen treatment on hot deformation behavior of Ti600 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-wei; DING Hua; WANG Yao-qi; HOU Hong-liang

    2009-01-01

    Hot compressive deformation of Ti600 alloy after thermo hydrogen treatment (THT) was carried out within hydrogen content range of 0-0.5%, temperature range of 760-920 ℃ and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The flow stress of Ti600 alloy after THT was obtained under hot deformation condition, and the influence of hydrogen on work-hardening rate (S*), strain energy density (U*), and deformation activation energy (Q) was analysed. The results show that the flow stress of Ti600 alloy decreases remarkably with the increase of hydrogen when the hydrogen content is less than 0.3%. Both S* and U* decrease with the increase of hydrogen when the hydrogen content is less than 0.3%, and when the hydrogen content is more than 0.3%, S* and U* increase with hydrogen addition. The value of Q decreases with the increase of strain at the same hydrogen content. The addition of small quantity of hydrogen leads to an increase of Q at small strain values, and when the strain reaches 0.6, the value of Q decreases gradually with the increase of hydrogen. When the hydrogen content is within the range of 0.1%-0.3%, the flow stress of Ti600 alloy is decreased when being deformed at the temperature range of 760-920 ℃.

  9. Semiclassical treatment of laser excitation of the hydrogen atom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billing, Gert D.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Leforestier, C.

    1992-01-01

    We present an alternative method for studying excitation of atoms in intense laser fields. In the present paper we focus upon the optical harmonic generation by hydrogen atoms.......We present an alternative method for studying excitation of atoms in intense laser fields. In the present paper we focus upon the optical harmonic generation by hydrogen atoms....

  10. Effects of heat treatment on microbial communities of granular sludge for biological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Favaro, Lorenzo; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Dark fermentation shares many features with anaerobic digestion with the exception that to maximize hydrogen production, methanogens and hydrogen-consuming bacteria should be inhibited. Heat treatment is widely applied as an inoculum pre-treatment due to its effectiveness in inhibiting methanogenic microflora but it may not exclusively select for hydrogen-producing bacteria. This work evaluated the effects of heat treatment on microbial viability and structure of anaerobic granular sludge. Heat treatment was carried out on granular sludge at 100 °C with four residence times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h). Hydrogen production of treated sludges was studied from glucose by means of batch test at different pH values. Results indicated that each heat treatment strongly influenced the granular sludge resulting in microbial communities having different hydrogen productions. The highest hydrogen yields (2.14 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose) were obtained at pH 5.5 using the sludge treated for 4 h characterized by the lowest CFU concentration (2.3 × 10(3)CFU/g sludge). This study demonstrated that heat treatment should be carefully defined according to the structure of the sludge microbial community, allowing the selection of highly efficient hydrogen-producing microbes.

  11. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  12. Reduction of a thin chromium oxide film on Inconel surface upon treatment with hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka, E-mail: alenka.vesel@guest.arnes.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mozetic, Miran [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne [PROMES-CNRS Laboratory, 7 Rue du four solaire, 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Oxidized Inconel alloy was exposed to hydrogen at temperatures up to 1500 K. • Oxide reduction in hydrogen plasma started at approximately 1300 K. • AES depth profiling revealed complete reduction of oxides in plasma. • Oxides were not reduced, if the sample was heated just in hydrogen atmosphere. • Surface of reduced Inconel preserved the same composition as the bulk material. - Abstract: Inconel samples with a surface oxide film composed of solely chromium oxide with a thickness of approximately 700 nm were exposed to low-pressure hydrogen plasma at elevated temperatures to determine the suitable parameters for reduction of the oxide film. The hydrogen pressure during treatment was set to 60 Pa. Plasma was created by a surfaguide microwave discharge in a quartz glass tube to allow for a high dissociation fraction of hydrogen molecules. Auger electron depth profiling (AES) was used to determine the decay of the oxygen in the surface film and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to measure structural modifications. During hydrogen plasma treatment, the oxidized Inconel samples were heated to elevated temperatures. The reduction of the oxide film started at temperatures of approximately 1300 K (considering the emissivity of 0.85) and the oxide was reduced in about 10 s of treatment as revealed by AES. The XRD showed sharper substrate peaks after the reduction. Samples treated in hydrogen atmosphere under the same conditions have not been reduced up to approximately 1500 K indicating usefulness of plasma treatment.

  13. Thermal post-deposition treatment effects on nanocrystalline hydrogenated silicon prepared by PECVD under different hydrogen flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Sana Ben; Meddeb, Hosny; Daik, Ridha; Othman, Afef Ben; Slama, Sonia Ben; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films were deposited on mono-crystalline silicon substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) under different hydrogen flow rates followed by a thermal treatment in an infrared furnace at different temperature ranging from 300 to 900 °C. The investigated structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of samples were found to be strongly dependent on the annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy revealed that nc-Si:H films contain crystalline, amorphous and mixed structures as well. We find that post-deposition thermal treatment may lead to a tendency for structural improvement and a decrease of the disorder in the film network at moderate temperature under 500 °C. As for annealing at higher temperature up to 900 °C induces the recrystallization of the film which is correlated with the grain size and volume fraction in the layer. We demonstrate that high annealing temperature can lead to a decrease of silicon-hydrogen bonds corresponding to a reduction of the amorphous matrix in the layer promoting the formation of covalent Si-Si bonds. The effusion of the hydrogen from the grown film leads to increase its density and therefore induces a decrease in the thickness of the layer. For post-deposition thermal treatment in temperature range under 700 °C, the post-deposition anneal seems to be crucial for obtaining good passivation quality as expressed by a minority carrier lifetime of 17 μs, as it allows a significant reduction in defect states at the layer/substrate interface. While for a temperature higher than 900 °C, the lifetime reduction is obtained because of hydrogen effusion phenomenon, thus a tendency for crystallization in the grown film.

  14. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  15. Hydrogen production by anaerobic microbial communities exposed to repeated heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangmanee, T; Padmasiri, S I; Simmons, J J; Raskin, L; Sung, S

    2007-09-01

    Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic mixed communities was studied in laboratory-scale bioreactors using sucrose as the substrate. A bioreactor in which a fraction of the return sludge was exposed to repeated heat treatments performed better than a control bioreactor without repeated heat treatment of return sludge and produced a yield of 2.15 moles of hydrogen per mole of sucrose, with 50% hydrogen in the biogas. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that two different Clostridium groups (comprised of one or more species) were dominant during hydrogen production. The relative abundance of two other non-Clostridium groups increased during periods of decreased hydrogen production. The first group consisted of Bifidobacterium thermophilum, and the second group included one or more of Bacillus, Melissococcus, Spirochaeta, and Spiroplasma spp.

  16. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  17. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  18. Hydrogen Treatment Protects against Cell Death and Senescence Induced by Oxidative Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, A Lum; Park, Seong-Hoon; Park, Mi Sung

    2017-02-28

    Hydrogen has potential for preventive and therapeutic applications as an antioxidant. However, micro- and macroparticles of hydrogen in water disappear easily over time. In order to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) related with the aging process, we used functional water containing nanoparticle hydrogen. Nanoparticle hydrogen does not disappear easily and collapse under water after long periods of time. We used murine embryonic fibroblasts that were isolated from 12.5-day embryos of C57BL/6 mice. We investigated the ability of nanoparticle hydrogen in water to suppress hydroxyurea-induced ROS production, cytotoxicity, and the accumulation of β-galactosidase (an indicator of aging), and promote cell proliferation. The accumulation of β-galactosidase in the cytoplasm and the appearance of abnormal nuclei were inhibited by daily treatment of cells with hydrogen water. When the aging process was accelerated by hydroxyurea-induced oxidative stress, the effect of hydrogen water was even more remarkable. Thus, this study showed the antioxidant and anti-senescence effects of hydrogen water. Nanoparticle hydrogen water is potentially a potent anti-aging agent.

  19. Effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on the properties of wool fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Xiaolin; Xu, Weilin

    2012-10-01

    In this study, hydrogen peroxide treatment was applied to improve the surface wettability, moisture transfer properties and other related properties of wool fabric. SEM images showed the tip of wool scale was smoothened and parts of the scale were peeled off after hydrogen peroxide treatment. The time for a water droplet to sink into the fabric could decrease to less than 1 s and the wicking properties of wool fabrics were dramatically improved after hydrogen peroxide treatment. Shrinkage and whiteness of the fabric were improved due to the modification of scale and the bleaching effect of hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The fabrics became weaker and ductile with less than 4% weight loss. This study would benefit further application of wool fiber in summer clothing in which the surface wettability and moisture transfer properties are essential and determinative.

  20. Investment in hydrogen tri-generation for wastewater treatment plants under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharieh, Kaveh; Jafari, Mohsen A.; Guo, Qizhong

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present a compound real option model for investment in hydrogen tri-generation and onsite hydrogen dispensing systems for a wastewater treatment plant under price and market uncertainties. The ultimate objective is to determine optimal timing and investment thresholds to exercise initial and subsequent options such that the total savings are maximized. Initial option includes investment in a 1.4 (MW) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) fed by mixture of waste biogas from anaerobic digestion and natural gas, along with auxiliary equipment. Produced hydrogen in MCFC via internal reforming, is recovered from the exhaust gas stream using Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) purification technology. Therefore the expansion option includes investment in hydrogen compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) systems which creates additional revenue by selling hydrogen onsite in retail price. This work extends current state of investment modeling within the context of hydrogen tri-generation by considering: (i) Modular investment plan for hydrogen tri-generation and dispensing systems, (ii) Multiple sources of uncertainties along with more realistic probability distributions, (iii) Optimal operation of hydrogen tri-generation is considered, which results in realistic saving estimation.

  1. HEALING OF HYDROGEN ATTACK CRACK IN AUSTENITE STAINLESS STEEL UNDER HEAT TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.G. Li; C.F. Dong; H. Chen

    2002-01-01

    The specimens of 304 austenite stainless steel with the hydrogen attack bubbles orcracks were heat treated at 600℃ for 6h. The SEM and TEM observations on thespecimens before and after the heat treatment showed that the bubbles or cracks could behealed completely by heat treatment. The healing of hydrogen attack bubbles or cracksis closely related to heat diffusion of Fe and C atoms in austenite. The driving forceof crack healing results fram the plastic deforming energy Es induced by the growthof hydrogen attack bubbles or cracks. The critical condition of healing of bubbles orcracks is Es ≥ 2γ/r (where γγ is the surface tension, r is the radius of bubbles or halflength of crack). During healing of the hydrogen attack bubbles or cracks, the recovery,polygonization and recrystallization of the sub-grain also occured.

  2. Petroleum Contaminated Soil Treatment Using Surfactant and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Lobo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of washing soil with surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulphate (LESS and sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS was combined with chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, with a view to in situ remediation of clay soil contaminated with hydrocarbons oil. The evaluation of the efficiency of the procedure was the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the comparison of physical and chemical characteristics of contaminated soil and uncontaminated from the same region. The combination of these two techniques, soil washing and application of an oxidizing agent, presented as a process of effective remediation for soils contaminated with petroleum products in subtropical regions.

  3. Combined sulphur cycle based system of hydrogen production and biological treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Li Wei; Lei, Lei; Ningbo, Yang; Wei, Yan

    2009-11-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate continuous hydrogen production with lower cost and sulphate-rich wastewater treatment. In this paper, both anaerobic bio-treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater and hydrogen production were applied to construct a laboratory-scale combined sulphur cycle based system. The system consisted of two reactors, which were a photocatalytic reactor and an anaerobic bioreactor, respectively. In the anaerobic bioreactor, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted SO4(2-) to S(2-). The produced S(2-) yielded by SRB was further used as a sacrificial reagent to produce H2 in the photocatalytic reactor. Then, S(2-) was changed into SO4(2-), which returned to the anaerobic bioreactor for treatment again. The present study highlighted an advantage compared with the conventional method, in that no extra S(2-) was added to the photocatalytic reactor, which reduced the total cost and realized continuous hydrogen production. The average COD removal efficiency was 79.6%.

  4. High precision quantum-chemical treatment of adsorption: Benchmarking physisorption of molecular hydrogen on graphane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usvyat, Denis

    2015-09-01

    A multilevel hierarchical ab initio protocol for calculating adsorption on non-conducting surfaces is presented. It employs fully periodic treatment, which reaches local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) with correction for the basis set incompleteness via the local F12 technique. Post-MP2 corrections are calculated using finite clusters. That includes the coupled cluster treatment in the local and canonical frameworks (up to perturbative quadruples) and correlated core (with MP2). Using this protocol, the potential surface of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on graphane was computed. According to the calculations, hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on graphane in a perpendicular to the surface orientation with the minimum of the potential surface of around -3.6 kJ/mol located at the distance of 3.85 Å between the bond center of the hydrogen molecule and the mid-plane of graphane. The adsorption sites along the path from the downward-pointing carbon to the ring center of the graphane are energetically virtually equally preferable, which can enable nearly free translations of hydrogen molecules along these paths. Consequently, the hydrogen molecules on graphane most likely form a non-commensurate monolayer. The analysis of the remaining errors reveals a very high accuracy of the computed potential surface with an error bar of a few tenths of a kJ/mol. The obtained results are a high-precision benchmark for further theoretical and experimental studies of hydrogen molecules interacting with graphane.

  5. High precision quantum-chemical treatment of adsorption: Benchmarking physisorption of molecular hydrogen on graphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usvyat, Denis, E-mail: denis.usvyat@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    A multilevel hierarchical ab initio protocol for calculating adsorption on non-conducting surfaces is presented. It employs fully periodic treatment, which reaches local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) with correction for the basis set incompleteness via the local F12 technique. Post-MP2 corrections are calculated using finite clusters. That includes the coupled cluster treatment in the local and canonical frameworks (up to perturbative quadruples) and correlated core (with MP2). Using this protocol, the potential surface of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on graphane was computed. According to the calculations, hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on graphane in a perpendicular to the surface orientation with the minimum of the potential surface of around −3.6 kJ/mol located at the distance of 3.85 Å between the bond center of the hydrogen molecule and the mid-plane of graphane. The adsorption sites along the path from the downward-pointing carbon to the ring center of the graphane are energetically virtually equally preferable, which can enable nearly free translations of hydrogen molecules along these paths. Consequently, the hydrogen molecules on graphane most likely form a non-commensurate monolayer. The analysis of the remaining errors reveals a very high accuracy of the computed potential surface with an error bar of a few tenths of a kJ/mol. The obtained results are a high-precision benchmark for further theoretical and experimental studies of hydrogen molecules interacting with graphane.

  6. The effect of electron beam treatment on hydrogen sorption ability of commercially pure titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, Alexey V.; Kazachenok, Marina S. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021 (Russian Federation); Kretova, Oksana M., E-mail: oksikom@bk.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Perevalova, Olga B. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii F. [Institute of High Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Lider, Andrey M.; Stepanova, Olga M.; Kroening, Michael H. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    The surface morphology and the microstructure of commercially pure titanium specimens subjected to electron beam treatment with energy density varying from 12 to 25 J/cm{sup 2} were studied using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. Lamellar α-phase structure of a thin surface layer of the specimens resulted from the treatment was shown to have a great effect on hydrogen sorption ability of the material as well as on hydrogen arrangement in titanium crystal lattice.

  7. The relationship between the super plasticity of laser welding joint of titanium alloy and hydrogen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zean; Cheng, Donghai; Jiang, Xunyan; Hu, Dean; Chen, Yiping

    2017-06-01

    The superplastic deformation uniformity of laser welded joint of TC4 titanium alloy is improved by hydrogen treatment. The non-uniform deformation coefficient K was introduced to quantification ally characterize the non-uniform deformation. The results show when the content of hydrogen exceeds 0.29%, the super plasticity of the titanium alloy welded plate decreases with the increase of the hydrogen content. The decrease of the shrinkage of the base material is larger than that of the weld section with the increase of hydrogen content. The K can be used to describe the non-uniform deformation of the weld and the base material during the superplastic deformation of laser welded joint of the TC4. The K value increases with increaseing hydrogen content, increaseing deformation temperature and decreaseing strain rate. The K value reaches the maximum of 0.84 with hydrogen content of 1.299%, deformation temperature of 920 °C, strain rate of 10-4S-1.

  8. Photoluminescence and hydrogen gas-sensing properties of titanium dioxide nanostructures synthesized by hydrothermal treatments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sikhwivhilu, LM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available -1 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2012, 4, 1656-1665 dx.doi.org/10.1021/am2018089 Photoluminescence and Hydrogen Gas-Sensing Properties of Titanium Dioxide Nanostructures Synthesized by Hydrothermal Treatments Lucky M. Sikhwivhilu, Siyasanga Mpelane...

  9. Postantibiotic effect of disinfection treatment by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odashima, Yu; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Meirelles, Luiz; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the postantibiotic effect (PAE) of the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2. Postantibiotic effect was induced in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 at concentrations of 250-1000 mmol/l, laser irradiation at a wavelength of 405 nm, and the combination of both (photolysis of H2O2) for 10-30 seconds. The photolysis of H2O2 induced significantly longer PAE than other treatments. The PAE was augmented dependently on not only the concentration of H2O2 but the laser irradiation time. Electron spin resonance analysis showed that the hydroxyl radical was also generated dependently on both the concentration of H2O2 and the laser irradiation time, suggesting that the hydroxyl radicals contribute to the PAE. These results suggest that the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2 induces PAE in S. aureus and S. salivarius even though they were treated for only 10-30 seconds.

  10. Enhanced conductivity of aluminum doped ZnO films by hydrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, F.H., E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wu, J.Y.; Kung, C.Y.; Liu, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various RF power were treated by hydrogen plasma to enhance the characteristics for transparent electrode applications. The hydrogen plasma treatment was carried out at 300 {sup o}C in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all AZO films have a (002) preferred orientation and film crystallinity seems no significant change after plasma treatment. The plasma treatment not only significantly decreases film resistivity but enhances electrical stability as aging in air ambient. The improved electrical properties are due to desorption of weakly bonded oxygen species, formation of Zn-H type species and passivation of deep-level defects during plasma treatment.

  11. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than...... 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product...

  12. Improved electrical stability of CdS thin film transistors through Hydrogen-based thermal treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Salas Villaseñor, Ana L.

    2014-06-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated using a photolithography process with chemically bath deposited (CBD) cadmium sulfide (CdS) films as the active channel. Thermal annealing in hydrogen was used to improve electrical stability and performance of the resulting CdS TFTs. Hydrogen thermal treatments results in significant V T instability (V T shift) improvement while increasing the I on/I off ratio without degrading carrier mobility. It is demonstrated that after annealing V T shift and I on/I off improves from 10 V to 4.6 V and from 105 to 10 9, respectively. Carrier mobility remains in the order of 14.5 cm2 V s-1. The reduced V T shift and performance is attributed to a reduction in oxygen species in the CdS after hydrogen annealing, as evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  14. Transition of single-walled carbon nanotubes from metallic to semiconducting in field-effect transistors by hydrogen plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Li, Qunqing; Jiang, Kaili; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jia; Ren, Zheng; Fan, Shoushan

    2007-06-01

    We report hydrogen plasma treatment results on converting the metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes to semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. We found that the as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be sorted as three groups which behave as metallic, as-metallic, and semiconducting SWNTs. These three groups have different changes under hydrogen plasma treatment and successive annealing process. The SWNTs can be easily hydrogenated in the hydrogen plasma environment and the as-metallic SWNTs can be transformed to semiconducting SWNTs. The successive annealing process can break the C-H bond, so the conversion is reversible.

  15. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brian C; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H; Cheetamun, Roshan; Bacic, Antony; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-06-25

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product is low in protein, fat, and minerals and contains predominantly water-soluble polysaccharides of high molar mass, including arabinan, type I arabinogalactan, homogalacturonan, xyloglucan, rhamnogalacturonan, and (glucurono)arabinoxylan. This treatment provides a straightforward approach for generation of soluble soy polysaccharides and opens a new range of opportunities for this abundant and underutilized material in future research and industrial applications.

  16. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of wastewater from food waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Korean food wastes have high moisture content (more than 85 wt%) and their major treatment processes such as drying or biological fermentations generate concentrated organic wastewater (CODs of about 100,000 mgO{sub 2}/L). For obtaining both wastewater treatment and hydrogen production from renewable resources, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the organic wastewater was carried out in this work. The effect of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reactor residence time on COD destruction and composition of gas products was examined. As a result, a SCWG of the wastewater over Ni- Y/activated charcoal at 700 C, 28 MPa yielded 99 % COD destruction and hydrogen-rich gas production (45 vol% H{sub 2}). A liquid-phase thermal pretreatment to destroy solid particles from the wastewater was proposed for more effective operation of the SCWG system. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen production as a novel process of wastewater treatment - studies on tofu wastewater with entrapped R. sphaeroides and mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heguang Zhu [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Environmental Science; Ueda, Shunsaku [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biological Productive Science; Asada, Yasio [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Miyake, Jun [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Attention is focusing on hydrogen production from wastewater, not only because hydrogen is a clean energy but also because it can be a process for wastewater treatment. In this paper, the characteristics of biological hydrogen production as a process of wastewater treatment is discussed by a comparison with methane production. The hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and its potential for wastewater treatment are reported. The possibility of co-cultivation with heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. As a solution to overcome the repressive effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +} on hydrogen production by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, a study was done using glutamine auxotroph which was obtained by chemical mutagenesis. To confirm that the mutation had occurred in DNA molecular level, the glutamine synthetase gene was cloned and sequenced. (Author)

  18. Use of hydrogen peroxide in scrubbing towers for odor removal in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, I; Féliers, C; Couvert, A; Laplanche, A; Patria, L; Requieme, B

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to replace sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO) with hydrogen peroxide (H202) in chemical scrubbing towers, in order to avoid the formation of chlorinated species, harmful for human health. Some previous studies have already shown the ability of H2O2 to treat the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pollution. However, an important decomposition of the oxidant was observed in the scrubbing solution (carbonates, transition metal and high pH are responsible for this decomposition) leading to high reactant consumption. Consequently, this study first focused on research into a compound able to reduce the hydrogen peroxide degradation. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit (3,000 m3 h(-1)) in a wastewater treatment plant. The sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) proved to be a good scrubbing solution stabilizer. A very good removal of hydrogen sulfide (up to 98%) was also obtained. Finally, the study resulted in the determination of the best operating conditions to achieve both an efficient and economical process.

  19. Hydrogen production and wastewater treatment in a microbial electrolysis cell with a biocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Yangyue; Chen, Yingwen; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao

    2014-07-01

    The broad application of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) requires a system characterized by low cost and high operational sustainability. Biocathode MECs, which only require bacteria as the cathode catalysts, can satisfy these demands and have attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this study, we have examined biocathode alternatives to the typical platinum cathode in a single-chamber, membrane-free MEC. This biocathode MEC has been used for simultaneous hydrogen production and wastewater treatment. The results showed that hydrogen production rates increased in response to an increase in voltage. At an applied voltage of 0.9 V, the biocathode MEC achieved a hydrogen production rate of 0.39 m3 m(-3) d(-1), with a current density of 134 Am(-3), chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 90%, a coulombic efficiency of 63%, a cathodic hydrogen recovery of 37%, and an energy efficiency based on an electricity input of 67%. The biocathode demonstrated sufficient electrocatalytic activity and achieved a performance level comparable to that of the platinum cathode. Moreover, the substrate that was used to simulate wastewater in this study was efficiently treated by the MEC.

  20. Effect of laser irradiation on crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung-Hyun; An, Ji-Hae; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Hwang, In-Nam; Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Ho-Jun

    2012-11-01

    This study is to evaluate the effect of laser activation on the whitening and crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Bovine teeth were treated with whitening gel containing 35% hydrogen peroxide. A whitening gel was applied on the enamel surface for a period of 5 min, and then irradiated using a diode laser (740 nm) during whitening treatment for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180s for the GL0-W, GL30-W, GL60-W, GL120-W and GL180-W groups, respectively. The total whitening application time was 30 min for all groups. Laser-irradiated enamel groups showed a similar lightness compared to the GL0-W group. The thickness of porous layer observed on the enamel surface of GL0-W group was decreased by increasing the laser irradiation time. While the Ca and P contents of the GL0-W group were lower than those of the non-whitening treated group (GL0-C), the Ca and P contents of the GL180-W group were similar to those of the GL180-C group. The enamel crystallinity was dramatically decreased by whitening treatment without laser irradiation. However, the decrease of crystallinity was protected by laser irradiation during whitening treatment. Raman measurement verified that laser irradiation could prevent the loss of mineral compositions on enamel and maintain its crystalline structure. The professional whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide and diode laser activation improves not only the whitening effect but also protects the change of enamel structure compared to the treatment with only gel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen production coupled to nuclear waste treatment: the safe treatment of alkali metals through a well-demonstrated process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahier, A. [Studie Centrum Voor Kernenergie (SCK-CEN), Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: arahier@sckcen.be; Mesrobian, G. [Euro Chlor, Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: guy.mesrobian@wanadoo.fr

    2006-07-01

    In 1992, the United Nations emphasised the urgent need to act against the perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, the worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy and the continuing deterioration of ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. In this framework, taking into account the preservation of both worldwide energy resources and ecosystems, the use of nuclear energy to produce clean energy carriers, such as hydrogen, is undoubtedly advisable. However, coping fully with the Agenda 21 statements requires defining adequate treatment processes for nuclear wastes. This paper discusses the possible use of a well-demonstrated process to convert radioactively contaminated alkali metals into sodium hydroxide while producing hydrogen. We conclude that a synergy between Chlor-Alkali specialists and nuclear specialists may help find an acceptable solution for radioactively contaminated sodium waste. (author)

  2. Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFα-induced cell injury in osteoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Yu, Yong-Sheng; Cai, Jin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) plays a crucial role in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that hydrogen gas, known as a novel antioxidant, can exert therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect in many diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with hydrogen molecule (H(2)) on TNFα-induced cell injury in osteoblast. The osteoblasts isolated from neonatal rat calvariae were cultured. It was found that TNFα suppressed cell viability, induced cell apoptosis, suppressed Runx2 mRNA expression, and inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, which was reversed by co-incubation with H(2). Incubation with TNFα-enhanced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and malondialdehyde production increased NADPH oxidase activity, impaired mitochondrial function marked by increased mitochondrial ROS formation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis, and suppressed activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and catalase, which were restored by co-incubation with H(2). Treatment with H(2) inhibited TNFα-induced activation of NFκB pathway. In addition, treatment with H(2) inhibited TNFα-induced nitric oxide (NO) formation through inhibiting iNOS activity. Treatment with H(2) inhibited TNFα-induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, treatment with H(2) alleviates TNFα-induced cell injury in osteoblast through abating oxidative stress, preserving mitochondrial function, suppressing inflammation, and enhancing NO bioavailability.

  3. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Repert, Deborah A; Miller, Daniel N

    2005-05-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on hydrogen trapping in alloy K-500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, B.G. [SRI Int., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Materials Research Center

    1998-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on irreversible hydrogen trapping was investigated for alloy K-500 (UNS N05500) with a goal of providing more detailed insight into factors governing the intrinsic susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE). A potentiostatic pulse technique was used to determine the irreversible trapping constants (k) and hydrogen entry fluxes for annealed, annealed and aged (AA), and 12-h and 16-h direct-aged (DA) specimens of cold-drawn alloy K-500 that had been used earlier to provide as-received (unannealed, cold-drawn) and 8-h Da specimens. the type of heat treatment produced marked differences in irreversible trapping. Intrinsic susceptibility to HE, as defined by k, was increased considerably by annealing. Aging had a negligible effect on the intrinsic susceptibility for the annealed alloy, but resulted in a sizable increase for the unannealed alloy if performed for extended times. Intrinsic susceptibilities for the AA and DA alloys were correlated with the observed resistances to HE, implying that the previously reported decrease in resistance to HE (based upon tensile strength) produced by annealing was caused to a large extent, if not entirely, by a change in the irreversible traps.

  5. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  6. Enhancing Charge Carrier Lifetime in Metal Oxide Photoelectrodes through Mild Hydrogen Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Ji-Wook

    2017-08-25

    Widespread application of solar water splitting for energy conversion is largely dependent on the progress in developing not only efficient but also cheap and scalable photoelectrodes. Metal oxides, which can be deposited with scalable techniques and are relatively cheap, are particularly interesting, but high efficiency is still hindered by the poor carrier transport properties (i.e., carrier mobility and lifetime). Here, a mild hydrogen treatment is introduced to bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), which is one of the most promising metal oxide photoelectrodes, as a method to overcome the carrier transport limitations. Time-resolved microwave and terahertz conductivity measurements reveal more than twofold enhancement of the carrier lifetime for the hydrogen-treated BiVO4, without significantly affecting the carrier mobility. This is in contrast to the case of tungsten-doped BiVO4, although hydrogen is also a donor type dopant in BiVO4. The enhancement in carrier lifetime is found to be caused by significant reduction of trap-assisted recombination, either via passivation or reduction of deep trap states related to vanadium antisite on bismuth or vanadium interstitials according to density functional theory calculations. Overall, these findings provide further insights on the interplay between defect modulation and carrier transport in metal oxides, which benefit the development of low-cost, highly-efficient solar energy conversion devices.

  7. Treatment of oil refinery wastewater using crude Coprinus cinereus peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, K.; Buchanan, I. D.; Smith, D. W. [University of Alberta, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    Enzymatic treatment of oil refinery wastewater was investigated using crude peroxidase derived from the fungus Coprinus cinereus (CIP), and hydrogen peroxide. Further objectives were to investigate the effects of residual organic compounds in the crude enzyme, and compare the performance of CIP to those of purified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) in the treatment of a strong refinery wastewater. Phenols in the wastewater were converted to coloured polymeric products and then removed by coagulation with alum. As a result of the enzymatic treatment and alum coagulation of the wastewater containing 6.4 mM total phenol, the chemical oxygen demand and the 5-d biochemical oxygen demand were reduced by 52 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. Reduction of the oxygen demands notwithstanding, the dissolved organic materials in the crude CIP were not affected by either of these processes and tended to remain in the treated wastewater. 31 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. Use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet agar plates for selective recovery of bacteriophages from natural environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, A.; Farrah, S.R.; Bitton, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide inactivated bacteriophages and bacteria at different rates. A concentration of 0.1% hydrogen peroxide reduced the numbers of several bacteria by an average of 94% but caused an average of 25% inactivation in the numbers of bacteriophages tested. Treating natural samples with hydrogen peroxide selectively reduced the indigenous bacterial flora and permitted better visualization of plaques of lawns of Escherichia coli C-3000. In some cases indigenous gram-positive bacteria were relatively resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but their growth could be limited by incorporation of crystal violet into the bottom agar used for plaque assays. The use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet-containing plates permitted recovery of more phages from natural samples than did other procedures, such as chloroform pretreatment or the use of selective plating agar such as EC medium.

  9. Acid pre-treatment of sewage anaerobic sludge to increase hydrogen producing bacteria HPB: effectiveness and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, T; Sassi, G; Ruggeri, B

    2008-01-01

    The present study is aimed to test the effectiveness and the reproducibility of the acid pre-treatment of sewage sludge to suppress the methanogenic bacteria activity, in order to increase the hydrogen forming bacteria activity, mainly Clostridium species. The treated sludge has been tested on glucose reach medium under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C), in batch mode to quantify the biological fermentative hydrogen production. In the whole series of experiments, the main components of biogas are hydrogen (52-60%) and carbon dioxide (40-48%); no methane and hydrogen sulphide were present in it. The rate of biogas production reached a maximum of 75 ml/lh. An overall mean hydrogen conversion efficiency was 11.20% on the assumption of maximum of 3 mol H2/mol glucose. Clostridium spp. multiplied ten times after 10 h of fermentation and over that thousand times at the end of fermentation.

  10. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jeangros, Q. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Nicolay, S. [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  11. Adhesion improvement of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films by pre-deposition plasma treatment of rubber substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, X. L.; Pei, Y.T.; Mulder, E.D.G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2009-01-01

    For reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) via magnetron-enhanced plasma chemical vapor deposition (ME-PCVD). Pre-deposition plasma treatment of HNBR substrate is proved to be crucial for the improvement of film performance due to enhanced interfacial adhesion. The columnar structure and the crack network formed during deposition e...

  12. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ze Slovankou 3, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.balat@promes.cnrs.fr [PROMES-CNRS Laboratory, 7 rue du four solaire, 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France)

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni{sub 60}Cr{sub 30}Mo{sub 10}Ni{sub 4}Nb{sub 1}) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals.

  13. Microbicidal efficacy of an advanced oxidation process using ozone/hydrogen peroxide in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, R; Pribil, W; Pfleger, S; Haider, T; Werderitsch, M; Gehringer, P

    2004-01-01

    The combined application of ozone and hydrogen peroxide represents a kind of advanced oxidation for water treatment. The radicals that are generated during the process are used for the degradation of organic pollutants from groundwater and industrial effluents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible microbicidal, and particularly virucidal, efficacy of such a process, since no substantial data were available. The investigations were performed at a pilot plant installed for the elimination of perchloroethylene from polluted groundwater (reduction efficacy for perchloroethylene from 26 microg/L to 5 microg/L). To enable a reliable evaluation of the microbicidal effect, a set of alternate test organisms was used. As model viruses we chose bacteriophages MS2 (F+ specific, single-stranded RNA), phiX174 (single-stranded DNA) and PRD-1 (coated, double-stranded DNA). Furthermore, spores of Bacillus subtilis were included as possible surrogates for protozoa and Escherichia coli as representative for traditional indicator bacteria used in water analysis. The microbicidal efficiency was compared to the inactivation by means of ozone under two standard conditions (20 degrees C): (a) 0.4 mg/L residual after 4 min and (b) 0.1 mg/L residual after 10 min. Surprisingly, a good microbicidal effect of the ozone/hydrogen peroxide process was found. This was somewhat unexpected, because we had assumed that the disinfection potential of ozone would have been interfered with by the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Escherichia coli and the three test viruses revealed a reduction of about 6-log. In contrast, spores of Bacillus subtilis showed after the total process a reduction of 0.4-log. These results matched the effect of the ozone treatment (a) with a residual of 0.4 mg/L after 4 min contact time (20 degrees C). The test condition (b) with a residual of 0.1 mg/L ozone after a contact time of 10 min at 20 degrees C gave a higher reduction of the B. subtilis spores (1.5-log

  14. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  15. Effects of the hydrogen potential and fungicide treatment on Pitaya seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Alberto Ortiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate pitaya seed germination under different hydrogen potentials, with or without fungicide treatment. A completely randomized design was employed under a 3 x 13 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to three pitaya species (white pitaya, pitaya hybrid I, pitaya hybrid II, thirteen hydrogen potentials (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 and two fungicide conditions (presence and absence, with four replications. The percentage of germination, germination speed index and mean germination time were evaluated. The data were subjected to ANOVA, and the means were compared using the Scott-Knott test (p < 0.05. The pH influenced the germination speed index in white pitaya. The mean germination time was affected by the pH levels for white pitaya and pitaya hybrid II. The fungicide did not increase the germination percentage in the evaluated species.

  16. Porous boron nitride with a high surface area: hydrogen storage and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xuewen; Zhang, Xinghua; Xue, Yanming; Mi, Jiao; Mo, Zhaojun; Fan, Ying; Hu, Long; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Fanbin; Yuan, Songdong; Tang, Chengchun

    2013-04-19

    We report on the synthesis of high-quality microporous/mesoporous BN material via a facile two-step approach. An extremely high surface area of 1687 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore volume of 0.99 cm(3) g(-1) have been observed in the synthesized BN porous whiskers. The formation of the porous structure was attributed to the group elimination of organic species in a BN precursor, melamine diborate molecular crystal. This elimination method maintained the ordered pore structure and numerous structural defects. The features including high surface area, pore volume and structural defects make the BN whiskers highly suitable for hydrogen storage and wastewater treatment applications. We demonstrate excellent hydrogen uptake capacity of the BN whiskers with high weight adsorption up to 5.6% at room temperature and at the relatively low pressure of 3 MPa. Furthermore, the BN whiskers also exhibit excellent adsorption capacity of methyl orange and copper ions, with the maximum removal capacity of 298.3 and 373 mg g(-1) at 298 K, respectively.

