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Sample records for hydrogen sulfide generation

  1. Modeling of Syngas Reactions and Hydrogen Generation Over Sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

    2002-09-17

    The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. In this first year of study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The geometries and strengths of the adsorption sites are described and the methods used in the study are described. An exposed MO{sup IV} species modeled as a bent MoS{sub 2} molecule is capable of homopolar dissociative chemisorption of H{sub 2} into a dihydride S{sub 2}MoH{sub 2}. Among the periodic edge structures of hexagonal MoS{sub 2}, the (1{bar 2}11) edge is most stable but still capable of dissociating H{sub 2}, while the basal plane (0001) is not. A challenging task of theoretically accounting for weak bonding of MoS{sub 2} sheets across the Van der Waals gap has been addressed, resulting in a weak attraction of 0.028 eV/MoS{sub 2} unit, compared to the experimental value of 0.013 eV/MoS{sub 2} unit.

  2. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide generation in shipboard oily-water waste. Part 3. Ship factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgeman, D.K.; Fletcher, L.E.; Upsher, F.J.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical and microbiological composition of bilge-water in ships of the Royal Australian Navy has been investigated in relation to the formation of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in most ships in populations up to 800,000 per mL. Sulfate in the wastes is provided by sea-water. Sea-water constitutes up to 60% (median 20%) of the wastes analysed. Evidence for generation of hydrogen sulfide in the ships was found directly as sulfide or indirectly as depressed sulfate concentrations. The low levels of sulfide found in bilge-water from machinery spaces suggested the ventilation systems were effectively removing the gas from the working area. The effect of storage of the wastes under conditions which simulated the oily- water holding tanks of ships were also investigated. Some wastes were found to produce large quantities of hydrogen sulfide on storage. The wastes that failed to produce hydrogen sulfide were investigated to identify any specific nutritional deficiencies. Some organic substances present in bilge-water, such as lactate or biodegradable cleaning agents, and phosphate strongly influenced the generation of hydrogen sulfide in stored oily-water wastes.

  4. Fast Breaking Detergents: Their Role in the Generation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Oily-Water Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    acid (Dwyer & Tiedje, 1983) and Desulfowibrio desulfitricans to produce ethanol and acetic acid (Dwyer & Tiedje, 1986). Under anaerobic conditions, the...glycol, glycolic acid, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and a number of intermediates. The acetic acid and ethylene glycol are utilised by some species of SRB...are consequently being introduced. Hydrogen sulfide generation by anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a concern for the RAN because it can

  5. Purification of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, U.

    1978-01-01

    A process is described for purifying a hydrogen sulfide gas stream containing carbon dioxide, comprising (a) passing the gas stream through a bed of solid hydrated lime to form calcium hydrosulfide and calcium carbonate and (b) regenerating hydrogen sulfide from said calcium hydrosulfide by reacting the calcium hydrosulfide with additional carbon dioxide. The process is especially applicable for use in a heavy water recovery process wherein deuterium is concentrated from a feed water containing carbon dioxide by absorption and stripping using hydrogen sulfide as a circulating medium, and the hydrogen sulfide absorbs a small quantity of carbon dioxide along with deuterium in each circulation

  6. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were debris landfills are suggested.

  7. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, M; Todolí, J L; Hidalgo, M; Iglesias, M

    2008-02-25

    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S(2-)) at low levels (microgL(-1)) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H(2)S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was measured at 180.669nm. In comparison to when aqueous sulfide was introduced, the introduction of sulfur as H(2)S enhanced the sulfur signal emission. By setting a gas separator at the end of the reaction coil, reduced sulfur species in the form of H(2)S were removed from the water matrix, thus, interferences could be avoided. Alternatively, the gas separator was replaced by a nebulizer/spray chamber combination to introduce the sample matrix and reagents into the plasma. This methodology allowed the determination of both sulfide and sulfate in aqueous samples. For both methods the linear response was found to range from 5microgL(-1) to 25mgL(-1) of sulfide. Detection limits of 5microgL(-1) and 6microgL(-1) were obtained with and without the gas separator, respectively. These new methods were evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method and were successfully applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in environmental waters.

  8. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiyong [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, 518055, (China); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bitton, Gabriel [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H{sub 2}S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H{sub 2}S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H{sub 2}S generation, with Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} reducing H{sub 2}S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH){sub 2} providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl{sub 3} was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H{sub 2}S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and FeCl{sub 3} inhibited H{sub 2}S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH){sub 2} decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H{sub 2}S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration.

  9. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Hidalgo, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Iglesias, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)], E-mail: monica.iglesias@udg.es

    2008-02-25

    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S{sup 2-}) at low levels ({mu}g L{sup -1}) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H{sub 2}S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was measured at 180.669 nm. In comparison to when aqueous sulfide was introduced, the introduction of sulfur as H{sub 2}S enhanced the sulfur signal emission. By setting a gas separator at the end of the reaction coil, reduced sulfur species in the form of H{sub 2}S were removed from the water matrix, thus, interferences could be avoided. Alternatively, the gas separator was replaced by a nebulizer/spray chamber combination to introduce the sample matrix and reagents into the plasma. This methodology allowed the determination of both sulfide and sulfate in aqueous samples. For both methods the linear response was found to range from 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 25 mg L{sup -1} of sulfide. Detection limits of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 6 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained with and without the gas separator, respectively. These new methods were evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method and were successfully applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in environmental waters.

  10. Decreased Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Generation in Penile Tissues of Diabetic Rats with Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shao-Gang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Yin, Chun-Ping; Ye, Zhang-Qun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter. The levels of H2S-generating enzyme expression and endogenous H2S production in diabetic rats with erectile dysfunction (ED) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the H2S-generating enzymes and endogenous production of H2S in penile tissues of diabetic ED rats. Experimental rats were randomly divided into normal control group, apomorphine (APO)-positive group and APO-negative group. Primary rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) and aortic endothelial cells (AECs) were isolated and cultured in vitro under 3 different conditions: normal glucose (NG) condition, high glucose (HG) condition, and osmotic control (OC) condition. Erectile function; H2S concentrations in plasma or penile tissues; expression of H2S-generating enzymes and endogenous H2S production in penile tissues, CCSMCs, and AECs. Erectile function was significantly decreasedin the APO-negative group. In addition to significantly decreased expression of cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), the H2S concentrations in plasma and penile tissues and endogenous H2S production were significantly decreased in the APO-negative group. Endogenous H2S production by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) decreased to the same levels in the APO-negative and APO-positive groups as that in the normal control group. However, CBS and CSE expression remained unchanged in the 3 groups. Under HG conditions, H2S-generating enzyme expression in AECs did not change, while CAT, DAO, and 3-MST expression in CCSMCs was significantly decreased. In both cell types, H2S production by these enzymes was decreased in the HG group. Endogenous H2S production was significantly decreased in the diabetic ED rats' penile tissues due to downregulated expression of the CAT/3-MST and DAO/3-MST pathways and low activities of CBS and CSE

  11. STUDY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lupascu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground water, after its treatment by hydrogen peroxide, proves greater efficiency than in the case of modified carbonic adsorbents. As a result of used treatment, hydrogen sulfide is completely oxidized to sulfates

  12. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  13. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  14. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  15. Passivation Behavior of Type-316L Stainless Steel in the Presence of Hydrogen Sulfide Ions Generated from a Local Anion Generating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun-Seob; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Fushimi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The passivity of type 316L stainless steel was studied in a pH 8.4 boric acid-borate buffer solution containing hydrogen sulfide ions (HS − ) by using a local anion-generating system. During potentiostatic polarization of the stainless steel at a primary passive potential of 0.4 V SSE and at a secondary passive potential of 0.9 V SSE in solutions with and without HS − , the current density flowing for passive film formation was increased by the presence of HS − at both potentials, while 15 Hz impedance at 0.9 V SSE in the solution with HS − was larger than that in the solution without HS − . It was thought that the presence of HS − in the solution during film formation made the film less resistive and affected the film capacitance depending on the polarization potential. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed an increase in metal cation and oxygen anion vacancies in the passive film formed at the primary passive state in the solution containing HS − . Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Raman spectroscopy revealed that a sulfide layer was deposited on the stainless steel surface that was oxidized at the secondary passive state in the solution containing HS − . It is thought that application of a high potential changes the passivity of the stainless steel surface in the solution containing HS − .

  16. Excitatory Modulation of the preBötzinger Complex Inspiratory Rhythm Generating Network by Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber S. F. da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S is one of three gasotransmitters that modulate excitability in the CNS. Global application of H2S donors or inhibitors of H2S synthesis to the respiratory network has suggested that inspiratory rhythm is modulated by exogenous and endogenous H2S. However, effects have been variable, which may reflect that the RTN/pFRG (retrotrapezoid nucleus, parafacial respiratory group and the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC, critical for inspiratory rhythm generation are differentially modulated by exogenous H2S. Importantly, site-specific modulation of respiratory nuclei by H2S means that targeted, rather than global, manipulation of respiratory nuclei is required to understand the role of H2S signaling in respiratory control. Thus, our aim was to test whether endogenous H2S, which is produced by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS in the CNS, acts specifically within the preBötC to modulate inspiratory activity under basal (in vitro/in vivo and hypoxic conditions (in vivo. Inhibition of endogenous H2S production by bath application of the CBS inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 0.1–1.0 mM to rhythmic brainstem spinal cord (BSSC and medullary slice preparations from newborn rats, or local application of AOAA into the preBötC (slices only caused a dose-dependent decrease in burst frequency. Unilateral injection of AOAA into the preBötC of anesthetized, paralyzed adult rats decreased basal inspiratory burst frequency, amplitude and ventilatory output. AOAA in vivo did not affect the initial hypoxia-induced (10% O2, 5 min increase in ventilatory output, but enhanced the secondary hypoxic respiratory depression. These data suggest that the preBötC inspiratory network receives tonic excitatory modulation from the CBS-H2S system, and that endogenous H2S attenuates the secondary hypoxic respiratory depression.

  17. Crossett Hydrogen Sulfide Air Sampling Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the EPA’s hydrogen sulfide air monitoring conducted along Georgia Pacific’s wastewater treatment system and in surrounding Crossett, AR, neighborhoods in 2017.

  18. Air-water transfer of hydrogen sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yongsiri, C.; Vollertsen, J.; Rasmussen, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The emissions process of hydrogen sulfide was studied to quantify air–water transfer of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks. Hydrogen sulfide transfer across the air–water interface was investigated at different turbulence levels (expressed in terms of the Froude number) and pH using batch...... experiments. By means of the overall mass–transfer coefficient (KLa), the transfer coefficient of hydrogen sulfide (KLaH2S), referring to total sulfide, was correlated to that of oxygen (KLaO2) (i.e., the reaeration coefficient). Results demonstrate that both turbulence and pH in the water phase play...... a significant role for KLaH2S. An exponential expression is a suitable representation for the relationship between KLaH2S and the Froude number at all pH values studied (4.5 to 8.0). Because of the dissociation of hydrogen sulfide, KLaH2S increased with decreasing pH at a constant turbulence level. Relative...

  19. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  20. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  1. Reaction between Hydrogen Sulfide and Limestone Calcines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar; Čermák, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2002), s. 2392-2398 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072711; GA AV ČR IAA4072801 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * limestone calcines * desulfurization Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2002

  2. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  3. Hydrogen sulfide prodrugs—a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is recognized as one of three gasotransmitters together with nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. As a signaling molecule, H2S plays an important role in physiology and shows great potential in pharmaceutical applications. Along this line, there is a need for the development of H2S prodrugs for various reasons. In this review, we summarize different H2S prodrugs, their chemical properties, and some of their potential therapeutic applications.

  4. Disturbance of endogenous hydrogen sulfide generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in hippocampus are involved in homocysteine-induced defect in learning and memory of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man-Hong; Tang, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiang; Wang, Chun-Yan; Wei, Hai-Jun; Yang, Xue-Feng; Zou, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as an endogenous neuromodulator and neuroprotectant. It has been shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathological mechanisms of the learning and memory dysfunctions and that H2S exerts its neuroprotective role via suppressing ER stress. In the present work, we explored the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of Hcy on the formation of learning and memory, the generation of endogenous H2S, and the expression of ER stress in the hippocampus of rats. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of Hcy in rats leads to learning and memory dysfunctions in the Morris water maze and novel of object recognition test and decreases in the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous H2S generation, and the generation of endogenous H2S in the hippocampus of rats. We also showed that exposure of Hcy could up-regulate the expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12, which are the major mark proteins of ER stress, in the hippocampus of rats. Taken together, these results suggest that the disturbance of hippocampal endogenous H2S generation and the increase in ER stress in the hippocampus are related to Hcy-induced defect in learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds using microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaktasang, Numfon; Min, Hyeong-Sik; Kang, Christina; Kim, Han S

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to control malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from domestic wastewaters. The electricity production demonstrated a distinct pattern of a two-step increase during 170 h of system run: the first maximum current density was 118.6 ± 7.2 mA m⁻² followed by a rebound of current density increase, reaching the second maximum of 176.8 ± 9.4 mA m⁻². The behaviors of the redox potential and the sulfate level in the anode compartment indicated that the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide compounds was suppressed in the first stage, and the hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from the system were removed effectively as a result of their electrochemical oxidation, which contributed to the additional electricity production in the second stage. This was also directly supported by sulfur deposits formed on the anode surface, which was confirmed by analyses on those solids using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as an elemental analyzer. To this end, the overall reduction efficiencies for HS⁻ and H₂S(g) were as high as 67.5 and 96.4 %, respectively. The correlations among current density, redox potential, and sulfate level supported the idea that the electricity signal generated in the MFC can be utilized as a potential indicator of malodor control for the domestic wastewater system.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide concentration in Beaver Dam Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Concentration-time profiles calculated with LODIPS for various hypothetical releases of hydrogen sulfide from the heavy water extraction facility predict lethal conditions for swamp fish from releases as small as 568 kg discharged over a period of 30 minutes or from releases of 1818 kg discharged over a period of 6 hours or less. The necessary volatilization and oxidation coefficients for LODIPS were derived from field measurements following planned releases of H 2 S. Upsets in the operation of the wastewater strippers in the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) heavy water extraction facility in D Area have released significant amounts of dissolved H 2 S to Beaver Dam Creek. Because H 2 S is toxic to fish in concentrations as low as 1 mg/liter, the downstream environmental impact of H 2 S releases from D Area was evaluated

  7. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide: management of hydrogen sulfide exposure victims (Preprint No. SA-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1989-04-01

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.A. has listed 73 industries with potential exposure to hydrogen sulphide. Though the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is known to mankind since the beginning of seventeenth century the exact mode of its toxicity and effective therapeutic regimen remains unclear as yet. This paper presents current thoughts on the toxicity of this substance and a discussion on the role of various antidotes used in H 2 S poisoning. (autho r)

  8. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing... (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical...

  9. Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal in UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Bartacek, Jan; Kolesarova, Nina; Jenicek, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by microaeration was studied in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic brewery wastewater. A fully anaerobic UASB reactor served as a control while air was dosed into a microaerobic UASB reactor (UMSB). After a year of operation, sulfur balance was described in both reactors. In UASB, sulfur was mainly presented in the effluent as sulfide (49%) and in biogas as hydrogen sulfide (34%). In UMSB, 74% of sulfur was detected in the effluent (41% being sulfide and 33% being elemental sulfur), 10% accumulated in headspace as elemental sulfur and 9% escaped in biogas as hydrogen sulfide. The efficiency of hydrogen sulfide removal in UMSB was on average 73%. Microaeration did not cause any decrease in COD removal or methanogenic activity in UMSB and the elemental sulfur produced by microaeration did not accumulate in granular sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Ageing Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cui-Lan; Wang, Ming-Jie; Sun, Chen; Huang, Yong; Jin, Sheng; Mu, Xue-Pan; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aims . The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results . H 2 S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H 2 S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine γ -lyase (CSE) and cystathionine- β -synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H 2 S donor (NaHS, 50  μ mol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition. These protective effects may relate to transcription factor Nrf2 activation and antioxidant proteins such as HO-1, SIRT1, SOD1, and SOD2 expression upregulation in the ageing kidney after NaHS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of H 2 S-producing enzymes changed with exogenous H 2 S administration and contributed to elevated H 2 S levels in the ageing kidney. Conclusions . Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in the ageing kidney is insufficient. Exogenous H 2 S can partially rescue ageing-related kidney dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, decreasing collagen deposition, and enhancing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Recovery of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production may also contribute to the beneficial effects of NaHS treatment.

  11. Influence of Water Salinity on Air Purification from Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leybovych L.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of «sliding» water drop motion in the air flow was performed in software package FlowVision. The result of mathematical modeling of water motion in a droplet with diameter 100 microns at the «sliding» velocity of 15 m/s is shown. It is established that hydrogen sulfide oxidation occurs at the surface of phases contact. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying air purification from hydrogen sulfide is shown. The results of the experimental research of hydrogen sulfide oxidation by tap and distilled water are presented. The dependence determining the share of hydrogen sulfide oxidized at the surface of phases contact from the dimensionless initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air has been obtained.

  12. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Contributes to Tone Generation in Porcine Lower Esophageal Sphincter Via Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Bai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Endogenous H2S regulates the LES myogenic tone by maintaining the basal [Ca2+]i via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. H2S-generating enzymes may be a potential therapeutic target for esophageal motility disorders, such as achalasia.

  13. Modulated structure calculated for superconducting hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arnab; Tse, John S.; Yao, Yansun [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2017-09-11

    Compression of hydrogen sulfide using first principles metadynamics and molecular dynamics calculations revealed a modulated structure with high proton mobility which exhibits a diffraction pattern matching well with experiment. The structure consists of a sublattice of rectangular meandering SH{sup -} chains and molecular-like H{sub 3}S{sup +} stacked alternately in tetragonal and cubic slabs forming a long-period modulation. The novel structure offers a new perspective on the possible origin of the superconductivity at very high temperatures in which the conducting electrons in the SH chains are perturbed by the fluxional motions of the H{sub 3}S resulting in strong electron-phonon coupling. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Optimization of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Masur, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of electron and phonon states of the SH3 phase and the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH2, are calculated for the pressure interval 100-225 GPa. It is found that the I4/ mmm phase can be responsible for the superconducting properties of metallic hydrogen sulfide along with the SH3 phase. Sequential stages for obtaining and conservation of the SH2 phase are proposed. The properties of two (SH2 and SH3) superconducting phases of hydrogen sulfide are compared.

  15. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-01

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe 2 O 3 containing a crystalline phase of Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected

  16. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatt, Judith M.; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2S: (i) H2S accelerated the recovery of

  17. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  18. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation without oxygen - oxidation products and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossing, H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation was studied in anoxic marine sediments-both in undisturbed sediment cores and in sediment slurries. The turn over of hydrogen sulfide was followed using 35 S-radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide which was injected into the sediment. However, isotope exchange reactions between the reduced sulfur compounds, in particular between elemental sulfur and hydrogen sulfide, influenced on the specific radioactivity of these pools. It was, therefore, not possible to measure the turn over rates of the reduced sulfur pools by the radiotracer technique but merely to use the radioisotope to demonstrate some of the oxidation products. Thiosulfate was one important intermediate in the anoxic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and was continuously turned over by reduction, oxidation and disproportionation. The author discusses the importance of isotope exchange and also presents the results from experiments in which both 35 S-radiolabeled elemental sulfur, radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide and radiolabeled thiosulfate were used to study the intermediates in the oxidative pathways of the sulfur cycle

  19. Physiological behavior of hydrogen sulfide in rice plant. Part 5. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on respiration of rice roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okajima, H; Takagi, S

    1955-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of hydrogen sulfide on the respiration of rice plant roots were investigated using Warburg's manometory technique. Hydrogen sulfide inhibited not only aerobic respiration but anaerobic respiration process of roots. Inhibitory action of hydrogen sulfide and potassium cyanide on the respiration were apparently reversible, but the style of recovery reaction from inhibition was somewhat different in each case. Oxygen consumption of roots was increased by addition of ammonium salts, but the same effects were not recognized by the addition of any other salt examined (except nitrate salts). There was close relationship between respiration of roots and assimilation of nitrogen by roots. The increased oxygen uptake by addition of ammonium salt was also inhibited by hydrogen sulfide. The reactivation of this reaction occurred with the recovery of endogenous respiration of roots. 19 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reactive Precipitation of Anhydrous Alkali Sulfide Nanocrystals with Concomitant Abatement of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cogeneration of Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemin; Zhao, Yangzhi; Brennan, Alice; McCeig, Miranda; Wolden, Colin A; Yang, Yongan

    2017-07-21

    Anhydrous alkali sulfide (M 2 S, M=Li or Na) nanocrystals (NCs) are important materials central to the development of next generation cathodes and solid-state electrolytes for advanced batteries, but not commercially available at present. This work reports an innovative method to directly synthesize M 2 S NCs through alcohol-mediated reactions between alkali metals and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). In the first step, the alkali metal is complexed with alcohol in solution, forming metal alkoxide (ROM) and releasing hydrogen (H 2 ). Next, H 2 S is bubbled through the ROM solution, where both chemicals are completely consumed to produce phase-pure M 2 S NC precipitates and regenerate alcohol that can be recycled. The M 2 S NCs morphology may be tuned through the choice of the alcohol and solvent. Both synthetic steps are thermodynamically favorable (ΔG m o <-100 kJ mol -1 ), proceeding rapidly to completion at ambient temperature with almost 100 % atom efficiency. The net result, H 2 S+2 m→M 2 S+H 2 , makes good use of a hazardous chemical (H 2 S) and delivers two value-added products that naturally phase separate for easy recovery. This scalable approach provides an energy-efficient and environmentally benign solution to the production of nanostructured materials required in emerging battery technologies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide waste treatment by microwave plasma-chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from industrial acid-gas waste streams is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is derived from research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. This process has several advantages over the current Claus-plus-tail-gas-cleanup technology, which burns the hydrogen to water. The primary advantage of the proposal process is its potential for recovering and recycling hydrogen more cheaply than the direct production of hydrogen. Since unconverted hydrogen sulfide is recycled to the plasma reactor, the plasma-chemical process has the potential for sulfur recoveries in excess of 99% without the additional complexity of the tail-gas-cleanup processes associated with the Claus technology. There may also be some environmental advantages to the plasma-chemical process, because the process purge stream would primarily be the carbon dioxide and water contained in the acid-gas waste stream. Laboratory experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide have demonstrated the ability of the process to operate at or above atmospheric pressure with an acceptable hydrogen sulfide dissociation energy. Experiments with a wide range of acid-gas compositions have demonstrated that carbon dioxide and water are compatible with the plasma-chemical dissociation process and that they do not appear to create new waste-treatment problems. However, carbon dioxide does have negative impacts on the overall process. First, it decreases the hydrogen production, and second, it increases the hydrogen sulfide dissociation energy.

  3. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  4. Cold excitation and determination of hydrogen sulfide by dielectric barrier discharge molecular emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongchen; Jiang, Jie; Li, Na

    2015-11-01

    A low-temperature microplasma generated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used as a radiation source for the excitation of hydrogen sulfide and its determination by molecular emission spectrometry (MES). The excitation/emission chamber was enclosed to eliminate spectral interference from ambient air. The spectral emission lines of hydrogen sulfide were clearly discriminated from the background spectrum, and the emission line at 365.06 nm was selected for parameter optimization and quantitative analysis. The S(2-) ions in aqueous samples were reacted with acid to generate hydrogen sulfide and then determined. The experimental parameters affecting the determination of hydrogen sulfide and S(2-) were optimized. The limits of detection were 1.4 mg m(-3) for H2S and 11.2 mg L(-1) for S(2-). The repeatability of the method was satisfactory, as the RSD values were 2.3% for H2S and 1.8% for S(2-). The enclosed DBD-MES system was demonstrated to be a useful tool for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in gas samples and S(2-) in aqueous samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fermentation Broths Containing SO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, T. E.; Sonoff, Elisabeth P.; Splittstoesser, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in fermentation broths containing up to 100 μg of SO2 per ml is described. The method involves the sparging of H2S from the broth into a cadmium hydroxide absorption solution, the formation of methylene blue from the absorbed sulfide, and the measuring of this color spectrophotometrically. The use of cadmium hydroxide instead of zinc acetate, the common absorbent, substantially reduced the interference of SO2 with the analysis. PMID:5111300

  6. Evaluation of biological hydrogen sulfide oxidation coupled with two-stage upflow filtration for groundwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Audrey D; Raymer, Blake J; Jahn, Johna

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in groundwater can be oxidized by aerobic bacteria to form elemental sulfur and biomass. While this treatment approach is effective for conversion of hydrogen sulfide, it is important to have adequate control of the biomass exiting the biological treatment system to prevent release of elemental sulfur into the distribution system. Pilot scale tests were conducted on a Florida groundwater to evaluate the use of two-stage upflow filtration downstream of biological sulfur oxidation. The combined biological and filtration process was capable of excellent removal of hydrogen sulfide and associated turbidity. Additional benefits of this treatment approach include elimination of odor generation, reduction of chlorine demand, and improved stability of the finished water.

  7. 76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide; Correction. SUMMARY: The... Administrative Stay of the reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide. The Office of the Federal Register...

  8. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  9. Exploiting fields of gases containing hydrogen-sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevets, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The anthology is devoted to problems of geology, hydrogeology, drilling, industrial development, and processing of gas and condensate at the Orenburg Gas-Chemical Complex. Reviews ways to develop the technology for further processing of hydrogen sulfide gas, as well as handling corrosion.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  11. The mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide: II. Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalyzed by sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijns, M.; Derks, F.; Verloop, A.; Mars, P.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by molecular oxygen have been studied in the temperature range 20–250 °C. The primary reaction product is sulfur which may undergo further oxidation to SO2 at temperatures above 200 °C. From the kinetics of this autocatalytic reaction we

  12. Hydrogen sulfide production from cysteine and homocysteine by periodontal and oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Mamiko; Ohara, Naoya; Yoshimura, Shigeru; Nagashima, Shiori; Takehara, Tadamichi; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the predominant volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by oral bacteria. This study developed and evaluated a system for detecting hydrogen sulfide production by oral bacteria. L-methionine-alpha-deamino-gamma-mercaptomethane-lyase (METase) and beta carbon-sulfur (beta C-S) lyase were used to degrade homocysteine and cysteine, respectively, to produce hydrogen sulfide. Enzymatic reactions resulting in hydrogen sulfide production were assayed by reaction with bismuth trichloride, which forms a black precipitate when mixed with hydrogen sulfide. The enzymatic activities of various oral bacteria that result in hydrogen sulfide production and the capacity of bacteria from periodontal sites to form hydrogen sulfide in reaction mixtures containing L-cysteine or DL-homocysteine were assayed. With L-cysteine as the substrate, Streptococcus anginosus FW73 produced the most hydrogen sulfide, whereas Porphyromonas gingivalis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33277 and W83 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 produced approximately 35% of the amount produced by the P. gingivalis strains. Finally, the hydrogen sulfide found in subgingival plaque was analyzed. Using bismuth trichloride, the hydrogen sulfide produced by oral bacteria was visually detectable as a black precipitate. Hydrogen sulfide production by oral bacteria was easily analyzed using bismuth trichloride. However, further innovation is required for practical use.