  17. Effect of thermal treatment on the electrochemical hydrogen absorption of ZrCrNi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, F.C.; Peretti, H.A.; Corso, H.L [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Visintin, A.; Real, S.G.; Castro, E.B.; Triaca, W.E. [Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Inst. de Investigaciones Fisiquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas

    2006-07-01

    The catalytic effect of the secondary phases contained in a ZrCrNi alloy on its electrochemical properties was investigated. The purpose of the study was to improve the performance of Ni-MH battery electrodes. Four samples of the alloy were given annealing treatments at T=1250 K at variable times to obtain different concentrations of the secondary phases. Phase structure, morphology, and composition were studied using X-ray diffraction; radiation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. Results of the study were compatible with the presence of a major AB{sub 2} phase of C15 structure and the co-existence of C14 and C15 structures in both the as-melted and annealed alloys. The effect of the annealing in the ZrCrNi alloy resulted in a remarkable reduction of the discharge capacity and activation that was attributed to the dissolution of the secondary phases. The major catalytic effect was associated with the Zr{sub 8}Ni{sub 21} phase, by increasing the discharge capacity and favouring the activation. It was concluded that the presence of the catalytic phase in the alloy increased the hydrogen absorption capacity of the electrode due to an enhancement of the hydrogen production by electrolysis on the metal/catalytic phase and electrolyte interface. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Hydrogen in metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, TJ

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available of hydrogen in metals processing and treatment identified, and mechanisms for hydrogen entry into a ferritic surface are discussed. The differences between hydrogen attack of ferritic steels and copper alloys are contrasted, and an unusual case study...

  19. [Iatrogenic gas embolism after use of hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of lung hydatid cyst: a report of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Sonia; Abdelhafidh, Khoubeib; Merghli, Adel; Smati, Belhassen; Boudaya, Mohamed Sadok; Lamine, Khaled; Mestiri, Taher; Kilani, Tarek

    2010-11-01

    Echinococcus disease is endemic in our country. Surgical resection of the hydatid cyst with the use of a protoscolicidal solution in the operative field remains the standard treatment. The degradation of hydrogen peroxide results in considerable amounts of gaseous oxygen witch has proven protoscolicidal properties. This gas can enter the circulation and determine severe embolism. We report two cases of severe oxygen embolism with neurological signs during surgical treatment of thoracic hydatid cysts. We report 2 cases of embolic events with neurological signs. The first, during a pleural cleaning with hydrogen peroxide after cystectomy of a pulmonary hydatic cyst at the right upper lobe. The second case, after a pleural washing during the treatment of hepatitic hydatidosis complicated by a ruptured cyst in the thorax. The most important diagnostic criterion is the patient's history, because the clinical suspicion of embolism is based on the initial neurologic or cardio-respiratory symptoms and the direct relation between these symptoms and the use of hydrogen peroxide and imposes appropriate treatment before further examination including brain imaging. The treatment with hyperbaric oxygen is the first line treatment, thus, transfer to a hyperbaric oxygen facility should be accomplished without delay. The possibility of such serious complication leads us to use hydrogen peroxide with great care or to use other protoscolicidal solutions.

  20. Surface Modification of AB2. and AB5 Hydrogen Storage Alloy Electrodes by the Hot-Charging Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the hot-charging treatment on the performance ofAB2 and AB5 hydrogen storage alloy electrodes was investigated. The result showed that the treatment can markedly improve the voltage plateau ratio (VPR), the high rate discharge ability (HRDA), the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen DH and the discharge capacity of the AB2 hydrogen storage alloy electrode. The SEM analysis showed that the hot-charging treatment brings about a Ni-rich surface due to the dissolution of Zr oxides. It is also very helpful for the improvement of the kinetic properties of AB2 hydrogen storage alloy electrode because the microcracking o.f the surface results in fresh surface. This can be the basic modification treatment for NiMH battery used in electric vehicles (EVs) in the future. But for AB5 type alloys, the treatment has the disadvantage of impairing the comprehensive electrochemical properties, because the surface of the alloy may be corroded during the treatment. The mechanism of the surface modification of the electrode is also proposed.

  1. Intramolecular hydrogen migration in alkylperoxy and hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals: accurate treatment of hindered rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Raman, Sumathy; Green, William H

    2010-05-13

    We have calculated the thermochemistry and rate coefficients for stable molecules and reactions in the title reaction families using CBS-QB3 and B3LYP/CBSB7 methods. The accurate treatment of hindered rotors for molecules having multiple internal rotors with potentials that are not independent of each other can be problematic, and a simplified scheme is suggested to treat them. This is particularly important for hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals (HOOQOO). Two new thermochemical group values are suggested in this paper, and with these values, the group additivity method for calculation of enthalpy as implemented in reaction mechanism generator (RMG) gives good agreement with CBS-QB3 predictions. The barrier heights follow the Evans-Polanyi relationship for each type of intramolecular hydrogen migration reaction studied.

  2. Healing of hydrogen-attacked cracks in split specimens with recovering heat treatment in vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Chaofang Dong; Xiaogang Li

    2004-01-01

    The healing mechanism of hydrogen-attacked cracks in low carbon steel and Cr-Mo steel and its influencing factors during the healing process were studied by recovering heat treatment of split specimens in vacuum. The result showed that crack pacing tums much smaller under the condition of pure heating, especially for crack tips. The healing effect is well related to the length of cracks with the shorter in priority. By the primary mechanism of thermal diffusion, iron and carbon atoms must diffuse at the high speed in steel to realize that plasticity deformation energy exceeds and overcomes surface tensile force energy. In addition, phase transformation and stress-stain relationship also have positive effects on the process.

  3. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greculeasa, S. G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G.; Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A.; Lungu, G. A.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C. P.; Kuncser, V.

    2017-04-01

    Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe0.9Cr0.1 along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  4. Tertiary Treatment of Effluent from Holston AAP (Army Ammunition Plant) Industrial Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. 4. Ultraviolet Radiation and Hydrogen Peroxide Studies: TNT, RDX, HMX, TAX, and SEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    AAP Technical Report INDUSTRIAL LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY Feb 1983 - Aug 1983 IV. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 1. PERPnRUINe ORO ...ultraviolet light. The production of nitrate-nitrogen and loss of total organic carbon was reportedly indicative of the mineralization of TNT. 5...Treatment of Effluent from Holston AAP Industrial Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. II. Corona Oxidation Studies: TNT, RDX, HMX, TAX, and SEX. Technical

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores using various combinations of ultraviolet treatment with addition of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Zhang, Yongji; Tan, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by various combinations of UV treatment and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition. The combinations included sequential (UV-H2O2, H2O2-UV) and simultaneous (UV/H2O2) processes. Results showed that B. subtilis spores achieved a certain inactivation effect through UV treatment. However, hardly any inactivation effect by H2O2 alone was observed. H2O2 had a significant synergetic effect when combined with UV treatment, while high irradiance and H2O2 concentration both favored the reaction. When treated with 0.60 mm H2O2 and 113.0 μW/cm(2) UV irradiance for 6 min, the simultaneous UV/H2O2 treatment showed significantly improved disinfection effect (4.13 log) compared to that of UV-H2O2 (3.03 log) and H2O2-UV (2.88 log). The relationship between the inactivation effect and the exposure time followed a typical pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants were 0.478, 0.447 and 0.634 min(-1), for the UV-H2O2, H2O2-UV and UV/H2O2 processes, respectively, further confirming the optimal disinfection effect of the UV/H2O2 process. The disinfection could be ascribed to the OH radicals, as verified by the level of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA).

  6. Effects of hydrogen peroxide treatment on thiol contents in fresh-cut asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demrkol, Omca

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the impact of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated on the thiol content of asparagus. Fresh-cut asparagus was treated with H2O2 at varied oxidant concentrations and contact times. A significant decrease (alpha=0.05) was observed in N-acetylcysteine levels treated with 2.5% H2O2 for 10 min and with 5% H2O2 for 3, 5 and 10 min. Captopril and cysteine levels significantly decreased (alpha=0.05) in all and most treatment conditions, respectively. Glutathione levels only significantly decreased with 2.5% and 5% H2O2 for 10 min treatment. In order to determine whether asparagus undergoes oxidative stress, a well-known oxidative stress indicator-the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio-was calculated. This study showed that the common use of H2O2 as a disinfectant/sterilizer by the food industry could markedly diminish the important biothiols and develop oxidative stress in asparagus, and potentially in other vegetables as well.

  7. Effect of Hydrogen Treatment on Anatase TiO{sub 2} Nanotube Arrays for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Sik; Kang, Soon Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) treatment using a two-step TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TONT) film was performed under various annealing temperatures from 350 .deg. C to 550 .deg. C and significantly influenced the extent of hydrogen treatment in the film. Compared with pure TONT films, the hydrogen-treated TONT (H:TONT) film showed substantial improvement of material features from structural, optical and electronic aspects. In particular, the extent of enhancement was remarkable with increasing annealing temperature. Light absorption by the H:TONT film extended toward the visible region, which was attributable to the formation of sub-band-gap states between the conduction and valence bands, resulting from oxygen vacancies due to the H{sub 2} treatment. This increased donor concentration about 1.5 times higher and improved electrical conductivity of the TONT films. Based on these analyses and results, photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was evaluated and showed that the H:TONT film prepared at 550 .deg. C exhibited optimal PEC performance. Approximately twice higher photocurrent density of 0.967 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.32 V vs. NHE was achieved for the H:TONT film (550 .deg. C) versus 0.43 mA/cm{sup 2} for the pure TONT film. Moreover, the solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (STH, η) of the H:TONT film was 0.95%, whereas a 0.52% STH efficiency was acquired for the TONT film. These results demonstrate that hydrogen treatment of TONT film is a simple and effective tool to enhance PEC performance with modifying the properties of the original material.

  8. Hydrogen adsorption on hydrogen storage alloy surface and electrochemical performances of the M1Ni{sub 4.0}Co{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4} alloy electrodes before and after surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.X.; Xu, Z.D. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Tu, J.P. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Li, H.Y.; Chen, S.; Bao, S.N. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics; Yuan, J. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Si Material Science

    2001-07-01

    The surfaces of the hydrogen storage alloy powders (MlNi{sub 4.0}Co{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4}) before and after surface treating were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP). It was found that a Ni-rich surface layer was produced and the specific surface area was augmented by the surface treatment with a hot 6 MKOH or 6 MKOH+0.02 MKBH{sub 4} solution due to the preferential dissolution of Al and the etching of the hot alkaline solution. The effect of the surface treatments on the hydrogen adsorption on the alloy surface was for the first time evaluated by means of the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It was found that the surface treatments enhanced the hydrogen adsorption on the alloy surfaces and produced new adsorption states. The untreated alloy had only one hydrogen adsorption peak at about 400 K. There were two hydrogen adsorption states at about 540 and 630 K on the surface of the alloy treated with 6 MKOH. In the case of the alloy treated with 6 MKOH+0.02 MKBH{sub 4} three hydrogen adsorption peaks were observed at about 390, 540 and 630 K, respectively. The results of electrochemical measurements showed that the treated alloy electrodes exhibited higher exchange current density for the hydrogen electrode reaction than the untreated hydrogen alloy. After the surface treatment, the hydrogen adsorption enhancement on the treated alloy surface facilitated the hydrogen electrode reaction process on the alloy electrodes and results in good activation and low polarization resistance. (author)

  9. Effect of hydrogen ion beam treatment on Si nanocrystal/SiO{sub 2} superlattice-based memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chuang, Bing-Ru; Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Memory window and retention properties are improved employing HIBAS technique. • The O/Si ratio and radiative recombination are changed by HIBAS. • Memory properties are affected not only by Si NCs and O/Si ratio but also the RDCs. • The mechanism of hydrogen ion beam alters the memory properties is investigated. - Abstract: This study presents a novel route for synthesizing silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO{sub 2} superlattice-based memory devices with an improved memory window and retention properties. The SiO{sub 2} and SRO superlattices are deposited by reactive sputtering. Specifically, the hydrogen ion beam is used to irradiate the SRO layer immediately after its deposition in the vacuum chamber. The use of the hydrogen ion beam was determined to increase oxygen content and the density of the Si nanocrystals. The memory window increased from 16 to 25.6 V, and the leakage current decreased significantly by two orders, to under ±20 V, for the hydrogen ion beam-prepared devices. This study investigates the mechanism into how hydrogen ion beam treatment alters SRO films and influences memory properties.

  10. Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Guan, Jianjun; Tamama, Kenichi

    2010-07-02

    Cell therapy with bone marrow multipotential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising approach in the field of regenerative medicine. Low frequency of MSCs in adult bone marrow necessitates ex vivo expansion of MSCs after harvest; however, such a manipulation causes cellular senescence with loss of differentiation, proliferative, and therapeutic potentials of MSCs. Hydrogen molecules have been shown to exert organ protective effects through selective reduction of hydroxyl radicals. As oxidative stress is one of the key insults promoting cell senescence in vivo as well as in vitro, we hypothesized that hydrogen molecules prevent senescent process during MSC expansion. Addition of 3% hydrogen gas enhanced preservation of colony forming early progenitor cells within MSC preparation and prolonged the in vitro replicative lifespan of MSCs without losing differentiation potentials and paracrine capabilities. Interestingly, 3% hydrogen gas treatment did not decrease hydroxyl radical, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting that scavenging hydroxyl radical might not be responsible for these effects of hydrogen gas in this study.

  11. Treatment with Hydrogen-Rich Saline Delays Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Hang; Yang, Chen; Fan, Dan-Feng; Guo, Da-Zhi; Hu, Hui-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent adult-onset motor neuron disease, and accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative mechanisms contribute to ALS pathology, but classical antioxidants have not performed well in clinical trials. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of treatment with hydrogen molecule on the development of disease in mutant SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. Treatment of mutant SOD1 G93A mice with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS, i.p.) significantly delayed disease onset and prolonged survival, and attenuated loss of motor neurons and suppressed microglial and glial activation. Treatment of mutant SOD1 G93A mice with HRS inhibited the release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors and the subsequent activation of downstream caspase-3. Furthermore, treatment of mutant SOD1 G93A mice with HRS reduced levels of protein carbonyl and 3-nitrotyrosine, and suppressed formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite, and malondialdehyde. Treatment of mutant SOD1 G93A mice with HRS preserved mitochondrial function, marked by restored activities of Complex I and IV, reduced mitochondrial ROS formation and enhanced mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis. In conclusion, hydrogen molecule may be neuroprotective against ALS, possibly through abating oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserving mitochondrial function.

  12. Subcutaneous injection of hydrogen gas is a novel effective treatment for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jiaming; Jin, Keke; Xu, Haifeng; Wang, Chuang; Zhang, Zhuang; Kong, Mimi; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Wang, Qingyi; Wang, Fangyan

    2017-04-08

    In previous studies, hydrogen gas (H2) administration has clearly shown effectiveness in inhibiting diabetes. Here, we evaluated whether subcutaneous injection of H2 shows enhanced efficacy against type 2 diabetes mellitus induced in mice by a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin treatment. H2 was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 1 mL/mouse/week for 4 weeks. Type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated parameters were then evaluated to determine the effectiveness of subcutaneous H2 administration. The bodyweight of H2 -treated mice did not change over the course of the experiment. Compared with the untreated control animals, glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in the serum were significantly lower in treated mice, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum was significantly higher. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were both improved in H2 -treated mice. Diabetic nephropathy analysis showed significant reductions in urine volume, urinary total protein and β2-microglobulin, kidney/bodyweight ratio, and kidney fibrosis associated with subcutaneous injection of H2 . Subcutaneous injection of H2 significantly improves type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy-related outcomes in a mouse model, supporting further consideration of subcutaneous injection as a novel and effective route of clinical H2 administration. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Surface treatment of zinc anodes to improve discharge capacity and suppress hydrogen gas evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yung-Da; Fey, George Ting-Kuo

    The shape change and redistribution of zinc anode material over the electrode during repeated cycling have been identified as the main factors that can limit the life of alkaline zinc-air batteries. Li 2O-2B 2O 3 (lithium boron oxide, LBO) glass with high Li + conductivity and stability can be coated on the surface of zinc powders. The structures of the surface-treated and pristine zinc powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, ESCA and BET analyses. XRD patterns of LBO-coated zinc powders revealed that the coating did not affect the crystal structure. TEM images of LBO-coated on the zinc particles were compact with an average passivation layer of about 250 nm. The LBO layer can prevent zinc from coming into direct contact with the KOH electrolyte and minimize the side reactions within the batteries. The 0.1 wt.% LBO-coated zinc anode material provided an initial discharge capacity of 1.70 Ah at 0.5 V, while the pristine zinc electrode delivered only 1.57 Ah. A surface-treated zinc electrode can increase discharge capacity, decrease hydrogen evolution reaction, and reduce self-discharge. The results indicated that surface treatment should be effective for improving the comprehensive properties of anode materials for zinc-air batteries.

  14. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    hydrogen embrittlement. The effects of hydrogen gas on mechanical properties such as tensile strength, ductility, fracture, low and high cycle fatigue, crack growth rate, and creep rupture are analyzed with respect to the general trends established from the HEE index values. It is observed that the severity of HE effects is also influenced by environmental factors such as pressure, temperature, and hydrogen gas purity. The severity of HE effects is also influenced by material factors such as surface finish, heat treatment, and product forms, compositions, grain direction, and crystal orientations.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of mRNA and miRNA in Somatic Embryos of Larix leptolepis Subjected to Hydrogen Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Han, Suying; Ding, Xiangming; Li, Xinmin; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Wanfeng; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Zhexin; Qi, Liwang

    2016-11-22

    Hydrogen is a therapeutic antioxidant that has been used extensively in clinical trials. It also acts as a bioactive molecule that can alleviate abiotic stress in plants. However, the biological effects of hydrogen in somatic embryos and the underlying molecular basis remain largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and physiological influence of exogenous H₂ treatment during somatic embryogenesis was characterized in Larix leptolepis Gordon. The results showed that exposure to hydrogen increased the proportions of active pro-embryogenic cells and normal somatic embryos. We sequenced mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) libraries to identify global transcriptome changes at different time points during H₂ treatment of larch pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs). A total of 45,393 mRNAs and 315 miRNAs were obtained. Among them, 4253 genes and 96 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the hydrogen-treated libraries compared with the control. Further, a large number of the differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs were related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cell cycle regulation. We also identified 4399 potential target genes for 285 of the miRNAs. The differential expression data and the mRNA-miRNA interaction network described here provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that determine the performance of PEMs exposed to H₂ during somatic embryogenesis.

  16. Effects of various hydrogenated treatments on formation and photocatalytic activity of black TiO2 nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chieh; Chou, Po-Hsun

    2016-08-01

    The effects of hydrogen thermal and plasma treatment on the formation and photocatalytic activities of black TiO2 nanowire arrays were investigated and discussed. After either the hydrogen thermal or plasma treatment, the TiO2 nanowires remained. However, in contrast to the plasma treated nanowires, the diameter of the thermal treated TiO2 nanowires reduced more significantly, which was attributed to a thicker surface amorphous layer and more oxygen vacancies. A higher photoresponse in both UV and visible light regions and more hydroxide groups were also observed for the thermal treated nanowires. In addition, the black nanowires possessed greater carrier concentration, leading to a more efficient separation of electron-hole pairs. As a consequence, much enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were obtained.

  17. Hydrogen recovery from the electrocoagulation treatment of dye-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn [The Research and Technology Center for Renewable Products and Energy, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sukkasem, Pisut; Mutchimsattha, Chinnarat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a technique of hydrogen recovery from an electrocoagulation process treating dye-containing wastewater is presented. The electrocoagulation system used consists of a continuous-mode electrocoagulator connected with a gas separation tank and two sedimenters. It is shown that a significant amount of hydrogen can be harvested using the gas separation tank whose configuration follows that of a conventional upflow anaerobic sludge bed. The experimental hydrogen yields obtained were comparable with those calculated from theory. The electrical energy demand of the electrocoagulation process for treating Reactive Blue 140 and Direct Red 23 was 1.42 and 0.69 kWh{sub e} m{sup -3}, respectively, while the energy yield of harvested hydrogen was 0.2 kWh m{sup -3}. The quality of water treated by the electrocoagulation system was satisfactory, i.e., the color, COD and TS removal were 99%, 93% and 89%, respectively. (author)

  18. Multilevel resistance in ZnO nanowire memristors enabled by hydrogen annealing treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sunghun; Park, Jung-Bong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Boland, John J

    2016-01-01

    .... We find that the memristive behavior including negative differential resistance arises from trapped electrons in an amorphous ZnO interfacial layer at the injection electrode that is formed following hydrogen annealing...

  19. Sensitivity of Interfibrillar and Subsarcolemmal Mitochondria to Cobalt Chloride-induced Oxidative Stress and Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayswarya, A.; Kurian, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role not only in cardiovascular disease but also in non-communicable diseases, where it plays a significant role the mortality rate. Hydrogen sulfide, the biological gaseous signaling molecule that preserves mitochondria in its mode of action, is an effective cardioprotective drug. However, cardiac mitochondria comprise of two distinct populations, namely interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria, which respond distinctly in cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to determine the direct impact of cobalt chloride-induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondrial subpopulations with an intention to examine the efficacy of hydrogen sulfide in preserving interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria functional activities when they were incubated as pretreated, co-treated and post-treated agent. Mitochondrial subpopulations were isolated from the heart of male Wistar rats and subjected to cobalt chloride treatment (500 μM) for 20 min, followed by incubation with 10 μM sodium hydrosulfide in three different ways (Pre, Co, and Post-cobalt chloride treatment). Mitochondrial oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione and the activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Mitochondrial membrane potential, swelling behavior and enzyme activities were measured to assess its function. The increased level of lipid peroxidation and the decreased level of reduced glutathione in cobalt chloride-induced group confirm the induction of oxidative stress and were more predominant in the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Hydrogen sulfide treatment to interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria preserved their functional activities, but the effect was prominent only with co-treated group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that subsarcolemmal mitochondria are more prone to oxidative stress and the co-treatment of the

  20. Sensitivity of interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria to cobalt chloride-induced oxidative stress and hydrogen sulfide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ayswarya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role not only in cardiovascular disease but also in non-communicable diseases, where it plays a significant role the mortality rate. Hydrogen sulfide, the biological gaseous signaling molecule that preserves mitochondria in its mode of action, is an effective cardioprotective drug. However, cardiac mitochondria comprise of two distinct populations, namely interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria, which respond distinctly in cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to determine the direct impact of cobalt chloride-induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondrial subpopulations with an intention to examine the efficacy of hydrogen sulfide in preserving interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria functional activities when they were incubated as pretreated, co-treated and post-treated agent. Mitochondrial subpopulations were isolated from the heart of male Wistar rats and subjected to cobalt chloride treatment (500 μM for 20 min, followed by incubation with 10 μM sodium hydrosulfide in three different ways (Pre, Co, and Post-cobalt chloride treatment. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione and the activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Mitochondrial membrane potential, swelling behavior and enzyme activities were measured to assess its function. The increased level of lipid peroxidation and the decreased level of reduced glutathione in cobalt chloride-induced group confirm the induction of oxidative stress and were more predominant in the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Hydrogen sulfide treatment to interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria preserved their functional activities, but the effect was prominent only with co-treated group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that subsarcolemmal mitochondria are more prone to oxidative stress and the co-treatment

  1. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production.

  2. Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water Has Additive Effects on Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment of Improving Periodontitis: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Azuma; Mayu Yamane; Daisuke Ekuni; Yuya Kawabata; Kota Kataoka; Kenta Kasuyama; Takayuki Maruyama; Takaaki Tomofuji; Manabu Morita

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men) with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6) or the HW group (n = 7). In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4–5 times/...

  3. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent as wastewater treatment and hydrogen production using electrode aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M Ansori; Yaakob, Z; Ali, Ehsan; Tasirin, S M; Abdullah, S R S

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluting wastewater generated from the palm oil milling process. Palm oil mill effluent was used as an electrolyte without any additive or pretreatment to perform electrocoagulation (EC) using electricity (direct current) ranging from 2 to 4 volts in the presence of aluminum electrodes with a reactor volume of 20 L. The production of hydrogen gas, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity as a result of electrocoagulation of POME were determined. The results show that EC can reduce the COD and turbidity of POME by 57 and 62%, respectively, in addition to the 42% hydrogen production. Hydrogen production was also helpful to remove the lighter suspended solids toward the surface. The production of Al(OH)XHO at the aluminum electrode (anode) was responsible for the flocculation-coagulation process of suspended solids followed by sedimentation under gravity. The production of hydrogen gas from POME during EC was also compared with hydrogen gas production by electrolysis of tap water at pH 4 and tap water without pH adjustment under the same conditions. The main advantage of this study is to produce hydrogen gas while treating POME with EC to reduce COD and turbidity effectively.

  4. Enhancement of the photoelectrochemical performance of CuWO4 films for water splitting by hydrogen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yulin; Rong, Nannan; Liu, Feila; Chu, Mengsha; Dong, Hongmei; Zhang, Yunhuai; Xiao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    CuWO4 films with feature particle sizes of 100-200 nm and thickness up to 700-900 nm on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The prepared CuWO4 films were treated in hydrogen atmosphere at constant temperature 300 °C for different annealing time and used for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. Compared with pristine CuWO4 film, the optimized hydrogen-treated CuWO4 film presented three times enhanced photocurrent density of 0.75 mA/cm2 at 1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution under the illumination. The donor density of hydrogenated CuWO4 film determined by Mott-Schottky analysis was improved one order of magnitude as well. The enhanced photoelectrochemical activity could be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies after hydrogen treatment, which facilitated the charge transport and collection.

  5. Simulation for estimation of hydrogen sulfide scavenger injection dose rate for treatment of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon fluids is a well known problem in many oil and gas fields. Hydrogen sulfide is an undesirable contaminant which presents many environmental and safety hazards. It is corrosive, malodorous, and toxic. Accordingly, a need has been long left in the industry to develop a process which can successfully remove hydrogen sulfide from the hydrocarbons or at least reduce its level during the production, storage or processing to a level that satisfies safety and product specification requirements. The common method used to remove or reduce the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon production fluids is to inject the hydrogen sulfide scavenger into the hydrocarbon stream. One of the chemicals produced by the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI is EPRI H2S scavenger. It is used in some of the Egyptian petroleum producing companies. The injection dose rate of H2S scavenger is usually determined by experimental lab tests and field trials. In this work, this injection dose rate is mathematically estimated by modeling and simulation of an oil producing field belonging to Petrobel Company in Egypt which uses EPRI H2S scavenger. Comparison between the calculated and practical values of injection dose rate emphasizes the real ability of the proposed equation.

  6. Normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using hydrogen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ronghui; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Li, Weiyi; Yuan, Jie; Song, Liang; Zhang, Zhili; Sun, Shichuang; Li, Xiajun; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Xinping; Zhang, Baoshun

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we report a method by introducing hydrogen plasma treatment to realize normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices. Instead of using etching technology, hydrogen plasma was adopted to compensate holes in the p-GaN above the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel to release electrons in the 2DEG channel and form high-resistivity area to reduce leakage current and increase gate control capability. The fabricated p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT exhibits normally-off operation with a threshold voltage of 1.75 V, a subthreshold swing of 90 mV/dec, a maximum transconductance of 73.1 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 107, a breakdown voltage of 393 V, and a maximum drain current density of 188 mA/mm at a gate bias of 6 V. The comparison of the two processes of hydrogen plasma treatment and p-GaN etching has also been made in this work.

  7. Resonance states in the hydrogen-antihydrogen system from a nonadiabatic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeby, Henrik; Piszczatowski, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical four-body problem for the hydrogen-antihydrogen system has been solved by means of the variational implementation of the coupled-arrangement channel method. Wave functions have been formed using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) in Jacobi coordinates; they explicitly include components corresponding to the rearrangement from hydrogen and antihydrogen (H + \\bar{{{H}}}) into protonium and positronium (Pn + Ps). We analyze the solutions belonging to the discretized spectrum of the four-body eigenvalue problem, searching for resonance states at energies just below the H-\\bar{{{H}}} dissociation energy threshold by means of the stabilization method and complex scaling.

  8. Surface Hardening of Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn Alloy after Cyclic Hydrogenation and Subsequent Solution Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Po Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The as-received and preheated (1000°C-30 min. and 500°C-30 min. sheets of Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn alloy (Ti-153 were treated according to the predetermined process including a cyclic electrolytic hydrogenation (at 50 mA/cm2 for 1 hr and at 5 mA/cm2 for 10 hrs combining a subsequent solution treatment to see the effects of various operating parameters on the evolution of microstructure and the variations of hardness. The hardening effect deriving from solid-solution strengthening of hydrogen eventually overrode that from precipitation hardening. The maximum hardness elevation was from 236.9 to 491.1 VHN.

  9. Influence of microwave treatment under a hydrogen or methane atmosphere on the flotability of the macerals in Shenfu coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wei; Yang Fusheng; Li Yuangang; Qu Jianlin; Zhou Anning

    2011-01-01

    The modification of Shenfu coals by a microwave treatment carried out under a hydrogen or a methane atmosphere,and the subsequent maceral separation by flotation,are described in this paper,The surface contact angle and the Zeta potential of the coal macerals were measured both with and without the treatment.The results show that the surface wettability ofSFF (Shenfu Fusain) and SFV (Shenfu Vitrain) can be changed by the microwave treatment.An increase in the difference in surface wettability of SFF and SFV causes in a subsequent increase in the enrichment of inertinite and vitrinite.The results of the Zeta potential measurements show that the surface potentials of SFF and SFV are also changed by the treatment.

  10. Optimum injection dose rate of hydrogen sulfide scavenger for treatment of petroleum crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide H2S scavengers are chemicals that favorably react with hydrogen sulfide gas to eliminate it and produce environmental friendly products. These products depend on the type and composition of the scavenger and the conditions at which the reaction takes place. The scavenger should be widely available and economical for industry acceptance by having a low unit cost. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of scavenging hydrogen sulfide from the multiphase fluid produced at different wells conditions in one of the Petroleum Companies in Egypt were studied. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate depend on pipe diameter, pipe length, gas molar mass velocity, inlet H2S concentration and pressure. The optimization results are obtained for different values of these parameters using the software program Lingo. In general, the optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of the scavenging of hydrogen sulfide are increased by increasing of the pipe diameter and increasing the inlet H2S concentration, and decreased by increasing the pipe length, gas molar mass velocity and pressure.

  11. Electrical characterization of deep levels in n-type GaAs after hydrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: s210239522@live.nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R.; Venter, A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-05-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (L-DLTS) have been used to investigate defects in an n-type GaAs before and after exposure to a dc hydrogen plasma (hydrogenation). DLTS revealed the presence of three prominent electron traps in the material in the temperature range 20-300 K. However, L-DLTS with its higher resolution enabled the splitting of two narrowly spaced emission rates. Consequently four electron traps at, E{sub C}-0.33 eV, E{sub C}-0.36 eV, E{sub C}-0.38 eV and E{sub C}-0.56 eV were observed in the control sample. Following hydrogenation, all these traps were passivated with a new complex (presumably the M3), emerging at E{sub C}-0.58 eV. Isochronal annealing of the passivated material between 50 and 300 {sup o}C, revealed the emergence of a secondary defect, not previously observed, at E{sub C}-0.37 eV. Finally, the effect of hydrogen passivation is completely reversed upon annealing at 300 {sup o}C, as all the defects originally observed in the reference sample were recovered.

  12. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  13. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  14. Influence of the initial transient state of plasma and hydrogen pre-treatment on the interface properties of a silicon heterojunction fabricated by PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chunbo; Zhou Yuqin; Li Guorong; Liu Fengzhen

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions (a-Si:H/c-Si SHJ) were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).The influence of the initial transient state of the plasma and the hydrogen pre-treatment on the interfacial properties of the heterojunctions was studied.Experimental results indicate that:(1) The instability of plasma in the initial stage will damage the surface ofc-Si.Using a shutter to shield the substrate for 100 s from the starting discharge can prevent the influence of the instable plasma process on the Si surface and also the interface between a-Si and c-Si.(2) The effect of hydrogen pre-treatment on interfacial passivation is constrained by the extent of hydrogen plasma bombardment and the optimal time for hydrogen pre-treatment is about 60 s.

  15. Fermentative hydrogen production from beet sugar factory wastewater treatment in a continuous stirred tank reactor using anaerobic mixed consortia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gefu ZHU; Chaoxiang LIU; Jianzheng LI; Nanqi REN; Lin LIU; Xu HUANG

    2013-01-01

    A low pH, ethanol-type fermentation process was evaluated for wastewater treatment and bio-hydrogen production from acidic beet sugar factory wastewater in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with an effective volume of 9.6 L by anaerobic mixed cultures in this present study. After inoculating with aerobic activated sludge and operating at organic loading rate (OLR) of 12 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, HRT of 8h, and temperature of 35℃ for 28 days, the CSTR achieved stable ethanol-type fermentation. When OLR was further increased to 18 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, on the 53rd day, ethanol-type fermentation dominant microflora was enhanced. The liquid fermentation products, including volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol, stabilized at 1493mg·L-1 in the bioreactor. Effluent pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and alkalinity ranged at 4.1-4.5, -250-(-290) mV, and 230-260mgCaCO3·L-1. The specific hydrogen production rate of anaerobic activated sludge was 0.1 L'gMLVSS-1· d-1 and the COD removal efficiency was 45%. The experimental results showed that the CSTR system had good operation stability and microbial activity, which led to high substrate conversion rate and hydrogen production ability.

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, E W; Wang, Y B; Shuai, K G; Gao, F; Bai, Y J; Cheng, Y; Xiong, X L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of titanium surfaces sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure titanium disks were mechanically polished as control surface (Ti-control) and then sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA). Further chemical modifications were conducted using alkali and heat treatment (ASLA) and hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment (HSLA) alternatively. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and roughness measurements. Further evaluation of surface bioactivity was conducted by MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition on the sample surfaces. After insertion in the beagle's mandibula for a specific period, cylindrical implant samples underwent micro-CT examination and then histological examination. It was found that ASLA and HSLA surfaces significantly increased the surface wettability and MC3T3-E1 cell attachment percentage, ALP activity and the quality of calcium deposition in comparison with simple SLA and Ti-control surfaces. Animal studies showed good osseointegration of ASLA and HSLA surfaces with host bone. In conclusion, ASLA and HSLA surfaces enhanced the bioactivity of the traditional SLA surface by integrating the advantages of surface topography, composition and wettability.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, E W; Wang, Y B; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shuai, K G; Gao, F; Bai, Y J; Cheng, Y; Xiong, X L [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei, S C, E-mail: enwei@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbo.pku@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: shuaikegang@gmail.com, E-mail: soarfgoal@gmail.com, E-mail: norice86@163.com, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: xxiaoling11@hotmail.com, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: weishicheng99@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of titanium surfaces sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure titanium disks were mechanically polished as control surface (Ti-control) and then sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA). Further chemical modifications were conducted using alkali and heat treatment (ASLA) and hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment (HSLA) alternatively. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and roughness measurements. Further evaluation of surface bioactivity was conducted by MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition on the sample surfaces. After insertion in the beagle's mandibula for a specific period, cylindrical implant samples underwent micro-CT examination and then histological examination. It was found that ASLA and HSLA surfaces significantly increased the surface wettability and MC3T3-E1 cell attachment percentage, ALP activity and the quality of calcium deposition in comparison with simple SLA and Ti-control surfaces. Animal studies showed good osseointegration of ASLA and HSLA surfaces with host bone. In conclusion, ASLA and HSLA surfaces enhanced the bioactivity of the traditional SLA surface by integrating the advantages of surface topography, composition and wettability.

  18. Photocatalytic activity and reusability of ZnO layer synthesised by electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmal Saadon, Syaiful; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Hakim Wirzal, Mohd Dzul; Rahmalan, Muhammad Taufiq; Nur, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability.

  19. Transcriptional analysis of Mycobacterium fortuitum cultures upon hydrogen peroxide treatment using the novel standard rrnA-P1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebollo María

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an intracellular pathogen to establish infection depends on the capacity of the organism to survive and replicate inside the host. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a bacteria that contains genes involved in the detoxification of the oxygen reactive species such as those produced by the host during the infection. In this work, we investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the transcription and expression of these genes by developing a real time quantitative PCR technique (qRT-PCR using the ribosomal promoter region (rrnA-P1 as reference product for quantification of the mRNA levels. Results M. fortuitum cultures were treated with different hydrogen peroxide concentrations (0.02 to 20 mM during several periods of time (30 to 120 minutes. The activity of the enzymes KatGII and SodA, and the transcription of corresponding genes were evaluated. The transcriptional regulator furAII gene was also studied. The ribosomal promoter region rrnA-P1 was validated as referential product under the stress conditions checked by qRT-PCR. Minor changes were observed under the conditions tested except when bacteria were incubated in the presence of 20 mM hydrogen peroxide. Under those conditions, the levels of transcription of the three genes under study increased at 30 minutes of treatment. The viability of the bacteria was not influenced under the conditions tested. Conclusion In this work, we have quantified transcriptional responses to stress suggesting that, the opportunistic pathogen M. fortuitum is more resistant and differs in behaviour in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, when compared to the major pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis. Besides, we demonstrate the mycobacterial non-coding region rrnA-P1 to be a suitable reference product in the analysis of qRT-PCR transcriptional data of M. fortuitum.