  13. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  14. Reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Akimasa; Matsuzaki, Ryoko; Saeki, Yuzo

    1978-01-01

    The details of the reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide were examined at 20 and 60 0 C. The main products by the reaction were vanadium dichloride oxide, sulfur, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to these products, small amounts of vanadium trichloride, vanadium tetrachloride, disulfur dichloride, and sulfur dioxide were formed. The formations of the above-mentioned reaction products can be explained as follows: The first stage is the reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + H 2 S(g)→2VOCl 2 (s) + S(s) + 2HCl(g). Then the resulting sulfur reacts with the unreacted vanadium trichloride oxide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + 2S(s)→2VOCl 2 (s) + S 2 Cl 2 (l). The resulting disulfur dichloride subsequently reacts with the unreacted vanadium trichloride oxide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + S 2 Cl 2 (l)→2VCl 4 (l) + S(s) + SO 2 (g). The resulting vanadium tetrachloride reacts with the sulfur formed during the reaction, 2VCl 4 (l) + 2S(s)→2VCl 3 (s) + S 2 Cl 2 (l), and also reacts with hydrogen sulfide, 2VCl 4 (l) + H 2 S(g)→2VCl 3 (s) + S(s) + 2HCl(g). (auth.)

  15. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in an unbiased solar photoelectrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Chen, Hongjun; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A solar-to-chemical conversion process is demonstrated using a photoelectrochemical cell without external bias for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfur (S). The process integrates two redox couples anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone and I−/I3......−, and conceptually illustrates the remediation of a waste product for producing valuable chemicals....

  16. Cinnamaldehyde promotes root branching by regulating endogenous hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Meng; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Shi, Zhiqi; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been widely applied in medicine and food preservation. However, whether and how CA regulates plant physiology is largely unknown. To address these gaps, the present study investigated the beneficial effect of CA on root branching and its possible biochemical mechanism. The lateral root (LR) formation of pepper seedlings could be markedly induced by CA at specific concentrations without any inhibitory effect on primary root (PR) growth. CA could induce the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by increasing the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase in roots. By fluorescently tracking endogenous H2S in situ, it could be clearly observed that H2S accumulated in the outer layer cells of the PR where LRs emerge. Sodium hydrosulfide (H2S donor) treatment induced LR formation, while hypotaurine (H2S scavenger) showed an adverse effect. The addition of hypotaurine mitigated the CA-induced increase in endogenous H2S level, which in turn counteracted the inducible effect of CA on LR formation. CA showed great potential in promoting LR formation, which was mediated by endogenous H2S. These results not only shed new light on the application of CA in agriculture but also extend the knowledge of H2S signaling in the regulation of root branching. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Reduction kinetics of zinc and cadmium sulfides with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgenev, I.S.; Kabisov, I.Kh.; Zviadadze, G.N.; Vasil'eva, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of reduction processes of zinc sulfide in the temperature range 800-1100 deg C and of cadmium sulfide 600-900 deg C has been stodied. Activation energies and reaction order in terms of hydrogen are calculated. Thermodynamic processes of reduction depend on aggregate state of the metal formed. For vaporous zinc in the temperature range 1050-950 deq C activation energy constitutes 174 kJ/mol, for liquid in the range 900-850 deg - 151 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 1.0. For vaporous cadmium in the temperature range 900-700 deg C activation energy constitutes 144 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 0.86, for liquid in the range 675-600 deg C 127 kJ/mol and 0.8 respectively. The processes of zinc and cadmium sulfide reduction proceed in kinetic regime and are limited by the rate of chemical reaction

  18. Evaluation of methods for monitoring air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Janoszka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of different branches of industry and a growing fossil fuels mining results in a considerable emission of by-products. Major air pollutants are: CO, CO₂, SO₂, SO₃, H₂S, nitrogen oxides, as well as compounds of an organic origin. The main aspects of this paper is to review and evaluate methods used for monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in the air. Different instrumental techniques were discussed, electrochemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric (wet and dry, to select the method most suitable for monitoring low levels of hydrogen sulfide, close to its odor threshold. Based on the literature review the method for H₂S determination in the air, involving absorption in aqueous zinc acetate and reaction with N,N-dimethylo-p-phenylodiamine and FeCl₃, has been selected and preliminary verified. The adopted method allows for routine measurements of low concentration of hydrogen sulfide, close to its odor threshold in workplaces and ambient air. Med Pr 2013;64(3:449–454

  19. Hydrogen production through microheterogeneous photocatalysis of hydrogen sulfide cleavage. The thiosulfate cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgarello, E; Serpone, N; Graetzel, M; Pelizzetti, E

    1985-01-01

    Cleavage of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur occurs in alkaline aqueous CdS dispersions under visible light illumination. Small quantities of a noble metal catalyst (RuO/sub 2/) loaded onto 'naked' CdS particles markedly improve the yield of hydrogen formation. The effect of RuO/sub 2/ is ascribed to catalysis of electron transfer to proton. Simultaneous and efficient photogeneration of hydrogen and thiosulfate occurs in CdS dispersions containing both sulfite and bisulfide (or sulfide) ions. Electron transfer from the conduction band of CdS to that of TiO/sub 2/ particles occurs in alkaline suspensions containing these HS/sup -/ ions and has been exploited to improve the performance of a system achieving decomposition of H/sub 2/S by visible light. Equally important is a recent finding that the performance of a system containing 'naked' CdS in combination with RuO/sub 2/-loaded TiO/sub 2/ particles is far better than that of CdS/RuO/sub 2/ alone. Additionally, conduction band electrons produced by bandgap excitation of TiO/sub 2/ particles efficiently reduce thiosulfate to sulfide and sulfite. The valence band process in alklaine TiO/sub 2/ dispersions is thought to involve oxidation of S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/ to tetrathionate, S/sub 4/O/sub 6//sup 2 -/, which quantitatively dismutates into sulfite and thiosulfate. The photodriven disproportionation of thiosulfate into sulfide and sulfate is of great interest in systems that photochemically cleave hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur. (author).

  20. Hydrogen sulfide metabolism regulates endothelial solute barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important gaseous signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. In addition to free H2S, H2S can be oxidized to polysulfide which can be biologically active. Since the impact of H2S on endothelial solute barrier function is not known, we sought to determine whether H2S and its various metabolites affect endothelial permeability. In vitro permeability was evaluated using albumin flux and transendothelial electrical resistance. Different H2S donors were used to examine the effects of exogenous H2S. To evaluate the role of endogenous H2S, mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs were isolated from wild type mice and mice lacking cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, a predominant source of H2S in endothelial cells. In vivo permeability was evaluated using the Miles assay. We observed that polysulfide donors induced rapid albumin flux across endothelium. Comparatively, free sulfide donors increased permeability only with higher concentrations and at later time points. Increased solute permeability was associated with disruption of endothelial junction proteins claudin 5 and VE-cadherin, along with enhanced actin stress fiber formation. Importantly, sulfide donors that increase permeability elicited a preferential increase in polysulfide levels within endothelium. Similarly, CSE deficient MAECs showed enhanced solute barrier function along with reduced endogenous bound sulfane sulfur. CSE siRNA knockdown also enhanced endothelial junction structures with increased claudin 5 protein expression. In vivo, CSE genetic deficiency significantly blunted VEGF induced hyperpermeability revealing an important role of the enzyme for barrier function. In summary, endothelial solute permeability is critically regulated via exogenous and endogenous sulfide bioavailability with a prominent role of polysulfides.

  1. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Lens, Piet N.L.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.; Bester, Kai; Nielsen, Asbjorn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d -1 and 1.33 d -1 as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  3. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  4. Silver sulfide nanoparticle assembly obtained by reacting an assembled silver nanoparticle template with hydrogen sulfide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Nuhfer, Noel T; Moussa, Laura; Morris, Hannah R; Whitmore, Paul M

    2008-11-12

    A fast, simple procedure is described for obtaining an assembly of silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag(2)S NPs) on a glass substrate through reaction of a template of an assembled layer of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) gas. The Ag NP template was prepared by assembling a monolayer of spherical Ag NPs (mean diameter of 7.4 nm) on a polyethylenimine-treated glass substrate. Exposure to pure H(2)S for 10 min converted the Ag NPs of the template to Ag(2)S NPs. The resulting Ag(2)S NP assembly, which retains the template nanostructure and particle distribution, was characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning high resolution TEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ag(2)S NPs have a crystal structure of monoclinic acanthite, and while they retained the spherical shape of the original Ag NPs, their mean particle size increased to 8.4 nm due to changes to the crystal structure when the Ag NPs are converted into Ag(2)S NPs. The measured optical absorption edge of the Ag(2)S NP assembly indicated an indirect interband transition with a band gap energy of 1.71 eV. The Ag(2)S NP assembly absorbed light with wavelengths below 725 nm, and the absorbance increased monotonically toward the UV region.

  5. Diuretic Action of Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Spontaneously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Spontaneously hypertensive rats, Diabetes, Hydrogen sulphide, Diuretic, Sodium excretion,. Urine output ... molecule H2S can be generated in many types of mammalian .... 96-well plate reader (Bio-Tek instruments, INC,. USA).

  6. Hydrogen sulfide toxicity in a thermal spring: a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldal, Hale; Beder, Bayram; Serin, Simay; Sungurtekin, Hulya

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a toxic gas with the smells of "rotten egg"; its toxic effects are due to the blocking of cellular respiratory enzymes leading to cell anoxia and cell damage. We report two cases with acute H(2)S intoxication caused by inhalation of H(2)S evaporated from the water of a thermal spring. Two victims were found in a hotel room were they could take a thermal bath. A 26-year-old male was found unconscious; he was resuscitated, received supportive treatment and survived. A 25-year-old female was found dead. Autopsy showed diffuse edema and pulmonary congestion. Toxicological blood analysis of the female revealed the following concentrations: 0.68 mg/L sulfide and 0.21 mmol/L thiosulfate. The urine thiosulfate concentration was normal. Forensic investigation established that the thermal water was coming from the hotel's own illegal well. The hotel was closed. This report highlights the danger of H(2)S toxicity not only for reservoir and sewer cleaners, but also for individuals bathing in thermal springs.

  7. High-temperature study of superconducting hydrogen and deuterium sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durajski, A.P. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Ave. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Szczesniak, R. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Ave. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Ave. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Pietronero, L. [Sapienza, Universita di Roma, Dip. Fisica, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Institute of Complex Systems, CNR, Via dei Taurini 19 Roma (Italy); London Institute for Mathematical Sciences, South Street 22, Mayfair London (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Hydrogen-rich compounds are extensively explored as candidates for a high-temperature superconductors. Currently, the measured critical temperature of 203 K in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 3}S) is among the highest over all-known superconductors. In present paper, using the strong-coupling Eliashberg theory of superconductivity, we compared in detail the thermodynamic properties of two samples containing different hydrogen isotopes H{sub 3}S and D{sub 3}S at 150 GPa. Our research indicates that it is possible to reproduce the measured values of critical temperature 203 K and 147 K for H{sub 3}S and D{sub 3}S by using a Coulomb pseudopotential of 0.123 and 0.131, respectively. However, we also discuss a scenario in which the isotope effect is independent of pressure and the Coulomb pseudopotential for D{sub 3}S is smaller than for H{sub 3}S. For both scenarios, the energy gap, specific heat, thermodynamic critical field and related dimensionless ratios are calculated and compared with other conventional superconductors. We shown that the existence of the strong-coupling and retardation effects in the systems analysed result in significant differences between values obtained within the framework of the Eliashberg formalism and the prediction of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...... main. H2S related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed at such locations. The experiments showed that the rate of H2S oxidation was significantly faster on concrete pipe surfaces than on plastic pipe surfaces. Steady state calculations based on the kinetic data demonstrated that the gas phase...... H2S concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henrys law. In plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on these surfaces. Finally...

  9. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Wang; Chaoshu, Tang; Hongfang, Jin; Junbao, Du

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, complex, and progressive pathological process in large and medium sized arteries. The exact mechanism of this process remains unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a novel gasotransmitter, was confirmed as playing a major role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. It plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and apoptosis, participates in the progress of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), inhibits atherogenic modification of LDL, interferes with vascular calcification, intervenes with platelet function, and there are interactions between H 2 S and inflammatory processes. The role of H 2 S in atherosclerotic pathogenesis highlights the mysteries of atherosclerosis and inspires the search for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the studies to date that have considered the role of H 2 S in atherosclerosis.

  10. Use of construction waste in the removal of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Helena Rocha Meira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human being has been using the biodegradation principle into the effluent sewage treatment in order to achieve the standards of quality required for the release of effluent in the water bodies’ receivers. However, under anaerobic conditions, there is the formation of gaseous compounds such as carbon dioxide and methane, the damage happens when the effluent contains sulfur compounds, resulting in the formation of sulfide hydrogen, toxic gas, offensive and corrosive odor, requiring treatment. This paper presents an overview of the use of the construction waste, which should receive special attention in the management of solid waste, the removal of this gas, presenting a potential field of study, given the high rates and low efficiency obtained cost of implementation and operation.

  11. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoguang; Li, Wei; Chen, Qingying; Jiang, Yuxin; Lu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of hydrogen sulfide on wound healing in diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer, Ph 4.5) at dose of 70 mg/kg. Diabetic and age-matched non-diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups: untreated diabetic controls (UDC), treated diabetic administrations (TDA), and non-diabetic controls (NDC). Wound Healing Model was prepared by making a round incision (2.0 cm in diameter) in full thickness. Rats from TDA receive 2% sodium bisulfide ointment on wound, and animals from UDC and NDC receive control cream. After treatment of 21 days with sodium bisulfide, blood samples were collected for determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), antioxidant effects. Granulation tissues from the wound were processed for histological examination and analysis of western blot. The study indicated a significant increase in levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and a decline in activity of coagulation in diabetic rats treated with sodium bisulfide. Sodium bisulfide treatment raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) protein expression in diabetic rats. The findings in present study suggested that hydrogen sulfide accelerates the wound healing in rats with diabetes. The beneficial effect of H2S may be associated with formation of granulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and the increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

  13. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into Hemoglobin-catalyzed Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation and the Fate of Polysulfide Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Yadav, Pramod K.; An, Sojin; Seravalli, Javier; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med); (UNL)

    2017-02-17

    Hydrogen sulfide is a cardioprotective signaling molecule but is toxic at elevated concentrations. Red blood cells can synthesize H2S but, lacking organelles, cannot dispose of H2S via the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. We have recently shown that at high sulfide concentrations, ferric hemoglobin oxidizes H2S to a mixture of thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides in which the latter species predominates. Here, we report the crystal structure of human hemoglobin containing low spin ferric sulfide, the first intermediate in heme-catalyzed sulfide oxidation. The structure provides molecular insights into why sulfide is susceptible to oxidation in human hemoglobin but is stabilized against it in HbI, a specialized sulfide-carrying hemoglobin from a mollusk adapted to life in a sulfide-rich environment. We have also captured a second sulfide bound at a postulated ligand entry/exit site in the α-subunit of hemoglobin, which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first direct evidence for this site being used to access the heme iron. Hydrodisulfide, a postulated intermediate at the junction between thiosulfate and polysulfide formation, coordinates ferric hemoglobin and, in the presence of air, generated thiosulfate. At low sulfide/heme iron ratios, the product distribution between thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides was approximately equal. The iron-bound polysulfides were unstable at physiological glutathione concentrations and were reduced with concomitant formation of glutathione persulfide, glutathione disulfide, and H2S. Hence, although polysulfides are unlikely to be stable in the reducing intracellular milieu, glutathione persulfide could serve as a persulfide donor for protein persulfidation, a posttranslational modification by which H2S is postulated to signal.

  14. Corrosion resistance of cement brick on an organo-mineral base in a hydrogen sulfide medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, A G; Belousov, G A; Pustovalov, V I; Skorikov, B M

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of strength tests of cement brick made of different types of cement as a function of the composition of the mixing liquid and storage conditions. It is established that cement brick made of cement on a cinder base mixed in hydrogen sulfide water possesses the highest corrosive resistance to hydrogen sulfide attack. A marked increase in corrosion resistance is observed in cement brick on an organo-mineral base. Results of industrial tests of organo-mineral grouting mortar in a hydrogen sulfide medium are demonstrated.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide-powered solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man

    2004-12-01

    The potential utilization of hydrogen sulfide as fuel in solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated using an oxide-ion conducting YSZ electrolyte and different kinds of anode catalysts at operating temperatures in the range of 700--900°C and at atmospheric pressure. This technology offers an economically attractive alternative to present methods for removing toxic and corrosive H2S gas from sour gas streams and a promising approach for cogenerating electrical energy and useful chemicals. The primary objective of the present research was to find active and stable anode materials. Fuel cell experimental results showed that platinum was a good electrocatalyst for the conversion of H2S, but the Pt/YSZ interface was physically unstable due to the reversible formation and decomposition of PtS in H 2S streams at elevated temperatures. Moreover, instability of the Pt/YSZ interface was accelerated significantly by electrochemical reactions, and ultimately led to the detachment of the Pt anode from the electrolyte. It has been shown that an interlayer of TiO2 stabilized the Pt anode on YSZ electrolyte, thereby prolonging cell lifetime. However, the current output for a fuel cell using Pt/TiO2 as anode was not improved compared to using Pt alone. It was therefore necessary to investigate novel anode systems for H 2S-air SOFCs. New anode catalysts comprising composite metal sulfides were developed. These catalysts exhibited good electrical conductivity and better catalytic activity than Pt. In contrast to MoS2 alone, composite catalysts (M-Mo-S, M = Fe, Co, Ni) were not volatile and had superior stability. However, when used for extended periods of time, detachment of Pt current collecting film from anodes comprising metal sulfides alone resulted in a large increase in contact resistance and reduction in cell performance. Consequently, a systematic investigation was conducted to identify alternative electronic conductors for use with M-Mo-S catalysts. Anode catalysts

  16. The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, E. G.

    The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

  17. The sampling of hydrogen sulfide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is proposed for the quantitative collection of hydrogen sulfide in air on impregnated filter paper. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide, potassium zincate and glycerol is used as impregnating fluid. The stability of the collected sulfide and the efficiency of collection at different

  18. Occupationally related hydrogen sulfide deaths in the United States from 1984 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D C; Suruda, A J

    2000-09-01

    Alice Hamilton described fatal work injuries from acute hydrogen sulfide poisonings in 1925 in her book Industrial Poisons in the United States. There is no unique code for H2S poisoning in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision; therefore, these deaths cannot be identified easily from vital records. We reviewed US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation records for the period 1984 to 1994 for mention of hazardous substance 1480 (hydrogen sulfide). There were 80 fatalities from hydrogen sulfide in 57 incidents, with 19 fatalities and 36 injuries among coworkers attempting to rescue fallen workers. Only 17% of the deaths were at workplaces covered by collective bargaining agreements. OSHA issued citations for violation of respiratory protection and confined space standards in 60% of the fatalities. The use of hydrogen sulfide detection equipment, air-supplied respirators, and confined space safety training would have prevented most of the fatalities.

  19. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  20. A study of the thermostimulated evolution of labelled hydrogen sulfide from the leached basalt fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznov, A.V.; Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Bekman, I.N.

    1991-01-01

    Thermostimulated separation of labelled hydrogen sulfide from basalt fibers leached by hydrochloric acid is investigated by the method of radioactive tracers. It is shown that the type of H 2 35 S thermosorption spectrum depends on the presence of water traces in a fibrous adsrobent. Formal order and activation energy of thermodesorption of labelled hydrogen sulfide as well as inhomogeneity of porous structure of adsorbents based on basalt fibers are established

  1. Detection of hydrogen sulfide above the clouds in Uranus's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Toledo, Daniel; Garland, Ryan; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn A.; Bézard, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    Visible-to-near-infrared observations indicate that the cloud top of the main cloud deck on Uranus lies at a pressure level of between 1.2 bar and 3 bar. However, its composition has never been unambiguously identified, although it is widely assumed to be composed primarily of either ammonia or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ice. Here, we present evidence of a clear detection of gaseous H2S above this cloud deck in the wavelength region 1.57-1.59 μm with a mole fraction of 0.4-0.8 ppm at the cloud top. Its detection constrains the deep bulk sulfur/nitrogen abundance to exceed unity (>4.4-5.0 times the solar value) in Uranus's bulk atmosphere, and places a lower limit on the mole fraction of H2S below the observed cloud of (1.0 -2.5 ) ×1 0-5. The detection of gaseous H2S at these pressure levels adds to the weight of evidence that the principal constituent of 1.2-3-bar cloud is likely to be H2S ice.

  2. Detection of hydrogen sulfide above the clouds in Uranus's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Toledo, Daniel; Garland, Ryan; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn A.; Bézard, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    Visible-to-near-infrared observations indicate that the cloud top of the main cloud deck on Uranus lies at a pressure level of between 1.2 bar and 3 bar. However, its composition has never been unambiguously identified, although it is widely assumed to be composed primarily of either ammonia or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ice. Here, we present evidence of a clear detection of gaseous H2S above this cloud deck in the wavelength region 1.57-1.59 μm with a mole fraction of 0.4-0.8 ppm at the cloud top. Its detection constrains the deep bulk sulfur/nitrogen abundance to exceed unity (>4.4-5.0 times the solar value) in Uranus's bulk atmosphere, and places a lower limit on the mole fraction of H2S below the observed cloud of (1.0 -2.5 ) ×1 0-5. The detection of gaseous H2S at these pressure levels adds to the weight of evidence that the principal constituent of 1.2-3-bar cloud is likely to be H2S ice.

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor GYY4137 Protects against Myocardial Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gasotransmitter which regulates multiple cardiovascular functions. However, the precise roles of H2S in modulating myocardial fibrosis in vivo and cardiac fibroblast proliferation in vitro remain unclear. We investigated the effect of GYY4137, a slow-releasing H2S donor, on myocardial fibrosis. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were administrated with GYY4137 by intraperitoneal injection daily for 4 weeks. GYY4137 decreased systolic blood pressure and inhibited myocardial fibrosis in SHR as evidenced by improved cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF in the left ventricle (LV, ratio of perivascular collagen area (PVCA to lumen area (LA in perivascular regions, reduced hydroxyproline concentration, collagen I and III mRNA expression, and cross-linked collagen. GYY4137 also inhibited angiotensin II- (Ang II- induced neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast proliferation, reduced the number of fibroblasts in S phase, decreased collagen I and III mRNA expression and protein synthesis, attenuated oxidative stress, and suppressed α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 expression as well as Smad2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that GYY4137 improves myocardial fibrosis perhaps by a mechanism involving inhibition of oxidative stress, blockade of the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway, and decrease in α-SMA expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

  4. Analysis of hydrogen sulfide releases in heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Cornelia; Dumitrescu, Maria; Preda, Irina; Lazar, Roxana

    1996-01-01

    Safety analyses conducted at ICIS concern primarily the heavy water production installations. The quantitative risk assessment needs the frequency calculation of accident sequences and consequences. In heavy water plants which obtain primary isotopic concentration of water by H 2 O - H 2 S exchange, large amounts of hydrogen sulfide which is a toxic, inflammable and explosive gas, are circulated. The first stage in calculating the consequences consists in potential analysis of H 2 S release. This work presents a study of this types of releases for pilot installations of the heavy water production at ICIS (Plant 'G' at Rm. Valcea). The installations which contain and maneuver large quantities of H 2 S and the mathematical models for different types of releases are presented. The accidents analyzed are: catastrophic column, container, spy-hole failures or gas-duct rupture and wall cracks in the installation. The main results are given as tables while the time variations of the flow rate and quantities of H 2 O released by stack disposal are plotted

  5. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Pathology of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a well-known toxic gas that is synthesized in the human body from the amino acids cystathionine, homocysteine, and cysteine by the action of at least two distinct enzymes: cystathionine-γ-lyase and cystathionine-β-synthase. In the past few years, H2S has emerged as a novel and increasingly important biological mediator. Imbalances in H2S have also been shown to be associated with various disease conditions. However, defining the precise pathophysiology of H2S is proving to be a complex challenge. Recent research in our laboratory has shown H2S as a novel mediator of inflammation and work in several groups worldwide is currently focused on determining the role of H2S in inflammation. H2S has been implicated in different inflammatory conditions, such as acute pancreatitis, sepsis, joint inflammation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Active research on the role of H2S in inflammation will unravel the pathophysiology of its actions in inflammatory conditions and may help develop novel therapeutic approaches for several, as yet incurable, disease conditions.

  6. Hydrogen Generation From Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Cohen; Stephen Porter; Oscar Chow; David Henderson

    2009-03-06

    Small-scale (100-500 kg H2/day) electrolysis is an important step in increasing the use of hydrogen as fuel. Until there is a large population of hydrogen fueled vehicles, the smaller production systems will be the most cost-effective. Performing conceptual designs and analyses in this size range enables identification of issues and/or opportunities for improvement in approach on the path to 1500 kg H2/day and larger systems. The objectives of this program are to establish the possible pathways to cost effective larger Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems and to identify areas where future research and development efforts have the opportunity for the greatest impact in terms of capital cost reduction and efficiency improvements. System design and analysis was conducted to determine the overall electrolysis system component architecture and develop a life cycle cost estimate. A design trade study identified subsystem components and configurations based on the trade-offs between system efficiency, cost and lifetime. Laboratory testing of components was conducted to optimize performance and decrease cost, and this data was used as input to modeling of system performance and cost. PEM electrolysis has historically been burdened by high capital costs and lower efficiency than required for large-scale hydrogen production. This was known going into the program and solutions to these issues were the focus of the work. The program provided insights to significant cost reduction and efficiency improvement opportunities for PEM electrolysis. The work performed revealed many improvement ideas that when utilized together can make significant progress towards the technical and cost targets of the DOE program. The cell stack capital cost requires reduction to approximately 25% of today’s technology. The pathway to achieve this is through part count reduction, use of thinner membranes, and catalyst loading reduction. Large-scale power supplies are available

  7. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanina, Tatiana V.; Yadav, Pramod K.; Ballou, David P.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be −123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. PMID:26318450

  8. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Yadav, Pramod K; Ballou, David P; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-10-09

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be -123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas. IV. Characteristics of adsorbents for the adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boki, K

    1974-10-25

    The amount of hydrogen sulfide gas adsorbed was affected by the surface properties (surface pH, acid strength, acid amount, and basic amount), the surface structure (pore volume), and the surface form (scanning electron microscopic observation) of 32 tested adsorbents. In general, the amount adsorption increased in the following order, amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate adsorbents, on the active carbon adsorbents, and on the zeolite adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on magnesium silicate and silica gel adsorbents was mainly affected by the surface structure, and the amount adsorbed on the aluminum silicate adsorbents was affected by the distinctions on the surface forms of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on 10 kinds of active carbon was determined by the surface properties and the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount adsorbed on 12 kinds of zeolites was determined by either the surface properties or by the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate, active carbon, and zeolite adsorbents interacted with the heat of adsorption, and among the same kinds of adsorbents, the amount adsorbed was linearly related to the heat of adsorption.

  10. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment Period... reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4) (75 FR... may be potentially affected by this action if you manufacture, process, or otherwise use hydrogen...

  11. The Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Renal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H 2 S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H 2 S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H 2 S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells. Likewise, it also influences the release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells and thereby modulates blood pressure. A possible role of H 2 S as an oxygen sensor has also been discussed, especially at renal medulla. Alternation of H 2 S level has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as renal ischemia/reperfusion, obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and hypertensive nephropathy. Moreover, H 2 S donors exhibit broad beneficial effects in renal diseases although a few conflicts need to be resolved. Further research reveals that multiple mechanisms are underlying the protective effects of H 2 S, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptosis. In the review, several research directions are also proposed including the role of mitochondrial H 2 S in renal diseases, H 2 S delivery to kidney by targeting D-amino acid oxidase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (DAO/3-MST) pathway, effect of drug-like H 2 S donors in kidney diseases and understanding the molecular mechanism of H 2 S. The completion of the studies in these directions will not only improves our understanding of renal H 2 S functions but may also be critical to translate H 2 S to be a new therapy for renal diseases.