  20. Multilevel resistance in ZnO nanowire memristors enabled by hydrogen annealing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Park, Jung-Bong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Boland, John J.

    2016-12-01

    In non-volatile memory technology, various attempts to overcome both technology and physical limits have led to development of neuromorphic devices like memristors. Moreover, multilevel resistance and the potential for enhanced memory capability has attracted much attention. Here, we report memristive characteristics and multilevel resistance in a hydrogen annealed ZnO nanowire device. We find that the memristive behavior including negative differential resistance arises from trapped electrons in an amorphous ZnO interfacial layer at the injection electrode that is formed following hydrogen annealing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to control electrons trapping and detrapping by the controlled application of voltage pulses to establish a multilevel memory. These results could pave the way for multifunctional memory device technology such as the artificial neuromorphic system.

  1. Multilevel resistance in ZnO nanowire memristors enabled by hydrogen annealing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghun Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In non-volatile memory technology, various attempts to overcome both technology and physical limits have led to development of neuromorphic devices like memristors. Moreover, multilevel resistance and the potential for enhanced memory capability has attracted much attention. Here, we report memristive characteristics and multilevel resistance in a hydrogen annealed ZnO nanowire device. We find that the memristive behavior including negative differential resistance arises from trapped electrons in an amorphous ZnO interfacial layer at the injection electrode that is formed following hydrogen annealing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to control electrons trapping and detrapping by the controlled application of voltage pulses to establish a multilevel memory. These results could pave the way for multifunctional memory device technology such as the artificial neuromorphic system.

  2. Variational treatment of the confined hydrogen atom with a moving nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Francisco M, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.a [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd. 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-05-15

    We solve the Schroedinger equation for a hydrogen atom within a spherical box approximately by means of the variational method. We propose two simple trial functions for the case in which both the nucleus and the electron move within the box. Present results are sufficiently accurate for all values of the box radius and therefore an improvement on an earlier calculation based on perturbation theory. We compare the energies of three alternative approaches for the moving-nucleus model with that of the nucleus clamped at origin. We also outline some physical applications of the model.

  3. EFFECT OF DIATOMEAOUS EARTH TREATMENT USING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND SULFURIC ACID ON KINETICS OF CADMIUM(II ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  4. Effects of heat-treatment and hydrogen adsorption on Graphene grown on Cu foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongweon; Gao, Li; Tian, Jifa; Cao, Helin; Yu, Qingkai; Guest, Jeffrey; Chen, Yong; Guisinger, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Graphene has recently been a subject of intense research efforts due to its remarkable physical properties as an ideal two-dimensional material. While numerous different methods for graphene synthesis are being explored, CVD-grown graphene on Cu foil presents the possibility of a large-scale and high-quality synthesis of graphene.[1] To improve the quality of graphene films on Cu foil prepared by CVD and better understand its microscopic growth, atomic-scale characterization becomes of great importance. We have investigated the effects of thermal annealing and hydrogen adsorption/desorption on ex-situ CVD-grown monolayer graphene on polycrystalline Cu foil at the atomic-scale using ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy, and we will report on these studies.

  5. Carbon dioxide laser and hydrogen peroxide conditioning in the treatment of periimplantitis: an experimental study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Leif G; Mouhyi, Jafaar; Berglundh, Tord; Sennerby, Lars; Lindhe, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Various methods have been applied for the treatment of periimplantitis lesions. It has been reported that the procedures used have been effective in eliminating the inflammatory lesion but that re-osseointegration to the once-contaminated implant surface has been difficult or impossible to achieve. The aim of this study was to examine the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in combination with hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of experimentally induced periimplantitis lesions. Three dental implants (ITI Dental Implant System, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were placed in each side of the edentulous mandible of four beagle dogs. Implants with a turned surface and implants with a sand-blasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) surface (SLA, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were used. Experimental periimplantitis was induced during 3 months. Five weeks later each animal received tablets of amoxicillin and metronidazole for a period of 17 days. Three days after the start of the antibiotic treatment, full-thickness flaps were elevated, and the granulation tissue in the bone craters was removed. In the two anterior implant sites in both sides of the mandible, a combination of CO2 laser therapy and application of a water solution of hydrogen peroxide was used. The implant in the posterior site of each quadrant was cleaned with cotton pellets soaked in saline. Biopsy specimens were obtained 6 months later. The amount of re-osseointegration was 21% and 82% at laser-treated turned-surface implants and SLA implants, respectively, and 22% and 84% at saline-treated turned-surface implants and SLA implants, respectively. The present study demonstrated the following: (1) a combination of systemic antibiotics and local curettage and debridement resulted in the resolution of experimentally induced periimplantitis lesions; (2) at implants with a turned surface, a small amount of re-osseointegration was observed at the base of the bone defects whereas a considerable amount of

  6. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica" Rocasolano" C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L' Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  7. Reduction of interface states by hydrogen treatment at the aluminum oxide/4H-SiC Si-face interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processes to form aluminum oxide as a gate insulator on the 4H-SiC Si-face are investigated to eliminate the interface state density (DIT and improve the mobility. Processes that do not involve the insertion or formation of SiO2 at the interface are preferential to eliminate traps that may be present in SiO2. Aluminum oxide was formed by atomic layer deposition with hydrogen plasma pretreatment followed by annealing in forming gas. Hydrogen treatment was effective to reduce DIT at the interface of aluminum oxide and SiC without a SiO2 interlayer. Optimization of the process conditions resulted in DIT for the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS capacitor of 1.7×1012 cm−2eV−1 at 0.2 eV, and the peak field-effect mobility of the MOS field-effect transistor (MOSFET was approximately 57 cm2V−1s−1.

  8. Synergistic disinfection and removal of biofilms by a sequential two-step treatment with ozone followed by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Mariko; Yamanaka, Kenzo

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic disinfection and removal of biofilms by ozone (O3) water in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution was studied by determining disinfection rates and observing changes of the biofilm structure in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using an established biofilm of Pseudomonas fluorescence. The sequential treatment with O3, 1.0-1.7 mg/L, followed by H2O2, 0.8-1.1%, showed synergistic disinfection effects, while the reversed treatment, first H2O2 followed by O3, showed only an additive effect. The decrease of synergistic disinfection effect by addition of methanol (CH3OH), a scavenger of hydroxyl radical (OH), into the H2O2 solution suggested generation of hydroxyl radicals on or in the biofilm by the sequential treatment with O3 followed by H2O2. The primary treatment with O3 increased disinfection rates of H2O2 in the secondary treatment, and the increase of O3 concentration enhanced the rates. The cold temperature of O3 water (14 °C and 8 °C) increased the synergistic effect, suggesting the increase of O3 adsorption and hydroxyl radical generation in the biofilm. CLSM observation showed that the sequential treatment, first with O3 followed by H2O2, loosened the cell connections and thinned the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the biofilm. The hydroxyl radical generation in the biofilm may affect the EPS and biofilm structure and may induce effective disinfection with H2O2. This sequential treatment method may suggest a new practical procedure for disinfection and removal of biofilms by inorganic oxidants such as O3 and H2O2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments.

  10. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously...

  11. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

  12. Effect of heat treatments on the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of API X-65 grade line-pipe steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ananta Nagu; Amarnath; T K G Namboodhiri

    2003-06-01

    Delayed failure tests were carried out on hydrogen charged API X-65 grade line-pipe steel in as received (controlled rolled), normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was found in the order of controlled rolled $\\gt$ quenched and tempered $\\gt$ normalized. The fracture mode in the hydrogen embrittled steel was ductile.

  13. The yeast TUM1 affects production of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine treatment during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Walker, Michelle E; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Roncoroni, Miguel; Gardner, Richard C; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    The undesirable rotten-egg odour of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by yeast shortly after yeast inoculation of grape musts might be an important source of desirable varietal thiols, which contribute to tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvign-on Blanc. In this study, we observed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce an early burst of H2S from cysteine. Both Δmet2 and Δmet17 strains produce a larger burst, likely because they are unable to utilise the H2S in the sulfate assimilation pathway. For the first time, we show that TUM1 is partly responsible for the early production of H2S from cysteine. Overex-pressing TUM1 elevated production of H2S, whilst its deletion yields only half of the H2S. We further confirmed that yeast convert cysteine to H2S by analysing growth of mutants lacking components of the transsulfuration pathway. High concent-rations of cysteine overcame this growth block, but required TUM1 Collectively, the data indicate that S. cerevisiae does not convert cysteine to sulfate or sulfite, but rather to sulfide via a novel pathway that requires the action of Tum1p. The findi-ngs of this study may allow the improvement of commercial yeasts through the manipulation of sulfur metabolism that are better suited towards production of fruit-driven styles.

  14. Effective Treatment of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Soil by Hydrogen Peroxide in Soil Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xin-De; DU Wen-Ting; WU Jia-Yi; LI Rong-Fei; GUO Yang; YANG Zi-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE),as one of the most common chlorinated organic compounds in soils and aquifers at many industrial sites,is carcinogenic and often recalcitrant in environment.TCE degradation in artificially contaminated soil samples was conducted using Fenton-like processes,i.e.,by addition of excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).H2O2 could directly oxidize TCE without addition of ferrous iron in contaminated soil.Under the optimal condition (H2O2 concentration of 300 mg kg-1,pH at 5.0,and reaction time of 30 miu),the removal efficiency of TCE in the soil was up to 92.3%.When the initial TCE concentration increased from 30 to 480 mg kg-1 in soil,the TCE removal rates varied from 89.2% to 86.6%; while the residual TCE in soil ranged from 2.28 to 47.57 mg kg-1.Results from successive oxidations showed that the TCE removal rate with the TCE concentration of 180 mg kg-1 increased slightly from 91.6% to 96.2% as the number of successive oxidation cycle increased from one to four.Therefore,increasing the frequency of H2O2 oxidation was perhaps a feasible way to increase TCE removal rate for TCE-contaminated soil.

  15. Hyperspherical elliptic coordinates treatment of muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to atomic oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Dupays, A; Beswick, J A; Rizzo, C; Bakalov, D; Dupays, Arnaud; Lepetit, Bruno; Rizzo, Carlo; Bakalov, Dimitar

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical calculations of muon transfer between muonic hydrogen and an oxygen nuclei for $s$ waves and collision energies in the range $10^{-3} - 10^3$ eV, are presented. Close-coupling time-independent Schr\\"odinger equations, written in terms of hyperspherical elliptic coordinates were integrated along the hyper-radius to obtain the partial and total muon-transfer probabilities. The results show the expected Wigner-Bethe threshold behavior up to collision energies of the order of $10^{-2}$ eV and pronounced maxima at $10^2$ eV which can be interpreted in terms of crossings between potential energy curves corresponding to the entrance channel state $(\\mu p)_{1s} + \\mO$ and two product channels which asymptotically correlate to $p + (\\mO\\mu)_{n=5,6}$. The population of the final states with different orbital angular momenta is found to be essentially independent of energy in the range considered in this work. This can be attributed to a strong selection rule for the conservation of the quantum number...

  16. Microbial electrolysis cell scale-up for combined wastewater treatment and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Carrera, L; Escapa, A; Mehta, P; Santoyo, G; Guiot, S R; Morán, A; Tartakovsky, B

    2013-02-01

    This study demonstrates microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) scale-up from a 50mL to a 10L cell. Initially, a 50mL membraneless MEC with a gas diffusion cathode was operated on synthetic wastewater at different organic loads. It was concluded that process scale-up might be best accomplished using a "reactor-in-series" concept. Consequently, 855mL and 10L MECs were built and operated. By optimizing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the 855mL MEC and individually controlling the applied voltages of three anodic compartments with a real-time optimization algorithm, a COD removal of 5.7g L(R)(-1)d(-1) and a hydrogen production of 1.0-2.6L L(R)(-1)d(-1) was achieved. Furthermore, a two MECs in series 10L setup was constructed and operated on municipal wastewater. This test showed a COD removal rate of 0.5g L(R)(-1)d(-1), a removal efficiency of 60-76%, and an energy consumption of 0.9Whperg of COD removed.

  17. Removal of hydrogen sulfide gas and landfill leachate treatment using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Y; Hesu, P H; Yang, D H

    2001-06-01

    Coal bottom ashes produced from three thermal power plants were used in column and batch experiments to investigate the adsorption capacity of the coal ash. Hydrogen sulfide and leachates collected from three sanitary landfill sites were used as adsorbate gas and solutions, respectively. Experimental results showed that coal bottom ash could remove H2S from waste gas or reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. Each gram of bottom ash could remove up to 10.5 mg of H2S. In treating the landfill leachate, increasing ash dosage increased the removal efficiency but decreased the adsorption amount per unit mass of ash. For these tested ashes, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), P, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ were 36.4-50, 24.2-39.4, 27.0-31.1, 82.2-92.9, 93.8-96.5, 93.7-95.4, and 80.5-82.2%, respectively; the highest adsorption capacities for those parameters were 3.5-5.6, 0.22-0.63, 0.36-0.45, 0.027-0.034, 0.050-0.053, 0.029-0.032, and 0.006 mg/g of bottom ash, respectively. The adsorption of pollutants in the leachate conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model.

  18. Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water Has Additive Effects on Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment of Improving Periodontitis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Kawabata, Yuya; Kataoka, Kota; Kasuyama, Kenta; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-07-09

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men) with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6) or the HW group (n = 7). In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4-5 times/day for eight weeks. At two to four weeks, all participants received non-surgical periodontal treatment. Oral examinations were performed at baseline, two, four and eight weeks, and serum was obtained at these time points to evaluate oxidative stress. At baseline, there were no significant differences in periodontal status between the control and HW groups. The HW group showed greater improvements in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level than the control group at two, four and eight weeks (p surgical periodontal treatment, thus improving periodontitis.

  19. Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water Has Additive Effects on Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment of Improving Periodontitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Azuma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6 or the HW group (n = 7. In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4–5 times/day for eight weeks. At two to four weeks, all participants received non-surgical periodontal treatment. Oral examinations were performed at baseline, two, four and eight weeks, and serum was obtained at these time points to evaluate oxidative stress. At baseline, there were no significant differences in periodontal status between the control and HW groups. The HW group showed greater improvements in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level than the control group at two, four and eight weeks (p < 0.05. The HW group also exhibited an increased serum level of total antioxidant capacity at four weeks, compared to baseline (p < 0.05. Drinking HW enhanced the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment, thus improving periodontitis.

  20. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-15

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)/ultraviolet radiations) at 25°C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) at 50°C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)), system operating at 50°C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  1. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azabou, Samia [Laboratoire des BioProcedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Najjar, Wahiba [Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux et Catalyse, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Bouaziz, Mohamed [Laboratoire des BioProcedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Ghorbel, Abdelhamid [Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux et Catalyse, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des BioProcedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2010-11-15

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/ultraviolet radiations) at 25 deg. C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at 50 deg. C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), system operating at 50 deg. C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  2. Hydrogen production from food wastes and gas post-treatment by CO2 adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondas, V; Gómez, X; García, S; Pevida, C; Rubiera, F; Morán, A; Pis, J J

    2012-01-01

    The production of H(2) by biological means, although still far from being a commercially viable proposition, offers great promise for the future. Purification of the biogas obtained may lead to the production of highly concentrated H(2) streams appropriate for industrial application. This research work evaluates the dark fermentation of food wastes and assesses the possibility of adsorbing CO(2) from the gas stream by means of a low cost biomass-based adsorbent. The reactor used was a completely stirred tank reactor run at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) while the concentration of solids of the feeding stream was kept constant. The results obtained demonstrate that the H(2) yields from the fermentation of food wastes were affected by modifications in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) due to incomplete hydrolysis. The decrease in the duration of fermentation had a negative effect on the conversion of the substrate into soluble products. This resulted in a lower amount of soluble substrate being available for metabolisation by H(2) producing microflora leading to a reduction in specific H(2) production. Adsorption of CO(2) from a gas stream generated from the dark fermentation process was successfully carried out. The data obtained demonstrate that the column filled with biomass-derived activated carbon resulted in a high degree of hydrogen purification. Co-adsorption of H(2)S onto the activated carbon also took place, there being no evidence of H(2)S present in the bio-H(2) exiting the column. Nevertheless, the concentration of H(2)S was very low, and this co-adsorption did not affect the CO(2) capture capacity of the activated carbon.

  3. Caustic Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Effluent from Cassava Processing Industry: Prospects and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Omotosho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava has been described as a major part of diet in most African countries. Its processing usually requires the release of polluted effluent which has been found to be toxic, carcinogenic as well as mutagenic to some extent. In this study, the treatment process comprised of a combination of peroxide oxidation at caustic range and filtration which ensured that the key pollutant, Cyanide was converted to cyanate. Metal and other non-metal pollutants were filtered off with the aid of a graded sand filter after undergoing hydroxide formation and precipitation. Results from the study shows that an optimum dosage of 0.3mg/l was adequate for Cyanide destruction and hydroxide precipitation reactions. A comparison of the effluent from the treatment process with FEPA standards for waste water discharge shows that most of the pollutant parameters were within acceptable limits after the treatment with the exception of PO4 and BOD5. However when compared with Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for Irrigation the only parameter outstanding was the BOD5. As a result of the inadequacy of the process in handling the phosphate and biological load content of the wastewater, It is proposed that an additional treatment method such as sorption using activated carbon or use of a combined baffle flocculation and aeration techniques will be appropriate if the water is to be discharged safely into water courses or even for irrigation purposes.

  4. Integrated chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using waste hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    Dilemmas like water shortage, rapid industrialization, growing human population and related issues have seriously affected human health and environmental sustainability. For conservation and sustainable use of our water resources, innovative methods for wastewater treatment are continuously being explored. Advance Oxidation Processes (AOPs) show a promising approach to meet specific objectives of municipal wastewater treatment (MWW). The MWW samples were pretreated with Al 2(SO 4) 4·8H 2O (Alum) at different doses 4, 8, 12-50 mg/L to enhance the sedimentation. The maximum COD removal was observed at alum treatments in range of 28-32 mg/L without increasing total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS were found to increase when the alum dose was increased from 32-40 mg/L. In the present study, the optimum alum dose of 30 mg/L for 3 h of sedimentation and subsequent integrated H 2O 2/UV treatment was applied (using 2.5 mL/L of 40% waste H 2O 2 and 35% fresh H 2O 2 separately). Organic and inorganic pollutants, contributing towards chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and total dissolved solids were degraded by H 2O 2/UV. About 93% COD, 90% BOD and 83% turbidity reduction occurred when 40% waste H 2O 2 was used. When using fresh H 2O 2, 63% COD, 68% BOD and 86% turbidity reduction was detected. Complete disinfection of coliform bacteria occurred by using 40% H 2O 2/UV. The most interesting part of this research was to compare the effectiveness of waste H 2O 2 with fresh H 2O 2. Waste H 2O 2 generated from an industrial process of disinfection was found more effective in the treatment of MWW than fresh 35% H 2O 2.

  5. Effect of thermal pre-treatment on inoculum sludge to enhance bio-hydrogen production from alkali hydrolysed rice straw in a mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bery, Haitham; Tawfik, Ahmed; Kumari, Sheena; Bux, Faizal

    2013-01-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on inoculum sludge for continuous H2 production from alkali hydrolysed rice straw using anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Two reactors, ABR1 and ABR2, were inoculated with untreated and thermally pre-treated sludge, respectively. Both reactors were operated in parallel at a constant hydraulic retention time of 20 h and organic loading rate ranged from 0.5 to 2.16 g COD/L d. The results obtained indicated that ABR2 achieved a better hydrogen conversion rate and hydrogen yield as compared with ABR1. The hydrogen conversion rates were 30% and 24%, while the hydrogen yields were 1.19 and 0.97 mol H2/mol glucose for ABR2 and ABR1, respectively. Similar trend was observed for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrate removal, where ABR2 provided a removal efficiency of 53 +/- 2.3% for COD and 46 +/- 2% for carbohydrate. The microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA phylogeny revealed the presence of different species of bacteria, namely Clostridium, Prevotella, Paludibacter, Ensifer, and Petrimonas within the reactors. Volatile fatty acids generated from ABR1 and ABR2 were mainly in the form of acetate and butyrate and a relatively low fraction ofpropionate was detected in ABR1. Based on these results, thermal pre-treatment ofinoculum sludge is preferable for hydrogen production from hydrolysed rice straw.

  6. Adding silver and copper to hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in the disinfection of an advanced primary treatment effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta De Velásquez, M T; Yáñez-Noguez, I; Jiménez-Cisneros, B; Luna Pabello, V M

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and peracetic acid (PAA) in the disinfection of an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) effluent, and how said disinfection capacities can be enhanced by combining the oxidants with copper (Cu2+) and silver (Ag). The treatment sequence consisted of APT (adding chemicals to water to remove suspended solids by coagulation and flocculation), followed by disinfection with various doses of HP, HP+Cu2+, HP+Ag, PAA and PAA+Ag. Microbiological quality was determined by monitoring concentrations of fecal coliforms (FC), pathogenic bacteria (PB) and helminth eggs (HE) throughout the sequence. The results revealed that APT effluent still contains very high levels of bacteria as the treatment only removes 1-2 log of FC and PB, but the reduction in the number of viable helminth eggs was 83%. Subsequent disinfection stages demonstrated that both HP+Cu2+ and HP+Ag have a marked disinfection capacity for bacteria (3.9 and 3.4 log-inactivation, respectively). Peracetic acid on its own was already extremely efficient at disinfecting for bacteria, and the effect was enhanced when combining PAA with silver (PAA+Ag). The best result for HE removal was achieved by combining PAA with silver (PAA+Ag) at doses of 20 + 2.0 mg l(-1), respectively. The study concluded that the PAA+Ag and HP+Ag combinations were good alternatives for APT effluent disinfection, because the disinfected effluents met the standards in NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996, Mexico's regulation governing the microbiological quality required in treated wastewater destined for unrestricted reuse in agricultural irrigation (< or =1 helminths per litre). Combining either of these disinfection treatments with a primary method such as APT, therefore, offers an effective and practical way of reducing the health risks normally associated with the reuse of wastewaters.

  7. Intramolecular hydrogen migration in Alkylperoxy and Hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals: Accurate treatment of hindered rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sandeep; Raman, Sumathy; Green, William H.

    2009-01-01

    We have calculated the thermochemistry and rate coefficients for stable molecules and reactions in the title reaction families using CBS-QB3 and B3LYP/CBSB7 methods. The accurate treatment of hindered rotors for molecules having multi- ple internal rotors with potentials that are not independent of each other can be problematic and a simplified scheme is suggested to treat them. This is particu- larly important for hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals (HOOQOO). Two new ther- moch...

  8. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  9. Effect of Heat-Treatment Process on Properties of Rare Earth Mg-Based System Hydrogen Storage Alloys with AB3-Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effect of heat-treatment process on the properties of Mm0.8Mg0.2(NiCoAlMn)3.5 hydrogen storage alloy was discussed. The electrochemical properties such as cycling stability, activation property, and the plateau voltage of the alloy which was heat-treated in various temperatures and times had different changes during the cycle process, the optimum heat-treatment conditions of this alloy were determined by this work.

  10. Biological hydrogen production by immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum JM1 isolated from a food waste treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Hye; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Donghee; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-09-01

    A fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium, Clostridium tyrobutyricum JM1, was isolated from a food waste treating process using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A fixed-bed bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam as support matrix for the growth of the isolate was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) to evaluate its performance for hydrogen production. The reactor achieved the maximal hydrogen production rate of 7.2 l H(2)l(-1)d(-1) at 2h HRT, where hydrogen content in biogas was 50.0%, and substrate conversion efficiency was 97.4%. The maximum hydrogen yield was 223 ml (g-hexose)(-1) with an influent glucose concentration of 5 g l(-1). Therefore, the immobilized reactor using C. tyrobutyricum JM1 was an effective and stable system for continuous hydrogen production.

  11. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental...... setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared...

  12. Growth of graphene on Cu foils by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition: The effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liping; Yuan, Wen; Wang, Bing; Xiong, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) is a promising method for the large-scale production of high-quality graphene. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment on the MPCVD-grown graphene films. By simply varying the duration time of in-situ hydrogen plasma, surface morphology, number of layers and defect density of as-grown graphene films can be manipulated. The role of hydrogen plasma can be proposed from our observations, promoting to further grow graphene films in the early stage and consequently acting as an etching agent to thin graphene films in the later stage. On the basis of above mechanism, monolayer graphene films with low defect density and smooth surface can be grown by adjusting the times of the growing step and the plasma post-treatment step. This additional in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment may be significant for growing well-defined graphene films with controllable defects and number of layers.

  13. The effect of employing the p/i buffer layers and in-situ hydrogen treatment for transparent a-Si:H solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Jung; Yun, Sun Jin; Park, Min A; Lim, Jung Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we describe the effects of various thicknesses of triple p/i buffer layers and hydrogen treatment on various performances in the fabrication of transparent a-Si:H solar cells. For the increment of buffer layer thickness, V(oc) increases steadily and J(sc) firstly increases and then decreases. The triple buffer layers also enhance the transmittance as well as conversion efficiency. For hydrogen plasma treatment, overall performances were enhanced with plasma power due to the passivation of dangling bonds at p/i interface. Therefore, the usage of triple buffer layers with proper treatment is beneficial to obtaining transparent a-Si:H solar cells with high quality.

  14. Effect of the Ascorbic Acid, Pyridoxine and Hydrogen Peroxide Treatments on Germination, Catalase Activity, Protein and Malondialdehyde Content of Three Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria DOLATABADIAN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil seed production has an important role in human nutrition and industry. Success in oil plant cultivation is related to seed production with high viability and rapid germination, because these seeds rapidly loose their viability by fats oxidation. Thus, in this work we studied the effects of ascorbic acid, pyridoxine and hydrogen peroxide solutions on germination quantitative traits, catalase activity, protein and malondialdehyde content of three old oil seeds (sunflower, rape seed and safflower. The results showed that ascorbic acid and pyridoxine stimulated significantly the sunflower and rape seed germination. These vitamins, however, didn't have any effect on safflower germination. Hydrogen peroxide strongly increased safflower germination. Ascorbic acid and pyridoxine decreased catalase activity in sunflower and rape seed, whereas hydrogen peroxide increased it. Ascorbic acid and pyridoxine prevented protein degradation and lipid peroxidation in germinated seeds. Consequently, we understand that ascorbic acid and pyridoxine can increase sunflower and rape seed germination and stimulate rate of growth. Also safflower germination increased due to germination inhibitor oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. In conclusion, this report shows that oil seeds treated with ascorbic acid, pyridoxine and hydrogen peroxide remarkably increase the capacity of germination. We suggest that treatments with such substances can improve the old oil seed germination during storage.

  15. Adhesion improvement of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films by pre-deposition plasma treatment of rubber substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Mulder, E.D.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2009-01-01

    For reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) via magnetron-enhanced plasma chemical vapor deposition (ME-PCVD). Pre-deposition plasma trea

  16. Controllable Electrochemical Activities by Oxidative Treatment toward Inner-Sphere Redox Systems at N-Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical activity of the surface of Nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-CNH, N-doped DLC toward the inner sphere redox species is controllable by modifying the surface termination. At the oxygen plasma treated N-doped DLC surface (O-DLC, the surface functional groups containing carbon doubly bonded to oxygen (C=O, which improves adsorption of polar molecules, were generated. By oxidative treatment, the electron-transfer rate for dopamine (DA positively charged inner-sphere redox analyte could be improved at the N-doped DLC surface. For redox reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol, which induces an inevitable fouling of the anode surface by forming passivating films, the DLC surfaces exhibited remarkably higher stability and reproducibility of the electrode performance. This is due to the electrochemical decomposition of the passive films without the interference of oxygen evolution by applying higher potential. The N-doped DLC film can offer benefits as the polarizable electrode surface with the higher reactivity and higher stability toward inner-sphere redox species. By making use of these controllable electrochemical reactivity at the O-DLC surface, the selective detection of DA in the mixed solution of DA and uric acid could be achieved.

  17. Estimation of hydrogen sulfide emission rates at several wastewater treatment plants through experimental concentration measurements and dispersion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llavador Colomer, Fernando; Espinós Morató, Héctor; Mantilla Iglesias, Enrique

    2012-07-01

    The management and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) usually involve the release into the atmosphere of malodorous substances with the potential to reduce the quality of life of people living nearby. In this type of facility, anaerobic degradation processes contribute to the generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), often at quite high concentrations; thus, the presence of this chemical compound in the atmosphere can be a good indicator of the occurrence and intensity of the olfactory impact in a specific area. The present paper describes the experimental and modelling work being carried out by CEAM-UMH in the surroundings of several wastewater treatment plants located in the Valencia Autonomous Community (Spain). This work has permitted the estimation of H2S emission rates at different WWTPs under different environmental and operating conditions. Our methodological approach for analyzing and describing the most relevant aspects of the olfactory impact consisted of several experimental campaigns involving intensive field measurements using passive samplers in the vicinity of several WWTPs, in combination with numerical simulation results from a diagnostic dispersion model. A meteorological tower at each WWTP provided the input values for the dispersion code, ensuring a good fit of the advective component and therefore more confidence in the modelled concentration field in response to environmental conditions. Then, comparisons between simulated and experimental H2S concentrations yielded estimates of the global emission rate for this substance at several WWTPs at different time periods. The results obtained show a certain degree of temporal and spatial (between-plant) variability (possibly due to both operational and environmental conditions). Nevertheless, and more importantly, the results show a high degree of uniformity in the estimates, which consistently stay within the same order of magnitude.

  18. Improved performance of Pd/WO3/SiC Schottky-diode hydrogen gas sensor by using fluorine plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tang, W. M.; Lai, P. T.

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance Pd/WO3/SiC Schottky-diode hydrogen gas sensor was fabricated by using fluorine plasma treatment on the WO3 film. From the electrical measurements under various hydrogen concentrations and temperatures, the plasma-treated sensor exhibited a maximum barrier-height change of 279 meV and a static gas sensitivity of more than 30 000, which is 30 times higher than that of the untreated sensor. This significant improvement is attributed to the larger adsorption area caused by the plasma-roughened WO3 film and the lower baseline leakage current induced by fluorine passivation of oxide traps. Additionally, the kinetics analysis and hydrogen coverage of the devices were studied to demonstrate the temperature dependence of the gas sensing behaviors. The hydrogen adsorption enthalpy at the Pd-WO3 interface significantly decreased from -31.2 kJ/mol to -57.6 kJ/mol after the plasma treatment. Therefore, the adsorption process on the plasma-treated sample is much easier and the suppression of sensing properties is more obvious at elevated temperatures above 423 K.

  19. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  20. Research of heat treatment of low-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys for MH-Ni batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jinghong; CHEN Demin; LIU Guozhong; YANG Ke; MA Jun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of low-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys prepared by quenching and annealing on the performances of MH-Ni batteries were investigated, and the characteristics of the low-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys were compared with those of the high-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloy as well. The results showed that the faster the cooling of the low-Co hydrogen storage alloy is, the better homogeneity of the chemical composition for the alloy and the longer cycle life of the battery are, but the electrochemical discharge capacity and high-rate discharge ability are reduced. The high-rate discharge ability and charge retention of MH-Ni batteries for the conventional as-cast annealed low-Co hydrogen storage alloy were superior to those for the rapidly quenched low-Co hydrogen storage alloy and the high-Co hydrogen storage alloy, but a little inferior in the cycle life.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Amonette, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10.

  2. Micromorphology and microhardness of enamel after treatment with home-use bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Tetsuo Sasaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of home-use bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness and surface micromorphology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel slabs (n=10 received the bleaching agents for 1 h/day and remained in artificial saliva solution for 23 h/day, during a total period of 21 days. Control group was composed of enamel slabs that were not subjected to treatment with the agents and were maintained in artificial saliva solution. Microhardness tests were performed before treatment application, 21 days of treatment and 14 days after the end of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed after 14 days after the end of bleaching treatment by 3 calibrated observers who attributed scores. RESULTS: The Tukey's test (α=0.05 showed no significant differences in microhardness values among bleaching agents, at 21 days of treatment and a significant increase in microhardness for different agents after 14 days from the end of treatment. Fisher's exact test showed differences in micromorphology of enamel between control and experimental groups (p=0.0342. CONCLUSIONS: Bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide may change surface micromorphology of enamel, although no changes in microhardness were observed.

  3. The effect of oxidation treatment with supercritical water/hydrogen peroxide system on intersurface performance for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Linghui; Fan, Dapeng; Zhang, Chunhua; Jiang, Zaixing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang, Yudong, E-mail: ydhuang.hit1@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-05-15

    In order to improve the interfacial properties between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix, supercritical water and hydrogen peroxide were used as oxidation medium for the oxidation treatment for carbon fibers. Analysis results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the oxygen content on the carbon fibers’ surfaces increases by these oxidation treatments. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the surface appearance of oxidized carbon fibers obviously changed. The maximal interlaminar shear strength and interface shear strength of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite in which the fibers were treated by the supercritical water and hydrogen peroxide systems reaches 70.46 MPa and 106.66 MPa, increases by 13.4% and 29.6% respectively compared with untreated carbon fibers.

  4. Effect of rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen plasma treatment on the microstructure and light-emission of silicon-rich oxide film

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Yong; Chen Chang Yong; Diao Hong Wei; Zhang Shi Bin; Xu Yan Yue; Kong Guang Lin; Liao Xian Bo

    2002-01-01

    Silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) films are prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at the substrate temperature of 200 degree C. The effect of rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen plasma treatment on the microstructure and light-emission of SRSO films are investigated in detail using micro-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. It is found that the phase-separation degree of the films decreases with increasing annealing temperature from 300 to 600 degree C, which it increases with increasing annealing temperature from 600 to 900 degree C. The light-emission of the films are enhanced with increasing annealing temperature up to 500 degree C, while it is rapidly reduced when the annealing temperature exceeds 600 degree C. The peak position of the PL spectrum blue shifts by annealing at the temperature of 300 degree C, then it redshifts with further raising annealing temperature. The following hydrogen plasma treatment results i...

  5. The effect of oxidation treatment with supercritical water/hydrogen peroxide system on intersurface performance for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghui; Fan, Dapeng; Zhang, Chunhua; Jiang, Zaixing; Huang, Yudong

    2013-05-01

    In order to improve the interfacial properties between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix, supercritical water and hydrogen peroxide were used as oxidation medium for the oxidation treatment for carbon fibers. Analysis results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the oxygen content on the carbon fibers' surfaces increases by these oxidation treatments. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the surface appearance of oxidized carbon fibers obviously changed. The maximal interlaminar shear strength and interface shear strength of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite in which the fibers were treated by the supercritical water and hydrogen peroxide systems reaches 70.46 MPa and 106.66 MPa, increases by 13.4% and 29.6% respectively compared with untreated carbon fibers.

  6. Decoration of PbS nanoparticles on Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Chao-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Dong-Hwang, E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► AZO nanorod array thin film is used as a photoanode for solar water splitting. ► Hydrogen treatment and sensitization by PbS nanoparticles enhance photocurrent. ► A novel ITO/FTO-free composite photoelectrode is developed. ► The pre-fabrication and use of an extra TCO thin film substrate is unnecessary. -- Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorod arrays thin film with hydrogen treatment is directly used as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting without an extra transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin film because it possesses the functions of TCO thin film and photoactive 1-dimensional nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible region, PbS nanoparticles decorated the AZO nanorods via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction route. The PbS nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure and their decoration does not destroy the 1-dimensional morphology of AZO nanorod arrays. With increasing the cycle number of PbS nanoparticles decoration, the grain size and loading of PbS nanoparticles become larger gradually which leads to lower energy bandgap and stronger absorption. A maximum photocurrent density of 1.65 mW cm{sup −2} is obtained when the cycle number is 20, which is much higher than those without PbS nanoparticles sensitization or hydrogen treatment. This demonstrates that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment can be directly used as a photoelectrode without an extra TCO thin film. Because the use of expensive metals can be avoided and the pre-fabrication of TCO thin film substrate is necessary no more, the fabrication of such a composite photoelectrode becomes simple and low-cost. So, it has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  7. Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage anaerobic digestion process using food waste with different compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieenia, Razieh; Girotto, Francesca; Peng, Wei; Cossu, Raffaello; Pivato, Alberto; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic pre-treatment was applied prior to two-stage anaerobic digestion process. Three different food wastes samples, namely carbohydrate rich, protein rich and lipid rich, were prepared as substrates. Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on hydrogen and methane production was studied. Pre-aeration of substrates showed no positive impact on hydrogen production in the first stage. All three categories of pre-aerated food wastes produced less hydrogen compared to samples without pre-aeration. In the second stage, methane production increased for aerated protein rich and carbohydrate rich samples. In addition, the lag phase for carbohydrate rich substrate was shorter for aerated samples. Aerated protein rich substrate yielded the best results among substrates for methane production, with a cumulative production of approximately 351ml/gVS. With regard to non-aerated substrates, lipid rich was the best substrate for CH4 production (263ml/gVS). Pre-aerated P substrate was the best in terms of total energy generation which amounted to 9.64kJ/gVS. This study revealed aerobic pre-treatment to be a promising option for use in achieving enhanced substrate conversion efficiencies and CH4 production in a two-stage AD process, particularly when the substrate contains high amounts of proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential of ITO nanoparticles formed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD for improved performance of back grid contact crystalline silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Dhar, Sukanta; Ghosh, Hemanta; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com; Datta, Swapan K.; Saha, Hiranmoy

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in c-Si solar cells. • ITO NP have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. • ITO NP formed by hydrogen plasma treatment on sputtered ITO film. • Enhanced absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths due to enhanced light trapping. - Abstract: This paper discusses the prospect of using indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in crystalline silicon solar cells instead of commonly used metal nanoparticles as ITO nanoparticles have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. ITO nanoparticles of ∼5–10 nm size is developed on the rear side of the solar cell by deposition of ∼5–10 nm thick ITO layer by DC magnetron sputtering followed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD. The silicon solar cell is fabricated in the laboratory using conventional method with grid metal contact at the back surface. Various characterizations like FESEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, EQE and IV characteristics are performed to analyze the morphology, chemical composition, optical characteristics and electrical performance of the device. ITO nanoparticles at the back surface of the solar cell significantly enhances the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the solar cell. These enhancements may be attributed to the increased absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths of solar spectrum due to enhanced light trapping by the ITO nanoparticles and surface passivation by the hydrogen treatment of the back surface.