  12. Protein S-sulfhydration by hydrogen sulfide in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhao, Shuang; Xie, Liping; Han, Yi; Ji, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), independently of any specific transporters, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. However, until now, the detailed mechanism of H 2 S was not clear. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H 2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is the chemical modification of specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H 2 S. There are several methods for detecting S-sulfhydration, such as the modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry. H 2 S induces S-sulfhydration on enzymes or receptors (such as p66Shc, phospholamban, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and ATP synthase subunit α), transcription factors (such as specific protein-1, kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor-1), and ion channels (such as voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels, transient receptor potential channels and ATP-sensitive K + channels) in the cardiovascular system. Although significant progress has been achieved in delineating the role of protein S-sulfhydration by H 2 S in the cardiovascular system, more proteins with detailed cysteine sites of S-sulfhydration as well as physiological function need to be investigated in further studies. This review mainly summarizes the role and possible mechanism of S-sulfhydration in the cardiovascular system. The S-sulfhydrated proteins may be potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention and drug design in the cardiovascular system, which may accelerate the development and application of H 2 S-related drugs in the future. This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.8/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. The global transcriptional response of fission yeast to hydrogen sulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a newly identified member of the small family of gasotransmitters that are endogenous gaseous signaling molecules that have a fundamental role in human biology and disease. Although it is a relatively recent discovery and the mechanism of H(2S activity is not completely understood, it is known to be involved in a number of cellular processes; H(2S can affect ion channels, transcription factors and protein kinases in mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we have used fission yeast as a model organism to study the global gene expression profile in response to H(2S by microarray. We initially measured the genome-wide transcriptional response of fission yeast to H(2S. Through the functional classification of genes whose expression profile changed in response to H(2S, we found that H(2S mainly influences genes that encode putative or known stress proteins, membrane transporters, cell cycle/meiotic proteins, transcription factors and respiration protein in the mitochondrion. Our analysis showed that there was a significant overlap between the genes affected by H(2S and the stress response. We identified that the target genes of the MAPK pathway respond to H(2S; we also identified that a number of transporters respond to H(2S, these include sugar/carbohydrate transporters, ion transporters, and amino acid transporters. We found many mitochondrial genes to be down regulated upon H(2S treatment and that H(2S can reduce mitochondrial oxygen consumption. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies potential molecular targets of the signaling molecule H(2S in fission yeast and provides clues about the identity of homologues human proteins and will further the understanding of the cellular role of H(2S in human diseases.

  14. Intracolonic hydrogen sulfide lowers blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasova, Lenka; Dobrowolski, Leszek; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Huc, Tomasz; Ondrias, Karol; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Ufnal, Marcin

    2016-11-30

    Research suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an important biological mediator involved in various physiological processes including the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP). Although H 2 S is abundant in the colon, the effects of gut-derived H 2 S on the circulatory system have not yet been investigated. We studied the effects of intracolonic administration of Na 2 S, a H 2 S donor, on systemic hemodynamics. Hemodynamics were recorded in anesthetized, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at baseline and after intracolonic injection of either saline (controls) or Na 2 S·9H 2 O saline solution at a dose range of 10-300 mg/kg of BW. The H 2 S donor produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which lasted several times longer than previously reported after parenteral infusions (>90 min). The effect was more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The Na 2 S-induced decrease in MABP was reduced by pretreatment with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium-channels. Na 2 S did not affect mesenteric vein blood flow. Rats treated with Na 2 S showed increased portal blood levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, products of H 2 S oxidation. In contrast, rats treated with neomycin, an antibiotic, showed significantly decreased levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, and a tendency for greater hypotensive response to Na 2 S. The H 2 S donor decreased heart rate but did not affect ECG morphology and QTc interval. In conclusion the gut-derived H 2 S may contribute to the control of BP and may be one of the links between gut microbiota and hypertension. Furthermore, gut-derived H 2 S may be a therapeutic target in hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Sulfur-Vacancy Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide as a High Current Electrocatalyst in Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Ang-Yu

    2016-08-31

    The remote hydrogen plasma is able to create abundant S-vacancies on amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx) as active sites for hydrogen evolution. The results demonstrate that the plasma-treated a-MoSx exhibits superior performance and higher stability than Pt in a proton exchange membrane based electrolyzers measurement as a proof-of-concept of industrial application.

  16. Control of Redox Events by Dye Encapsulation Applied to Light-Driven Splitting of Hydrogen Sulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, X.; Yang, Y.; He, C.; Chang, Z.; Reek, J.N.H.; Duan, C.

    2017-01-01

    Solar production of hydrogen by consuming low-value waste products is an attractive pathway that has both economic and environmental benefits. Inspired by the reactive pocket of enzymes, a synthetic platform to combine photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with sulfide oxidation in a one-pot process via

  17. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  18. Simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in hen tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalczyk, Paweł; Borowczyk, Kamila; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in hen tissues has been developed and validated. For estimation of hydrogen sulfide content, a sample (0.1 g) of hen tissue was treated according to the procedure consisted of some essential steps: simultaneous homogenization of a tissue and derivatization of hydrogen sulfide to its S-quinolinium derivative with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate, separation of so-formed derivative by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sweeping, and detection and quantitation with the use of UV detector set to measure analytical signals at 375 nm. Effective electrophoretic separation was achieved using fused silica capillary (effective length 41.5 cm, 75 μm id) and 0.05 mol/L, pH 8 phosphate buffer with the addition of 0.04 mol/L SDS and 26% ACN. The lower limit of quantification was 0.12 μmol hydrogen sulfide in 1 g of tissue. The calibration curve prepared in tissue homogenate for hydrogen sulfide showed linearity in the range from 0.15 to 2.0 μmol/g, with the coefficient of correlation 0.9978. The relative standard deviation of the points of the calibration curve varied from 8.3 to 3.2% RSD. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Simulation for estimation of hydrogen sulfide scavenger injection dose rate for treatment of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon fluids is a well known problem in many oil and gas fields. Hydrogen sulfide is an undesirable contaminant which presents many environmental and safety hazards. It is corrosive, malodorous, and toxic. Accordingly, a need has been long left in the industry to develop a process which can successfully remove hydrogen sulfide from the hydrocarbons or at least reduce its level during the production, storage or processing to a level that satisfies safety and product specification requirements. The common method used to remove or reduce the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon production fluids is to inject the hydrogen sulfide scavenger into the hydrocarbon stream. One of the chemicals produced by the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI is EPRI H2S scavenger. It is used in some of the Egyptian petroleum producing companies. The injection dose rate of H2S scavenger is usually determined by experimental lab tests and field trials. In this work, this injection dose rate is mathematically estimated by modeling and simulation of an oil producing field belonging to Petrobel Company in Egypt which uses EPRI H2S scavenger. Comparison between the calculated and practical values of injection dose rate emphasizes the real ability of the proposed equation.

  20. Red soil as a regenerable sorbent for high temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.-H.; Chu Hsin; Lin, H.-P.; Peng, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) was removed from coal gas by red soil under high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor. Red soil powders were collected from the northern, center and southern of Taiwan. They were characterized by XRPD, porosity analysis and DCB chemical analysis. Results show that the greater sulfur content of LP red soils is attributed to the higher free iron oxides and suitable sulfidation temperature is around 773 K. High temperature has a negative effect for use red soil as a desulfurization sorbent due to thermodynamic limitation in a reduction atmosphere. During 10 cycles of regeneration, after the first cycle the red soil remained stable with a breakthrough time between 31 and 36 min. Hydrogen adversely affects sulfidation reaction, whereas CO exhibits a positive effect due to a water-shift reaction. COS was formed during the sulfidation stage and this was attributed to the reaction of H 2 S and CO. Results of XRPD indicated that, hematite is the dominant active species in fresh red soil and iron sulfide (FeS) is a product of the reaction between hematite and hydrogen sulfide in red soils. The spinel phase FeAl 2 O 4 was found during regeneration, moreover, the amount of free iron oxides decreased after regeneration indicating the some of the free iron oxide formed a spinel phase, further reducting the overall desulfurization efficiency

  1. Colorimetric detection of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong Jin; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Jaemyeon; Lee, Doyeon; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Gi-Ja

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has received great attention as a third gaseous signal transmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. In particular, H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cancer cell biology. Therefore, the detection of endogenous H2S concentrations within biological systems can be helpful to understand the role of gasotransmitters in pathophysiology. Although a simple and inexpensive method for the detection of H2S has been developed, its direct and precise measurement in living cells remains a challenge. In this study, we introduced a simple, facile, and inexpensive colorimetric system for selective H2S detection in living cells using a silver-embedded Nafion/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane. This membrane could be easily applied onto a polystyrene microplate cover. First, we optimized the composition of the coating membrane, such as the PVP/Nafion mixing ratio and AgNO3 concentration, as well as the pH of the Na2S (H2S donor) solution and the reaction time. Next, the in vitro performance of a colorimetric detection assay utilizing the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane was evaluated utilizing a known concentration of Na2S standard solution both at room temperature and at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. As a result, the sensitivity of the colorimetric assay for H2S at 37 °C in the incubator (0.0056 Abs./μM Na2S, R2 = 0.9948) was similar to that at room temperature (0.0055 Abs./μM Na2S, R2 = 0.9967). Moreover, these assays were less sensitive to interference from compounds such as glutathione, L-cysteine (Cys), and dithiothreitol than to the H2S from Na2S. This assay based on the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane also showed excellent reproducibility (2.8% RSD). Finally, we successfully measured the endogenous H2S concentrations in live C6 glioma cells by s-(5‧-adenosyl)-L-methionine stimulation with and without Cys and L-homocysteine, utilizing the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane. In summary, colorimetric assays using silver

  2. Effect of ambient hydrogen sulfide on the physical properties of vacuum evaporated thin films of zinc sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Beer Pal [Department of Physics, C.C.S. University, Meerut 250004 (India)], E-mail: drbeerpal@gmail.com; Singh, Virendra [Forensic Science Laboratory, Malviya Nagar, New Delhi 110017 (India); Tyagi, R.C.; Sharma, T.P. [Department of Physics, C.C.S. University, Meerut 250004 (India)

    2008-02-15

    Evaporated thin films of zinc sulfide (ZnS) have been deposited in a low ambient atmosphere of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S {approx}10{sup -4} Torr). The H{sub 2}S atmosphere was obtained by a controlled thermal decomposition of thiourea [CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] inside the vacuum chamber. It has been observed that at elevated substrates temperature of about 200 deg. C helps eject any sulfur atoms deposited due to thermal decomposition of ZnS during evaporation. The zinc ions promptly recombine with H{sub 2}S to give better stoichiometry of the deposited films. Optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron micrographs depict the better crystallites and uniformity of films deposited by this technique. These deposited films were found to be more adherent to the substrates and are pinhole free, which is a very vital factor in device fabrication.

  3. [The toxic complications of hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy in the spa and health resort practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review was designed to consider the toxic complications of hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy encountered in the spa and health resort practice that should actually be regarded as hydrogen sulfide intoxication taking into consideration that their severity depends on the route through which the toxicant enters the body, its concentration in the therapeutic bath, and the overall duration of balneotherapy. Although such complications rarely occur in everyday practice, they may constitute a threat to the patient's health which implies the necessity of adequate measures for their prevention.

  4. Release of hydrogen sulfide in a sewer system under intermittent flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa

    2017-01-01

    The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously and thro......The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously...... authors’ publications addressing relatively small pipes and moderate water flows....

  5. Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-09-15

    Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated

  6. Hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization in a polymictic eutrophic saline lake, Salton Sea, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Brandi Kiel; Anderson, Michael A; Amrhein, Christopher

    2008-11-15

    The Salton Sea is a large shallow saline lake located in southern California that is noted for high sulfate concentrations, substantial algal productivity, and very warm water column temperatures. These conditions are well-suited for sulfide production, and sulfide has been implicated in summer fish kills, although no studies have been conducted to specifically understand hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization there. Despite polymictic mixing patterns and relatively short accumulation periods, the amount of sulfide produced is comparable to meromictic lakes. Sulfide levels in the Salton Sea reached concentrations of 1.2 mmol L(-1) of total free sulfide in the hypolimnion and 5.6 mmol L(-1) in the sediment pore water. Strong winds in late July mixed H2S into the surface water, where it depleted the entire water column of dissolved oxygen and reached a concentration of 0.1 mmol L(-1). Sulfide concentrations exceeded the toxicity threshold of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and combined with strong anoxia throughout the water column, resulted in a massive fish kill. The mixing of sulfide into the surface waters also increased atmospheric H2S concentrations, reaching 1.0 micromol m(-3). The flux of sulfide from the sediment into the water column was estimated to range from 2-3 mmol m(-2) day(-1) during the winter and up to 8 mmol m(-2) day(-1) during the summer. Application of the two-layer model for volatilization indicates that up to 19 mmol m(-2) day(-1) volatilized from the surface during the mixing event. We estimate that as much as 3400 Mg year(-1) or approximately 26% of sulfide that diffused into the water column from the deepest sediments may have been volatilized to the atmosphere.

  7. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  8. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Kenessary

    2017-06-01

    The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  9. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  11. Optimum injection dose rate of hydrogen sulfide scavenger for treatment of petroleum crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide H2S scavengers are chemicals that favorably react with hydrogen sulfide gas to eliminate it and produce environmental friendly products. These products depend on the type and composition of the scavenger and the conditions at which the reaction takes place. The scavenger should be widely available and economical for industry acceptance by having a low unit cost. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of scavenging hydrogen sulfide from the multiphase fluid produced at different wells conditions in one of the Petroleum Companies in Egypt were studied. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate depend on pipe diameter, pipe length, gas molar mass velocity, inlet H2S concentration and pressure. The optimization results are obtained for different values of these parameters using the software program Lingo. In general, the optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of the scavenging of hydrogen sulfide are increased by increasing of the pipe diameter and increasing the inlet H2S concentration, and decreased by increasing the pipe length, gas molar mass velocity and pressure.