  9. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  11. A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride membrane biofilm reactor for the treatment of nitrate contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, YanHao; Zhong, FoHua

    2009-12-01

    A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was investigated to remove nitrate from the drinking water. The reactor was operated over 100 days, and the result showed that the average nitrate denitrification rate of 1.2 g NO(3)(-)-N/m(2) d and the total nitrogen (TN) removal of 95.1% were achieved with the influent nitrate concentration of 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and the hydrogen pressure of 0.05 MPa. Under the same conditions, the average rate of hydrogen utilization by biofilm was 0.031 mg H(2)/cm(2) d, which was sufficient to remove 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L from the contaminated water with the effluent nitrate and nitrite concentrations below drinking water limit values. The average hydrogen utilization efficiency was achieved as high as 99.5%. Flux analysis demonstrated that, compared to sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction competed more strongly for hydrogen electron, and obtained more electrons in high influent nitrate loading.

  12. Hydrogen-rich saline may be an effective and specific novel treatment for osteoradionecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuanli Chen, Chunlin Zong, Yuxuan Guo, Lei Tian Department of Cranio-facial Trauma and Orthognathic Surgery Laboratory of Military Stomatology, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hydrogen, a therapeutic medical gas, can exert antioxidant activity via selectively reducing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals. Hydrogen-rich saline is an alternative form of molecular hydrogen that has been widely used in many studies, including metabolic syndrome, cerebral, hepatic, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, and liver injuries with obstructive jaundice, with beneficial results. Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw is a serious complication following radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. It has long been known that most radiation-induced symptoms are caused by free radicals generated by radiolysis of H2O, and the hydroxyl radical is the most reactive of these. Reducing the hydroxyl radical can distinctly improve the protection of cells from radiation damage. We hypothesized that hydrogen-rich saline might be an effective and specific method of managing and preventing osteoradionecrosis of the jaw. Keywords: osteoradionecrosis, hydrogen, reactive oxygen species

  13. Study on Hydrogen Peroxide Effect in Treatment of Puerperal Infection%过氧化氢治疗产褥感染的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical effect of hydrogen peroxide in treatment of puerperal infection is to be studied.Methods 63 patients of puerperal infection who are received and treated in hospital from February 2014 to September 2015 and separate them into two groups at random. 30 patients in one group are given conventional treatment, while the rest 33 patients in another group are given hydrogen peroxide treatment, and then observe and compare effects of metronidazole treatment and hydrogen peroxide treatment between two groups. ResultsPatients’ explicit efficiency in hydrogen peroxide group is 66.7% and its treatment efficacy is 90.9%, which are much higher than counterparts of 40% and 73.3% in conventional treatment group. And meanwhile, patients’ fever and other symptoms lasting time, and their hospitalization days in hydrogen peroxide group are quite shorter than counterparts in conventional treatment group according to T-check, and such a differential has statistic value (P<0.05).Conclusion Hydrogen peroxide is quite effective in treatment of puerperal infection, such a treatment method is quite clinically signiifcant to improve patients’ clinical symptoms and promote their quality of life.%目的:对过氧化氢应用于产褥感染治疗中的临床效果进行分析研究。方法选取于2014年2月~2015年9月期间在我院接受治疗的产褥感染患者63例,并随机分为常规治疗组(30例)和过氧化氢组(33例),观察甲硝唑常规治疗和过氧化氢治疗的效果并比较。结果过氧化氢组患者的显效率为66.7%,治疗总有效率为90.9%,均高于常规治疗组的40%和73.3%;同时过氧化氢组患者的发热持续时间、症状持续时间以及住院时间均短于常规治疗组,组间差异经t检验,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论过氧化氢应用于产褥感染治疗中的效果确切,对患者临床症状的改善以及生活治疗的提高均具有十分重要的临床作用和意义。

  14. Hydrogen plasma treatment of very thin p-type nanocrystalline Si films grown by RF-PECVD in the presence of B(CH33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Alexandrovich Filonovich, Hugo Águas, Tito Busani, António Vicente, Andreia Araújo, Diana Gaspar, Marcia Vilarigues, Joaquim Leitão, Elvira Fortunato and Rodrigo Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the structure and electrical properties of p-type nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and explored optimization methods of such layers for potential applications in thin-film solar cells. Particular attention was paid to the characterization of very thin (~20 nm films. The cross-sectional morphology of the layers was studied by fitting the ellipsometry spectra using a multilayer model. The results suggest that the crystallization process in a high-pressure growth regime is mostly realized through a subsurface mechanism in the absence of the incubation layer at the substrate-film interface. Hydrogen plasma treatment of a 22-nm-thick film improved its electrical properties (conductivity increased more than ten times owing to hydrogen insertion and Si structure rearrangements throughout the entire thickness of the film.

  15. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  16. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  17. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate treatment reduces hydrogen sulfide emissions and the sulfate reducing bacteria population of swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented, and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with more intensive livestock production and are of particular concern due to its acute toxicity. Num...

  18. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  19. Hydrogen peroxide as pre-treatment stressor in experimental immer-sion challenge of rainbow trout fry with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    . Non-medical therapeutic substances are routinely used against pathogens in aquacultures, including copper sulphate, chloramine-T, sodium carbonates, sodium chloride, formalin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). One of the more successful immersion models used formalin as a stressor, but a less harmful...

  20. Time and concentration dependency in the potentially affected fraction of species: the case of hydrogen peroxide treatment of ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Ebbens, E.; Jak, R.G.; Huijbregts, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transport of large volumes of ballast water contributes greatly to invasions of species. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of exotic species via ballast water. Instead of using environmental risk assessment techniques for protecting a certain fraction of th

  1. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  2. Comparative Study on Oxidative Treatments of NAPL Containing Chlorinated Ethanes and Ethenes using Hydrogen Peroxide and Persulfate in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to assess the oxidation of NAPL in soil, 30% of which were composed of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (CHP), activated persulfate (AP), and H2O2–persulfate (HP) co-amendment systems. Citrate, a buffer and iron ligand,...

  3. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor c

  4. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  5. Hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Sloan, E.D.

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of hydrogen. The invention relates especially to storing hydrogen in a clathrate hydrate. The clathrate hydrate according to the present invention originates from a composition, which comprises water and hydrogen, as well as a promotor compound. The promotor comp

  6. Hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is the primary chemical hazard in natural gas production in 'sour' gas fields. It is also a hazard in sewage treatment and manure-containment operations, construction in wetlands, pelt processing, certain types of pulp and paper production, and any situation in which organic material decays or inorganic sulphides exist under reducing conditions. H2S dissociates into free sulphide in the circulation. Sulphide binds to many macromolecules, among them cytochrome oxidase. Although this is undoubtedly an important mechanism of toxicity due to H2S, there may be others H2S provides little opportunity for escape at high concentrations because of the olfactory paralysis it causes, the steep exposure-response relationships, and the characteristically sudden loss of consciousness it can cause which is colloquially termed 'knockdown.' Other effects may include mucosal irritation, which is associated at lower concentrations with a keratoconjunctivitis called 'gas eye' and at higher concentrations with risk of pulmonary oedema. Chronic central nervous system sequelae may possibly follow repeated knockdowns: this is controversial and the primary effects of H2S may be confounded by anoxia or head trauma. Treatment is currently empirical, with a combination of nitrite and hyperbaric oxygen preferred. The treatment regimen is not ideal and carries some risk.

  7. Physicochemical, structural and induced ferromagnetic properties of Co–In-codoped CdO synthesised via Cd chloride: significant effect of post-treatment hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A DAKHEL; W E ALNASER

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle solid solution powders of cadmium oxide doped with different concentrations of cobalt and indium ions were synthesised by solvothermal method through CdCl$_2$·H$_2$O precursor route. The objective of the present work is to study and develop conditions necessary to create stable room-temperature ferromagnets (RTFMs) in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) CdO for applications in the field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). To achieve this aim, cobalt (Co$^{2+}$) dopant ions were used as a source of stable FM, while In$^{3+}$ dopant ions supply free electrons that enhance the electronic medium of interaction. The electronic medium in the host CdO lattice,which carries the long-range spin–spin ($S.S$) exchange interaction between localised Co$^{2+}$ (3d) spins of dopant ions, was further developed by annealing in hydrogen gas (hydrogenation). The crystalline structure of the powder samples was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The optical absorption properties were studied by diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Magnetic measurements reveal that the Co–In-codoped CdO powder has FM properties superimposed on paramagnetic (PM) behaviour. However, annealing in hydrogen atmosphere strongly boosts the created FMso that the saturation magnetisation increases $\\sim$90 times. Physical explanations and discussion are given in the article. Thus, it is proved that the magnetic properties could be tailored to TCO CdO by Co-doping and post-treatment under H$_2$ atmosphere.

  8. Enhanced electrical characteristics of a-Si thin films by hydrogen passivation with Nd3+:YAG laser treatment in underwater for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Y. Esther Blesso; Vasa, Nilesh J.

    2017-08-01

    Post deposition underwater treatment with a nanosecond Nd3+:YAG laser is proposed and demonstrated for the passivation of electrical defects in 400-1000 nm-thick a-Si thin films needed for solar cells. The proposed pulsed laser beam-overlap technique also allows simultaneous annealing and texturing. Atomic hydrogen, oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals activated by the breakdown of water by laser heating passivate the dangling bonds in the crystal grains, improving the solar cell performance. The presence of hydrogen observed after water annealing using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) shows that the passivation improvement is caused by diffusion of atomic hydrogen. After underwater annealing, relative improvement in the life time of minority carriers was measured to be approximately 13% and the efficiency of n-aSi/p-cSi solar cells is found to be increased ( 2 to 3%) when compared to that in air.

  9. Present situation of treatment of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning%职业性急性硫化氢中毒救治现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启荣

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a main occupational hazard factor that threatens life and health of workers in China.The acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning has high incidence rate,develops rapidly,and its treatment is difficult,which the fatality rate is very high.The on-site treatment measures and comprehensive therapy is very important on rehabilitation of hydrogen sulfide poisoning.The comprehensive therapy,including the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation,application of special antidote (DMAP),early administration of large dose of glucocorticoid,ultrasonic atomizing inhalation,application of hyoscyamine drugs and naloxone,hyperbaric oxygen therapy,maintaining the important organs'function,redressing acid-base imbalances and electrolyte disorfer,is the effective treatment measure for improving the rescue success rate,reducing mortality and sequela.%硫化氢是我国威胁劳动者生命及健康的重要职业病危害因素,急性硫化氢中毒发病率高,病情发展迅猛,救治比较困难,病死率极高.现场救治措施及综合治疗对硫化氢中毒的康复至关重要.心肺复苏、特效解毒药物DMAP的使用,早期大剂量糖皮质激素的使用、超声雾化吸入、莨菪碱类药物、纳洛酮的使用、高压氧治疗、维持重要脏器功能、纠正酸碱失衡及电解质紊乱等综合治疗,是提高抢救成功率、降低死亡率、减少后遗症发生的有效治疗措施.

  10. Evidence for excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in 4-chlorosalicylic acid from combined experimental and computational studies: Quantum chemical treatment of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.guchhait@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and computational studies on the photophysics of 4-chlorosalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopically established ESIPT reaction substantiated by theoretical calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical treatment of IMHB unveils strength, nature and directional nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superiority of quantum chemical treatment of H-bond over geometric criteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of H-bond as a modulator of aromaticity. -- Abstract: The photophysical study of a pharmaceutically important chlorine substituted derivative of salicylic acid viz., 4-chlorosalicylic acid (4ClSA) has been carried out by steady-state absorption, emission and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. A large Stokes shifted emission band with negligible solvent polarity dependence marks the spectroscopic signature of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction in 4ClSA. Theoretical calculation by ab initio and Density Functional Theory methods yields results consistent with experimental findings. Theoretical potential energy surfaces predict the occurrence of proton transfer in S{sub 1}-state. Geometrical and energetic criteria, Atoms-In-Molecule topological parameters, Natural Bond Orbital population analysis have been exploited to evaluate the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction and to explore its directional nature. The inter-correlation between aromaticity and resonance assisted H-bond is also discussed in this context. Our results unveil that the quantum chemical treatment is a more accurate tool to assess hydrogen bonding interaction in comparison to geometrical criteria.

  11. Electrically Conducting Polymer-Copper Sulphide Composite Films, Preparation by Treatment of Polymer-Copper (2) Acetate Composites with Hydrogen Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takakazu; Kamigaki, Takahira; Kubota, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    Polymer copper sulfide composite films were prepared by treatment of polymer poly(vinyl chloride), poly(acrylonitrile), copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate (90:10), and ABS resin copper (2) acetate composites with hydrogen sulfide. The films showed electrical conductivity higher than 0.015 S/cm when they contained more than 20 wt percent of copper sulfide. A poly(acrylonitrile)-copper sulfide composite film containing 40 to 50 wt percent of copper sulfide showed electrical conductivity of 10 to 150.0 S/cm and had relatively high mechanical strength to be used in practical purposes.

  12. Structural, optical, and ferromagnetic characterization of Sm-doped LaOCl nanocrystalline synthesized by solvothermal route: Significant effect of hydrogen post treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhel, A.A.

    2016-09-15

    Pure and Sm-doped lanthanum oxychloride (LaOCl) nanomaterials were synthesized by solvothermal route followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The objective of the present work is to study and develop conditions required to create stable room-temperature ferromagnetic (RT-FM) properties in LaOCl. To achieve that aim, magnetic samarium Sm{sup 3+} ions were used as dopant sources for stable FM properties. Systematic structural, optical, and magnetic properties of undoped and Sm-doped LaOCl samples were investigated as function of post-annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere). The optical absorption properties were studied by diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The magnetic measurements reveal that Sm-doped LaOCl nanopowders have partial RT-FM properties due to the doped ions. The variations of magnetic properties with pre-annealing temperature were investigated. Furthermore, the electronic medium of host LaOCl crystalline lattice, which carries the spin-spin (S.S) exchange interaction between localised dopant Sm{sup 3+}(4f{sup 5}) spins, was developed by annealing in hydrogen gas (hydrogenation). It was established that annealing in hydrogen atmosphere boosts the RT-FM properties so that the saturation magnetisation could be increased by more than 100%. Physical explanations and discussions were given in this paper. Thus, it was proved that the magnetic properties could be tailored to diamagnetic LaOCl compound by Sm-doping and post treatment under H{sub 2} atmosphere. Therefore, LaOCl nanocrystals could be used as a potential candidate for optical phosphor applications with magnetic properties. - Graphical abstract: M-H dependence of Sm-doped LaOCl powders. Study the effect of hydrogenation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Sm-doped LaOCl nanoparticles. • DM LaOCl transforms to FM with dilute concentration of Sm doping. • Annealing under H{sub 2} atmosphere induces drastic boost in the FM properties. • Saturation magnetization attained 29 memu

  13. Chemical-structural changes during the thermal treatment of hydrogen-rich vitrinites caused by the presence of terpene-type resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, M.J. [Area de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Cuesta, M.J.; Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Laggoun-Defarge, F. [UMR 6531/FR 09 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 45067 Orleans, Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-10-15

    The vitrain from Teruel (North-Eastern Spain) is a good example of a vitrinite whose perhydrous character and anomalous properties are caused by the presence of terpene-type resin. The sample used in this work was isothermally pyrolysed in an open-medium system at temperatures ranging from 250 to 500{sup o}C. A mass balance, a petrographic and geochemical characterisation of the pyrolysates and compositional and structural analyses (GC and NMR) of the generated oils were performed. The results confirm the association of huminite-resinous substances through covalent bonds and also point to the possible incorporation of aliphatic material via covalent oxygen bonds. The side-chains that serve as linkers between the phenolic subunits derived from the lignin contain more labile thermal bonds than those present in other vitrinites not affected by resin saturation. Consequently, this type of vitrinite undergoes a more intense degradation at lower temperatures than non-perhydrous and other hydrogen-rich vitrinites. The vitrinite network itself due to the incorporation of resin-like substances (cycloparaffinic in nature) may serve as a hydrogen donor, enhancing the hydrogenation processes during pyrolysis with respect to the polymerisation and recombination reactions. The higher ability of hydrogen to stabilise the free radicals formed during pyrolysis explains the higher conversion to liquids at lower temperatures than in the case of non-perhydrous vitrinites. At the same time, this ability limits the growth of the aromatic structures. The evolution of the vitrinite modified by the presence of terpene-type resin is, thus, retarded with respect to non-perhydrous vitrinites, although in both cases the trend followed is very close. In contrast the trend of this type of vitrinite differs considerably from that of perhydrous vitrinites which are affected by hydrocarbon impregnation. Only for the most severe treatments (450/500{sup o}C) was some degree of structural uniformity

  14. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Content on the Preparation of Peroxotitanate Materials for the Treatment of Radioactive Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wein-Duo Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of peroxotitanate using hydrogen peroxide significantly improved the ion-exchange capacity of titanate materials as sorbents for metal ions contained in a radioactive waste simulant solution. The effects of hydrogen peroxide content (hydrogen peroxide/titanium isopropoxide molar ratios, hereafter expressed as H/T on the properties of as-prepared titanate synthesized at 130°C and at pH of 6-7, followed by freeze-drying, were investigated. The peroxotitanate materials thus obtained were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, EDX, ICP, and Raman spectroscopy. At an H/T ratio of 2, peroxotitanate predominantly exhibited an amorphous structure, with a clearly observed tubular or fibrous structure. Furthermore, peroxotitanate modified at an H/T ratio of 2 exhibited the best ion-exchange capacity of 191 mg g−1 for metal ions contained in a radioactive waste simulant solution. Hence, these peroxotitanate materials are suitable for removing metal ions from wastewater, especially lanthanide ions (Ln3+ and Sr2+.

  15. Copper(ii) tungstate nanoflake array films: sacrificial template synthesis, hydrogen treatment, and their application as photoanodes in solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dianyi; Diao, Peng; Xu, Di; Xia, Mengyang; Gu, Yue; Wu, Qingyong; Li, Chao; Yang, Shubin

    2016-03-01

    We report the preparation of CuWO4 nanoflake (NF) array films by using a solid phase reaction method in which WO3 NFs were employed as sacrificial templates. The SEM, TEM and XRD results demonstrated that the obtained CuWO4 films possessed a network structure that was composed of single crystalline NFs intersected with each other. The CuWO4 NF films showed superior photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity to other CuWO4 photoanodes reported recently for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We attributed the high activity to the unique morphological and crystalline structure of the CuWO4 film, which enhanced the photoactivity by providing a large specific area, a short hole transport distance from the inside of CuWO4 to the CuWO4/solution interface, and a low grain boundary density. Hydrogen treatment by annealing the CuWO4 NF film in mixed gases of H2 and Ar could further enhance the photoactivity, as hydrogen treatment significantly increased the electron density of CuWO4 by generating oxygen vacancy in the lattice. The photocurrent density for OER obtained on the hydrogen-treated (H-treated) CuWO4 NF film is the largest ever reported on CuWO4 photoanodes in the literature. Moreover, the CuWO4 photoanodes exhibit good stability in weak alkaline solution, while the H-treated CuWO4 photoanodes exhibit acceptable stability. This work not only reveals the potential of CuWO4 as a photoanode material for solar water splitting but also shows that the construction of nanostructured CuWO4 photoanodes is a promising method to achieve high PEC activity toward OER.We report the preparation of CuWO4 nanoflake (NF) array films by using a solid phase reaction method in which WO3 NFs were employed as sacrificial templates. The SEM, TEM and XRD results demonstrated that the obtained CuWO4 films possessed a network structure that was composed of single crystalline NFs intersected with each other. The CuWO4 NF films showed superior photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity to other CuWO4

  16. Structural, optical, and ferromagnetic characterization of Sm-doped LaOCl nanocrystalline synthesized by solvothermal route: Significant effect of hydrogen post treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhel, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pure and Sm-doped lanthanum oxychloride (LaOCl) nanomaterials were synthesized by solvothermal route followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The objective of the present work is to study and develop conditions required to create stable room-temperature ferromagnetic (RT-FM) properties in LaOCl. To achieve that aim, magnetic samarium Sm3+ ions were used as dopant sources for stable FM properties. Systematic structural, optical, and magnetic properties of undoped and Sm-doped LaOCl samples were investigated as function of post-annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere). The optical absorption properties were studied by diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The magnetic measurements reveal that Sm-doped LaOCl nanopowders have partial RT-FM properties due to the doped ions. The variations of magnetic properties with pre-annealing temperature were investigated. Furthermore, the electronic medium of host LaOCl crystalline lattice, which carries the spin-spin (S.S) exchange interaction between localised dopant Sm3+(4f5) spins, was developed by annealing in hydrogen gas (hydrogenation). It was established that annealing in hydrogen atmosphere boosts the RT-FM properties so that the saturation magnetisation could be increased by more than 100%. Physical explanations and discussions were given in this paper. Thus, it was proved that the magnetic properties could be tailored to diamagnetic LaOCl compound by Sm-doping and post treatment under H2 atmosphere. Therefore, LaOCl nanocrystals could be used as a potential candidate for optical phosphor applications with magnetic properties.

  17. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10-80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59-83%, compared to 13-23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS.

  18. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, X R; Blanes-Vidal, V

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect on average NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S emissions both during the process and from stored slurry after venting treatments. During aeration treatment, the NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S release pattern observed was related to the liquid turbulence caused by the gas bubbles rather than to biological oxidation processes in this study.

  19. Effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide and electron-beam irradiation treatment for removal and inactivation of viruses in equine-derived xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusinato, Riccardo; Pacenti, Monia; Martello, Thomas; Fattori, Paolo; Morroni, Marco; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Bone grafting is a common procedure for bone reconstruction in dentistry, orthopedics, and neurosurgery. A wide range of grafts are currently used, and xenografts are regarded as an interesting alternative to autogenous bone because all mammals share the same bone mineral component composition and morphology. Antigens must be eliminated from bone grafts derived from animal tissues in order to make them biocompatible. Moreover, the processing method must also safely inactivate and/or remove viruses or other potential infectious agents. This study assessed the efficacy of two steps applied in manufacturing some equine-derived xenografts: hydrogen-peroxide and e-beam sterilization treatments for inactivation and removal of viruses in equine bone granules (cortical and cancellous) and collagen and pericardium membranes. Viruses belonging to three different human viral species (Herpes simplex virus type 1, Coxsackievirus B1, and Influenzavirus type A H1N1) were selected and used to spike semi-processed biomaterials. For each viral species, the tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) on cell lines and the number of genome copies through qPCR were assessed. Both treatments were found to be effective at virus inactivation. Considering the model viruses studied, the application of hydrogen peroxide and e-beam irradiation could also be considered effective for processing bone tissue of human origin.

  20. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year.

  1. Treatment of odorous sulphur compounds by chemical scrubbing with hydrogen peroxide--stabilisation of the scrubbing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Isabelle; Couvert, Annabelle; Laplanche, Alain; Renner, Christophe; Patria, Lucie; Requieme, Benoît

    2006-12-15

    To slow down the hydrogen peroxide decomposition in basic aqueous conditions, the addition of stabilizers and co-stabilizers in the scrubbing solution was investigated. Results found with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) were quite promising but several problems still remained. Based on these observations, this study focused on the research of a better stabilizer. Several ways were investigated: the use of silicate solutions employed in pulp industries, the addition of co-stabilizers to sodium silicate, or the use of an another stabilizer (the poly-alpha-hydroxyacrylic acid). Experiments revealed that the poly-alpha-hydroxyacrylic acid is the best stabilizing compound.

  2. The Effect of Preheating Treatment and non-simultaneous Addition of Chemicals on the Efficiency of Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching of Chemi-mechanical pulp(CMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Behrooz

    2011-12-01

    Results obtained from measuring optical and physical properties of handsheets showed that in all treatments at the same peroxide charge, non-simultaneous addition of chemicalswithpretreatment (process 3 caused better improvement in brightness and density of the paper. Also opacity، yellowness and caliper were lower in this process than the others. To reach a given brightness, hydrogen peroxide can be decreased. Therefore, by using the modified bleaching process we can economize on consumption of chemicals, by decreasing peroxide and alkali consumption at 1% and 23.8% to reach a given brightness. Also, COD load in this process at both levels of peroxide was lower than the other processes and therefore, it may decrease environmental contamination and effluent treatment requirement.

  3. Hydrogen Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The series of absorption or emission lines that are characteristic of the hydrogen atom. According to the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom, devised by Danish physicist Neils Bohr (1885-1962) in 1913, the hydrogen atom can be envisaged as consisting of a central nucleus (a proton) around which a single electron revolves. The electron is located in one of a number of possible permitted orbits, each...

  4. Fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth submitted to bleaching treatment with hydrogen peroxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles photoactivated by LED-laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cristina JORDÃO-BASSO

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth after bleaching treatment using 15% hydrogen peroxide plus titanium dioxide nanoparticles (15HPTiO2 photoactivated by LED-laser, in comparison with protocols using 35% hydrogen peroxide (35HP, 37% carbamide peroxide (37CP or sodium perborate (SP. Material and method: After endodontic treatment, fifty bovine extracted incisors were divided into five groups (n = 10: G1- without bleaching; G2- 35HP; G3- 37CP; G4- 15HPTiO2 photoactivated by LED-laser and G5- SP. In G2 and G4, the bleaching protocol was applied in 4 sessions, with a 7 day interval between each session. In G3 and G5, the materials were kept in the pulp chamber for 21 days, but replaced every 7 days. After 21 days, the crowns were subjected to compressive load at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min, applied at 135° to the long axis of the root using an eletromechanical testing machine, until fracture. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05. Result: The bleaching treatment in endodontically-treated teeth with 15HP plus TiO2 nanoparticles and photoactivated by LED-laser caused reduction of the fracture resistance similarly provided by 35HP, 37CP or SP (p>0.05. All bleaching treatments reduced the fracture resistance compared to unbleached teeth (p<0.05. Conclusion: All bleaching protocols reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth, but there were no differences between each other.

  5. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen... group. Eggs: Some strains of rainbow trout eggs are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide treatment at a time...

  6. STUDY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lupascu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground water, after its treatment by hydrogen peroxide, proves greater efficiency than in the case of modified carbonic adsorbents. As a result of used treatment, hydrogen sulfide is completely oxidized to sulfates

  7. Hydrogen Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  8. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with superior water-dispersibility and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chung-Yi; Tu, Kuan-Ju; Lo, Yu-Shiu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, College of Nuclear Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Pang, Yean Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wu, Chien-Hou, E-mail: chwu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, College of Nuclear Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment was proposed as a simple and green way to improve the performance of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder for water-dispersibility and visible-light photocatalytic activity on the degradation of dye pollutants. The performance of treated TiO{sub 2} was evaluated as a function of NaOH concentration, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, and treatment time. The optimal conditions were determined to be 24 h in 100 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 8 M NaOH. The treated samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The analysis revealed that the crystal structure, morphology, and absorption band gap were retained, but the surface of the treated TiO{sub 2} was dramatically changed. The treated TiO{sub 2} was highly dispersible with a uniform hydrodynamic size of 41 ± 12 nm and stable over months in water at pH 3 without any stabilizing ligand and could significantly enhance the visible-light photodegradation of dye pollutants. The superior performance might be attributed to the formation of abundant surface hydroxyl groups. This treatment paves the way for developing water-dispersible TiO{sub 2} with superior visible-light induced photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants without any complicated and expensive surface modification. - Highlights: • Alkaline hydrogen peroxide is proposed to treat commercial TiO{sub 2} powder. • The treated TiO{sub 2} powder exhibits superior water-dispersibility with a uniform size distribution. • The treated TiO{sub 2} powder can significantly enhance the visible-light photodegradation of dyes.

  9. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  10. Hydrogen carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  11. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from CdS-ZnO-CdO systems under visible light irradiation: Effect of thermal treatment and presence of Pt and Ru cocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, R.M.; del Valle, F.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    A CdS-CdO-ZnO mixture annealed at different temperatures and loaded with Ru or Pt cocatalysts has been investigated in the production of hydrogen from aqueous solutions containing SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}+S{sup 2-} as sacrificial reagents under visible light. The physicochemical characterization of the CdS-CdO-ZnO catalyst revealed significant changes in the crystalline structure and visible light absorption capacity as a result of thermal treatments. Catalytic activity was found to be strongly dependent on physicochemical changes associated with thermal annealing. Hydrogen evolution over the CdS-CdO-ZnO catalyst was enhanced in the sample annealed at 773 K by the better contact between the CdS and CdO-ZnO phases, which improved physical charge separation. CdS-CdO-ZnO catalyst activity was significantly improved by the addition of Pt or Ru cocatalysts. Among the noble metals studied, activity promotion was higher for the sample loaded with Ru. The enhancement of activity associated with Ru loading is linked to a good interaction between Ru oxide particles and CdS, which reduces the possibility of electron-hole recombination, thus resulting in more efficient water splitting. (author)

  12. Effect of rapid solidification treatment on structure and electrochemical performance of low-Co AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青荣; 唐莹; 周怀营; 邓健秋; 王仲民; 潘顺康; 饶光辉; 朱其明

    2014-01-01

    The effect of rapid solidification on structure and electrochemical performance of the LaNi4.5Co0.25Al0.25 hydrogen storage alloy was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and a simulated battery test, including maximum capacity, cycling stability, self-discharge, and high-rate discharge ability (HRD). All the melt-spun alloys were single-phase with the CaCu5-type structure (space groupP6/mmm). In comparison to the as-cast alloy, the rapidly quenched alloys manifested an improved homogeneity of com-position and expanded lattice parameters. The electrochemical measurements showed that the activation property, cycling stability and self-discharge of the alloy electrodes were also improved for the rapid solidified alloys. The HRDof the as-cast alloy was better than those of all the rapidly solidified alloys. As the quenching rate increased, the HRD and exchange current density first decreased and then increased.

  13. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-10-25

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm-2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  14. In vitro evaluation of the risk of inducing bacterial resistance to disinfection treatment with photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyo Ikai

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the risk of inducing bacterial resistance to disinfection treatment with photolysis of H2O2 and comparing this with existing antibacterial agents. We tested seven antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin, cefepime hydrochloride, erythromycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, and minocycline hydrochloride, as positive controls for validation of the assay protocol. For all of the agents tested, at least one of the four bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus salivarius was resistant to these agents by repeated exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of the agents up to 10 times. In contrast, antibacterial activity against any of the bacterial species tested (S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli, S. salivarius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was not affected by repeated exposure to the disinfection treatment up to 40 times. This finding suggested that the risk of inducing bacterial resistance by disinfection treatment was low. The active ingredient of this disinfection treatment is hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H2O2. Therefore, hydroxyl radicals interact with several cell structures and different metabolic pathways in microbial cells, probably resulting in a lack of development of bacterial resistance. In conclusion, disinfection treatment with photolysis of H2O2 appears to be a potential alternative for existing antimicrobial agents in terms of a low risk of inducing bacterial resistance.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the risk of inducing bacterial resistance to disinfection treatment with photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Hiroyo; Odashima, Yu; Kanno, Taro; Nakamura, Keisuke; Shirato, Midori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the risk of inducing bacterial resistance to disinfection treatment with photolysis of H2O2 and comparing this with existing antibacterial agents. We tested seven antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin, cefepime hydrochloride, erythromycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, and minocycline hydrochloride, as positive controls for validation of the assay protocol. For all of the agents tested, at least one of the four bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus salivarius) was resistant to these agents by repeated exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of the agents up to 10 times. In contrast, antibacterial activity against any of the bacterial species tested (S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli, S. salivarius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) was not affected by repeated exposure to the disinfection treatment up to 40 times. This finding suggested that the risk of inducing bacterial resistance by disinfection treatment was low. The active ingredient of this disinfection treatment is hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H2O2. Therefore, hydroxyl radicals interact with several cell structures and different metabolic pathways in microbial cells, probably resulting in a lack of development of bacterial resistance. In conclusion, disinfection treatment with photolysis of H2O2 appears to be a potential alternative for existing antimicrobial agents in terms of a low risk of inducing bacterial resistance.

  16. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  17. Aerobic evolution of hydrogen by Enterobacter aerogenes for hydrogen production accompanied with sewage treatment; Suiso seizo wo tomonau haisui syori sisutemu no tameno Enterobacter aerogenes ni yoru kokiteki suiso hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Sasaki, Y. [Yokohama National Univaersity, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes react via the path of NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to evolve hydrogen. Aerobic evolution of hydrogen by E. aerogenes under the conditions of unsuitable nutrient and pH for growth is investigated. Hydrogenase maintains activity for longer than 40 minutes even in oxygen containing atmosphere. It is shown that bacteria held under anaerobic condition for a few hours consume oxygen immediately when placed in aerobic condition. As a result, it becomes clear that TCA cycle and electron-transfer chain are maintained even under anaerobic condition. Inactivation of hydrogen production under oxygen containing atmosphere is caused by re-oxidation of NADH utilizing mainly electron-transfer chain having better efficiency. It is considered that yield can be improved by interrupting electron transfer in NADH/oxidase composite because hydrogen evolution is possible even under aerobic condition, but the verification is postponed for future study. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Environmentally-friendly waste water treatment: Removal of ammonium nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide from oil refinery waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.; Heine, I.; Sachse, J.; Peper, H. [Holborn Europa Raffinerie GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Elster, J.

    1998-12-01

    The Holborn Europa Raffinerie (HER) in Hamburg, Germany, achieved a drastic reduction in water and air pollutants by implementation of a two step project. The first step was a modification of the H{sub 2}S-stripping of process water, which resulted ultimately in shutting down the H{sub 2}S-incinerator and conversion of the recovered H{sub 2}S to saleable elementary sulfur. Atmospheric pollution was reduced accordingly by 650 t/a SO{sub 2} and 2,200 t/a CO{sub 2}. In compliance with waste water legislation (requirements of Appendix 45, Waste Water Administrative Regulation), the ammonium nitrogen content of refinery waste water was reduced significantly in a second step. In contrast to the common biological treatment used in many refineries, it was decided to concentrate on physico-chemical treatment of the highly contaminated partstream only. To this end ammonia is effectively stripped out of the partstream under alkaline conditions, and concentrated to a 10% aqueous solution by distillation under reflux. This solution is then injected into the hot vent gas stream of the FCC-regenerator (CO-Boiler) as an NO{sub x} reduction agent, and thus disposed of in an environmentall-friendly manner. The introduction of this combination of field proven processes, namely water treatment by steam stripping and NO{sub x} reduction via SNCR, received government grant support and reduced water pollution by 250 t/a ammonium nitrogen and air pollution by 180 t/a NO{sub x}. In view of the relatively low investment and operating costs, enhanced flexibility of the existing biological water treatment plant, avoidance of additional material waste and drastic reduction of overall refinery emission, the adopted scheme is most certainly a prime example of both economical and ecological optimisation. The scheme also has future potential arising from the projected tightening up in motor fuels specifications (EU specifications for years 2000 and 2005) which will necessitate increased use of

  19. A correlative study of hydrogen peroxide accumulation after mercury or copper treatment observed in root nodules of Medicago truncatula under light, confocal and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska-Czekaj, Magdalena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metal stress affects both, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes. Mercury triggers disturbances in cellular structure and metabolism but its influence on ROS generation is poorly understood. Copper is redox active metal which in opposition to mercury is an essential micronutrient for plants. Excess of copper is cytotoxic, as it participates in ROS generation via Fenton-type reaction. The present work describes changes in hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) accumulation in response to monthly stress caused by mercury (6 mg/L HgCl₂) or copper (60 mg/L CuCl₂) in root nodules. H₂O₂ accumulation viewed with a light microscopy was detected by the use of diaminobenzidine (DAB). 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) was used as a probe for the intracellular localization of H₂O₂ with a confocal laser scanning system. H₂O₂ detection under transmission electron microscopy was performed by the use of cerium method. Histochemical localization and light and confocal microscopy investigations revealed that under Hg or Cu treatments distinct amount of H₂O₂ accumulated mainly in the interzone and nitrogen-fixing zone. Under normal conditions H₂O₂ accumulated predominantly in the interzone. Electron microscopy observations showed H₂O₂ accumulation under Hg or Cu- treatments around peribacteroid membranes of mature symbiosomes located within nitrogen-fixing zone. It should be underlined that under normal conditions H₂O₂ was not detected at the peribacteroid membranes. The main result of our observations is increased accumulation of H₂O₂ in response to mercury and copper treatments at the peribacteroidal membranes, to our knowledge shown for the first time. Therefore, our results revealed that an overproduction of H₂O₂ in response to copper or mercury-treatment may account for lowering of nitrogen fixation rates in heavy-metal affected root nodules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  1. Influences of hydrogen-induced amorphization and annealing treatment on gaseous hydrogen storage properties of La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Tingting [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Tai; Yuan, Zeming; Xu, Sheng; Bu, Wengang [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Qi, Yang [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Yanghuan, E-mail: zhangyh59@sina.com [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • The La–Mg–Ni-based AB{sub 2}-type alloys were prepared by casting. • La was substituted by a small amount of Pr in the experimental alloys. • The hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling properties of the alloys were studied. • The influences of hydrogen-induced amorphization were investigated in details. • The annealing treatment was applied to recover hydrogen storage capacity. - Abstract: La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys are prepared by vacuum induction melting. The phase composition and microstructure of the as-cast alloys is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The gaseous hydrogen absorption capacity of the alloys was measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The results indicate that the as-cast alloys consist of two phases of LaMgNi{sub 4} and LaNi{sub 5}. The maximum gaseous hydrogen storage capacity of the La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys is 1.768, 1.745, 1.721, 1.681 and 1.653 wt%, respectively, under 3 MPa H{sub 2} at 373 K. But the hydrogen storage capacity after 20 cycles decays off to 0.746, 0.843, 0.947, 1.003 and 1.10 wt%, respectively. In order to reveal the mechanism of rapid degradation of the capacity, the structures of the alloys before and after hydrogen absorption/desorption cycle were analyzed. SEM observation displays that the micro-cracks can be clearly seen on the surface of the alloy particles after 20 cycles. XRD detection finds that the repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles give rise to a obvious broadening of the diffraction peaks of the alloys, exhibiting a typical amorphous structure, which is termed as hydrogen-induced amorphization. The La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys after 20 cycles were annealed at 623 K for 8 h, finding that the hydrogen storage capacity of the alloys recovers to 1.348, 1.365, 1.50, 1.485 and 1.30 wt

  2. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide in Combination with Minimal Thermal Treatment for Reducing Bacterial Populations on Cantaloupe Rind Surfaces and Transfer to Fresh-Cut Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Geveke, David; Olanya, Modesto; Niemira, Brendan

    2016-08-01

    Surface structure and biochemical characteristics of bacteria and produce play a major role in how and where bacteria attach, complicating decontamination treatments. Whole cantaloupe rind surfaces were inoculated with Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes at 10(7) CFU/ml. Average population size of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes recovered after surface inoculation was 4.8 ± 0.12, 5.1 ± 0.14, and 3.6 ± 0.13 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Inoculated melons were stored at 5 and 22°C for 7 days before washing treatment interventions. Intervention treatments used were (i) water (H2O) at 22°C, (ii) H2O at 80°C, (iii) 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 22°C, and (iv) a combination of 3% H2O2 and H2O at 80°C for 300 s. The strength of pathogen attachment (SR value) at days 0, 3, and 7 of storage was determined, and then the efficacy of the intervention treatments to detach, kill, and reduce transfer of bacteria to fresh-cut pieces during fresh-cut preparation was investigated. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 attached to the rind surface at significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, but Salmonella exhibited the strongest attachment (SR value) at all days tested. Washing with 3% H2O2 alone led to significant reduction (P < 0.05) of bacteria and caused some changes in bacterial cell morphology. A combination treatment with H2O and 3% H2O2 at 8°C led to an average 4-log reduction of bacterial pathogens, and no bacterial pathogens were detected in fresh-cut pieces prepared from this combination treatment, including enriched fresh-cut samples. The results of this study indicate that the microbial safety of fresh-cut pieces from treated cantaloupes was improved at day 6 of storage at 5°C and day 3 of storage at 10°C.

  3. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  4. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses.

  5. Metallic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. At high pressure it is predicted to transform to a metal with remarkable properties: room temperature superconductivity, a metastable metal at ambient conditions, and a revolutionary rocket propellant. Both theory and experiment have been challenged for almost 80 years to determine its condensed matter phase diagram, in particular the insulator-metal transition. Hydrogen is predicted to dissociate to a liquid atomic metal at multi-megabar pressures and T =0 K, or at megabar pressures and very high temperatures. Thus, its predicted phase diagram has a broad field of liquid metallic hydrogen at high pressure, with temperatures ranging from thousands of degrees to zero Kelvin. In a bench top experiment using static compression in a diamond anvil cell and pulsed laser heating, we have conducted measurements on dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K. We observe a first-order phase transition in the liquid phase, as well as sharp changes in optical transmission and reflectivity when this phase is entered. The optical signature is that of a metal. The mapping of the phase line of this transition is in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions for the long-sought plasma phase transition to metallic hydrogen. Research supported by the NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  6. Treatment of nanofiltration concentrates of mature landfill leachate by a coupled process of coagulation and internal micro-electrolysis adding hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingang; Chen, Jianjun; Xie, Zhengmiao; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a coupled process of coagulation and aerated internal micro-electrolysis (IME) with the in situ addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated for the treatment of nanofiltration (NF) concentrate from mature landfill leachate. The acceptable operating conditions were determined as follows: initial pH 4, polymeric aluminium chloride dosage of 525 mg-Al2O3/L in the coagulation process, H2O2 dosage of 0.75 mM and an hydraulic retention time of 2 h in an aerated IME reactor. As a result, the removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, UV254 and colour were 79.2%, 79.6%, 81.8% and 90.8%, respectively. In addition, the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD in the final effluent increased from 0.03 to 0.31, and that of E2/E4 from 12.4 to 38.5, respectively. The results indicate that the combined process is an effective and economical way to remove organic matters and to improve the biodegradability of the NF concentrate. Coagulation process reduces the adverse impact of high-molecular-weight organic matters such as humic acids, on the aerated IME process. A proper addition of H2O2 in the aerated IME can promote the corrosion of solid iron (Fe2+/Fe3+) and cause a likely domino effect in the enhancement of removal efficiencies.

  7. UV—Catalytic Treatment of Municipal Solid—Waste Landfill Leachate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TahirImranQURESHI; Hong-TaeKIM; 等

    2002-01-01

    Theperformance of UV/H2O2,UV/O3,and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for the treatment of municipal solid-waste landfill leachate was investigated. Main objective of the experiment was to remove total organic carbon(TOC),non-biodegradable organic compounds (NBDOC) and color.In UV/H2O2 oxidation experiment, with the increase of H2O2 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system H2O2 alone. In UV/H2O2 oxidation,under the optimum condition H2O2(0.2time),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 78.9% and 95.5%, respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.366.In UV/O3 oxidation,with the increase of O3 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with BOD/COD ratio of the effluent were increased and a beter performance was obtained than the system O3 alone.Under the optimum condition UV/O3(50mg·min-1),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 61.0% and 87.2%,respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.323. In UV/H2O2/O3 system,color removal and BOD/COD ratio were improved further and TOC removal efficiency was found to be 30.4% higher than the system UV/O3 without H2O2.

  8. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on the activity and stability of carbon supported PtMo alloy electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Carreras, Alejo; Trincavelli, Jorge; Ticianelli, Edson Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the activity, stability and CO tolerance of PtMo/C catalysts was studied, due to their applicability in the anode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). To this purpose, a carbon supported PtMo (60:40) alloy electrocatalyst was synthesized by the formic acid reduction method, and samples of this catalyst were heat-treated at various temperatures ranging between 400 and 700 °C. The samples were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS). Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the stability, and polarization curves were used to investigate the performance of all materials as CO tolerant anode on a PEM single cell text fixture. The catalyst treated at 600 °C, for which the average crystallite size was 16.7 nm, showed the highest hydrogen oxidation activity in the presence of CO, giving an overpotential induced by CO contamination of 100 mV at 1 Acm-2. This catalyst also showed a better stability up to 5000 potential cycles of cyclic voltammetry, as compared to the untreated catalyst. CV, SEM and WDS results indicated that a partial dissolution of Mo and its migration/diffusion from the anode to the cathode occurs during the single cell cycling. Polarization results showed that the catalytic activity and the stability can be improved by a heat treatment, in spite of a growth of the catalyst particles.

  10. Changes in Gene Transcription Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 Serotypes on Romaine Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gui-Ying; Tang, Joshua; Bach, Susan; Kostrzynska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes associated with leafy green vegetables are becoming a growing concern. A better understanding of the behavior of VTEC, particularly non-O157 serotypes, on lettuce under stress conditions is necessary for designing more effective control strategies. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a sanitizer to reduce the microbial load in leafy green vegetables, particularly in fresh produce destined for the organic market. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2O2 treatment of contaminated lettuce affects in the same manner transcription of stress-associated and virulence genes in VTEC strains representing O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Six VTEC isolates representing serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:NM, O145:NM, and O157:H7 were included in this study. The results indicate that 50 mM H2O2 caused a population reduction of 2.4–2.8 log10 (compared to non-treated control samples) in all six VTEC strains present on romaine lettuce. Following the treatment, the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress (oxyR and sodA), general stress (uspA and rpoS), starvation (phoA), acid stress (gadA, gadB, and gadW), and virulence (stx1A, stx2A, and fliC) were dramatically downregulated in all six VTEC serotypes (P ≤ 0.05) compared to not treated control samples. Therefore, VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce showed similar survival rates and gene transcription profiles in response to 50 mM H2O2 treatment. Thus, the results derived from this study provide a basic understanding of the influence of H2O2 treatment on the survival and virulence of VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce.

  11. Photoelectron emission yield experiments on evolution of sub-gap states in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films with post deposition hydrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kazushi, E-mail: hayashi.kazushi@kobelco.com; Hino, Aya; Tao, Hiroaki; Ochi, Mototaka; Goto, Hiroshi; Kugimiya, Toshihiro [Electronics Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 1-5-5 Takatsuka-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    Total photoyield emission spectroscopy (TPYS) was applied to study the evolution of sub-gap states in hydrogen-treated amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. The a-IGZO thin films were subjected to hydrogen radicals and subsequently annealed in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. A clear onset of the electron emission was observed at around 4.3 eV from the hydrogen-treated a-IGZO thin films. After successive UHV annealing at 300 °C, the onset in the TPYS spectra was shifted to 4.15 eV, and the photoelectron emission from the sub-gap states was decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. In conjunction with the results of thermal desorption spectrometer, it was deduced that the hydrogen atoms incorporated in the a-IGZO thin films induced metastable sub-gap states at around 4.3 eV from vacuum level just after the hydrogenation. It was also suggested that the defect configuration was changed due to the higher temperature UHV annealing, and that the hydrogen atoms desorbed with the involvement of Zn atoms. These experiments produced direct evidence to show the formation of sub-gap states as a result of hydrogen incorporation into the a-IGZO thin films.

  12. Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas as a Treatment against P. falciparum, Murine Cerebral Malaria, and the Importance of Thiolation State in the Development of Cerebral Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellavalle, Brian; Staalsoe, Trine; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a potentially fatal cerebrovascular disease of complex pathogenesis caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a physiological gas, similar to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, involved in cellular metabolism, vascular tension, inflammation, and cell death...

  13. Temperature Dependence of the Elastic Modulus of (Ni0.6Nb0.41−xZrx Membranes: Effects of Thermal Treatments and Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriele Palumbo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous (Ni0.6Nb0.41−xZrx membranes were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and tensile modulus measurements. Crystallization occurs only above 673 K, and even after hydrogenation the membranes retain their mainly amorphous nature. However, after exposure to gaseous hydrogen, the temperature dependence of the tensile modulus, M, displays large variations. The modulus of the hydrogen reacted membrane is higher with respect to the pristine samples in the temperature range between 298 K and 423 K. Moreover, a sharp drop in M is observed upon heating to approximately 473 K, well below the glass transition temperature of these glasses. We propose that the changes in the moduli as a function of temperature on the hydrogenated samples are due to the formation of nanocrystalline phases of Zr hydrides in (Ni0.6Nb0.41−xZrx-H membanes.

  14. Explicit treatment of hydrogen bonds in the universal force field: Validation and application for metal-organic frameworks, hydrates, and host-guest complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Heine, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    A straightforward means to include explicit hydrogen bonds within the Universal Force Field (UFF) is presented. Instead of treating hydrogen bonds as non-bonded interaction subjected to electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potentials, we introduce an explicit bond with a negligible bond order, thus maintaining the structural integrity of the H-bonded complexes and avoiding the necessity to assign arbitrary charges to the system. The explicit hydrogen bond changes the coordination number of the acceptor site and the approach is thus most suitable for systems with under-coordinated atoms, such as many metal-organic frameworks; however, it also shows an excellent performance for other systems involving a hydrogen-bonded framework. In particular, it is an excellent means for creating starting structures for molecular dynamics and for investigations employing more sophisticated methods. The approach is validated for the hydrogen bonded complexes in the S22 dataset and then employed for a set of metal-organic frameworks from the Computation-Ready Experimental database and several hydrogen bonded crystals including water ice and clathrates. We show that the direct inclusion of hydrogen bonds reduces the maximum error in predicted cell parameters from 66% to only 14%, and the mean unsigned error is similarly reduced from 14% to only 4%. We posit that with the inclusion of hydrogen bonding, the solvent-mediated breathing of frameworks such as MIL-53 is now accessible to rapid UFF calculations, which will further the aim of rapid computational scanning of metal-organic frameworks while providing better starting points for electronic structure calculations.

  15. Heavy metals removal from acid mine drainage water using biogenic hydrogen sulphide and effluent from anaerobic treatment: Effect of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A.M. [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Carretera de Utrera, km 1. 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Duran-Barrantes, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez, s/n, 41071 Sevilla (Spain); Borja, R., E-mail: rborja@cica.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E.; Colmenarejo, M.F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, C/Serrano, 115-duplicado, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Raposo, F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Four alternatives (runs A, B, C and D) for heavy metals removal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Al) from acid mine drainage water (AMDW) produced in the mining areas of the Huelva Province, Spain, were evaluated. In run A, the anaerobic effluent from the treatment of acid mine drainage water (cheese whey added as a source of carbon) was mixed with the raw AMDW. The pH increased to 3.5 with the addition of KOH. In run B, biogas with around 30% of hydrogen sulphide obtained in the anaerobic reactor was sparged to the mixture obtained in run A, but in this case at a pH of 5.5. In run C, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 3.5 by the addition of KOH solution. Finally, in run D, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 5.5 by the addition of KOH solution and further biogas was sparged under the same conditions as in run A. It was found that heavy metal removal was a function of pH. At a pH of 3.5 most of the iron was removed while Zn and Cu were partially removed. At a pH of 5.5 the removal of all metals increased considerably. The best results were obtained in run B where the percentages of removal of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al achieved values of 91.3, 96.1, 79.0 and 99.0%, respectively. According to the experimental results obtained tentative schemas of the flow diagram of the processes were proposed.

  16. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  17. Activation of AMPK protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced osteoblast apoptosis through autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance: new implications for osteonecrosis treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Chang; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhen, Yun-fang; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Qi-rong

    2014-01-01

    Elevated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, serving as an important contributor to the development of osteonecrosis. Here we aimed to understand the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the process. We observed a high level of AMPK activation in surgery isolated patients' osteonecrosis tissues. In cultured osteoblastoma MG63 cells, H2O2 stimulation induced significant AMPK activation, oxidative stress, cell death and apoptosis. Inhibition of AMPK by its inhibitor (compound C) or by shRNA-mediated knockdown dramatically enhanced H2O2-induced MG63 cell apoptosis, while over-expression of AMPK in HEK-293 cells alleviated H2O2-induced cell damage. These results confirmed that H2O2-activated AMPK is pro-cell survival. We observed that H2O2 induced protective autophagy in MG63 cells, and AMPK-dependent Ulk1 activation and mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inactivation might involve autophagy activation. Further, AMPK activation inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative stress, probably through inhibiting NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) depletion, since more NADPH depletion and oxidative stress were induced by H2O2 in AMPK deficient MG63 cells. Finally, we observed a significant AMPK activation in H2O2-treated primary cultured and transformed (MC3T3-E1) osteoblasts, and AMPK inhibitor compound C enhanced death by H2O2 in these cells. Based on these results, we concluded that H2O2-induced AMPK activation is pro-survival and anti-apoptosis in osteoblasts. Autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance are involved in AMPK-mediated pro-survival effects. AMPK might represent a novel molecular target for osteonecrosis treatment.

  18. Hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage for hydrogen and methane production in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under high organic loading rate (OLR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic hydrogen and methane production from cassava stillage in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the heat-pretreatment of inoculum did not enhance hydrogen yield compared to raw inoculum under mesophilic condition after continuous operation. However, the hydrogen yield increased from about 14 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under mesophilic condition to 69.6 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under thermophilic condition due to the decrease of propionate concentration and inhibition of homoacetogens. Therefore, temperature was demonstrated to be more important than pretreatment of inoculum to enhance the hydrogen production. Under high organic loading rate (OLR) (>10 gVS/(L.d)), the two-phase thermophilic CSTR for hydrogen and methane production was stable with hydrogen and methane yields of 56.6 mlH{sub 2}/gVS and 249 mlCH{sub 4}/gVS. The one-phase thermophilic CSTR for methane production failed due to the accumulation of both acetate and propionate, leading to the pH lower than 6. Instead of propionate alone, the accumulations of both acetate and propionate were found to be related to the breakdown of methane reactor. (author)

  20. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  1. Accidental Ingestion of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizing agent with a variety of uses depending on its concentration. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide is not an uncommon source of poisoning, and results in morbidity through three main mechanisms: direct caustic injury, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. A case of a 39-year-old man who inadvertently ingested 250 mL of unlabelled 35% hydrogen peroxide intended for natural health use is presented. Hydrogen peroxide has purported benefits ranging from HIV treatment to cancer treatment. Its use in the natural health industry represents an emerging source for accidental poisonings.

  2. On-line monitoring of gas-phase bioreactors for biogas treatment: hydrogen sulfide and sulfide analysis by automated flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Rosa; Cunha Machado, Vinicius; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria (ETSE), Bellaterra (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Edifici C-Nord, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Grup de Sensors i Biosensors, Departament de Quimica, Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Biogas is produced by biological processes under anaerobic conditions and may contain up to 20,000 ppm{sub v} hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a corrosive substance that attacks power engines and can affect the health of the industrial staff. H{sub 2}S must be removed from the biogas, especially in co-generation facilities where the biogas is burnt for energy production. Nowadays, biofiltration is being studied and considered as an interesting alternative for removing H{sub 2}S from the biogas besides classical chemical processes. The novelty of this work is the design and construction of an automated H{sub 2}S on-line analyser to assess the composition of the liquid and gas phases of gas-phase bioreactors. The analyser is made of two parallel flow configurations which share the same detection device. The first configuration is a single-channel flow injection analyser (FIA) to detect S{sup 2-} in the liquid phase. The second configuration is a continuous flow analyser (CFA) with a gaseous diffusion step (GD-CFA) for detecting H{sub 2}S in the gas phase. The diffusion step enables separation of the H{sub 2}S{sub (g)} from the sample and its conversion into a detectable chemical species (S{sup 2-}). S{sup 2-} detection was performed with an Ag{sub 2}S ion-selective electrode (ISE) selective to S{sup 2-}{sub (aq)}. The main response parameters of the FIA system are a linear range between 3 x 10{sup -5} and 1 x 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} S{sup 2-} (0.61-3,200 mg L{sup -1}), with a sensitivity of 27.9 mV decade{sup -1} and a detection limit of 1.93 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} S{sup 2-}. The GD-CFA configuration presents a linear range between 400 and 10,000 ppm{sub v} H{sub 2}S{sub (g)} with a sensitivity of 26.1 mV decade{sup -1} and a detection limit of 245 ppm{sub v} H{sub 2}S. The proposed analyser was used by analysing real gas and liquid samples with optimal results at a full-scale biotrickling filter for biogas treatment at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. (orig.)

  3. Hydrogen Absorption and Release Behavior in Hydrogen Decrepitation Process of Nd-Fe-B Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓东; 姜忠良; 陈秀云; 石大立; 杨昌平; 朱静

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen absorption and release in hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process of Nd-Fe-B alloys were investigated. The results reveal that the reactivity and the amount of hydrogen absorption in HD process are related to the surface activity of the alloy so that the fresh and active surface has a higher efficiency. The presence of Nd-rich phase at the grain boundary is an essential factor of the HD activity of the alloy at room temperature. On degassing, hydrogen is released from the HD powder continuously with increasing temperature. And the residual hydrogen is as low as 0.0015% at 1073 K, which shows that the hydrogen is almost exhaused. It is feasible to remove the hydrogen from the HD powder by heating treatment at the temperature of 523~723 K for 1 h prior to the magnetic field forming in order to decrease the harmful effect of hydrogen on the easy axis alignment of HD magnet.

  4. Effect on the optical and structural properties of tio2 rutile nanorods by ammonia treatments for direct photoelectrochemical hydrogen production systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Ampudia Vásquez, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen is a carbon-free alternative fuel that avoid non desirable pollutant sub products and results in total combustion. Fujishima and Honda [1] demonstrated the possibility to get hydrogen fuel by water splitting using a solar-driven titanium dioxide photoelectrode cell (PEC). As alternatives, conventional semiconductors like Si, GaAs, InP, CuInSe an CdS showed impressive efficiencies as PECs but their low stability in water solutions and/or high cost hinders their use for such applications.

  5. MSW to hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.; Wallman, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Richter, G.N.; Wolfenbarger, J.K. [Texaco Inc., Montebello, CA (United States). Montebello Research Lab.

    1994-04-19

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the preparation and conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen by gasification and purification. The laboratory focus will be on pretreatment of MSW waste in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. Initial pretreatment approaches include (1) hydrothermal processing at saturated conditions around 300 C with or without chemical/pH modification and (2) mild dry pyrolysis with subsequent incorporation into an appropriate slurry. Initial experiments will be performed with newspaper, a major constituent of MSW, prior to actual work with progressively more representative MSW samples. Overall system modeling with special attention to energy efficiency and waste water handling of the pretreatment process will provide overall guidance to critical scale-up parameters. Incorporation of additional feed stock elements (e.g., heavy oil) will be evaluated subject to the heating value, viscosity, and economics of the MSW optimal slurry for hydrogen production. Ultimate scale-up of the optimized process will provide sufficient material for demonstration in the Texaco pilot facility; additional long term objectives include more detailed economic analysis of the process as a function of technical parameters and development of a measure/control system to ensure slagging ash for variable MSW feed stocks. Details of the overall project plan and initial experimental and modeling results are presented.

  6. Efficacy of a Low Dose of Hydrogen Peroxide (Peroxy Ag+ for Continuous Treatment of Dental Unit Water Lines: Challenge Test with Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in a Simulated Dental Unit Waterline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Ditommaso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide against Legionella. We tested hydrogen peroxide (Peroxy Ag+ at 600 ppm to evaluate Legionella survival in a simulated dental treatment water system equipped with Water Hygienization Equipment (W.H.E. device that was artificially contaminated. When Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg 1 was exposed to Peroxy Ag+ for 60 min we obtained a two decimal log reduction. High antimicrobial efficacy was obtained with extended periods of exposure: four decimal log reduction at 75 min and five decimal log reduction at 15 h of exposure. Involving a simulation device (Peroxy Ag+ is flushed into the simulation dental unit waterlines (DUWL we obtained an average reduction of 85% of Legionella load. The product is effective in reducing the number of Legionella cells after 75 min of contact time (99.997% in the simulator device under test conditions. The Peroxy Ag+ treatment is safe for continuous use in the dental water supply system (i.e., it is safe for patient contact, so it could be used as a preventive option, and it may be useful in long-term treatments, alone or coupled with a daily or periodic shock treatment.

  7. Efficacy of a Low Dose of Hydrogen Peroxide (Peroxy Ag⁺) for Continuous Treatment of Dental Unit Water Lines: Challenge Test with Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in a Simulated Dental Unit Waterline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Savina; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Ricciardi, Elisa; Zotti, Carla M

    2016-07-22

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide against Legionella. We tested hydrogen peroxide (Peroxy Ag⁺) at 600 ppm to evaluate Legionella survival in a simulated dental treatment water system equipped with Water Hygienization Equipment (W.H.E.) device that was artificially contaminated. When Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 was exposed to Peroxy Ag⁺ for 60 min we obtained a two decimal log reduction. High antimicrobial efficacy was obtained with extended periods of exposure: four decimal log reduction at 75 min and five decimal log reduction at 15 h of exposure. Involving a simulation device (Peroxy Ag⁺ is flushed into the simulation dental unit waterlines (DUWL)) we obtained an average reduction of 85% of Legionella load. The product is effective in reducing the number of Legionella cells after 75 min of contact time (99.997%) in the simulator device under test conditions. The Peroxy Ag⁺ treatment is safe for continuous use in the dental water supply system (i.e., it is safe for patient contact), so it could be used as a preventive option, and it may be useful in long-term treatments, alone or coupled with a daily or periodic shock treatment.

  8. Efficacy of a Low Dose of Hydrogen Peroxide (Peroxy Ag+) for Continuous Treatment of Dental Unit Water Lines: Challenge Test with Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in a Simulated Dental Unit Waterline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Savina; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Ricciardi, Elisa; Zotti, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide against Legionella. We tested hydrogen peroxide (Peroxy Ag+) at 600 ppm to evaluate Legionella survival in a simulated dental treatment water system equipped with Water Hygienization Equipment (W.H.E.) device that was artificially contaminated. When Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 was exposed to Peroxy Ag+ for 60 min we obtained a two decimal log reduction. High antimicrobial efficacy was obtained with extended periods of exposure: four decimal log reduction at 75 min and five decimal log reduction at 15 h of exposure. Involving a simulation device (Peroxy Ag+ is flushed into the simulation dental unit waterlines (DUWL)) we obtained an average reduction of 85% of Legionella load. The product is effective in reducing the number of Legionella cells after 75 min of contact time (99.997%) in the simulator device under test conditions. The Peroxy Ag+ treatment is safe for continuous use in the dental water supply system (i.e., it is safe for patient contact), so it could be used as a preventive option, and it may be useful in long-term treatments, alone or coupled with a daily or periodic shock treatment. PMID:27455299

  9. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  10. Enhancement in hydrogen production by thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge--optimization of treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Angériz Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, C J; Romero García, L I

    2014-07-01

    Batch dry-thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS) for hydrogen production was studied under several sludge combinations (primary sludge, PS; waste activated sludge, WAS; and mixed sludge, MS), TS concentrations (10-25%) and mixing ratios of OFMSW and SS (1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1, 10:1). The co-digestion of OFMSW and SS showed a 70% improvement in hydrogen production rate over the OFMSW fermentation only. The co-digestion of OFMSW with MS showed 47% and 115% higher hydrogen production potential as compared with OFMSW+PS and OFMSW+WAS, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 51 mL H2/g VS consumed was observed at TS concentration of 20% and OFMSW to MS mixing ratio of 5:1, respectively. The acetic and butyric acids were the main acids in VFAs evolution; however, the higher butyric acid evolution indicated that the H2 fermentation was butyrate type fermentation.

  11. The immune response of rainbow trout to Flavobacterium psychrophilum following immersion-challenge model with and without hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Kania, P. W.;

    2013-01-01

    , no commercial vaccine is currently available and the disease is treated with antibiotics. Injection-based challenges with F. psychrophilum are standardized but the route of infection does not reflect a natural situation. Therefore, we established an immersion-based model investigating if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2...

  12. Tribology in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawae, Yoshinori; Sugimura, Joich

    Hydrogen is expected as a clean and renewable energy carrier for future environment-friendly society. Many machine elements in hydrogen energy systems should be operating within hydrogen gas and tribological behavior, such as friction and wear, of bearings and seals are affected by the hydrogen environment through some interactions between material surfaces and gaseous hydrogen, i.e., physisorption of hydrogen molecules and following chemisorptions of dissociated atoms on metal surfaces, formation of metal hydride and reduction of metal oxide layer by hydrogen atoms diffused into bulk. Therefore, friction and wear characteristics of tribomaterials in the hydrogen environment should be appropriately understood to establish a design guideline for reliable hydrogen utilizing systems. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the effect of hydrogen on friction and wear of materials, and then describes our recent progress of hydrogen research in the tribology field.

  13. Hydrogenation of Nd–Fe–B magnet powder under a high pressure of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kataoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation of Nd2Fe14B under a high pressure of hydrogen has been investigated for the first time. At the heat-treatment temperature of 600 °C, almost complete decomposition of Nd2Fe14B into NdH2+x and α-Fe is observed, although a rather long heat-treatment time is necessary to achieve the sufficient hydrogenation. The desorption of hydrogen from NdH2+x does not occur in the furnace-cooling process.

  14. A hydrogen ice cube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a highly promising energy carrier. Nonetheless, before hydrogen can become the fuel of choice for the future a number of slight problems will have to be overcome. For example, how can hydrogen be safely stored? Motor vehicles running on hydrogen may be clean in concept

  15. A hydrogen ice cube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a highly promising energy carrier. Nonetheless, before hydrogen can become the fuel of choice for the future a number of slight problems will have to be overcome. For example, how can hydrogen be safely stored? Motor vehicles running on hydrogen may be clean in concept b

  16. Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Zhu; Zhang, Qing-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Xian; Li, Huai-Dong; Ma, Xin

    2014-09-01

    The bone protective effects of the hydrogen molecule (H2) have been demonstrated in several osteoporosis models while the underlying molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Osteoclast differentiation is an important factor related to the pathogenesis of bone-loss related diseases. In this work, we evaluated the effects of incubation with H2 on receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. We found that treatment with H2 prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells and BMMs. Treatment with H2 inhibits the ability to form resorption pits of BMMs stimulated by RANKL. Treatment with H2 reduced mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific markers including tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K, metalloproteinase-9, carbonic anhydrase typeII, and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase. Treatment with H2 decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suppressed NADPH oxidase activity, down-regulated Rac1 activity and Nox1 expression, reduced mitochondrial ROS formation, and enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation and heme oxygenase-1 activity. In addition, treatment with H2 suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 and c-Fos. Furthermore, treatment with H2 suppressed NF-κB activation and reduced phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and protein kinases B (AKT) stimulated with RANKL. In conclusion, hydrogen molecules prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation and inactivation of NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways.

  17. Hydrogen Evolution from Napiergrass by the Combination of Biological Treatment and a Pt-Loaded TiO2-Photocatalytic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Yasuda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and pentose were produced from lignocellulosic napiergrass by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF using hydrolytic enzyme and S. Cerevisiae. After the ethanol was removed, the pentose solution was subjected to photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt-loaded TiO2 under UV-irradiation. This process converted 100 g of napiergrass into 12.3 g of ethanol and 1.76 g of hydrogen whose total combustion energy of (∆H was 615 kJ. This was close to the ∆H (639 kJ of the pentose (13.6 g and hexose (27.4 g obtained by the cellulose-saccharification of 100 g of napiergrass.

  18. A two-stage hydrogen compressor based on (La,Ce,Nd,Pr)Ni{sub 5} intermetallics obtained by low energy mechanical alloying - Low temperature annealing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talaganis, B.A. [Instituto Balseiro (UNCu and CNEA), Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo km 9.5 (R8402AGP), S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Esquivel, M.R. [Instituto Balseiro (UNCu and CNEA), Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo km 9.5 (R8402AGP), S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo km 9.5 (R8402AGP), S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche (UNCo), Quintral 1250 (R8400FRF), S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Meyer, G. [Instituto Balseiro (UNCu and CNEA), Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo km 9.5 (R8402AGP), S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo km 9.5 (R8402AGP), S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2009-02-15

    La{sub 0.67}Ce{sub 0.19}Nd{sub 0.08}Pr{sub 0.06}Ni{sub 5} was synthesized by low energy mechanical alloying. The AB{sub 5} was milled up to completion stage to reach the final composition and appropriate particle size distribution and microstructure characteristics. Crystallite size, strain and sorption properties of as-milled samples were evaluated. After milling, La{sub 0.67}Ce{sub 0.19}Nd{sub 0.08}Pr{sub 0.06}Ni{sub 5} and previously obtained LaNi{sub 5} were annealed at 600 C for 24 h. An improvement in both microstructural and hydrogen sorption properties was found. Equilibrium hydrogen sorption properties were obtained and quantified in the 25-90 C range. From these results, a two-stage hydrogen compressor was proposed. In the first stage, hydrogen is absorbed by LaNi{sub 5} at 575 kPa and 25 C and desorbed at 1365 kPa and 90 C. In the second stage, this fluid is absorbed by La{sub 0.67}Ce{sub 0.19}Nd{sub 0.08}Pr{sub 0.06}Ni{sub 5} at 745 kPa and 25 C and desorbed at 2100 kPa and 90 C. As a result, a global compression ratio of 3.65 is reached using this scheme. (author)

  19. Effects of Vitamin B on Hydrogen Production and Sewage Treatment by Rhodopseudomonas palustris%B族维生素对沼泽红假单胞菌产氢以及降解废水的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅春蓉; 赵红卫; 刘丽梅; 狄姗姗; 黄亮; 方为茂

    2011-01-01

    The research aimed to discuss the effects of Vitamin B on cell growth,Hydrogen productivity with simulated wastewater by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.The hydrogen production and wastewater treatment conditions were investigated using the basic medium supplemented with different kinds of vitamin B.The results showed that vitamin B has an impact on the cell growth of Rhodopseudomonas palustris,hydrogen productivity and simulated wastewater treatment capacity.The results based on the hydrogen production suggested that the contrast group,which has not any vitamin B,was the minimum volume of hydrogen,and the cumulative yield was 57.88mL/L.The results also showed that VB2 was beneficial to produce hydrogen,the yield was 83.25mL/L when lacking of VB2,while it was 128.83mL/L when adding all kinds of vitamin B.The yield of 337.43mL/L when lacking of VB4 showed that VB4 inhibited hydrogen production.As for the wastewater treatment,only the vitamin B complex has highest COD removal rate of 64.706%.%研究了B族维生素对沼泽红假单胞菌生长和产氢的影响以及其对模拟废水的处理效果。考察了在基础培养基中加入不同配比B族维生素时的产氢状况和废水处理效果。结果表明,B族维生素对沼泽红假单胞菌的生长,产氢以及处理废水能力都是有影响的。从产氢量的角度来看,空白对照组(未添加任何B族系列维生素)的产氢量最少,产氢量累积达到57.88 mL/L,加入全部维生素累积量128.83 mL/L,缺少VB2的产氢累积为83.25 mL/L,低于加入全部维生素累积量,因此VB2对产氢有促进作用,而缺少VB4的产氢量累积高达337.43 mL/L,高于加入全部维生素累积量,因此VB4对产氢有抑制作用。而对于废水处理效果来看,只加入复合VB的COD去除率达到最高值64.706%。

  20. THE ENERGETIC CONSEQUENCES OF HYDROGEN GRADIENTS IN METHANOGENIC ECOSYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLFING, J

    1992-01-01

    In the dense microbial aggregates usually found in methanogenic waste water treatment systems, hydrogen has to diffuse from producers to consumers at considerable rates. The ensuing hydrogen gradients dissipate part of the potential energy that would otherwise be available to the hydrogen-consuming

  1. Organic Waste Treatment via Anaerobic Bio-hydrogenation%有机废弃物厌氧生物制氢处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高斯 M K; 孙义; 刘晋; 王黎; 西瓦 K M

    2015-01-01

    The resources of fossil fuel will be dried up in the near future. Moreover,greenhouse gas from fossil fuel burning has worsened the global warming situation. The development of sustainable en-ergy has currently become a hot issue in the world. H2 as cleanest ernergy was combused with O2 to pro-duce pure water. The paper presents a model of bio-hydrogenation process with anaerobic bacterial growth on organic wastewater. Data from laboratory scale reactors operating with artificial substrates u-sing bacteria from agricultural waste were conducted. The calculating bio-hydrogen yields and assuming from the waste stream were suitable properties in the digestion. Bacteria played a very important role in the processes of bio-hydrogenation. Bacteria that produce hydrogen were isolated by its characteristic of heat-resistance. Factors that affect the efficiency of bio-hydrogenation process include pH, temperature and the ratio of biomass to substrate concentration( F/M) . By using glucose as the substrate with Clos-tridium sp. seeding,it is shown that of bio-hydrogenation can be produced efficiently in the experiment. Methanogenesis which consumes H2 may be prevented by special operation,and optimum parameters, such as pH around 5,Temperature at 35 ℃,HRT approximately 8hours and F/M between 25% ~50%. And the maximum hydrogen concentration is found to be 88. 6%( V/V) for practical application were obtained from the model.%化石燃料的枯竭,化石燃料燃烧排放的温室气体加剧了全球变暖的问题,已经成为世界的热点问题之一.氢气作为清洁能源,与沼气和化石燃料相比,燃烧产物只有水.利用有机废弃物厌氧发酵制氢气,通过厌氧反应器和农业废弃物生物制氢模型,计算实验过程中生物产氢量和废弃物消解与微生物生长的关系.实验过程表明:在生物制氢过程中,产氢细菌作用显著,产氢菌可以通过其耐热性进行筛选.而影响生物制氢效率的因素还包括:pH值

  2. Influence of gaseous hydrogen on Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The embrittlement of Inconel 718 by exposure to 34.5 MN/sq m hydrogen at ambient temperature was found to be a function of both forming operation and heat treatment. The embrittlement, as measured by reduction of notch strength in hydrogen as compared to helium, was decreased by a fine-grain size and was most severe for coarse-grained structures containing a continuous or nearly continuous precipitate tentatively identified as Ni3Cb. Tests performed on unnotched specimens showed that the strain at which surface cracks initiate in 34.5 MN/sq m hydrogen was approximately 3% and was independent of prior forming operation or heat treatment.