  12. 75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ..., or (ii) Serious or irreversible-- (I) Reproductive dysfunctions, (II) Neurological disorders, (III...., Gross, E.A., Dorman, D.C., ``Olfactory neuron loss in adult male CD rats following subchronic inhalation...., ``Chronic exposure to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide produces abnormal growth in developing Purkinje...

  13. Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Minimum Detection Limits of an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    During June 2007, U.S. EPA conducted a feasibility study to determine whether the EPA OTM 10 measurement approach, also known as radial plume mapping (RPM), was feasible. A Boreal open-path tunable diode laser (OP-TDL) to collect path-integrated hydrogen sulfide measurements alon...

  14. The solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, P.J.G.; Agrawal, N.J.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the electrolyte equation of state as developed previously for the system MDEA-H2O-CO2-CH4 was further developed for the system MDEA-H2O-H2S-CH4. With this thermodynamic equilibrium model the total solubility of hydrogen sulfide and the speciation in aqueous solutions of

  15. Kinetics and the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide removal by biochar derived from rice hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Chen, Ping; Shen, Guoqing; Li, Qiwu

    2016-05-01

    The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperature has great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperature, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biochar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09 mg·g(-1), 2.65 mg·g(-1), 16.30 mg·g(-1), 20.80 mg·g(-1), and 382.70 mg·g(-1), which their pyrolysis temperatures were 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, it analyzed the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar. The paper focuses on the biochar derived from rice hull-removed hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperatures have great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperatures, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biohar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09, 2.65, 16.30, 20.80, and 382.70 mg·g(-1), and their pyrolysis temperatures were 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C, respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar was analyzed.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes reduced in lower esophageal sphincter of patients with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Zheng, Z; Wang, T; Zhao, C; Zhou, G; Jin, H; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of achalasia remains largely unknown. Considerable evidence reveals that the lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction is due to the lack of inhibitory neurotransmitter, secondary to esophageal neuronal inflammation or loss. Recent studies suggest hydrogen sulfide may act as an inhibitory transmitter in gastrointestinal tract, but study about hydrogen sulfide in human esophagus still lack. The aim of the study was to investigate if hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes could be detected in human esophagus and if the synthesis of the endogenous hydrogen sulfide could be affected in achalasia patients. Tissue samples in cardia, lower esophageal sphincter, 2 cm and 4 cm above lower esophageal sphincter were obtained from achalasia patients undergoing peroral endoscopic myotomy. Control tissues in lower esophageal sphincter were obtained from esophageal carcinoma patients. Expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in lower esophageal sphincter of achalasia patients and control were detected by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase were compared among different parts of esophagus in achalasia patients. Compared with control, the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in lower esophageal sphincter of achalasia patients was significantly reduced (χ 2 = 11.429, P = 0.010). The expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase were lower in lower esophageal sphincter than that in 2 cm and 4 cm above lower esophageal sphincter, respectively (all P achalasia, which implicates the involvement of the two hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes in the pathophysiology of achalasia. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide protects HUVECs against hydrogen peroxide induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Dan Wen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S has been shown to have cytoprotective effects in models of hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion and Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about its effects or mechanisms of action in atherosclerosis. Therefore, in the current study we evaluated the pharmacological effects of H₂S on antioxidant defenses and mitochondria protection against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂ induced endothelial cells damage. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: H₂S, at non-cytotoxic levels, exerts a concentration dependent protective effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs exposed to H₂O₂. Analysis of ATP synthesis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and cytochrome c release from mitochondria indicated that mitochondrial function was preserved by pretreatment with H₂S. In contrast, in H₂O₂ exposed endothelial cells mitochondria appeared swollen or ruptured. In additional experiments, H₂S was also found to preserve the activities and protein expressions levels of the antioxidants enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in H₂O₂ exposed cells. ROS and lipid peroxidation, as assessed by measuring H₂DCFDA, dihydroethidium (DHE, diphenyl-l-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP and malonaldehyde (MDA levels, were also inhibited by H₂S treatment. Interestingly, in the current model, D, L-propargylglycine (PAG, a selective inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, abolished the protective effects of H₂S donors. INNOVATION: This study is the first to show that H₂S can inhibit H₂O₂ mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in human endothelial cells by preserving antioxidant defences. SIGNIFICANCE: H₂S may protect against atherosclerosis by preventing H₂O₂ induced injury to endothelial cells. These effects appear to be mediated via the preservation of mitochondrial function and by reducing the deleterious effects of oxidative stress.

  18. Valorizing waste iron powder in biogas production: Hydrogen sulfide control and process performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J; Shirai, Tomoya; Yamashiro, Takaki; Yasui, Seiichi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Ihara, Ikko; Nishida, Takehiro; Tangtaweewipat, Suchon; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2018-02-15

    Biogas is composed of different gases including hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is a hazardous gas that damages pipes and generators in anaerobic digestion system. The objective of this study was to control H 2 S by waste iron powder produced by laser cutting machine in a steel and iron industry. Waste iron powder was mixed with dairy manure at a concentration between 2.0 and 20.0 g/L in batch experiments, while the concentration was varied between 1.0 and 4.0 g/L in bench experiment. In batch experiment, a reduction of up to 93% of H 2 S was observed at waste iron powder of 2.0 g/L (T1), while the reduction was of more than 99% at waste iron powder beyond 8.0 g/L (T4 ∼ T6). The total sulfide concentration (S T ) increased together with waste iron powder concentration and was fitted with a quadratic equation with a maximum S T of 208.0 mg/L at waste iron powder of 20.2 g/L. Waste iron powder did not have significant effect on methane yield in batch and bench experiments. However, hydrolysis rate constant was increased by almost 100%, while the lag-phase period was reduced to half in test digesters compared to that in control digester. In bench experiment, H 2 S concentration was reduced by 89% at 2.0 g/L, while 50% at 1.0 g/L. Therefore, waste iron powder was effectively removed H 2 S and did not affect negatively anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of ERK in NMDA receptor-independent cortical neurotoxicity of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kubo, Satoko; Yamasaki, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Sachi; Okamoto, Yukari; Sekimoto, Teruki; Fukatsu, Anna; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrogen sulfide causes NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity in mouse fetal cortical neurons. ► Activation of ERK mediates the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. ► Apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the hydrogen-induced cell death. -- Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a gasotransmitter, exerts both neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, and targets multiple molecules including NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NO synthase (NOS) that might affect neuronal viability. Here, we determined and characterized effects of NaHS, an H 2 S donor, on cell viability in the primary cultures of mouse fetal cortical neurons. NaHS caused neuronal death, as assessed by LDH release and trypan blue staining, but did not significantly reduce the glutamate toxicity. The neurotoxicity of NaHS was resistant to inhibitors of NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NOS, and was blocked by inhibitors of MEK, but not JNK, p38 MAP kinase, PKC and Src. NaHS caused prompt phosphorylation of ERK and upregulation of Bad, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, leading to the nuclear condensation/fragmentation. These effects of NaHS were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor. Our data suggest that the NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity of H 2 S involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and some apoptotic mechanisms.

  20. Storage, generation, and use of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Rolfe, Jonathan L.; Larsen, Christopher A.; Konduri, Ravi K.

    2006-05-30

    A composition comprising a carrier liquid; a dispersant; and a chemical hydride. The composition can be used in a hydrogen generator to generate hydrogen for use, e.g., as a fuel. A regenerator recovers elemental metal from byproducts of the hydrogen generation process.

  1. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  2. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with 'Chinese Drywall'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacIntosh, David L. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA (United States); Saltzman, Lori E. [U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baker, Brian J. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Matheson, Joanna M.; Recht, Joel R. [U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Bethesda, MD (United States); Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A.; Myatt, Theodore A. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Spengler, John D.; Stewart, James H. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA (United States); McCarthy, John F., E-mail: jmcccarthy@eheinc.com [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. < LOD {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05), and significantly greater rates of copper sulfide and silver sulfide corrosion compared to non-complaint homes (Cu{sub 2}S: 476 vs. < 32 A/30 d, p < 0.01; Ag{sub 2}S: 1472 vs. 389 A/30 d, p < 0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006-2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with 'Chinese Drywall' in 2006-2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental measurements in homes with and without 'Chinese Drywall' Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homes with 'Chinese Drywall' had higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homes with 'Chinese Drywall' had elevated corrosion rates Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study provides empirical evidence of reported associations.

  3. Pertechnetate immobilization in aqueous media with hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic and aerobic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Jurisson, S.; Terry, J.

    2007-01-01

    The basic chemistry for the immobilization of pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) by hydrogen sulfide was investigated in aqueous solution under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Pertechnetate immobilization was acid dependent, with accelerated rates and increased immobilization yields as the acid concentration increased. Oxygen had no effect under acidic conditions. Under anaerobic alkaline conditions, the pH, and therefore the speciation of sulfide, was the determining factor on the immobilization of pertechnetate. Only 53% of the TcO 4 - was immobilized at pH 8, while the yield increased to 83% at pH 9 as HS - became the dominant sulfide species. The immobilization yield then decreased to 73% at pH 13. No reaction was observed between TcO 4 - and sulfide under aerobic alkaline conditions, indicating that oxygen suppressed this reaction. Pertechnetate immobilization was found to be first order with respect to both sulfide and pertechnetate in acidic solutions, and in alkaline solution under anaerobic conditions. The results of stoichiometry studies and product analysis under alkaline anaerobic environments indicated that Tc 2 S 7 was obtained at pH 9. EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) studies suggested that the samples obtained from acidic, aerobic solution and alkaline anaerobic solution were both Tc 2 S 7 . The stability of Tc 2 S 7 is affected by O 2 with accelerated dissolution at high pH. (orig.)

  4. Hydrate dissociation conditions for gas mixtures containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and hydrocarbons using SAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaosen; Wu Huijie; Li Yigui; Feng Ziping; Tang Liangguang; Fan Shuanshi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, a molecular thermodynamic model based on statistical mechanics, is employed to predict the hydrate dissociation conditions for binary gas mixtures with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and hydrocarbons in the presence of aqueous solutions. The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) equation of state is employed to characterize the vapor and liquid phases and the statistical model of van der Waals and Platteeuw for the hydrate phase. The predictions of the proposed model were found to be in satisfactory to excellent agreement with the experimental data

  5. Hydrogen evolution on nano-particulate transition metal sulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Moses, Poul Georg; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on carbon supported MoS2 nanoparticles is investigated and compared to findings with previously published work on Au(111) supported MoS2. An investigation into MoS2 oxidation is presented and used to quantify the surface concentration of MoS2. Other metal sul...

  6. Absence of Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Hypometabolism in Pigs: A Mechanistic Explanation in Relation to Small Nonhibernating Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkes, Marcel C.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Heger, Michal; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificially induced hypometabolism in nonhibernating mammals may have considerable clinical implications. Numerous studies in small rodent models have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) induces hypometabolism, supposedly as a result of histotoxic hypoxia. However, the induction of

  7. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Development of a hydrogen sulfide removing technology; 1980 nendo ryuka suiso jokyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    As part of geothermal development promotion program in the Sunshine Project, a hydrogen sulfide removing technology development has been worked on since fiscal 1977 for the purpose of environment preservation and multi-purpose utilization. Hydrogen sulfide in downstream fluid in a turbine is removed by more than 90% (as the target value), and the removed hydrogen sulfide is converted into single sulfur having an added value. For condenser waste gas processing, selection was made in fiscal 1980 on the RET process (sulfur is obtained by removing hydrogen sulfide in a suction column and an oxidation column), and for condensate processing, the stripping process (gas having been sent into a stripping column and stripped is fed into the RET device via demister for processing). Field tests were carried out by using fluid generated in a geothermal power plant. Conclusions were reached at high accuracy on optimal process selection corresponding to conditions of the fluid on the turbine outlet side and on the hydrogen sulfide removing cost. A process to treat fluid on the turbine inlet side is available, but not as economically effective as the downstream fluid processing. Same applies to the chemical processing method. A method to measure continually hydrogen sulfide in geothermal steam has been established. (NEDO)

  8. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  9. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  10. The role of hydrogen sulfide in aging and age-related pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perridon, Bernard W; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Bos, Eelke M

    2016-09-27

    When humans grow older, they experience inevitable and progressive loss of physiological function, ultimately leading to death. Research on aging largely focuses on the identification of mechanisms involved in the aging process. Several proposed aging theories were recently combined as the 'hallmarks of aging'. These hallmarks describe (patho-)physiological processes that together, when disrupted, determine the aging phenotype. Sustaining evidence shows a potential role for hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) in the regulation of aging. Nowadays, H 2 S is acknowledged as an endogenously produced signaling molecule with various (patho-) physiological effects. H 2 S is involved in several diseases including pathologies related to aging. In this review, the known, assumed and hypothetical effects of hydrogen sulfide on the aging process will be discussed by reviewing its actions on the hallmarks of aging and on several age-related pathologies.