  3. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  4. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  5. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  6. Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Methods for concentrating hydrogen peroxide solutions have been described. The methods utilize a polymeric membrane separating a hydrogen peroxide solution from a sweep gas or permeate. The membrane is selective to the permeability of water over the permeability of hydrogen peroxide, thereby facilitating the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution through the transport of water through the membrane to the permeate. By utilizing methods in accordance with the invention, hydrogen peroxide solutions of up to 85% by volume or higher may be generated at a point of use without storing substantial quantities of the highly concentrated solutions and without requiring temperatures that would produce explosive mixtures of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

  7. Hydrogen in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pankove, Jacques I

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed cove

  8. Dynamics of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranber Singh; S Prakash

    2003-07-01

    The problem of hydrogen diffusion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is studied semiclassically. It is found that the local hydrogen concentration fluctuations-induced extra potential wells, if intense enough, lead to the localized electronic states in a-Si:H. These localized states are metastable. The trapping of electrons and holes in these states leads to the electrical degradation of the material. These states also act as recombination centers for photo-generated carriers (electrons and holes) which in turn may excite a hydrogen atom from a nearby Si–H bond and breaks the weak (strained) Si–Si bond thereby apparently enhancing the hydrogen diffusion and increasing the light-induced dangling bonds.

  9. Hydrogen transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  10. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  11. Handbook of hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sherif, SA; Stefanakos, EK; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    ""This book provides an excellent overview of the hydrogen economy and a thorough and comprehensive presentation of hydrogen production and storage methods.""-Scott E. Grasman, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

  12. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  13. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...

  14. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  15. Effect of hydrogen heat treatment on microstructure and properties of Cu/diamond composites%氢气热处理对铜/金刚石复合材料组织性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范叶明; 郭宏; 尹法章; 张习敏; 褚克; 韩媛媛; 徐骏

    2011-01-01

    研究了控制氢气流量为5 L/min,热处理温度为400、600和800℃,热处理时间为30 min条件下的氢气热处理对CuCr0.8/金刚石复合材料组织和性能的影响。断口SEM观察表明,氢气热处理后基体铜合金塑性变差且从金刚石表面脱粘,复合材料断裂方式为沿晶断裂,随热处理温度的上升组织劣化程度增加。复合材料残余抗弯强度随温度上升单调下降,最小值仅相当于未处理的28.0%,而热膨胀系数(CTE)最大值可达9.82×10-6/℃。经外观颜色与断口SEM观察并结合XRD分析可以推断氢蚀机制为:高温下氢夺取了复合材料中的氧生成了高压水蒸汽,不仅使基体脆化与界面胀裂,而且加速了界面碳化铬层的氧化及金刚石表层的石墨化。%Effect of hydrogen heat treatment on microstructure and properties of CuCr0.8/diamond composites was investigated.The hydrogen flow rate was controlled at 5 L/min and heat treating temperature was set at 400,600 and 800 ℃ for 30 min.SEM observation on fracture surface shows that after hydrogen heat treatment,copper alloy matrix lost partial ductility and separated from diamond surface.The failure mode of composites is intergranular fracture.The microstructure was deteriorated more obviously with increasing heat treatment temperature.With increasing temperature the residual bending strength of composites was decreased,the minimum value was only 28.0% of that of untreated one.The maximum value of coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) can reach 9.82×10-6/℃.Through the fracture surface observation and XRD analysis,the hydrogen corrosion mechanism is deduced as follows: hydrogen seizes the oxygen from the composite interface and forms high-pressure water vapor at high temperature,which not only embrittles the matrix and results in the interfacial debonding,but also accelerates both the oxidation of chromium carbide at interface and the graphitization of surface layer of diamond.

  16. Mild Hypothermia Combined with Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment During Resuscitation Reduces Hippocampal Neuron Apoptosis Via NR2A, NR2B, and PI3K-Akt Signaling in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hai-Bin; Xu, Miao-Miao; Lv, Jia; Ji, Xiang-Jun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Ma, Ru-Meng; Miao, Xiao-Lei; Duan, Man-Lin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether mild hypothermia combined with sodium hydrosulfide treatment during resuscitation improves neuron survival following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury beyond that observed for the individual treatments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 20 for each group). All rats underwent Pulsinelli 4-vessel occlusion. Ischemia was induced for 15 min using ligatures around the common carotid arteries, except for the sham group. Immediately after initiating reperfusion, the mild hypothermia (MH), sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine (HA), MH + NaHS, MH + HA, and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) control groups received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, sodium hydrosulfide, hydroxylamine, sodium hydrosulfide, hydroxylamine, and saline, respectively, and mild hypothermia (32 to 33 °C) was induced in the MH, MH + NaHS, and MH + HA groups for 6 h. The levels of NR2A, NR2B, p-Akt, and p-Gsk-3β in the hippocampus of the MH, NaHS, and MH + NaHS groups were higher than those in the I/R control group, with the highest levels observed in the MH + NaHS group (P sodium hydrosulfide treatment for resuscitation following ischemia-reperfusion injury was more beneficial for reducing hippocampal apoptosis and pathology than that of mild hypothermia or hydrogen sulfide treatment alone.

  17. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  18. Materials for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Züttel

    2003-09-01

    The goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible, i.e. to reach the highest volumetric density by using as little additional material as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of hydrogen gas. At ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, 1 kg of the gas has a volume of 11 m3. To increase hydrogen density, work must either be applied to compress the gas, the temperature decreased below the critical temperature, or the repulsion reduced by the interaction of hydrogen with another material.

  19. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  20. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    , CO{sub 2} and methane) were used in gas engines to produce electricity and heat. The efficiencies for these cases range from 25 percent, if no gas treatment is done, 40 percent by including steam - reforming and 60 percent for the case, where steam reforming and CO-shift is included. Based on the simulation results an economic analysis of the overall system was done. The main result of the economic evaluation is that hydrogen can be produced at costs between 20-30 Eurocents per Nm{sup ,}3 which is 2.5-3.0 Euro per kg or 6-10 Eurocents per kW. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

  2. Hydrogen energy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the outstanding role of hydrogen in energy processes, where it is the most functional element due to its unique peculiarities that are highlighted and emphasized in the book. The first half of the book covers the great natural hydrogen processes in biology, chemistry, and physics, showing that hydrogen is a trend that can unite all natural sciences. The second half of the book is devoted to the technological hydrogen processes that are under research and development with the aim to create the infrastructure for hydrogen energetics. The book describes the main features of hydrogen that make it inalienable player in processes such as fusion, photosynthesis, and metabolism. It also covers the methods of hydrogen production and storage, highlighting at the same time the exclusive importance of nanotechnologies in those processes.

  3. Photobiological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Y; Miyake, J

    1999-01-01

    The principles and recent progress in the research and development of photobiological hydrogen production are reviewed. Cyanobacteria produce hydrogen gas using nitrogenase and/or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenases in cyanobacteria occurs under in the dark under anaerobic conditions by degradation of intracellular glycogen. In vitro and in vivo coupling of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system with a clostridial hydrogenase via cyanobacterial ferredoxin was demonstrated in the presence of light. Genetic transformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum was successful; the active enzyme was expressed in PCC7942. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Coculture of Rhodobacter and Clostriudium was applied for hydrogen production from glucose. A mutant strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV whose light-harvesting proteins were altered was obtained by UV irradiation. Hydrogen productivity by the mutant was improved when irradiated with monochromatic light of some wavelengths. The development of photobioreactors for hydrogen production is also reviewed.

  4. Hydrogenation of Laser-crystallized a-Si:H Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Khenkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser processing of semiconductors is a rapidly developing field of material science at the moment. In particular, femtosecond laser crystallization of amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin films has a big potential in photovoltaics. However laser treatment causes dehydrogenation process which decreases materials’ photosensitivity and thus limiting its application for optoelectronics. In present paper we studied photoelectric properties of laser-modified amorphous silicon films. Two different hydrogenation procedures were employed to restore films’ hydrogen content: keeping in hydrogen plasma and in high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere. The effectiveness of applied procedures for increasing materials’ photosensitivity is discussed.

  5. Hydrogen passivation of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志华; 廖显伯; 刘祖明; 夏朝凤; 陈庭金

    2003-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen passivation on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells are reported in this paper.Hydrogen plasma was generated by means of ac glow discharge in a hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen passivation was carried out with three different groups of mc-Si solar cells after finishing contacts. The experimental results demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of the solar cell samples have been improved after hydrogen plasma treatment, with a relative increase in conversion efficiency up to 10.6%. A calculation modelling has been performed to interpret the experimental results using the model for analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures developed at Pennsylvania State University.

  6. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  7. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  8. The synthesis of tungsten trioxide gel by dissolution of tungsten in hydrogen peroxide and its transformations during the heat treatment in oxidation and reduction atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgijević Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and the thermal behavior of WO3 samples in air and in reduction atmosphere were studied. The sample I was prepared by the dissolution of fine metallic tungsten powder in hydrogen peroxide followed by solvent evaporation in the air at 60°C. Sample II was obtained by draining a part of the sample I at 60°C and then heating it up to 430°C. By the means of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis it was evidenced that the sample I was the amorphous hydrated gel, with the WO3•1.5H2O composition, while the second one was the anhidrous monoclinic WO3 with the mean particle size of 100 nm. Additionally, using the thermogravimetric and the differential thermal analysis simultaneously in the reduction atmosphere, both samples types were examined. After reduction the distribution of the metal particles number in respect to the diameters of the anhidrous sample was examined using the electron microscopy.

  9. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  10. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  11. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  12. Fundamental processes of plasma and reactive gas surface treatment for the recovery of hydrogen isotopes from carbon co-deposits in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Soeren

    2014-11-01

    The use of carbon-based plasma-facing wall components offers many advantages for plasma operation in magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices. However, through reactions with the hydrogen based fusion plasma, carbon forms amorphous hydrogenated carbon co-deposits (a-C:H) in the vacuum vessels. If tritium is used to fuel the reactor, this co-deposition can quickly lead to an inacceptable high tritium inventory. Through co-deposition with carbon about 10% of the tritium injected into the reactor can be trapped. Even with other wall materials co-deposition can be significant. A method to recover the hydrogen isotopes from the co-deposits is necessary. The method has to be compatible with the requirements of the devices and nuclear fusion plasma operation. In this work thermo-chemical removal by neutral gases (TCR) and removal by plasmas is investigated. Models are developed to describe the involved processes of both removal methods. TCR is described using a reaction-diffusion model. Within this model the reactive gas diffuses into the co-deposits and subsequently reacts in a thermally activated process. The co-deposits are pyrolysed, forming volatile gases, e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. These gases are pumped from the vacuum vessel and recycled. Applying the model to literature observations enables to connect data on exposure temperature, pressure, time and co-deposit properties. Two limits of TCR (reaction- or diffusion-limited) are identified. Plasma removal sputters co-deposits by their chemical and physical interaction with the impinging ions. The description uses a 0D plasma model from the literature which derives plasma parameters from the balance of input power to plasma power losses. The model is extended with descriptions of the plasma sheath and ion-surface interactions to derive the co-deposit removal rates. Plasma removal can be limited by this ion induced surface release rate or the rate of pumping of the released species. To test the models dedicated

  13. Effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of -titanium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H-J Christ; A Senemmar; M Decker; K Prüßner

    2003-06-01

    Conflicting opinions exist in the literature on the manner in which hydrogen influences the mechanical properties of -titanium alloys. This can be attributed to the -stabilizing effect of hydrogen in these materials leading to major changes in the microstructure as a result of hydrogen charging. The resulting (extrinsic) effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties can possibly cover up the direct (intrinsic) influences. On the basis of experimentally determined thermodynamic and kinetic data regarding the interaction of hydrogen with -titanium alloys, hydrogen concentrations of up to 8 at.% were established in three commercial alloys by means of hydrogen charging from the gas phase. In order to separate intrinsic and extrinsic effects the charging was carried out during one step of the two-step heat treatment typical of metastable -titanium alloys, while the other step was performed in vacuum. The results on the single-phase condition represent the intrinsic hydrogen effect. Monotonic and cyclic strength increase at the expense of ductility with increasing hydrogen concentration. The brittle to ductile transition temperature shifts to higher values and the fatigue crack propagation threshold value decreases. The microstructure of the metastable, usually two-phase -titanium alloys is strongly affected by hydrogen, although the extent of this effect depends not only on the hydrogen concentration but also on the temperature of charging. This microstructural influence (extrinsic effect) changes the mechanical properties in the opposite direction as compared to the intrinsic hydrogen effect.

  14. Hydrogen permeability of Nb membrane annealed under ultra high vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Helmut T.; Pundt, Astrid; Kirchheim, Reiner [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Goettingen (Germany); Yamazaki, Yoshihiro [California Institute of Technology, California (United States); Kamegawa, Atsunori; Takamura, Hitoshi; Koike, Junichi; Okada, Masuo [Department of Materials Science, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this research, hydrogen permeability of Pd-free Nb membrane using hydrogen annealing process by ultra high vacuum equipment was investigated. Pure Nb (99.85 percent) was used as membrane. The hydrogen permeation experiment was carried out in the temperature range of 773-1173 K, and the H{sub 2} pressure range of 1-3.5 atm in the inlet side. Hydrogen flux and hydrogen pressures in the inlet side and outlet side of chamber were measured using mass flow meter and capacitance manometer, respectively. Hydrogen permeability was determined by Fick's first low. Effects of annealing conditions and heat treatment under hydrogen atmosphere on hydrogen permeability were investigated. It is supposed that the surface oxidation of Nb is reduced by the hydrogen annealing. Moreover, it is found that the value of hydrogen permeability becomes almost equivalent to the theoretical value when the sample preparation was optimized by an extension of the evacuating time. The best hydrogen permeability is obtained in metal membranes using the annealing under ultra-high vacuum and pure hydrogen atmosphere.

  15. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  16. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  17. Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.; Hansen, J. [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Wennike, F. [Hydrogen Link Denmark Association, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP) was launched in an effort to build hydrogen filling stations in Scandinavian countries by 2012 in order to enable hydrogen powered vehicles to operate and refuel when needed. Three hydrogen refueling stations are currently in operation in Scandinavia to fuel a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fuelled cars. It is anticipated that by the end of 2009, there will be 14 hydrogen refueling stations and more than 70 vehicles in operation. Beyond 2012, the number of filling stations and vehicles is expected to increase significantly through large scale demonstration, where SHHP aims to attract funding from the European Union. The current activities of SHHP are co-funded by national and regional authorities. The SHHP network is funded by Nordic Energy Research.

  18. Hydrogen storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  20. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  1. Triethylammonium hydrogen chloranilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Gotoh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: triethylammonium 2,5-dichloro-4-hydroxy-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-olate, C6H16N+·C6HCl2O4−, two hydrogen chloranilate anions are connected by a pair of bifurcated O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a dimeric unit. The triethylammonium cations are linked on both sides of the dimer via bifurcated N—H...O hydrogen bonds into a centrosymmetric 2:2 aggregate. The 2:2 aggregates are further linked by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Research on treatment of odor gas containing hydrogen sulfide by multilayer biofilter%多层生物滤塔净化硫化氢废气研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华新; 李顺义; 杨松波; 马红妍; 王岩

    2011-01-01

    以木屑为填料,采用多层生物滤塔净化H2S气体,研究其适宜的工艺条件及生物降解宏观动力学.结果表明,填料分层可提高H2S去除率,当进气容积负荷<153.2 g H2S/(m3·d)时,H2S的去除率保持在90%以上;进气浓度低于70 mg/m3,下层200mm填料对H2S总去除率的贡献在50%以上;填料含水率为50%~60%,生物滤塔的微生物活性较高,净化效率高;实验条件下,采用Micbaelis-Menten模型进行生物降解宏观动力学研究,其中Ks(半饱和常数)为22.5 mg/m3,Vm(污染物最大去除速率)为1 000 g H2S/(m3·d).%Using sawdust as filler, biofiltration technique for treating H2S-contaminated gas streams was investigated. The suitable technological conditions and removal kinetics were studied. The results showed that the multilayer biofilter had a higher removal rate of H2S than that of the single layer biofilter. The removal rate of H2S was higher than 90% when the inlet volumetric loading rate of H2S was below 153.2 g H2S/(m3 · d).When the inlet hydrogen sulfide was lower than 70 mg/m3, the bottom layer which was 200 mm thick removed more than 50% of the total HaS removal. The biofilter worked well as the moisture content ranged from 50% to 60%. The removal kinetics were researched based on the Michaelis-Menten model, two kinetic parameters were K8 with a value of 22.5 mg/m3 and Vm with a value of 1 000 g H2S/(m3 · d).

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  6. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  7. Nanocrystalline Steels’ Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement in X37CrMoV5-1 steel with two different microstructures: a nanocrystalline carbide-free bainite and tempered martensite. The nanobainitic structure was obtained by austempering at the bainitic transformation zone. It was found, that after hydrogen charging, both kinds of microstructure exhibit increased yield strength and strong decrease in ductility. It has been however shown that the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of X37CrMoV5-1 steel with nanobainitic structure is higher as compared to the tempered martensite. After hydrogen charging the ductility of austempered steel is slightly higher than in case of quenched and tempered (Q&T steel. This effect was interpreted as a result of phase composition formed after different heat treatments.

  8. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature. The distribution of bond lengths was examined using infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) both prior to treatments and after. The results show that the absorbance bands of the spectra related to the hydroxyl and carboxyl stretching vibrations were changed by the treatments. Apparently, the first...

  9. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from rats chronically treated with corticosterone: The protective effect of oxytocin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Dušanka; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Petrović, Jelena; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Sopić, Miron; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Pešić, Vesna

    2016-08-25

    Contemporary lifestyle is commonly associated with chronic stress, an environmental factor contributing to development of various psychological and somatic disorders. Increased levels of glucocorticoids, observed in the chronic stress, induce the production of reactive oxygen species leading to genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic administration of oxytocin (OXY) 10 IU/400 μL/day, s.c., for 14 days, a hormone presumed to exert antioxidant effect, may prevent DNA damage in the comet assay of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Wistar rats treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT) 100 mg/L ad libitum, per os, for 21 days, as well as, to influence some plasma oxidative stress parameters, i.e. levels of total lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Even though there was no reduction in overall number of damaged cells after oxytocin treatment only, the marked increase in total comet score (TCS) after incubation with H2O2 in CORT group compared to controls, was absent in the CORT + OXY experimental group. Furthermore, significant decrease of highly damaged cells compared to corticosterone group was noted. Chronic oxytocin administration thus protected lymphocytes from high intensity damage that leads to cellular death. In addition, treatment with OXY along with CORT, significantly decreased concentration of LOOH in plasma, and increased SOD compared to CORT treatment only. This finding corresponds well with current reports on beneficial effects of OXY in conditions of HPA axis hyperactivity, and supports the hypothesis of OXY-mediated antioxidant action.

  11. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G. V. M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C3H6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  12. Dark hydrogen fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The production of hydrogen is a ubiquitous, natural phenomenon under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. A wide variety of bacteria, in swamps, sewage, hot springs, the rumen of cattle etc. is able to convert organic matter to hydrogen, CO2 and metabolites like acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and alanine.

  13. Travel with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L. J. F. Jo

    2017-03-01

    In the field of transportation, hydrogen does not have a particularly glorious history. Just think of the dozens of hydrogen airships destroyed by fire over the years, with the Hindenburg disaster in 1937 as the most famous example. Now H2 is trying a comeback on the road, often in combination with a fuel cell and an electric motor to power the car.

  14. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  15. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  16. Conductive dense hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremets, M I; Troyan, I A

    2011-11-13

    Molecular hydrogen is expected to exhibit metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature, T(c), of 200-400 K, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. It may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures. However, experiments carried out at low temperatures, Thydrogen remains in the molecular insulating state. Here we report on the transformation of normal molecular hydrogen at room temperature (295 K) to a conductive and metallic state. At 200 GPa the Raman frequency of the molecular vibron strongly decreased and the spectral width increased, evidencing a strong interaction between molecules. Deuterium behaved similarly. Above 220 GPa, hydrogen became opaque and electrically conductive. At 260-270 GPa, hydrogen transformed into a metal as the conductance of hydrogen sharply increased and changed little on further pressurizing up to 300 GPa or cooling to at least 30 K; and the sample reflected light well. The metallic phase transformed back at 295 K into molecular hydrogen at 200 GPa. This significant hysteresis indicates that the transformation of molecular hydrogen into a metal is accompanied by a first-order structural transition presumably into a monatomic liquid state. Our findings open an avenue for detailed and comprehensive studies of metallic hydrogen.

  17. Dark hydrogen fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The production of hydrogen is a ubiquitous, natural phenomenon under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. A wide variety of bacteria, in swamps, sewage, hot springs, the rumen of cattle etc. is able to convert organic matter to hydrogen, CO2 and metabolites like acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and alanine.

  18. Interstellar Solid Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ching Yeh; Walker, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possibility that solid molecular hydrogen is present in interstellar space. If so cosmic-rays and energetic photons cause ionisation in the solid leading to the formation of H6+. This ion is not produced by gas-phase reactions and its radiative transitions therefore provide a signature of solid H2 in the astrophysical context. The vibrational transitions of H6+ are yet to be observed in the laboratory, but we have characterised them in a quantum-theoretical treatment of the molecule; our calculations include anharmonic corrections, which are large. Here we report on those calculations and compare our results with astronomical data. In addition to the H6+ isotopomer, we focus on the deuterated species (HD)3+ which is expected to dominate at low ionisation rates as a result of isotopic condensation reactions. We can reliably predict the frequencies of the fundamental bands for five modes of vibration. For (HD)3+ all of these are found to lie close to some of the strongest of the pervasive mid-in...

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  20. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  1. Implementing a hydrogen economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Ritter

    2003-09-01

    In recent years, months, weeks, and even days, it has become increasingly clear that hydrogen as an energy carrier is ‘in’ and carbonaceous fuels are ‘out’1. The hydrogen economy is coming, with the impetus to transform our fossil energy-based society, which inevitably will cease to exist, into a renewable energy-based one2. However, this transformation will not occur overnight. It may take several decades to realize a hydrogen economy. In the meantime, research and development is necessary to ensure that the implementation of the hydrogen economy is completely seamless, with essentially no disruption of the day-to-day activities of the global economy. The world has taken on a monumental, but not insurmountable, task of transforming from carbonaceous to renewable fuels, with clean burning, carbon dioxide-free hydrogen as the logical choice.

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2007-01-01

    A relatively simple and economical process and apparatus for concentrating hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution at the point of use have been invented. The heart of the apparatus is a vessel comprising an outer shell containing tubular membranes made of a polymer that is significantly more permeable by water than by hydrogen peroxide. The aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide to be concentrated is fed through the interstitial spaces between the tubular membranes. An initially dry sweep gas is pumped through the interiors of the tubular membranes. Water diffuses through the membranes and is carried away as water vapor mixed into the sweep gas. Because of the removal of water, the hydrogen peroxide solution flowing from the vessel at the outlet end is more concentrated than that fed into the vessel at the inlet end. The sweep gas can be air, nitrogen, or any other gas that can be conveniently supplied in dry form and does not react chemically with hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti1.2Fe+xCa Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage properties of Ti1.2Fe+xCa (x=1%, 3% and 5% in mass fraction) alloys was investigated. Results show that the modified alloys can be activated without any thermal treatment at room temperature due to the addition of Ca and excess Ti in the alloys. Hydrogen storage properties of these modified alloys vary with Ca amount and reaction temperature. In addition, the influence mechanism of the addition of Ca and excessive Ti on the activation behavior and hydrogen storage capacity of the alloys was discussed.

  4. Influence of annealing treatment on the microstructure and hydrogen storage performance of Ti{sub 1.02}Cr{sub 1.1}Mn{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.6} alloy for hybrid hydrogen storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Langxia [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Lixin, E-mail: lxchen@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xiao, Xuezhang; Xu, Chenchen; Sun, Jian; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang, Lijun [Institute of Energy Materials and Technology, General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • Annealing reduces the hydrogen absorption pressure and the desorption enthalpy. • Prolonging annealing time flattens the hydrogen desorption plateau of the alloy. • Prolonging annealing time enhances the hydrogen desorption plateau pressure. • Ti{sub 1.02}Cr{sub 1.1}Mn{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.6} annealed at 1123 K for 5 h shows the best overall performance. - Abstract: The as-cast Ti{sub 1.02}Cr{sub 1.1}Mn{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.6} alloy for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel application was annealed at different temperatures (873 K, 973 K, 1123 K, 1173 K) for 2 h, and annealed at 1123 K for different time (2, 5, 8 h) respectively, and their microstructure and hydrogen storage properties were investigated systematically. The results show that the as-cast alloy has a single C14 Laves phase, and all annealed alloys consist of a C14 Laves main phase and a secondary phase. After annealing at different temperatures for 2 h, the hydrogen absorption pressure at 298 K decreases, however, the maximum hydrogen storage capacity and desorption pressures at 318 K decrease slightly too. As the annealing time extends, the hydrogen absorption plateau pressure at 298 K and hydrogen desorption plateau pressure at 318 K increase, and the hydrogen desorption capacity increases first and then decreases, which reaches the highest desorption capacity of 1.721 wt.% at the annealing time of 5 h. Among the studied alloys, the alloy annealed at 1123 K for 5 h has the best overall properties for hybrid hydrogen storage application, its hydrogen absorption plateau at 298 K is 29.09 MPa, its hydrogen desorption plateau pressure at 318 K is 45.12 MPa, its hydrogen storage capacity is 1.721 wt.% and its dissociation enthalpy (ΔH{sub d}) is 17.78 kJ/mol H{sub 2}.

  5. Medical Functions of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gasomediator synthesized from L- and D-cysteine in various tissues. It is involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes. H(2)S exhibits antiatherosclerotic, vasodilator, and proangiogenic properties, and protects the kidney and heart from damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury. H(2)S donors may be natural or synthetic, and may be used for the safe treatment of a wide range of diseases. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the therapeutic function of H(2)S.

  6. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  7. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  8. Prospects for Lorentz and CPT tests with hydrogen and antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Tobias Frederic

    2017-01-01

    As a summer student for 13 weeks in the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration, under the supervision of Chloé Malbrunot, my project consisted in a first part on the theoretical treatment of Lorentz and CPT violation in hydrogen & antihydrogen in the framework of the Standard Model Extension SME and in second part on experimental measurements on a hydrogen beam.

  9. Properties of hydrogen induced voids in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J; Fischer, T; Hieckmann, E; Hiller, M; Lavrov, E V [Institute for Applied Physics/Semiconductor Physics, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-06-08

    After heat treatment, silicon samples implanted with high doses of hydrogen exhibit blistering and defoliation of thin silicon layers. The process is used commercially in the fabrication of thin silicon-on-insulator layers (Smart Cut(registered)). In the present study we investigate the behaviour of hydrogen after different processing steps, which lead to thin Si layers bonded to glass substrates. A set of hydrogen implanted samples is studied by means of low temperature photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy (visible and infrared). The formation of Si-H bonds is detected after implantation together with a build-up of internal strain. After annealing, the relaxation of the implanted layers is found to be connected with the formation of hydrogen saturated vacancies and the formation of H{sub 2} molecules filling up larger voids. A comparison is made with hydrogen plasma treated samples, where well defined platelets on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes are found to trap hydrogen molecules. No direct evidence of the role of {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}100{r_brace} platelets in the blistering process is found in the implanted layers from our study. We determine considerable compressive stresses in the bonded Si layers on glass substrates. The photoluminescence is strongly enhanced in these bonded layers but red-shifted due to a strain reduced band gap.

  10. Inside the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, M; Fierro, D Bedoya; Manjarres, A D Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    We apply the non-linear Euler-Heisenberg theory to calculate the electric field inside the hydrogen atom. We will demonstrate that the electric field calculated in the Euler-Heisenberg theory can be much smaller than the corresponding field emerging from the Maxwellian theory. In the hydrogen atom this happens only at very small distances. This effect reduces the large electric field inside the hydrogen atom calculated from the electromagnetic form-factors via the Maxwell equations. The energy content of the field is below the pair production threshold.

  11. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  12. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  13. A Hydrogen Utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Robert Stephen; Reynolds, Bruce Allen

    2004-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation and stationary applications is receiving much favorable attention as a technical and policy issue. However, the widespread introduction of this technology is likely also to have negative consequences that are not being actively discussed in broad public forums. Such possibilities include, among others, delayed development of other energy alternatives, hazards of catalyst or hydride metals, disruptive employment shifts, land usage conflicts, and increased vehicle usage. Even though hydrogen is likely to be beneficial in its overall societal and environmental effects, hydrogen technology advocates must understand the range of problematic issues and prepare to address them.

  14. A hydrogen utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Robert S. [National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-02-01

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation and stationary applications is receiving much favorable attention as a technical and policy issue. However, the widespread introduction of this technology is likely also to have negative consequences that are not being actively discussed in broad public forums. Such possibilities include, among others, delayed development of other energy alternatives, hazards of catalyst or hydride metals, disruptive employment shifts, land usage conflicts, and increased vehicle usage. Even though hydrogen is likely to be beneficial in its overall societal and environmental effects, hydrogen technology advocates must understand the range of problematic issues and prepare to address them. (Author)

  15. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  16. Treatment effect with hydrogen peroxide and/or stannous chloride in incubate cell culture with glucoheptonic acid; Efeito do tratamento com peroxido de hidrogenio e/ou cloreto estanoso em cultura celular encubada com acido glucoheptonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, M.L.B.; Silva, F.C.P. da; Caldeira de Araujo, A.; Valsa, J.O. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Bernardo Filho, M. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    1995-12-31

    The stannous salt (Sn Cl{sub 2}) can be found in an associated form with another molecules, as in the kits for the production of {sup 99m} technetium labeled radiopharmaceuticals, widely employed in nuclear medicne procedures. Here, it was described the results obtained with treatment of an Escherichia coli AB1157 culture with Sn CL{sub 2} [5,5 x 10{sup -5} M] associated to the radiopharmaceuticals glucoheptonic acid (GHA). Our results show a culture`s protection in differents concentrations of GHA [2 x 10{sup -}2 M], [4 x 10{sup -2} M], [1 x 10{sup -1} M] and [2 x 10{sup -1} M], eliminating, almost completely, the lethal effect of the Sn CL{sub 2}. The culture survival was not affected when submitted only to GHA (control) solution. When the culture was submitted to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2} O{sub 2}) [2 x 10{sup -2} M] associated to the same concentration of GHA, we did not obtain protection, suggesting, a chelating action of GHA on the stannous ions. Further experiments associating Sn Cl{sub 2} [5,5 x 10{sup -5} M] + H{sub 2} O{sub 2} [2 x 10{sup -2} M] + GHA [4 x 10{sup -2} M] tend to confirm this result, as well as to suggest the sinergistic effect between the Sn Cl{sub 2} and the H{sub 2} O{sub 2}. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs.

  17. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krassen, Henning

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  18. Modeling the Hydrogen Bond within Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykos, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The structure of a hydrogen bond is elucidated within the framework of molecular dynamics based on the model of Rahman and Stillinger (R-S) liquid water treatment. Thus, undergraduates are exposed to the powerful but simple use of classical mechanics to solid objects from a molecular viewpoint.

  19. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  20. Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility and helium gas that is...

  1. Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquid hydrogen is used extensively by NASA to support cryogenic rocket testing. In addition, there are many commercial applications in which delivery and use of...

  2. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.A.; Sanchez, R.; Dulleck, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report covers the development of fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensors for monitoring dissolved hydrogen gas in transformer oil. The concentration of hydrogen gas is a measure of the corona and spark discharge within the transformer and reflects the state of health of the transformer. Key features of the instrument include use of palladium alloys to enhance hydrogen sensitivity, a microprocessor controlled instrument with RS-232, liquid crystal readout, and 4-20 ma. current loop interfaces. Calibration data for both sensors can be down loaded to the instrument through the RS-232 interface. This project was supported by the Technology Transfer Initiative in collaboration with J. W. Harley, Inc. through the mechanism of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA).

  3. Interstitial hydrogen storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A.

    1980-09-30

    A metal hydride fuel system is described that incorporates a plurality of storage elements that may be individually replaced to provide a hydrogen fuel system for combustion engines having a capability of partial refueling is presented.

  4. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  5. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  6. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  7. Will Hydrogen be Competitive in Europe without Tax-Favours?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the alternative transport fuels expected to replace conventional oil based fuels. The paper finds that it is possible for non-fossil-based hydrogen to become the lowest cost fuel without favourable tax treatment. The order of per kilometre cost depends on performance in hydrogen...... production, the international oil price, and fuel taxes. At low oil prices, the highest per kilometre costs were found for non-fossil power-based hydrogen, the second highest for natural gas-based hydrogen, and the lowest for conventional fuels. At high oil prices, this ranking is reversed and non......-fossil power-based hydrogen becomes the most cost competitive fuel. General fuel taxes lower the threshold at which the international oil price reverses this competitiveness order. The highest fuel tax rates applied in Europe lowers this threshold oil price considerably, whereas the lowest fuel taxes may...

  8. Hydrogen Bonding in Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Abo-Ghazala; S. Al Hazmy

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) were prepared by radio frequency glow discharge deposition at various substrate temperatures. The hydrogen distribution and bonding structure in a-Ge:H were discussed based on infrared absorption data. The correlation between infrared absorption spectra and hydrogen effusion measurements was used to determine the proportionality constant for each vibration mode of the Ge-H bonds. The results reveal that the bending mode appearing at 835 cm?1 is associated with the Ge-H2 (dihydride) groups on the internal surfaces of voids. While 1880 cm?1 is assigned to vibrations of Ge-H (monohydride) groups in the bulk, the 2000 cm?1 stretching mode is attributed to Ge-H and Ge-H2 bonds located on the surfaces of voids. For films associated with bending modes in the infrared spectra, the proportionality constant values of the stretching modes near 1880 and 2000 cm?1 are found to be lower than those of films which had no corresponding bending modes.

  9. Interstellar hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen sulfide is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.

  10. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  11. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  12. Development of a hydrogen absorbing layer in the outer shell of high pressure hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209 CNRS, Institut des Sciences Chimiques Seine-Amont, 2-8, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Latroche, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209 CNRS, Institut des Sciences Chimiques Seine-Amont, 2-8, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)]. E-mail: michel.latroche@iscsa.cnrs.fr; Percheron-Guegan, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209 CNRS, Institut des Sciences Chimiques Seine-Amont, 2-8, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2005-11-25

    This study is focused on the development of a hydrogen absorbing Zr{sub 2}Fe layer in the outer shell of high pressure (70 MPa) hydrogen storage tanks. This layer aims to absorb hydrogen coming from micro-cracks, as those formed by hydrogen embrittlement of the aluminium liner. A multi-phased Zr{sub 2}Fe alloy prepared by induction melting presents a very fast absorption kinetic and a maximum absorption capacity of about 1.8 wt.%. The volume expansion upon hydrogen absorption reaches 19% and is very anisotropic. The good resistance to contamination of the Zr{sub 2}Fe alloy is also demonstrated, since the absorption kinetic remains very fast after heating in air at 150 deg. C with the carbon fiber-epoxy resin composite used for the reinforcement of the high pressure storage vessel. Moreover, Zr{sub 2}Fe ribbons can be prepared by melt-spinning. An annealing treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the amorphous phase (around 410 deg. C) is needed to obtain hydrogen absorption rate similar to that of induction-melted Zr{sub 2}Fe alloy. However, the annealing leads to the limitation of the hydrogen capacity to 1.2 wt.%, due to the occurrence of an absorption-disproportionation phenomenon.

  13. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  14. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  15. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  16. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  17. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  18. Conductive dense hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  19. Metallic hydrogen research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, T.J.; Hawke, R.S.

    1978-11-16

    Theoretical studies predict that molecular hydrogen can be converted to the metallic phase at very high density and pressure. These conditions were achieved by subjecting liquid hydrogen to isentropic compression in a magnetic-flux compression device. Hydrogen became electrically conducting at a density of about 1.06 g/cm/sup 3/ and a calculated pressure of about 2 Mbar. In the experimental device, a cylindrical liner, on implosion by high explosive, compresses a magnetic flux which in turn isentropically compresses a hydrogen sample; coaxial conical anvils prevent escape of the sample during compression. One anvil contains a coaxial cable that uses alumina ceramic as an insulator; this probe allows continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity of the hydrogen. A flash x-ray radiograph exposed during the experiment records the location of the sample-tube boundaries and permits calculation of the sample density. The theoretical underpinnings of the metallic transition of hydrogen are briefly summarized, and the experimental apparatus and technique, analytical methods, and results are described. 9 figures.

  20. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  1. Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.

  2. Surface analysis, hydrogen adsorption and electrochemical performance of alkali-reduce treated hydrogen storage alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫祥; 徐铸德; 涂江平; 李海洋; 陈石; 袁俊; 鲍世宁

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogen storage alloy powders (MlNi4.0Co0.6Al0.4, Ml=rich-La mischmetal) were treated in a hot 6mol/L KOH+0.02mol/L KBH4 solution, the surface compositions and chemical states of the treated and untreated alloys were analyzed by XPS and EDX, the hydrogen adsorption on the surface of these alloys was evaluated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), the effects of the surface treatment on the electrochemical performances of the alloy electrodes were investigated. The results show that the hydrogen adsorption is greatly strengthened by the surface modification, and hence leads to marked improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, the treated alloy exhibits higher exchange current density and lower apparent activation energy for the hydrogen electrode reaction than the untreated alloy.

  3. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  4. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  5. Magnetically stabilized bed reactor for selective hydrogenation of olefins in reformate with amorphous nickel alloy catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuhong Mu; Enze Min

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) reactor for selective hydrogenation of olefins in reformate was developed by combining the advantages of MSB and amorphous nickel alloy catalyst. The effects of operating conditions, such as temperature, pressure, liquid space velocity, hydrogen-to-oil ratio, and magnetic field intensity on the reaction were studied. A mathematical model of MSB reactor for hydrogenation of olefins in reformate was established. A reforming flow scheme with a post-hydrogenation MSB reactor was proposed. Finally, MSB hydrogenation was compared with clay treatment and conventional post-hydrogenation.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... facilitated by microbial enzyme activity. The model describes how the hydrogen peroxide removal declines and eventually stops at relatively low chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. It is hypothesized that this is due to an enzyme deficit because it is destructed due to the reactive radicals created...

  7. Effects of Hydrogen Heat Treatment on the Visible Light Absorption of Natural Rutile%氢气还原处理对天然金红石可见光吸收的影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗泽敏; 李艳; 鲁安怀; 吴婧; 秦善; 王长秋

    2011-01-01

    天然半导体矿物金红石因结构中含有类质同象替代杂质元素V和Fe,具有一定的可见光吸收和光催化活性。为改善金红石的日光光催化性能,在H2还原气氛下,对天然金红石粉末进行500~900℃不同温度的热处理改性研究。紫外-可见漫反射吸收光谱(UV-Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra)表明H2还原处理显著改善了金红石在可见光区460~750 nm波段的光吸收,其中900℃处理样品的光吸收提升最为明显。电子顺磁共振(EPR)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)测试表明,随着还原温度升高,杂质元素V和Fe从高价态(V5+,Fe3+)向较低的价态(V4+,V3+,Fe2+)转化,同时金红石表面的化学吸附水含量也有所增加。本文认为H2还原热处理引起的过渡金属元素价态的改变,尤其是较低氧化态V离子(V4+和V3+)的形成,可能是导致金红石样品可见光吸收显著增加的主要原因。%Natural semiconductor mineral rutile-TiO2,containing the main substituting metal ions of vanadium and iron,has potential capability on optical absorption and photocatalytic activity under sunlight.To further enhance its optical absorption,the rutile powder was modified by using hydrogen heat treatment in the temperatures ranging from 500 ℃ to 900 ℃.The Ultra violet-visible(UV-Vis) absorption spectra showed that the visible light absorption of rutile sample in the wavelength from 460 to 750 nm was significantly enhanced,with the biggest increment in sample treated at 900 ℃.Analysis with Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance(EPR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) indicated that hydrogen heat treatments induced transformation from V5+ to V4+ and V3+,as well as from Fe3+ to Fe2+ in rutile samples,and the atom percentages of chemical absorbed water was gradually increased with increasing temperature.Changes of transition metals,especially the formation of V4+ and V3

  8. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide releasing hybrid, attenuates neuroinflammation induced by microglial and astrocytic activation: a new candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith; Kodela, Ravinder; Kashfi, Khosrow; McGeer, Patrick L

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and nitric oxide (NO) have been described as gasotransmitters. Anti-inflammatory activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems may be one of their functions. Previously we demonstrated that several SH(-) donors including H2 S-releasing aspirin (S-ASA) exhibited anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity in vitro against toxins released by activated microglia and astrocytes. Here we report that NOSH-ASA, an NO- and H2 S-releasing hybrid of aspirin, has a significantly greater anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect than S-ASA or NO-ASA. When activated by LPS/IFNγ, human microglia and THP-1 cells release materials that are toxic to differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. These phenomena also occur with IFNγ-stimulated human astroglia and U373 cells. When the cells were treated with the S-ASA or NO-ASA, there was a significant enhancement of neuroprotection. However, NOSH-ASA had significantly more potent protection properties than NO-ASA or S-ASA. The effect was concentration-dependent, as well as incubation time-dependent. Such treatment not only reduced the release of the TNFα and IL-6, but also attenuated activation of P38 MAPK and NFκB proteins. All the compounds tested were not harmful when applied directly to SH-SY5Y cells. These data suggest that NOSH-ASA has significant anti-inflammatory properties and may be a new candidate for treating neurodegenerative disorders that have a prominent neuroinflammatory component such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  9. Hydrogen in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hervig, R.; Irving, T.

    2017-01-01

    Most volatile studies of Mars have targeted its surface via spacecraft and rover data, and have evidenced surficial water in polar caps and the atmosphere, in the presence of river channels, and in the detection of water bearing minerals. The other focus of Martian volatile studies has been on Martian meteorites which are all from its crust. Most of these studies are on hydrous phases like apatite, a late-stage phase, i.e. crystallizing near the end of the differentiation sequence of Martian basalts and cumulates. Moreover, calculating the water content of the magma a phosphate crystallized from is not always possible, and yet is an essential step to estimate how much water was present in a parent magma and its source. Water, however, is primarily dissolved in the interiors of differentiated planets as hydrogen in lattice defects of nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) of the crust and mantle. This hydrogen has tremendous influence, even in trace quantities, on a planet's formation, geodynamics, cooling history and the origin of its volcanism and atmosphere as well as its potential for life. Studies of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous phases of Martian meteorites are rare. Measuring water contents and hydrogen isotopes in well-characterized nominally anhydrous minerals of Martian meteorites is the goal of our study. Our work aims at deciphering what influences the distribution and origin of hydrogen in Martian minerals, such as source, differentiation, degassing and shock.

  10. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, W. David; Carmack, Jon; Werner, James E.; Pink, Robert J.; Haggard, DeLon C.; Johnson, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISP. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant's absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test low activity uranium containing materials but is also suited for testing cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  11. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  12. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  13. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  14. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Clean Energy Research Institute

    2008-09-30

    In the 1960s, air pollution in cities became an important issue hurting the health of people. The author became interested in environmental issues in general and air pollution in particular. He started studying possible vehicle fuels, with a view of determining the fuel which would cause little or no pollution. He particularly studied methanol, ethanol, ammonia and hydrogen as well as the gasohols (i.e., the mixtures of gasoline and methanol and/or ethanol). His investigation of fuels for transportation lasted five years (1967-1972). The result was that hydrogen is the cleanest fuel, and it is also the most efficient one. It would not produce CO (carbon monoxide), CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide), SO{sub x}, hydrocarbons, soot and particulates. If hydrogen was burned in oxygen, it would not produce NO{sub x} either. If it burned in air, there would then be some NO{sub x} produced. Since the author has always believed that engineers and scientists should strive to find solutions to the problems facing humankind and the world, he established the Clean Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the University of Miami in 1973. The mission of the Institute was to find a solution or solutions to the energy problem, so the world economy can function properly and provide humankind with high living standards. To find clean forms of energy was also the mission of the Institute, so that they would not produce pollution and damage the health of flora, fauna and humans, as well as the environment of the planet Earth as a whole. CERI looked at all of the possible primary energy sources, including solar, wind, currents, waves, tides, geothermal, nuclear breeders and thermonuclear. Although they are much cleaner and would last much longer than fossil fuels, these sources were not practical for use. They were not storable or transportable by themselves, except nuclear. They could not be used as a fuel for transportation by themselves, except nuclear for marine transportation. In order to solve

  15. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  16. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast at tempe......A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  17. Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Sparling, Richard; Risbey, Derek; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemi; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked for methanogenesis inhibition. In the first phase of experiments it was found that acetylene at 1% v/v in the headspace was as effective as BES in inhibiting methanogenic activity. Hydrogen gas accumulated in the headspace of the bottles, reaching a plateau. Similar final hydrogen concentrations were obtained for reactors spiked with acetylene and BES. In the second phase of tests the headspace of the batch reactors was flushed with nitrogen gas after the first plateau of hydrogen was reached, and subsequently incubated, with no further addition of inhibitor nor substrate. It was found that hydrogen production resumed and reached a second plateau, although somewhat lower than the first one. This procedure was repeated a third time and an additional amount of hydrogen was obtained. The plateaux and initial rates of hydrogen accumulation decreased in each subsequent incubation cycle. The total cumulative hydrogen harvested in the three cycles was much higher (approx. double) than in the first cycle alone. We coined this procedure as IV-SSAH (intermittently vented solid substrate anaerobic hydrogen generation). Our results point out to a feasible strategy for obtaining higher hydrogen yields from the fermentation of industrial solid wastes, and a possible combination of waste treatment processes consisting of a first stage IV-SSAH followed by a second SSAD stage. Useful products of this approach would be hydrogen, organic acids or methane, and anaerobic digestates that could be used as soil amenders after post-treatment.

  18. Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez Vazquez, I.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. of Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Sparling, R.; Risbey, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology; Rinderknecht Seijas, N. [ESIQUIE-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Division Base Sciences

    2005-11-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked for methanogenesis inhibition. In the first phase of experiments it was found that acetylene at 1% v/v in the headspace was as effective as BES in inhibiting methanogenic activity. Hydrogen gas accumulated in the headspace of the bottles, reaching a plateau. Similar final hydrogen concentrations were obtained for reactors spiked with acetylene and BES. In the second phase of tests the headspace of the batch reactors was flushed with nitrogen gas after the first plateau of hydrogen was reached, and subsequently incubated, with no further addition of inhibitor nor substrate. It was found that hydrogen production resumed and reached a second plateau, although somewhat lower than the first one. This procedure was repeated a third time and an additional amount of hydrogen was obtained. The plateaux and initial rates of hydrogen accumulation decreased in each subsequent incubation cycle. The total cumulative hydrogen harvested in the three cycles was much higher (approx. double) than in the first cycle alone. We coined this procedure as IV-SSAH (intermittently vented solid substrate anaerobic hydrogen generation). Our results point out to a feasible strategy for obtaining higher hydrogen yields from the fermentation of industrial solid wastes, and a possible combination of waste treatment processes consisting of a first stage IV-SSAH followed by a second SSAD stage. Useful products of this approach would be hydrogen, organic acids or methane, and anaerobic digestates that could be used as soil amenders after post-treatment. (author)

  19. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  20. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  1. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  2. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    CERN Document Server

    Krol, R van de

    2012-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production describes the principles and materials challenges for the conversion of sunlight into hydrogen through water splitting at a semiconducting electrode. Readers will find an analysis of the solid state properties and materials requirements for semiconducting photo-electrodes, a detailed description of the semiconductor/electrolyte interface, in addition to the photo-electrochemical (PEC) cell. Experimental techniques to investigate both materials and PEC device performance are outlined, followed by an overview of the current state-of-the-art in PEC materia

  3. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  4. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  5. Electrocatalysts for hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Losiewicz, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    This special topic volume deals with the development of novel solid state electrocatalysts of a high performance to enhance the rates of the hydrogen or oxygen evolution. It contains a description of various types of metals, alloys and composites which have been obtained using electrodeposition in aqueous solutions that has been identified to be a technologically feasible and economically superior technique for the production of the porous electrodes. The goal was to produce papers that would be useful to both the novice and the expert in hydrogen technologies. This volume is intended to be us

  6. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  7. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  8. Estudo do efeito de tratamentos térmicos em catalisadores de PtRu/C frente à reação de oxidação de hidrogênio na presença de CO Study of the effect of thermal treatments of PtRu/C catalysts on the hydrogen oxidation reaction in the presence of CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Papa Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of time and temperature of thermal treatments under reducing atmosphere (H2 on PtRu/C catalysts for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR in the presence of CO on a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC single cells have been studied. It can be seen that the increase of the treatment temperature leads to an increasing sintering of the catalyst particles with reduction of the active area, although the catalyst treated at 550 ºC presents more CO tolerance for the HOR.

  9. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Structural Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines; however, it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittlement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a well-established failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. This pressure cycling represents one of the key differences in operating conditions between current hydrogen pipelines and those anticipated in a hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Applying structural integrity models in design codes coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of the reliability/integrity of steel hydrogen pipelines subjected to pressure cycling. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of physics-based predictive models, which provide important insights such as the effects of microstructure on hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth. Successful implementation of these structural integrity and physics-based models enhances confidence in the design codes and enables decisions about materials selection and operating conditions for reliable and efficient steel hydrogen pipelines.

  10. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): Toward a Hydrogen-free Hydrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-17

    The need to drastically reduce CO2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent. Recent scientific and technological progress in handling hydrogen in chemically bound form as liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) supports the technological vision that a future hydrogen economy may work without handling large amounts of elemental hydrogen. LOHC systems are composed of pairs of hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich organic compounds that store hydrogen by repeated catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation cycles. While hydrogen handling in the form of LOHCs allows for using the existing infrastructure for fuels, it also builds on the existing public confidence in dealing with liquid energy carriers. In contrast to hydrogen storage by hydrogenation of gases, such as CO2 or N2, hydrogen release from LOHC systems produces pure hydrogen after condensation of the high-boiling carrier compounds. This Account highlights the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage using LOHC systems. It first introduces fundamental aspects of a future hydrogen economy and derives therefrom requirements for suitable LOHC compounds. Molecular structures that have been successfully applied in the literature are presented, and their property profiles are discussed. Fundamental and applied aspects of the involved hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis are discussed, characteristic differences for the catalytic conversion of

  11. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experimen...

  13. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  14. Catalytic combustor for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercea, J.; Grecu, E.; Fodor, T.; Kreibik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of catalytic combustors for hydrogen using platinum-supported catalysts is described. Catalytic plates of different sizes were constructed using fibrous and ceramic supports. The temperature distribution as well as the reaction efficiency as a function of the fuel input rate was determined, and a comparison between the performances of different plates is discussed.

  15. Sustainable Electrochemical Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Jakob; Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    production is through electrochemical processes coupled to renewable energy sources such as wind or solar. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER, 2H+ + 2e− → H2) constitutes half of the water splitting reaction. To increase process efficiency, active catalysts for the HER are needed. Currently platinum...

  16. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  17. Hydrogen storage for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an analysis of hydrogen-fueled automobiles are presented as a part of a continuing study conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion. The hydrogen is stored either as a metal hydride at moderate pressure in TiFe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/H/sub x/ and at low pressure in MgH/sub x/ catalyzed with 10 wt % Ni, or it is stored in hollow glass microspheres at pressures up to about 400 atm. Improved projections are given for the two hydrides, which are used in combination to take advantage of their complementary properties. In the dual-hydride case and in the microsphere case where Ti-based hydride is used for initial operation, hydrogen is consumed in an internal-combustion engine; whereas in the third case, hydrogen from Ti-based hydride is used with air in an alkaline fuel cell/Ni-Zn battery combination which powers an electric vehicle. Each system is briefly described; and the results of the vehicle analysis are compared with those for the conventional automobile and with electric vehicles powered by Pb-acid or Ni-Zn batteries. Comparisons are made on the basis of automobile weight, initial user cost, and life-cycle cost. In this report, the results are limited to those for the 5-passenger vehicle in the period 1985-1990, and are provided as probable and optimistic values.

  18. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2008-09-09

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  19. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  20. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  1. Biomimetic Production of Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Devens

    2004-03-01

    The basic reaction for hydrogen generation is formation of molecular hydrogen from two electrons and two protons. Although there are many possible sources for the protons and electrons, and a variety of mechanisms for providing the requisite energy for hydrogen synthesis, the most abundant and readily available source of protons and electrons is water, and the most attractive source of energy for powering the process is sunlight. Not surprisingly, living systems have evolved to take advantage of these sources for materials and energy. Thus, biology provides paradigms for carrying out the reactions necessary for hydrogen production. Photosynthesis in green plants uses sunlight as the source of energy for the oxidation of water to give molecular oxygen, protons, and reduction potential. Some photosynthetic organisms are capable of using this reduction potential, in the form of the reduced redox protein ferredoxin, to reduce protons and produce molecular hydrogen via the action of an hydrogenase enzyme. A variety of other organisms metabolize the reduced carbon compounds that are ultimately the major products of photosynthesis to produce molecular hydrogen. These facts suggest that it might be possible to use light energy to make molecular hydrogen via biomimetic constructs that employ principles similar to those used by natural organisms, or perhaps with hybrid "bionic" systems that combine biomimetic materials with natural enzymes. It is now possible to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that mimic some of the major steps in the natural process.(1) Artificial antennas based on porphyrins, carotenoids and other chromophores absorb light at various wavelengths in the solar spectrum and transfer the harvested excitation energy to artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.(2) In these centers, photoinduced electron transfer uses the energy from light to move an electron from a donor to an acceptor moiety, generating a high-energy charge-separated state

  2. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. [Clean Energy Research Inst., Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted quickly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, all of which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life on our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, and little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century. (author)

  3. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  4. Producing hydrogen from wastewater sludge by Clostridium bifermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Chang, C W; Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, B-V; Liao, C S

    2003-04-10

    Excess wastewater sludge collected from the recycling stream of an activated sludge process is biomass that contains large quantities of polysaccharides and proteins. However, relevant literature indicates that the bio-conversion of wastewater sludge to hydrogen is limited and therefore not economically feasible. This work examined the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge using a clostridium strain isolated from the sludge as inoculum. A much higher hydrogen yield than presented in the literature was obtained. Also, the effects of five pre-treatments-ultrasonication, acidification, sterilization, freezing/thawing and adding methanogenic inhibitor-on the production of hydrogen were examined. Freezing and thawing and sterilization increased the specific hydrogen yield by 1.5-2.5 times to that of untreated sludge, while adding an inhibitor and ultrasonication reduced the hydrogen yield.

  5. Hydrogen production from wastewater sludge using a Clostridium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Chang, C W; Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, B V; Liao, C S

    2003-09-01

    Limited data in literature revealed a relatively low hydrogen yield from wastewater sludge, ca. 0.16 mg/g-dried solids, using anaerobic fermentation. We demonstrated in this work a much higher hydrogen yield, around 1.1 mg-H2/g-dried solids using a clostridium strain isolated from the sludge sample. The formed hydrogen would be consumed after passing the peak value at around 30-36 h of fermentation. We examined the effects of employing five different pre-treatments on substrate sludge, but noted no appreciable enhancement in hydrogen yield as commonly expected for methane production. Since a vast amount of organic matters had been released to water after hydrogen fermentation, we externally dosed methanogenic bacteria to the fermented liquor to produce methane. The fermented liquor could produce more methane than the non-fermented sample, indicating that the dosed methanogenic bacteria readily utilized the organic matters derived from the fermentation test.

  6. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  7. Recent progress in hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel resources make the establishment of a clean and sustainable energy system a compelling need. Hydrogen-based energy systems offer potential solutions. Although, in the long-term, the ultimate technological challenge is large-scale hydrogen production from renewable sources, the pressing issue is how to store hydrogen efficiently on board hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles1,2.

  8. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  9. Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Le Tuan

    The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on iron minerals can generate hydroxyl radical (•OH), a strong oxidant capable of transforming a wide range of contaminants. This reaction is critical to ex situ advanced oxidation processes employed in waste treatment systems, as well as in situ chemical oxidation processes used for soil and groundwater remediation. Unfortunately, the process in the ex situ treatment systems is relatively inefficient at circumneutral pH values. In this research, the development of iron-containing catalysts with improved efficiency was investigated. In addition, little is known about the factors that control the performance of in situ treatment systems. Another aim of this dissertation was to elucidate those factors to provide a basis for improving the efficiency of the remediation method. Two types of silica- and alumina-containing iron (hydr)oxide catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel processing techniques (Chapter 2). Relative to iron oxides, such as hematite and goethite, these catalysts were 10 to 80 times more effective in catalyzing the production of •OH from H2O2 under circumneutral conditions. The higher efficiency makes these catalysts promising candidates for ex situ advanced oxidation processes. Moreover, because alumina and silica alter the reactivity of the iron oxides with H2O2, understanding the activity of iron associated with natural aluminosilicates and silica-containing minerals in the subsurface is crucial to explaining the variability of •OH production observed in in situ treatment systems. In addition to the sol-gel technique used in Chapter 2, silica-containing iron (hydr)oxide catalysts were synthesized by immobilizing iron oxide onto mesoporous silica supports, such as SBA-15 (Chapter 5). The iron-containing SBA-15 was 10 times more effective than iron oxides in catalyzing the production of •OH from H2O2. Moreover, this catalyst could be employed for selective oxidation of small organic contaminants

  10. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN MOLYBDENUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd El Keriem, M.S.; van der Werf, D.P.; Pleiter, F

    1993-01-01

    Vacancy-hydrogen interaction in molybdenum was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. The complex InV2 turned out to trap up to two hydrogen atoms: trapping of a single hydrogen atom gives rise to a decrease of the quadrupole

  11. Single element hydrogen sensing material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, B.; Boelsma, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single element thin-film device, to a method for producing a thin-film device, to a single element for detecting hydrogen absorption, to a hydrogen sensor, to an apparatus for detecting hydrogen and to an electro-magnetic transformer comprising said sensor. A thin-

  12. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-09

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

  13. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2012-10-26

    wastewater treatment facility operated by Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD, Fountain Valley, CA). As part of achieving the objective of operating on a renewable feedstock, Air Products secured additional funding via an award from the California Air Resources Board. The South Coast Air Quality Management District also provided cost share which supported the objectives of this project. System operation at OCSD confirmed the results from shop validation testing performed during Phase 3. Hydrogen was produced at rates and purity that met the targets from the system design basis, and coproduction efficiency exceeded the 50% target set in conjunction with input from the DOE. Hydrogen production economics, updated from the Phase 2 analysis, showed pricing of $5 to $6 per kilogram of hydrogen using current gas purification systems. Hydrogen costs under $3 per kilogram are achievable if next-generation electrochemical separation technologies become available.

  14. 双氧水肾盂灌注治疗乳糜尿疗效观察%Treatment of chyluria with Hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) irrigation of the renal pelvis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 涂仁泉; 肖跃林; 黄承智; 罗凌坚; 胡平生; 王海生

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) irrigation of the renal pelvis for the treatment of chyluria.Methods 102 or 68 cases with filarial chyluria in 1989-2006 were treated with H2O2 or silver nitrate irrigation of the renal pelvis. The response,as judged from the disappearance of chyluria and the incidence of complications,was analyzed.Results The H2O2 irrigation of the renal pelvis groups, the disappearing rate of chyluria was 93.14%,81(81/95) cases were followed up for 2 to 12 years,75 cases (92.59﹪) were found to have been cured and 6 (7.41﹪) had recurrence; The silver nitrate irrigation of the renal pelvis groups, the disappearing rate of chyluria was 79.41%, 48(48/54) cases were followed up for 2 to 10 years,36 cases (75﹪) were found to have been cured and 12 (25﹪)had recurrence. The treating effect in the first group is higher than the last group between two groups.Conclusions Treatment of chyluria with H2O2 irrigation of the renal pelvis is a simple and convenient method with certain eff;cacy and no obvious complications occurred. It is an ideal non-surgical procedure for treatment of chyluria.%目的 探讨双氧水肾盂灌注治疗乳糜尿的疗效.方法 自1989~2006年本院收治乳糜尿病人102例采用3%双氧水、68例采用1%硝酸银进行肾盂灌注,比较两组患者乳糜尿治愈率及复发率.结果 双氧水组乳糜尿消失率为93.14%(95/102),81例(81/95)随访2~12年,治愈率为92.59%(75/81),复发率7.41%(6/81);硝酸银组乳糜尿消失率为79.41%(54/68),48例(48/54)随访2年~10年,治愈率为75%(36/48),复发率25%(12/48),两组治愈率及复发率分别比较差异非常显著(p<0.01).结论 双氧水肾盂灌注治疗乳糜尿治愈率高,并发症少,复发率低,不失为一种非手术治疗乳糜尿的可靠方法 .

  15. Effect of hydrogen on the corrosion behavior of the Mg–xZn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Song

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen evolution reaction is inevitable during the corrosion of Mg alloys. The effect of hydrogen on the corrosion behavior of the Mg–2Zn and Mg–5Zn alloys is investigated by charging hydrogen treatment. The surface morphologies of the samples after charging hydrogen were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the corrosion resistance was evaluated by polarization curves. It is found that there are oxide films formed on the surface of the charged hydrogen samples. The low hydrogen evolution rate is helpful to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys, while the high hydrogen evolution rate can increases the defects in the films and further deteriorates their protection ability. Also, the charging hydrogen effect is greatly associated with the microstructure of Mg substrate.

  16. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  17. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K.; Singh, Waheguru; Anderson, Kelvin C.

    2010-01-01

    Two-electron reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide is a much researched topic. Most of the work has been done in the production of hydrogen peroxide in basic media, in order to address the needs of the pulp and paper industry. However, peroxides under alkaline conditions show poor stabilities and are not useful in disinfection applications. There is a need to design electrocatalysts that are stable and provide good current and energy efficiencies to produce hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions. The innovation focuses on the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide using an electrochemical cell having a gas diffusion electrode as the cathode (electrode connected to the negative pole of the power supply) and a platinized titanium anode. The cathode and anode compartments are separated by a readily available cation-exchange membrane (Nafion 117). The anode compartment is fed with deionized water. Generation of oxygen is the anode reaction. Protons from the anode compartment are transferred across the cation-exchange membrane to the cathode compartment by electrostatic attraction towards the negatively charged electrode. The cathode compartment is fed with oxygen. Here, hydrogen peroxide is generated by the reduction of oxygen. Water may also be generated in the cathode. A small amount of water is also transported across the membrane along with hydrated protons transported across the membrane. Generally, each proton is hydrated with 3-5 molecules. The process is unique because hydrogen peroxide is formed as a high-purity aqueous solution. Since there are no hazardous chemicals or liquids used in the process, the disinfection product can be applied directly to water, before entering a water filtration unit to disinfect the incoming water and to prevent the build up of heterotrophic bacteria, for example, in carbon based filters. The competitive advantages of this process are: 1. No consumable chemicals are needed in the process. The only raw materials

  18. Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen molecules in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: martin.hiller@physik.phy.tu-dresden.de; Lavrov, E.V. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Weber, J. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-04-01

    Single-crystalline germanium samples exposed to hydrogen and/or deuterium plasma are studied by Raman scattering. Two bands at 1980 and 4155cm{sup -1} are assigned to local vibrational modes of Ge-H and H{sub 2}, respectively. Polarization sensitive Raman scattering spectra suggest that the plasma treatment results in {l_brace}111{r_brace} platelets whose basic units are Ge-H bonds. The signal at 4155cm{sup -1} is shown to result from molecular hydrogen trapped within these platelets. Another broad Raman signal around 3930cm{sup -1} seems to be due to H{sub 2} trapped in some other type of voids formed during the plasma treatment. Two sharp peaks at 3826 and 3834cm{sup -1} are assigned to ortho- and para-H{sub 2} trapped at the interstitial T site.

  19. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  20. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    Acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) is caused by pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary vascular permeability. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase causes inflammation, and proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress induce autophagy, a catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. If not controlled, excessive autophagy responses can result in cell death. In this study, we pretreated rats with saturated hydrogen saline, and examined the molecular mechanism by which saturated hydrogen saline attenuates LPS-induced acute lung dysfunction. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups--a control group, an LPS group, or an LPS plus saturated hydrogen saline (LPS + H2) group. Treatment with saturated hydrogen saline prolonged the median survival time of rats and reduced lung dysfunction induced by LPS. Moreover, saturated hydrogen saline significantly attenuated LPS-mediated induction of serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde (P hydrogen saline decreased the number of autophagosomes and LC3I/II expression. Saturated hydrogen saline also attenuated the LPS-mediated increase in apoptosis and p38 expression. Taken together, saturated hydrogen saline may attenuate LPS-induced acute lung dysfunction in rats by reducing inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis involving the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  2. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  3. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D. [TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London, (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway`s hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author`s main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs.

  4. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D. [TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London, (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and developmentprojects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs.

  5. New approaches to hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of a Hydrogen Economy will require the development of new media capable of safely storing hydrogen in a compact and light weight package. Metal hydrides and complex hydrides, where hydrogen is chemically bonded to the metal atoms in the bulk, offer some hope of overcoming the challenges associated with hydrogen storage. The objective is to find a material with a high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen density that can also meet the unique demands of a low temperature automotive fuel cell. Currently, there is considerable effort to develop new materials with tunable thermodynamic and kinetic properties. This tutorial review provides an overview of the different types of metal hydrides and complex hydrides being investigated for on-board (reversible) and off-board (non-reversible) hydrogen storage along with a few new approaches to improving the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation properties.

  6. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data.

  7. Molecular and Metallic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    interaction between hydroge , molecules. Fortunately, theoretical calculation of the pair potential from first principles at small intermolecular...three- ,’ody effect is a general phenomenon for all highly condensed states of molecular hydroger The effect of t’ ,ree-body contribution to the...parameters of metallic hydroge -. have given more consis- tent results than those for the molecular hydrogen. For example, the r-sults of the earliest

  8. Hydrogen molecules in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: joerg.weber@tu-dresden.de; Hiller, Martin; Lavrov, Edward V. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Molecular hydrogen, the simplest of all molecules, allows a direct insight into the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In the case of H{sub 2}, the Pauli principle leads to two different species, para-H{sub 2} and ortho-H{sub 2}. A conversion between these species is prohibited. Vibrational mode spectra reflect the fundamental properties and allow an unambiguous identification of the H{sub 2} molecules. Today, we have experimental evidence for the trapping of hydrogen molecules in the semiconductors Si, Ge and GaAs at the interstitial sites, within hydrogen-induced platelets, in voids and at impurities (interstitial oxygen in Si). Interstitial H{sub 2} is a nearly free rotor with a surprisingly simple behavior. We review on interstitial H{sub 2} in semiconductors and report on the unexpected preferential disappearance of the para-H{sub 2} or ortho-D{sub 2} species. The origin of the detected ortho-para conversion will be discussed.

  9. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Zhang, Z. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Photoelectrochemical devices-direct photoconversion systems utilizing a photovoltaic-type structure coated with water-splitting catalysts-represent a promising option to meet this goal. Direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies greater than 7% and photoelectrode lifetimes of up to 30 hours in 1 molar KOH have been demonstrated in our laboratory using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Loss analysis models indicate that the DOE`s goal of 10% solar-to-chemical conversion can be met with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, we describe recent progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, improvements in photoelectrode efficiency and stability, and designs for higher efficiency and greater stability.

  10. Interplay between interstitial and substitutional hydrogen donors in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, S. Â. G.; Lavrov, E. Â. V.; Weber, J.

    2014-06-01

    A Raman study on hydrogen donors in ZnO reveals the properties of bond-centered hydrogen (HBC) and hydrogen trapped in the oxygen vacancy (HO). The donors are identified by their electronic 1s→2s(2p) transitions and their characteristic local vibrational modes. The HO donor was detected preferentially below the sample surface, where a high oxygen vacancy concentration is generated by thermal treatment of the samples. HBC and HO exhibit different thermal stabilities and their concentrations depend strongly on the sample history. Molecular hydrogen is an essential part of the interplay of the two hydrogen donors.

  11. Preparation and research on poisoning resistant Zr-Co based hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hualing; WANG Shumao; JIANG Lijun; ZHANG Lidong; LIU Xiaopeng; LI Zhinian

    2008-01-01

    At present,all hydrogen storage alloys are poisoned by hydrogen mixed with CO,CO2,etc,which decreases the hydrogen storage property sharply.Zr-Co based hydrogen storage alloys with good poisoning resistance were prepared by alloying,fluorinating,and electroless plating.The experiment results show that the poisoning resistance of the Zr-Co based alloy was improved remarkably after the treatments.The poisoning resistance mechanism of the Zr-Co based hydrogen storage alloys was analyzed.

  12. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. For this fact sheet, hair ... permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners (relaxers) use ...

  13. DLTS analysis of nickel-hydrogen complex defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)]|[Sony Corporation Research Center, 174 Fujitsuka-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240 (Japan); Sachse, J.-U.; Weber, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Lemke, H. [TU Berlin, Institut fuer Werkstoffe der Elektronik, Jebensstrasse 1, D-10623, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-02-12

    The results of a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of nickel-hydrogen complexes in n- and p-type silicon are presented. Hydrogen is incorporated by wet-chemical etching. After etching, eleven electrically active Ni-H related levels are observed. Heat treatment enables us to investigate the thermal stability of Ni-H complexes. Possible structures of the Ni-H defects are proposed. (orig.) 10 refs.

  14. Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of a petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, M I; Melero, J A; Martínez, F; Botas, J A; Gallego, A I

    2010-01-01

    Continuous Catalytic Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation (CWHPO) for the treatment of a petrochemical industry wastewater has been studied on a pilot plant scale process. The installation, based on a catalytic fixed bed reactor (FBR) coupled with a stirred tank reactor (STR), shows an interesting alternative for the intensification of a continuous CWHPO treatment. Agglomerated SBA-15 silica-supported iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)/SBA-15) was used as Fenton-like catalyst. Several variables such as the temperature and hydrogen peroxide concentration, as well as the capacity of the pilot plant for the treatment of inlet polluted streams with different dilution degrees were studied. Remarkable results in terms of TOC reduction and increased biodegradability were achieved using 160 degrees C and moderate hydrogen peroxide initial concentration. Additionally, a good stability of the catalyst was evidenced for 8 hours of treatment with low iron leaching (less than 1 mg/L) under the best operating conditions.

  15. GTI's hydrogen programs: hydrogen production, storage, and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范钦柏

    2006-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier could help address our concerns about energy security, global climate change,and air quality. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Future and have the potential to revolutionize theway we power our nation, offering cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil fuels.For over 45 years, GTI has been active in hydrogen energy research, development and demonstration. The Institute has extensive experience and on-going work in all aspects of the hydrogen energy economy including production, delivery, infrastructure,use, safety and public policy. This paper discusses the recent GTI programs in hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

  16. On the hydrogenation mechanism in magnesium I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.S.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1985-01-01

    . The hydridings were run at 402°C and 3 MPa hydrogen pressure after heating in helium. A dependence of the rate of hydriding on the heat treatment prior to reaction was observed and it is proposed that the heat treatment causes oxygen atoms to diffuse into the bulk metal and thereby break up the protective oxide...... layer. Based on the observed hydride propagation in the metal particles, a statistical model for the hydriding of a particle is applied to the hydriding curves for a series of samples. The data are found to be in fine agreement with the proposed model. It is concluded that care must be taken when...