  11. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide : symptoms, sensory function, and cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, N.; Kipen, H.; Lioy, P.; Zhang, J.; Weisel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum refineries, kraft paper mills, and coke ovens are some of the sources of hydrogen sulfide exposure. In 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended an ambient exposure standard of .003 ppm for odor and .01 ppm for eye irritation. In communities with high exposure levels, health effects have been documented as being headaches, eye and nasal symptoms, coughs, breathlessness and decreased psychomotor performance. Refinery workers in some jurisdictions around the world have been subjected to higher exposure levels. This report presents results of clinical studies on the neurobehavioral effects in rats. The tasks of memory and learning in rats parallels those in humans. A pilot exposure study examined the health effects of controlled exposures to 3 concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (.05, .50, and 5 ppm). It was concluded that changes in neurobehavioral measurements can be directly associated with exposure and dose-response. 25 figs

  12. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  13. Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Septic Tank by Vermicomposting Bio Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Kazem Neisi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a colorless and highly toxic, easily dissolved in water, flammable and explosive gas. Hydrogen sulfide gas is the main cause of odor emissions from municipal sewage plants. One method for removal of hydrogen sulfide gas is the use of biological systems, biofilter. The aim of this study was to survey removal hydrogen sulfide provide in septic tank by vermicomposting biofilter. Materials and Methods: In this study pilot-scale biofilter has been made of bed vermicompost and wood trash. To survey biofilter performance under real condition, the pilot installed in one wastewater pumping station of Ahwaz city, Iran. The study was carried out over 80 days. Inlet and outlet H2S concentration were measured on regular basis. To provide an optimal condition for bacterial growth, moisture was adjusted between 40% and 60% throughout the experiment. Results: Results showed that H2S concentration emitted from the pumping station during the study varied greatly between 33 and 54ppm .The maximum adsorption capacity of the biological bedding was recorded at 22.4 g/m3.hr and the mean efficiency of H2S removal account the startup time was 89.31% .The mean performance efficiency during the biological activity after the startup was recorded at 96.88%. Conclusion: use up biofilter with vermicompost bed and woodchip is an economic method for H2S removal of septic tanks. Removal efficiency of more than 96% is expected with this method.

  14. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  15. Selective turn-on fluorescent probes for imaging hydrogen sulfide in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2012-05-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an important biological messenger but few biologically-compatible methods are available for its detection. Here we report two bright fluorescent probes that are selective for H(2)S over cysteine, glutathione and other reactive sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen species. Both probes are demonstrated to detect H(2)S in live cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. Identification of an Alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a Laboratory Standard for Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nar'Asha Randall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This project involved the evaluation of a biosafety level 1 alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a positive control for the production of hydrogen sulfide. We determined that Citrobacter freundii could serve as an excellent substitute for P. vulgaris, and that lead acetate strips used in conjunction with triple sugar iron media allows for consistent results following evaluation after up to one week.

  17. A critical review of pharmacological significance of Hydrogen Sulfide in hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Khan, Safia Akhtar; Lazhari, M. I.; Afzal, Sheryar; Hashmi, F.; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the family of gas transmitters, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is yet not adequately researched. Known for its rotten egg smell and adverse effects on the brain, lungs, and kidneys for more than 300 years, the vasorelaxant effects of H 2 S on blood vessel was first observed in 1997. Since then, research continued to explore the possible therapeutic effects of H 2 S in hypertension, inflammation, pancreatitis, different types of shock, diabetes, and heart failure. However, a considerable amount o...

  18. Iodide-photocatalyzed reduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid with thiols and hydrogen sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Berton, Mateo Otao; Mello, Rossella C. C.; González Núñez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    The photolysis of iodide anions promotes the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen sulfide or thiols to quantitatively yield formic acid and sulfur or disulfides. The reaction proceeds in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature by irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp. This transition-metal-free photocatalytic process for CO2 capture coupled with H2S removal may have been relevant as a prebiotic carbon dioxide fixation.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide increases nitric oxide production from endothelial cells by an Akt-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo J Cardounel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO are both gasotransmitters that can elicit synergistic vasodilatory responses in the in the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms behind this synergy are unclear. In the current study we investigated the molecular mechanisms through which H2S regulates endothelial NO production. Initial studies were performed to establish the temporal and dose-dependent effects of H2S on NO generation using EPR spin trapping techniques. H2S stimulated a two-fold increase in NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, which was maximal 30 min after exposure to 25-150 µM H2S. Following 30 min H2S exposure, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser 1177 was significantly increased compared to control, consistent with eNOS activation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt, the kinase responsible for Ser 1177 phosphorylation, attenuated the stimulatory effect of H2S on NO production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that H2S up-regulates NO production from eNOS through an Akt-dependent mechanism. These results implicate H2S in the regulation of NO in endothelial cells, and suggest that deficiencies in H2S signaling can directly impact processes regulated by NO.

  20. A breeding strategy to harness flavor diversity of Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids and minimize hydrogen sulfide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizaj, Etjen; Cordente, Antonio G; Bellon, Jennifer R; Raspor, Peter; Curtin, Chris D; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-06-01

    Industrial food-grade yeast strains are selected for traits that enhance their application in quality production processes. Wine yeasts are required to survive in the harsh environment of fermenting grape must, while at the same time contributing to wine quality by producing desirable aromas and flavors. For this reason, there are hundreds of wine yeasts available, exhibiting characteristics that make them suitable for different fermentation conditions and winemaking practices. As wine styles evolve and technical winemaking requirements change, however, it becomes necessary to improve existing strains. This becomes a laborious and costly process when the targets for improvement involve flavor compound production. Here, we demonstrate a new approach harnessing preexisting industrial yeast strains that carry desirable flavor phenotypes - low hydrogen sulfide (H(2) S) production and high ester production. A low-H(2) S Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain previously generated by chemical mutagenesis was hybridized independently with two ester-producing natural interspecies hybrids of S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Deficiencies in sporulation frequency and spore viability were overcome through use of complementary selectable traits, allowing successful isolation of several novel hybrids exhibiting both desired traits in a single round of selection. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toward new instruments for measurement of low concentration hydrogen sulfide in small-quantity aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiao Chu; Wu, Dong Qing; Zhang, W J; Sammynaiken, R; Yang, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Endogenously generated hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been found to play some important physiological roles in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as a neuromodulator and a vasorelaxant. These roles are in contrast to our common perception that H 2 S is toxic. However, whether H 2 S plays a positive or negative role is dependent on the H 2 S concentration levels in mammals. This further puts a high demand on the accurate measurement of H 2 S in mammals with a further desire to be real time, continuous and in vivo. Existing methods for H 2 S measurement require a large number of tissue samples with complex procedures, and these methods are extremely invasive. The development of new in vivo and real-time methods for measuring H 2 S is, however, a great challenge. In the present study, we proposed and examined five potential H 2 S measurement methods: (1) atomic force microscopy with coating materials, (2) Raman spectroscopy on the H 2 S solutions, (3) gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (with the static headspace technique) on the H 2 S solutions, (4) mass spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions and (5) Raman spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions. Our study concluded that method (5) is the most promising one for detecting low concentration H 2 S in small-quantity aqueous solutions in terms of measurement resolution and non-invasiveness, but the method is not very robust

  2. Yeast genes involved in regulating cysteine uptake affect production of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Walker, Michelle E; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    An early burst of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation could increase varietal thiols and therefore enhance desirable tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc. Here we attempted to identify genes affecting H2S formation from cysteine by screening yeast deletion libraries via a colony colour assay on media resembling grape juice. Both Δlst4 and Δlst7 formed lighter coloured colonies and produced significantly less H2S than the wild type on high concentrations of cysteine, likely because they are unable to take up cysteine efficiently. We then examined the nine known cysteine permeases and found that deletion of AGP1, GNP1 and MUP1 led to reduced production of H2S from cysteine. We further showed that deleting genes involved in the SPS-sensing pathway such as STP1 and DAL81 also reduced H2S from cysteine. Together, this study indirectly confirms that Agp1p, Gnp1p and Mup1p are the major cysteine permeases and that they are regulated by the SPS-sensing and target of rapamycin pathways under the grape juice-like, cysteine-supplemented, fermentation conditions. The findings highlight that cysteine transportation could be a limiting factor for yeast to generate H2S from cysteine, and therefore selecting wine yeasts without defects in cysteine uptake could maximise thiol production potential. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with ‘Chinese Drywall’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacIntosh, David L.; Saltzman, Lori E.; Baker, Brian J.; Matheson, Joanna M.; Recht, Joel R.; Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A.; Myatt, Theodore A.; Spengler, John D.; Stewart, James H.; McCarthy, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. 3 , p 2 S: 476 vs. 2 S: 1472 vs. 389 Å/30 d, p < 0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006–2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with ‘Chinese Drywall’ in 2006–2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air. - Highlights: ► Environmental measurements in homes with and without “Chinese Drywall” ► Homes with “Chinese Drywall” had higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations ► Homes with “Chinese Drywall” had elevated corrosion rates ► Study provides empirical evidence of reported associations

  4. Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2011-08-14

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid hydrogen sulfide molecules was determined from high-level quantum-mechanical ab initio computations. A total of 4016 points for 405 different angular orientations of two molecules were calculated utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory and extrapolating the calculated interaction energies to the complete basis set limit. An analytical site-site potential function with eleven sites per hydrogen sulfide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies. The PES has been validated by computing the second pressure virial coefficient, shear viscosity, thermal conductivity and comparing with the available experimental data. The calculated values of volume viscosity were not used to validate the potential as the low accuracy of the available data precluded such an approach. The second pressure virial coefficient was evaluated by means of the Takahashi and Imada approach, while the transport properties, in the dilute limit, were evaluated by utilizing the classical trajectory method. In general, the agreement with the primary experimental data is within the experimental error for temperatures higher than 300 K. For lower temperatures the lack of reliable data indicates that the values of the second pressure virial coefficient and of the transport properties calculated in this work are currently the most accurate estimates for the thermophysical properties of hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Release of hydrogen sulfide under intermittent flow conditions – the potential of simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa

    2018-01-01

    For engineering purposes it is especially useful to be able to predict and control sewer corrosion rates and odor impacts as well as to design effective measures aiming to reduce effects related to hydrogen sulfide formation and release. Doing so, it is important to use modeling tools that are ca......For engineering purposes it is especially useful to be able to predict and control sewer corrosion rates and odor impacts as well as to design effective measures aiming to reduce effects related to hydrogen sulfide formation and release. Doing so, it is important to use modeling tools...... to evaluate the effects of transitions between pressure mains and gravity sewers in the air–liquid mass transfer of hydrogen sulfide at the Ericeira sewer system in Portugal. This network is known to have odor and corrosion problems, especially during summer. Despite the unavoidable uncertainties due...... to the unsteady flow rate and the quantification of air velocity and turbulence, the simulation results obtained with both models have been shown to adequately predict the overall behavior of the system....

  6. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Módis, Katalin; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H 2 S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H 2 S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H 2 S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H 2 S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , 100–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H 2 O 2 (50–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H 2 S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H 2 O 2 , (3–100 μM), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H 2 O 2 (50 μM). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H 2 S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging

  7. Hydrogenation active sites of unsupported molybdenum sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Y.; Araki, Y.; Honna, K. [Tsukuba-branch, Advanced Catalyst Research Laboratory, Petroleum Energy Center, 1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8565 Ibaraki (Japan); Miki, Y.; Sato, K.; Shimada, H. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, 1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8565 Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-20

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the nature of the hydrogenation active sites on unsupported molybdenum sulfide catalysts, aimed at the improvement of the catalysts for the slurry processes. The number of hydrogenation active sites was found to relate to the 'inflection' on the basal plane of the catalyst particles. The comparison of the catalytic activity to that of an oil-soluble catalyst in the hydroprocessing of heavy oils suggests that the performance of the oil-soluble catalyst was near the maximum, unless another component such as Ni or Co was incorporated.

  8. Dechlorination of chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene by hydrogen sulfide species: redox and nucleophilic substitution reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Gan, Jianying

    2006-03-22

    The chlorinated fumigants chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) are extensively used in agricultural production for the control of soilborne pests. The reaction of these two fumigants with hydrogen sulfide species (H2S and HS-) was examined in well-defined anoxic aqueous solutions. Chloropicrin underwent an extremely rapid redox reaction in the hydrogen sulfide solution. Transformation products indicated reductive dechlorination of chloropicrin by hydrogen sulfide species to produce dichloro- and chloronitromethane. The transformation of chloropicrin in hydrogen sulfide solution significantly increased with increasing pH, indicating that H2S is less reactive toward chloropicrin than HS- is. For both 1,3-D isomers, kinetics and transformation products analysis revealed that the reaction between 1,3-D and hydrogen sulfide species is an S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution process, in which the chlorine at C3 of 1,3-D is substituted by the sulfur nucleophile to form corresponding mercaptans. The 50% disappearance time (DT50) of 1,3-D decreased with increasing hydrogen sulfide species concentration at a constant pH. Transformation of 1,3-D was more rapid at high pH, suggesting that the reactivity of hydrogen sulfide species in the experimental system stems primarily from HS-. Because of the relatively low smell threshold values and potential environmental persistence of organic sulfur products yielded by the reaction of 1,3-D and HS-, the effects of reduced sulfide species should be considered in the development of alternative fumigation practices, especially in the integrated application of sulfur-containing fertilizers.