  17. Photoinduced hydrogen-bonding dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Xu, Jinmei

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen bonding dynamics has received extensive research attention in recent years due to the significant advances in femtolaser spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. Usually, photoexcitation would cause changes in the hydrogen bonding formed through the interaction between hydrogen donor and acceptor molecules on their ground electronic states, and such transient strengthening or weakening of hydrogen bonding could be crucial for the photophysical transformations and the subsequent photochemical reactions that occurred on a time scale from tens of femtosecond to a few nanoseconds. In this article, we review the combined experimental and theoretical studies focusing on the ultrafast electronic and vibrational hydrogen bonding dynamics. Through these studies, new mechanisms and proposals and common rules have been put forward to advance our understanding of the hydrogen bondings dynamics in a variety of important photoinduced phenomena like photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer processes, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network including forming and breaking hydrogen bond in water. Graphical Abstract We review the recent advances on exploring the photoinduced hydrogen bonding dynamics in solutions through a joint approach of laser spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The reviewed studies have put forward a new mechanism, new proposal, and new rule for a variety of photoinduced phenomena such as photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, and rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network in water.

  18. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...... ammonia and benefits from the properties of ammonia as a fuel. The system can be used as a safe, reversible, low-cost hydrogen carrier....

  19. Hydrogen solubility in rare earth based hydrogen storage alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Engineering; Kuji, Toshiro [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    This paper reviews significant results of recent studies on the hydrogen storage properties of rare earth based AB{sub 5} (A: rare earth element, B: transition element) alloys The hydrogen solubility and the hydride formation, typically appeared in pressure-composition isotherms (PCT), are strongly dependent upon alloy composition, structure, morphology and even alloy particle size. Typical experimental results are shown to describe how these factors affect the hydrogen solubility and storage properties.

  20. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...... ammonia and benefits from the properties of ammonia as a fuel. The system can be used as a safe, reversible, low-cost hydrogen carrier....

  1. Hydrogen-bonded sheets in benzylmethylammonium hydrogen maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Lynay; Abonia, Rodrigo; Cobo, Justo; Low, John N; Glidewell, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    In the title compound, C(8)H(12)N(+).C(4)H(3)O(4)(-), there is a short and almost linear but asymmetric O-H...O hydrogen bond in the anion. The ions are linked into C(2)(2)(6) chains by two short and nearly linear N-H...O hydrogen bonds and the chains are further weakly linked into sheets by a single C-H...O hydrogen bond.

  2. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  3. Influence of annealing treatment on the hydrogen storage properties of La{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}MgNi{sub 9} (x = 0.2, 0.3) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Weiqing; Lan, Zhiqiang; Wenlou, Wei; Yixin, Liu [Key Laboratory of National Education Ministry for Nonferrous Metals and Materials Processing Technology, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Guo, Jin [Key Laboratory of National Education Ministry for Nonferrous Metals and Materials Processing Technology, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-10-15

    La{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}MgNi{sub 9} (x = 0.2, 0.3) alloys have been prepared by magnetic levitation melting under an Argon atmosphere, and the as-cast alloys were annealed at 800 C, 900 C for 10 h under vacuum. The effects of annealing on the hydrogen storage properties of the alloys were investigated systematically by XRD, PCT and electrochemical measurements. For the La{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}MgNi{sub 9} (x = 0.2, 0.3) alloys, LaNi{sub 5}, LaMg{sub 2}Ni{sub 9} and LaNi{sub 3} are the main phases and a Ti{sub 2}Ni phase appears at 900 C. The effective hydrogen storage capacity increases from 1.10, 1.10 wt.% (as-cast) to 1.22, 1.16 wt.% (annealed 800 C) and 1.31, 1.27 wt.% (annealed 900 C), respectively. The annealing not only improves the hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics but also increases the maximum discharge capacity and enhances the cycling stability. The La{sub 1.8}Ti{sub 0.2}MgNi{sub 9} alloy annealed at 900 C exhibits good electrochemical properties, and the discharge capacities decrease from 366.1 mA h/g to 219.6 mA h/g after 177 charge-discharge cycles. (author)

  4. Hydrogen effect on zirconium alloy surface treated by pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushilina, N.S.; Lider, A.M. [Department of General Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kudiiarov, V.N., E-mail: viktor.kudiiarov@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chernov, I.P. [Department of General Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, S.V. [National Research Nuclear University “MIFI”, Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Influence of modification by pulsed electron beam (PEB) and hydrogen adsorption in zirconium alloys have been investigated. Treatment of Zr–1Nb alloy by high-current PEB allows for a decrease in the amount of hydrogen absorbed by the samples during the hydrogenation process from gas atmosphere in the temperature range of (350–550 °S). The effect of the PEB surface treatment on the hydrogen adsorption connected with the formation of a protective oxide film after PEB irradiation and also by the formation of a specific hardening structure under the action of irradiation at temperatures exceeding the melting temperature from the subsequent high-speed surface cooling.

  5. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  6. Hydrogen from renewable resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

    1990-07-01

    In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Hydrogen from renewable resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

    1990-07-01

    In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  10. Hydrogen application dynamics and networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E. [Air Liquide Large Industries, Champigny-sur-Marne (France)

    2010-12-30

    The Chemical Industry consumes large volumes of hydrogen as raw material for the manufacture of numerous products (e.g. polyamides and polyurethanes account for 60% of hydrogen demand). The hydrogen demand was in the recent past and will continue to be driven by the polyurethane family. China will host about 60% of new hydrogen needs over the period 2010-2015 becoming the first hydrogen market next year and reaching 25% of market share by 2015 (vs. only 4% in 2001). Air Liquide supplies large volumes of Hydrogen (and other Industrial Gases) to customers by on-site plants and through pipeline networks which offer significant benefits such as higher safety, reliability and flexibility of supply. Thanks to its long term strategy and heavy investment in large units and pipeline networks, Air Liquide is the Industrial Gas leader in most of the world class Petrochemical basins (Rotterdam, Antwerp, US Gulf Coast, Yosu, Caojing,..) (orig.)

  11. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  12. Hydrogen storage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A summary of the hydride development efforts for the current program year (FY98) are presented here. The Mg-Al-Zn alloy system was studied at low Zn levels (2--4 wt%) and midrange Al contents (40--60 wt%). Higher plateau pressures were found with Al and Zn alloying in Mg and, furthermore, it was found that the hydrogen desorption kinetics were significantly improved with small additions of Zn. Results are also shown here for a detailed study of the low temperature properties of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and a comparison made between conventional melt cast alloy and the vapor process material.

  13. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  14. Effect of Surface Hydrogen Coverage on Field Emission Properties of DiamondFilms Investigated by High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Guang; XIONG Yan-Yun; LIN Zhang-Da; FENG Ke-An; GU Chang-Zhi; JIN Zeng-Sun

    2000-01-01

    The influence of surface hydrogen coverage on the electron field emission of diamond films was investigated by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that hydrogen plasma treatment increased the surface hydrogen coverage while annealing caused hydrogen desorption and induced surface reconstruction. Field electron emission measurements manifested that increase of surface hydrogen coverage could improve the field emission properties, due to the decrease of electron affinity of the diamond .surface hy hvdrogen adsorption.

  15. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  16. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices

  17. Hydrogen inhibits cytotrophoblast cells apoptosis in hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L; Guan, Z; Li, H; Yang, X

    2016-05-30

    Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP) is one of the most serious medical disorders during pregnancy. Hydrogen is a therapeutic antioxidant and used to treat HDCP effectively. However, the molecular mechanism about the effect of hydrogen on HDCP still remains unclear. In this study, we found ROS content in HDCP group was significantly higher than that in the control and was reduced markedly in the presence of 100μmol/L hydrogen. IL6, Caspase3, Bax1, P-JAK2, P-Stat3 and P-p38 expression was much higher than the control, and was notably decreasedby the application of 100μmol/L hydrogen. Bcl2 expression in HDCP group was notably lower than the control and was increased by 100 μmol/L hydrogen. The apoptosis rate of cytotrophoblast cells was decreased, andratio of cytotrophoblast cells at G1 and G2 phase was increased and decreased by hydrogen, respectively. All those data indicated a potential molecular mechanism of hydrogen-mediated treatment in HDCP.

  18. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  19. Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, E.

    2011-02-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon

  20. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  1. Hydrogen - A sustainable energy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen may play a key role in a future sustainable energy system as a carrier of renewable energy to replace hydrocarbons. This review describes the fundamental physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and basic theories of hydrogen sorption reactions, followed by the emphasis on state-of-the-art of the hydrogen storage properties of selected interstitial metallic hydrides and magnesium hydride, especially for stationary energy storage related utilizations. Finally, new perspectives for utilization of metal hydrides in other applications will be reviewed.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide as a new defensive compound in "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Ichiki, Yayoi; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was newly and simultaneously demonstrated with well-known hydrogen cyanide as a component of defensive secretions of "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes. Presence of hydrogen peroxide was successively evidenced by Trinder reagent's spray with colorless as well as oily smears of defensive secretions containing benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen cyanide by alkaline picrate paper treatment. Linear correlation was demonstrated between quantities of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl cyanide. By qualitative assay, seven benzoyl cyanide containing polydesmidans (six species of adults and one species of a nymph at stadium I) tested positive to Trinder reagent, indicative of the presence of hydrogen peroxide (together with hydrogen cyanide), while two cyanogenic species without benzoyl cyanide exhibited negative responses to the reagent. Two types of millipedes were elucidated as species of cyanogenic Polydesmida.

  3. Effect of δ Phase on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Inconel 718 by Notch Tensile Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liufa LIU; Chen LU; Wenjiang DING; Akio Hirose; Kojiro F.Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of δ phase on the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) sensitivity of Inconel 718 was investigated by conducting notch tensile tests. Notch tensile specimens with various precipitation morphologies of δ phase were prepared with different heat treatments, and hydrogen was charged into the tensile specimens before tensile tests via a cathodic charging process. The loss of notch tensile strength (NTS) due to the charged hydrogen was used to evaluate the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity. The results show that δ phase has deleterious effect on NTSs, and the fracture of hydrogen-charged specimens initiated near the notch surfaces. The loss of NTS caused by precharged hydrogen can be greatly decreased by dissolving δ phase. δ-free Inconel 718 alloy is proposed for the applications in hydrogen environments.

  4. Solar Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Sutin, N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turner, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This panel addressed different methods for the photoassisted dissociation of water into its component parts, hydrogen and oxygen. Systems considered include PV-electrolysis, photoelectrochemical cells, and transition-metal based microheterogeneous and homogeneous systems. While none of the systems for water splitting appear economically viable at the present time, the panel identified areas of basic research that could increase the overall efficiency and decrease the costs. Common to all the areas considered was the underlying belief that the water-to-hydrogen half reaction is reasonably well characterized, while the four-electron oxidation of water-to-oxygen is less well understood and represents a significant energy loss. For electrolysis, research in electrocatalysis to reduce overvoltage losses was identified as a key area for increased efficiency. Non-noble metal catalysts and less expensive components would reduce capital costs. While potentially offering higher efficiencies and lower costs, photoelectrochemical-based direct conversion systems undergo corrosion reactions and often have poor energetics for the water reaction. Research is needed to understand the factors that control the interfacial energetics and the photoinduced corrosion. Multi-photon devices were identified as promising systems for high efficiency conversion.

  5. Effects of resveratrol on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in embryonic neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibel Konyalioglu; Guliz Armagan; Ayfer Yalcin; Cigdem Atalayin; Taner Dagci

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural phenolic compound, has been shown to prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer and exhibit neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide in embryonic neural stem cells. Hydrogen peroxide treatment alone increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities but did not change superoxide dismutase levels compared with hydrogen peroxide + resveratrol treatment. Nitric oxide synthase activity and concomitant nitric oxide levels increased in response to hydrogen peroxide treatment. Conversely, resveratrol treatment decreased nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels. Resveratrol also attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced nuclear or mitochondrial DNA damage. We propose that resveratrol may be a promising agent for protecting embryonic neural stem cells because of its potential to decrease oxidative stress by inducing higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase activity, and alleviating both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage.

  6. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Bloomfield; Brian S. MacKenzie

    2006-05-01

    The Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor EHC was evaluated against DOE applications for compressing hydrogen at automobile filling stations, in future hydrogen pipelines and as a commercial replacement for conventional diaphragm hydrogen compressors. It was also evaluated as a modular replacement for the compressors used in petrochemical refineries. If the EHC can be made inexpensive, reliable and long lived then it can satisfy all these applications save pipelines where the requirements for platinum catalyst exceeds the annual world production. The research performed did not completely investigate Molybdenum as a hydrogen anode or cathode, it did show that photoetched 316 stainless steel is inadequate for an EHC. It also showed that: molybdenum bipolar plates, photochemical etching processes, and Gortex Teflon seals are too costly for a commercial EHC. The use of carbon paper in combination with a perforated thin metal electrode demonstrated adequate anode support strength, but is suspect in promoting galvanic corrosion. The nature of the corrosion mechanisms are not well understood, but locally high potentials within the unit cell package are probably involved. The program produced a design with an extraordinary high cell pitch, and a very low part count. This is one of the promising aspects of the redesigned EHC. The development and successful demonstration of the hydraulic cathode is also important. The problem of corrosion resistant metal bipolar plates is vital to the development of an inexpensive, commercial PEM fuel cell. Our research suggests that there is more to the corrosion process in fuel cells and electrochemical compressors than simple, steady state, galvanic stability. It is an important area for scientific investigation. The experiments and analysis conducted lead to several recommended future research directions. First, we need a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of experimental cells with titration to

  7. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  8. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  9. Hydrogen and fuel cells; Hydrogene et piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  10. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  11. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  12. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  13. On critical hydrogen concentration for hydrogen embrittlement of Fe3Al

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Priyadarshi; R Balasubramaniam

    2001-10-01

    The critical hydrogen concentration for hydrogen embrittlement in iron aluminide, Fe3Al has been estimated (0.42 wppm). The estimated critical hydrogen content has been correlated to structural aspects of the decohesion mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement.

  14. Identification of hydrogen molecules in ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, E V; Herklotz, F; Weber, J

    2009-05-08

    Hydrogen molecules in ZnO are identified by their local vibrational modes. In a Raman study, interstitial H2, HD, and D2 species were found to exhibit local vibrational modes at frequencies 4145, 3628, and 2985 cm-1, respectively. After thermal treatment of vapor phase grown ZnO samples in hydrogen atmosphere, most hydrogen forms shallow donors at the bond-centered site (HBC). Subsequently, HBC migrates through the crystal and forms electrically inactive H2. These results imply that the "hidden" hydrogen in ZnO [G. A. Shi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5601 (2004)10.1063/1.1832736] occurs in the form of interstitial H2.

  15. Hydrogenation of nanocrystalline Zr-Fe-H powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roupcova, P. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic) and Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: roupcova@ipm.cz; Schneeweiss, O. [Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Zhu, M. [Department of Mechano-Electrical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 Guangdong (China)

    2005-12-08

    Changes in the phase composition of nanocrystalline Zr-Fe powders prepared by spark synthesis were investigated in dependence of the heat treatment in vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements were applied for phase analysis. {alpha}-Fe, Fe embedded in ZrO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and iron oxides were found in the as-prepared powder. After annealing in hydrogen, {alpha}-Fe and ZrO{sub 2} dominate and minor Fe atoms embedded in ZrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}Zr were detected. Zr-Fe phases were transformed gradually into the {alpha}-Fe and ZrO{sub 2} during the repeated annealing in vacuum and hydrogen. The ability of hydrogen absorption is decreasing with the annealing steps and is connected with the decrease of the Fe{sub 2}Zr phase content.

  16. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  17. Hydrogen and OUr Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Tidball; Stu Knoke

    2009-03-01

    In 2003, President George W. Bush announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to accelerate the research and development of hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies that would enable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to reach the commercial market in the 2020 timeframe. The widespread use of hydrogen can reduce our dependence on imported oil and benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutant emissions that affect our air quality. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, reinforces Federal government support for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Title VIII, also called the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005' authorizes more than $3.2 billion for hydrogen and fuel cell activities intended to enable the commercial introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020, consistent with the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. Numerous other titles in the Act call for related tax and market incentives, new studies, collaboration with alternative fuels and renewable energy programs, and broadened demonstrations--clearly demonstrating the strong support among members of Congress for the development and use of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. In 2006, the President announced the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) to accelerate research on technologies with the potential to reduce near-term oil use in the transportation sector--batteries for hybrid vehicles and cellulosic ethanol--and advance activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The AEI also supports research to reduce the cost of electricity production technologies in the stationary sector such as clean coal, nuclear energy, solar photovoltaics, and wind energy.

  18. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  19. Phase transformation behavior of a TiNiCu shape memory alloy electrolytically charged with hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jihong; ZU Xiaotao; WANG Zhiguo; LIU Yanzhang

    2005-01-01

    The transformation behavior of a TiNiCu shape memory alloy electrolytically charged with hydrogen was investigated by means of different scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that inter- and inner-granular hydrides formed after charging with hydrogen, and the hydrides suppressed martensitic transformation. The electrolytically charged hydrogen can be easily released by heat treatment and the transformation occurred again, which was verified by the DSC and XRD experiments.

  20. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen to deliver energy for cars, portable devices and buildings is seen as one of the key steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa’s national hydrogen strategy, HySA, aims to develop and guide innovation along the value...

  1. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN TUNGSTEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSENS, [No Value; ELKERIEM, MSA; PLEITER, F

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen-vacancy interaction in tungsten was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. Hydrogen trapping at an In-111-vacancy cluster manifests itself as a change of the local electric field gradient, which gives rise to an observable

  2. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research

  4. HYDROGEN TRANSFER IN CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  5. Large pressure range hydrogen sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, C.; Dam, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin-film sensor, to a method for producing a thin-film device, to an alloy for use in an optical sensing layer, to use of an alloy for sensing a chemical species such as hydrogen, to a sensor, to an apparatus for detecting hydrogen, to an electro-magnetic transfor

  6. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  7. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research

  8. Large pressure range hydrogen sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, C.; Dam, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin-film sensor, to a method for producing a thin-film device, to an alloy for use in an optical sensing layer, to use of an alloy for sensing a chemical species such as hydrogen, to a sensor, to an apparatus for detecting hydrogen, to an electro-magnetic transfor

  9. Hydrogen manufacturing using plasma reformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Hochgreb, S.; O`Brien, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Manufacturing of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is needed for a variety of applications. These applications include fuel cells used in stationary electric power production and in vehicular propulsion. Hydrogen can also be used for various combustion engine systems. There is a wide range of requirements on the capacity of the hydrogen manufacturing system, the purity of the hydrogen fuel, and capability for rapid response. The overall objectives of a hydrogen manufacturing facility are to operate with high availability at the lowest possible cost and to have minimal adverse environmental impact. Plasma technology has potential to significantly alleviate shortcomings of conventional means of manufacturing hydrogen. These shortcomings include cost and deterioration of catalysts; limitations on hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons; limitations on rapid response; and size and weight requirements. In addition, use of plasma technology could provide for a greater variety of operating modes; in particular the possibility of virtual elimination of CO{sub 2} production by pyrolytic operation. This mode of hydrogen production may be of increasing importance due to recent additional evidence of global warming.

  10. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  11. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  12. Sampling the Hydrogen Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the electron is an objectively real particle orbiting at very near to light speed. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms associated with orbiting bodies can be considered as being af- fected by relativity. This leads to a model for the atom in which the stable electron orbits are associated with orbital velocities where Gamma is n /α , leading to the idea that it is Gamma that is quantized and not angular momentum as in the Bohr and other models. The model provides a mechanism which leads to quantization of energy levels within the atom and also provides a simple mechanical explanation for the Fine Struc- ture Constant. The mechanism is closely associated with the Sampling theorem and the related phenomenon of aliasing developed in the mid-20th century by engineers at Bell labs.

  13. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  14. Einstein's Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2011-01-01

    In 1905, Einstein formulated his special relativity for point particles. For those particles, his Lorentz covariance and energy-momentum relation are by now firmly established. How about the hydrogen atom? It is possible to perform Lorentz boosts on the proton assuming that it is a point particle. Then what happens to the electron orbit? The orbit could go through an elliptic deformation, but it is not possible to understand this problem without quantum mechanics, where the orbit is a standing wave leading to a localized probability distribution. Is this concept consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance? Dirac, Wigner, and Feynman contributed important building blocks for understanding this problem. The remaining problem is to assemble those blocks to construct a Lorentz-covariant picture of quantum bound states based on standing waves. It is shown possible to assemble those building blocks using harmonic oscillators.

  15. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  16. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  17. The hydrogen mine introduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betournay, M.C.; Howell, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    In an effort to address air quality concerns in underground mines, the mining industry is considering the use fuel cells instead of diesel to power mine production vehicles. The immediate issues and opportunities associated with fuel cells use include a reduction in harmful greenhouse gas emissions; reduction in ventilation operating costs; reduction in energy consumption; improved health benefits; automation; and high productivity. The objective of the hydrogen mine introduction initiative (HMII) is to develop and test the range of fundamental and needed operational technology, specifications and best practices for underground hydrogen power applications. Although proof of concept studies have shown high potential for fuel cell use, safety considerations must be addressed, including hydrogen behaviour in confined conditions. This presentation highlighted the issues to meet operational requirements, notably hydrogen production; delivery and storage; mine regulations; and hydrogen behaviour underground. tabs., figs.

  18. Hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdanovic, Borislav; Felderhoff, Michael; Streukens, Guido

    2009-01-01

    ...) are solid-state hydrogen-storage materials with high hydrogen capacities. They can be used in combination with fuel cells as a hydrogen source thus enabling longer operation times compared with classical metal hydrides...

  19. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  20. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  1. Inactivation of human myeloperoxidase by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumann-Page, Martina; Furtmüller, Paul G; Hofbauer, Stefan; Paton, Louise N; Obinger, Christian; Kettle, Anthony J

    2013-11-01

    Human myeloperoxidase (MPO) uses hydrogen peroxide generated by the oxidative burst of neutrophils to produce an array of antimicrobial oxidants. During this process MPO is irreversibly inactivated. This study focused on the unknown role of hydrogen peroxide in this process. When treated with low concentrations of H2O2 in the absence of reducing substrates, there was a rapid loss of up to 35% of its peroxidase activity. Inactivation is proposed to occur via oxidation reactions of Compound I with the prosthetic group or amino acid residues. At higher concentrations hydrogen peroxide acts as a suicide substrate with a rate constant of inactivation of 3.9 × 10(-3) s(-1). Treatment of MPO with high H2O2 concentrations resulted in complete inactivation, Compound III formation, destruction of the heme groups, release of their iron, and detachment of the small polypeptide chain of MPO. Ten of the protein's methionine residues were oxidized and the thermal stability of the protein decreased. Inactivation by high concentrations of H2O2 is proposed to occur via the generation of reactive oxidants when H2O2 reacts with Compound III. These mechanisms of inactivation may occur inside neutrophil phagosomes when reducing substrates for MPO become limiting and could be exploited when designing pharmacological inhibitors.

  2. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  3. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  4. High efficiency stationary hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Truslow, S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Stationary storage of hydrogen permits one to make hydrogen now and use it later. With stationary hydrogen storage, one can use excess electrical generation capacity to power an electrolyzer, and store the resultant hydrogen for later use or transshipment. One can also use stationary hydrogen as a buffer at fueling stations to accommodate non-steady fueling demand, thus permitting the hydrogen supply system (e.g., methane reformer or electrolyzer) to be sized to meet the average, rather than the peak, demand. We at ADL designed, built, and tested a stationary hydrogen storage device that thermally couples a high-temperature metal hydride to a phase change material (PCM). The PCM captures and stores the heat of the hydriding reaction as its own heat of fusion (that is, it melts), and subsequently returns that heat of fusion (by freezing) to facilitate the dehydriding reaction. A key component of this stationary hydrogen storage device is the metal hydride itself. We used nickel-coated magnesium powder (NCMP) - magnesium particles coated with a thin layer of nickel by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Magnesium hydride can store a higher weight fraction of hydrogen than any other practical metal hydride, and it is less expensive than any other metal hydride. We designed and constructed an experimental NCM/PCM reactor out of 310 stainless steel in the form of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, with the tube side packed with NCMP and the shell side filled with a eutectic mixture of NaCL, KCl, and MgCl{sub 2}. Our experimental results indicate that with proper attention to limiting thermal losses, our overall efficiency will exceed 90% (DOE goal: >75%) and our overall system cost will be only 33% (DOE goal: <50%) of the value of the delivered hydrogen. It appears that NCMP can be used to purify hydrogen streams and store hydrogen at the same time. These prospects make the NCMP/PCM reactor an attractive component in a reformer-based hydrogen fueling station.

  5. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations is developing a technology for efficient separation and compression of hydrogen gas. The electrochemical hydrogen separator and compressor...

  6. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  7. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  8. Hydrogen sulphide removal by activated sludge diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, V L; Dufol, D; Callan, J L; Sneath, R; Stuetz, R M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from wastewater treatment plants comprise a mixture of various gases, of which hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is the main constituent. Microorganisms commonly found in wastewater can degrade sulphurous compounds. Therefore, the use of activated sludge (AS) for odour control offers an alternative to traditional waste gas treatment processes, such as biofilters, bioscrubbers and biotrickling filters, both in practical terms (use of existing facilities) and economically (minimal capital cost). The performance of AS diffusion as a bioscrubber for removing H2S at concentrations at 25, 75 and 150 ppmv was evaluated. Pilot-scale trials were undertaken using parallel 60-L aeration tanks and 20-L clarifier reactors at the Bedford Sewage Treatment Works, Carington, UK. Olfactometry measurements were also carried out to determine whether there was any increase in odour concentration owing to H2S diffusion. Hydrogen sulphide removal rates of 100% were obtained, with no noticeable increase in odour concentration throughout the trials as measured by olfactometry. Odour concentration was highest at the beginning of the trials and lowest during the high H2S dosing period, with similar values being obtained for test and control. It was concluded that AS diffusion is an effective bioscrubber for the removal of H2S odour.

  9. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Bloomfield; Brian S. MacKenzie

    2006-05-01

    The Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor EHC was evaluated against DOE applications for compressing hydrogen at automobile filling stations, in future hydrogen pipelines and as a commercial replacement for conventional diaphragm hydrogen compressors. It was also evaluated as a modular replacement for the compressors used in petrochemical refineries. If the EHC can be made inexpensive, reliable and long lived then it can satisfy all these applications save pipelines where the requirements for platinum catalyst exceeds the annual world production. The research performed did not completely investigate Molybdenum as a hydrogen anode or cathode, it did show that photoetched 316 stainless steel is inadequate for an EHC. It also showed that: molybdenum bipolar plates, photochemical etching processes, and Gortex Teflon seals are too costly for a commercial EHC. The use of carbon paper in combination with a perforated thin metal electrode demonstrated adequate anode support strength, but is suspect in promoting galvanic corrosion. The nature of the corrosion mechanisms are not well understood, but locally high potentials within the unit cell package are probably involved. The program produced a design with an extraordinary high cell pitch, and a very low part count. This is one of the promising aspects of the redesigned EHC. The development and successful demonstration of the hydraulic cathode is also important. The problem of corrosion resistant metal bipolar plates is vital to the development of an inexpensive, commercial PEM fuel cell. Our research suggests that there is more to the corrosion process in fuel cells and electrochemical compressors than simple, steady state, galvanic stability. It is an important area for scientific investigation. The experiments and analysis conducted lead to several recommended future research directions. First, we need a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of experimental cells with titration to

  10. Hydrogenated Black Diamond: An Electrical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, O.A.; Jackman, R.B. [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Nebel, C.E. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2002-10-16

    Hydrogen surface conductivity has been a controversial subject since its discovery. Initial plasma treatments on single crystal diamond and polycrystalline diamond have lead to the widespread use of this material in active electronics. However, ''Black'' polycrystalline diamond, usually termed ''Thermal Management Grade'', shows carrier concentration and mobility values similar to both white polycrystalline diamond and single crystal material. Schottky contacts have also been fabricated and show promising characteristics. Black diamond can be grown considerably faster than white diamond and is hence much cheaper. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  12. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sesha S [Tampa, FL; Niemann, Michael U [Venice, FL; Goswami, D Yogi [Tampa, FL; Stefanakos, Elias K [Tampa, FL

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  13. Nanoporous polymers for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Jonathan; Fréchet, Jean M J; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-05-01

    The design of hydrogen storage materials is one of the principal challenges that must be met before the development of a hydrogen economy. While hydrogen has a large specific energy, its volumetric energy density is so low as to require development of materials that can store and release it when needed. While much of the research on hydrogen storage focuses on metal hydrides, these materials are currently limited by slow kinetics and energy inefficiency. Nanostructured materials with high surface areas are actively being developed as another option. These materials avoid some of the kinetic and thermodynamic drawbacks of metal hydrides and other reactive methods of storing hydrogen. In this work, progress towards hydrogen storage with nanoporous materials in general and porous organic polymers in particular is critically reviewed. Mechanisms of formation for crosslinked polymers, hypercrosslinked polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity, and covalent organic frameworks are discussed. Strategies for controlling hydrogen storage capacity and adsorption enthalpy via manipulation of surface area, pore size, and pore volume are discussed in detail.

  14. Hydrogen Safety Training for Researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, Salvador M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petitpas, Guillaume [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, Timothy O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Switzer, Vernon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-03

    LLNL has been conducting hydrogen research for more than 50 years, starting with national security applications and continuing with hydrogen energy research. For many of these years, LLNL was designated as the pressure safety training facility for the whole DOE complex and other government institutions such as NASA. Many technicians and researchers visited LLNL to receive appropriate training on many aspects of pressure safety, including hydrogen technology, cryogenics, leak detection, and vacuum technology. The national security hydrogen and high-pressure research conducted at LLNL demanded unique testing facilities, and these were built with funding from DOE Defense Programs. These facilities include a high pressure laboratory equipped with 4 hydrogencompatible test cells, each rated for 80,000 psi, and 4 pounds of TNT equivalent stored energy. LLNL also has a high explosive test facility (Site 300) for high-energy experiments with many pounds of TNT equivalent and many kilograms of hydrogen. Experiments in Site 300 are typically conducted in outdoor firing tables and monitored from the safety of a bunker. The remote location of this facility protects employees and property from any hazard. These unique facilities and the expertise necessary to operate them are now being made available for hydrogen energy research through the development of training materials that may contribute to safe operation within the many institutions working for the hydrogen program.

  15. Extensive analysis of hydrogen costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, D.M.; Martin, D.; Garcia-Alegre, M.C.; Guinea, D. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Arganda, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Automatica Industrial; Agila, W.E. [Acciona Infraestructuras, Alcobendas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. I+D+i

    2010-07-01

    Cost is a key issue in the spreading of any technology. In this work, the cost of hydrogen is analyzed and determined, for hydrogen obtained by electrolysis. Different contributing partial costs are taken into account to calculate the hydrogen final cost, such as energy and electrolyzers taxes. Energy cost data is taken from official URLs, while electrolyzer costs are obtained from commercial companies. The analysis is accomplished under different hypothesis, and for different countries: Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Spain and the Canadian region of Ontario. Finally, the obtained costs are compared to those of the most used fossil fuels, both in the automotive industry (gasoline and diesel) and in the residential sector (butane, coal, town gas and wood), and the possibilities of hydrogen competing against fuels are discussed. According to this work, in the automotive industry, even neglecting subsidies, hydrogen can compete with fossil fuels. Hydrogen can also compete with gaseous domestic fuels. Electrolyzer prices were found to have the highest influence on hydrogen prices. (orig.)

  16. 非贵金属氧化物助燃剂的氧化性能 受氢还原预处理的影响%EFFECT OF HYDROGEN REDUCTION TREATMENT ON THE OXIDATION ACTIVITY OF COMBUSTION PROMOTOR WITH NON-NOBLE METAL OXIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星亮; 冯长辉; 殷慧龄

    2001-01-01

    Effects of hydrogen reduction time, hydrogen content and redox circulation on C O oxidation activities of CuO-CoO/Al2O3 and CuO-Ce2O3/Al2O 3 combustion promotors were investigated. The test results showed that after hyd rogen reduction treatment, the oxidation activities of both two promotors were i ncreased at a reaction temperature range of 400 ℃-500 ℃. The activity of CuO -CoO/Al2O3 promotor was increased along with the increasing numbers of the redox circulation, and hydrogen reduction also restored the activity of the said promotor contaminated by sulfur.%对 CuO-CoO/Al2O3和 CuO-Ce2O3/Al2O3助燃剂受 H2还原时间、还原 H2 含量, 以及多次还原-氧化循环处理后对 CO 氧化活性的影响在实验室进行了研究。试验 结果表明, CuO-CoO/Al2O3和 CuO-Ce2O3/Al2O3助燃剂经 H2还原处理后 ,在400~500 ℃反应温度时, CO 氧化活性增加, 并且, CO 氧化活性随着 还原氧化次数的增加而增加。此外 H2还原处理能够使硫中毒后的 CuO-CoO/Al2O3助 燃剂的 CO 氧化活性得到适当恢复。

  17. Treatment of Refinery-Coking Wastewater by Aeration Micro-electrolysis Process with Hydrogen Peroxide%曝气微电解-双氧水工艺处理炼厂焦化废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟帮; 李琪琪; 杨贺群; 谭毅; 蒋伟芬; 陈英; 陈东

    2012-01-01

    The rcfinery-coking wastewater was treated by aeration micro-electrolysis process with hydrogen peroxide. The influence of pH, reaction time, hydrogen peroxide and Iron filings dosage, and air flow on the removal of COD and NH3-N, and the ratio of BOD and COD for the waste water was investigated. The removal of COD and NH3-N in the wastewater was 37.6 % and 29.9 % respectively under the conditions of pH 5-7, Iron filings dosage of 100 g/L, hydrogen peroxide (30 % concentration)dosage of 2 mL/L, and 60 L/h air flow per 150 mL wastewater after reaction 90 rain. The ratio of BOD and COD increased from 0.25 to 0.66, which implied that the biodegradability of the wastewater was improved.%采用曝气微电解-双氧水工艺处理炼厂焦化废水,考察了废水pH、反应时间、双氧水投加量以及空气流量等因素对废水COD、NH3-N2、除率和BOD/COD比值的影响。结果表明,在pH5~7、铁稻用量100g/L、双氧水(浓度为30%)用量2mL/L,反应时间1.5h、空气流量60L/h(实验废水量150mL)的条件下,COD、NH3-N的去除率分别为37.6%和299%,BOD/COD比值从0.25提高到0.66,废水可生化性提高。

  18. Hydrogen Generation From Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Cohen; Stephen Porter; Oscar Chow; David Henderson

    2009-03-06

    Small-scale (100-500 kg H2/day) electrolysis is an important step in increasing the use of hydrogen as fuel. Until there is a large population of hydrogen fueled vehicles, the smaller production systems will be the most cost-effective. Performing conceptual designs and analyses in this size range enables identification of issues and/or opportunities for improvement in approach on the path to 1500 kg H2/day and larger systems. The objectives of this program are to establish the possible pathways to cost effective larger Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems and to identify areas where future research and development efforts have the opportunity for the greatest impact in terms of capital cost reduction and efficiency improvements. System design and analysis was conducted to determine the overall electrolysis system component architecture and develop a life cycle cost estimate. A design trade study identified subsystem components and configurations based on the trade-offs between system efficiency, cost and lifetime. Laboratory testing of components was conducted to optimize performance and decrease cost, and this data was used as input to modeling of system performance and cost. PEM electrolysis has historically been burdened by high capital costs and lower efficiency than required for large-scale hydrogen production. This was known going into the program and solutions to these issues were the focus of the work. The program provided insights to significant cost reduction and efficiency improvement opportunities for PEM electrolysis. The work performed revealed many improvement ideas that when utilized together can make significant progress towards the technical and cost targets of the DOE program. The cell stack capital cost requires reduction to approximately 25% of today’s technology. The pathway to achieve this is through part count reduction, use of thinner membranes, and catalyst loading reduction. Large-scale power supplies are available

  19. Deposition and characterization of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films on rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) for reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals. The wax removal and pre-deposition plasma treatment of HNBR substrates are proven to be cruci

  20. Schrodinger Equation Solutions that Lead to the Solution for the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul F.; McGill, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two exercises that would provide beginning quantum theory students with an introduction to more advanced quantum mechanical treatments, especially the hydrogen atom are given. The exercises are stepwise in difficulty, leading naturally to the full hydrogen atom development and greatly extend the pedagogy of most multidimensional Cartesian systems…