  9. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramirez, Martha; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 ± 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 ± 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead

  10. Giant hydrogen sulfide plume in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru supports chemolithoautotrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schunck

    Full Text Available In Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems nutrient-rich waters are transported to the ocean surface, fuelling high photoautotrophic primary production. Subsequent heterotrophic decomposition of the produced biomass increases the oxygen-depletion at intermediate water depths, which can result in the formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ. OMZs can sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been implicated in massive fish kills. During a cruise to the OMZ off Peru in January 2009 we found a sulfidic plume in continental shelf waters, covering an area >5500 km(2, which contained ∼2.2×10(4 tons of H2S. This was the first time that H2S was measured in the Peruvian OMZ and with ∼440 km(3 the largest plume ever reported for oceanic waters. We assessed the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the inhabiting microbial community by high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA, while its metabolic activity was determined with rate measurements of carbon fixation and nitrogen transformation processes. The waters were dominated by several distinct γ-, δ- and ε-proteobacterial taxa associated with either sulfur oxidation or sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that these chemolithoautotrophic bacteria utilized several oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to detoxify the sulfidic waters well below the oxic surface. The chemolithoautotrophic activity at our sampling site led to high rates of dark carbon fixation. Assuming that these chemolithoautotrophic rates were maintained throughout the sulfidic waters, they could be representing as much as ∼30% of the photoautotrophic carbon fixation. Postulated changes such as eutrophication and global warming, which lead to an expansion and intensification of OMZs, might also increase the frequency of sulfidic waters. We suggest that the chemolithoautotrophically fixed carbon may be involved in a negative feedback loop that

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Sensing through Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) and Nitroxyl (HNO) in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiangchuan; Walsh, Brenna J C; Flores-Mireles, Ana Lidia; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Yixiang; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Hultgren, Scott J; Giedroc, David P

    2018-05-17

    Recent studies of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) signaling implicate low molecular weight (LMW) thiol persulfides and other reactive sulfur species (RSS) as signaling effectors. Here, we show that a CstR protein from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis), previously identified in Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), is an RSS-sensing repressor that transcriptionally regulates a cst-like operon in response to both exogenous sulfide stress and Angeli's salt, a precursor of nitroxyl (HNO). E. faecalis CstR reacts with coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) to form interprotomer disulfide and trisulfide bridges between C32 and C61', which negatively regulate DNA binding to a consensus CstR DNA operator. A Δ cstR strain exhibits deficiency in catheter colonization in a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) mouse model, suggesting sulfide regulation and homeostasis is critical for pathogenicity. Cellular polysulfide metabolite profiling of sodium sulfide-stressed E. faecalis confirms an increase in both inorganic polysulfides and LMW thiols and persulfides sensed by CstR. The cst-like operon encodes two authentic thiosulfate sulfurtransferases and an enzyme we characterize here as an NADH and FAD-dependent coenzyme A (CoA) persulfide reductase (CoAPR) that harbors an N-terminal CoA disulfide reductase (CDR) domain and a C-terminal rhodanese homology domain (RHD). Both cysteines in the CDR (C42) and RHD (C508) domains are required for CoAPR activity and complementation of a sulfide-induced growth phenotype of a S. aureus strain lacking cstB, encoding a nonheme Fe II persulfide dioxygenase. We propose that S. aureus CstB and E. faecalis CoAPR employ orthogonal chemistries to lower CoASSH that accumulates under conditions of cellular sulfide toxicity and signaling.

  12. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  13. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Increases Nitric Oxide Production and Subsequent S-Nitrosylation in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO, two endogenous gaseous molecules in endothelial cells, got increased attention with respect to their protective roles in the cardiovascular system. However, the details of the signaling pathways between H2S and NO in endothelia cells remain unclear. In this study, a treatment with NaHS profoundly increased the expression and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Elevated gaseous NO levels were observed by a novel and specific fluorescent probe, 5-amino-2-(6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-ylbenzoic acid methyl ester (FA-OMe, and quantified by flow cytometry. Further study indicated an increase of upstream regulator for eNOS activation, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and protein kinase B (Akt. By using a biotin switch, the level of NO-mediated protein S-nitrosylation was also enhanced. However, with the addition of the NO donor, NOC-18, the expressions of cystathionine-γ-lyase, cystathionine-β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were not changed. The level of H2S was also monitored by a new designed fluorescent probe, 4-nitro-7-thiocyanatobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-SCN with high specificity. Therefore, NO did not reciprocally increase the expression of H2S-generating enzymes and the H2S level. The present study provides an integrated insight of cellular responses to H2S and NO from protein expression to gaseous molecule generation, which indicates the upstream role of H2S in modulating NO production and protein S-nitrosylation.

  15. Amorphous nickel/cobalt tungsten sulfide electrocatalysts for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lun [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xinglong, E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, NingBo University, NingBo 315001 (China); Zhu, Xiaoshu [Center for Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210093 (China); He, Chengyu; Meng, Ming; Gan, Zhixing [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous nickel/cobalt tungsten sulfides were synthesized by a thermolytic process. • Amorphous NiWS and CoWS could realize hydrogen evolution efficiently. • Ni/Co promotion and annealing alter the porous structure and chemical bonding states. • Active sites on the surface of amorphous WS{sub x} are increased with Ni or Co doping. • Amorphous NiWS and CoWS have immense potentials in water splitting devices. - Abstract: The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), an appealing solution for future energy supply, requires efficient and inexpensive electrocatalysts with abundant active surface sites. Although crystalline MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} are promising candidates, their activity is dominated by edge sites. Amorphous tungsten sulfide prepared so far lacks the required active sites and its application has thus been hampered. In this work, nickel and cobalt incorporated amorphous tungsten sulfide synthesized by a thermolytic process is demonstrated to enhance the HER efficiency dramatically. The amorphous nickel tungsten sulfide (amorphous NiWS) annealed at 210 °C delivers the best HER performance in this system boasting a Tafel slope of 55 mV per decade and current density of 8.6 mA cm{sup −2} at 250 mV overpotential in a sustained test for 24 h. The introduction of Ni or Co into the catalyst and subsequent thermal treatment alters the porous structure and chemical bonding states thereby increasing the density of active sites on the surface.

  16. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H 2 S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H 2 S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H 2 S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H 2 S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H 2 S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H 2 S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H 2 S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H 2 S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H 2 S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the

  17. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  18. Carvedilol induces endogenous hydrogen sulfide tissue concentration changes in various mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Bogdan; Wiliński, Jerzy; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Góralska, Marta; Macura, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol, a third generation non-selective adrenoreceptor blocker, is widely used in cardiology. Its action has been proven to reach beyond adrenergic antagonism and involves multiple biological mechanisms. The interaction between carvedilol and endogenous 'gasotransmitter' hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of carvedilol on the H2S tissue level in mouse brain, liver, heart and kidney. Twenty eight SJL strain female mice were administered intraperitoneal injections of 2.5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D1, n=7), 5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D2, n=7) or 10 mg/kg b.w./d of carvedilol (group D3, n=7). The control group (n=7) received physiological saline in portions of the same volume (0.2 ml). Measurements of the free tissue H2S concentrations were performed according to the modified method of Siegel. A progressive decline in H2S tissue concentration along with an increase in carvedilol dose was observed in the brain (12.5%, 13.7% and 19.6%, respectively). Only the highest carvedilol dose induced a change in H2S tissue level in the heart - an increase by 75.5%. In the liver medium and high doses of carvedilol increased the H2S level by 48.1% and 11.8%, respectively. In the kidney, group D2 showed a significant decrease of H2S tissue level (22.5%), while in the D3 group the H2S concentration increased by 12.9%. Our study has proven that carvedilol affects H2S tissue concentration in different mouse organs.

  19. In situ Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide During Biogas Fermentation at Microaerobic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yima; Ye, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunmian

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, rice straw was used as a raw material to produce biogas by anaerobic batch fermentation at 35 °C (mesophilic) or 55 °C (thermophilic). The hydrogen sulfide in biogas can be converted to S 0 or sulfate and removed in-situ under micro-oxygen environment. Trace oxygen was conducted to the anaerobic fermentation tank in amount of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 10.0 times stoichiometric equivalence, respectively, and the control experiment without oxygen addition was carried out. The results showed that the initial H 2 S concentrations of biogas are about 3235 ± 185 mg/m 3 (mesophilic) or 3394 ± 126 mg/m 3 (thermophilic), respectively. The desulfurization efficiency is 72.3 % (mesophilic) or 65.6 % (thermophilic), respectively, with oxygen addition by stoichiometric relation. When the oxygen feeded in amount of 2∼4 times, theoretical quantity demanded the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide could be over 92 %, and the oxygen residue in biogas could be maintained less than 0.5 %, which fit the requirement of biogas used as vehicle fuel or combined to the grid. Though further more oxygen addition could promote the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide (about 93.6 %), the oxygen residue in biogas would be higher than the application limit concentration (0.5 %). Whether mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation with the extra addition of oxygen, there were no obvious changes in the gas production and methane concentration. In conclusion, in-situ desulfurization can be achieved in the anaerobic methane fermentation system under micro-oxygen environment. In addition, air could be used as a substitute oxygen resource on the situation without strict demand for the methane content of biogas.

  20. Preparation of Gas Sensor Based on Polymer Nanocomposite for Qualitative Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ghazizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a by-product often produced in petrochemical processes, is well known as a dangerous and highly toxic gas to living organisms. The smell of H2S concentration of higher than 100 ppm can cause severe biological condition. Therefore, the detection of this gas is a crucial issue. In this work, nanocomposite porous films of polyurethane/silver (PU/Ag and poly(vinylchloride/silver (PVC/Ag consisting of 7 wt% nanoparticles were fabricated by phase inversion method and studied its qualitative detection capacity for H2S. The results indicated that after exposure to 50 ppm H2S, black points appeared on the surface of the test films within 10 min. However, the color completely disappeared when the films were left in the air for 20 min. Structural characteristics of the nanocomposites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA to confirm possible interactions which may have formed between the polymers and nanoparticles. According to the results, Ag nanoparticles were well dispersed in PU and PVC matrices giving particle sizes of less than 62 and 76 nm, respectively. The observations revealed that two recommended nanocomposites (PU/Ag and PVC/Ag could be used for detection of hydrogen sulfide at low level concentration. The response of Ag-embedded polymer films toward H2S vapour showed a better detection by PU/Ag compared to PVC/Ag. Therefore, the suggested silver nanoparticle-loaded PU and PVC sensor films are easily portable, simple to use and cost-less compared with other types of hydrogen sulfide sensors.

  1. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  2. Accident for natural gas well with hydrogen sulfide in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chengjun; Shangguang Zhihong; Sha Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In order to make assessment to the potential impact from accident of natural gas wells with hydrogen sulfide on the habitability of main control room of nuclear power plant (NPP), several assumptions such as source terms of maximum credible accident, conservative atmospheric conditions and release characteristics were proposed in the paper, and the impact on the habitability of main control room was evaluated using toxicity thresholds recommended by foreign authority. Case results indicate that the method can provide the reference for the preliminary assessment to external human-induced events during the siting phrase of NPP. (authors)

  3. Highly selective and rapidly responsive fluorescent probe for hydrogen sulfide detection in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jialin; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-08-15

    A new fluorescent probe 6-(2, 4-dinitrophenoxy)-2-naphthonitrile (probe 1) was designed and synthesized for the selective detection of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). The addition of H 2 S to a solution of probe 1 resulted in a marked fluorescence turn-on alongside a visual color change from colorless to light yellow. Importantly, this distinct color response indicated that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for H 2 S. Moreover, probe 1 was successfully used as a signal tool to determine the H 2 S levels in beer and red wine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2017-03-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  6. Polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network based chemiresistive hydrogen sulfide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Bangar, Mangesh A.; Deshusses, Marc A.; Myung, Nosang V.; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2009-02-01

    We report a sensitive, selective, and fast responding room temperature chemiresistive sensor for hydrogen sulfide detection and quantification using polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network. The sensor was fabricated by facile electrochemical technique. Initially, polyaniline nanowires with a diameter of 250-320 nm bridging the gap between a pair of microfabricated gold electrodes were synthesized using templateless electrochemical polymerization using a two step galvanostatic technique. Polyaniline nanowires were then electrochemically functionalized with gold nanoparticles using cyclic voltammetry technique. These chemiresistive sensors show an excellent limit of detection (0.1 ppb), wide dynamic range (0.1-100 ppb), and very good selectivity and reproducibility.

  7. Iodide-Photocatalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid with Thiols and Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Mateo; Mello, Rossella; González-Núñez, María Elena

    2016-12-20

    The photolysis of iodide anions promotes the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen sulfide or thiols to quantitatively yield formic acid and sulfur or disulfides. The reaction proceeds in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature by irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp. This transition-metal-free photocatalytic process for CO 2 capture coupled with H 2 S removal may have been relevant as a prebiotic carbon dioxide fixation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módis, Katalin [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Asimakopoulou, Antonia [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Coletta, Ciro [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Papapetropoulos, Andreas [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Szabo, Csaba, E-mail: szabocsaba@aol.com [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H{sub 2}S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H{sub 2}S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H{sub 2}S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 100–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H{sub 2}S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (3–100 μM), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 μM). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging.

  9. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... intermediate during abiotic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, with the latter formed during bacterial sulfate reduction. The formed elemental sulfur may be used by the specific microbial community found in this aquifer for the oxidation of organic contaminants such as toluene. In contrast, reoxidation...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....

  10. Sulfidation/regeneration Multi-cyclic Testing of Fe2O3/Al2O3 Sorbents for the High-temperature Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Su, Y.-M.; Huang, C.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 74, MAY (2017), s. 89-95 ISSN 1876-1070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:MOST(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3; MOST(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : desulfurization * hydrogen sulfide * solid sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  11. Experimental Study of Gas Explosions in Hydrogen Sulfide-Natural Gas-Air Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vagner Gaathaug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of turbulent combustion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and natural gas was performed to provide reference data for verification of CFD codes and direct comparison. Hydrogen sulfide is present in most crude oil sources, and the explosion behaviour of pure H2S and mixtures with natural gas is important to address. The explosion behaviour was studied in a four-meter-long square pipe. The first two meters of the pipe had obstacles while the rest was smooth. Pressure transducers were used to measure the combustion in the pipe. The pure H2S gave slightly lower explosion pressure than pure natural gas for lean-to-stoichiometric mixtures. The rich H2S gave higher pressure than natural gas. Mixtures of H2S and natural gas were also studied and pressure spikes were observed when 5% and 10% H2S were added to natural gas and also when 5% and 10% natural gas were added to H2S. The addition of 5% H2S to natural gas resulted in higher pressure than pure H2S and pure natural gas. The 5% mixture gave much faster combustion than pure natural gas under fuel rich conditions.

  12. An Integrated Photoelectrochemical-Chemical Loop for Solar-Driven Overall Splitting of Hydrogen Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Han, Jingfeng; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abundant and toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from industry and nature has been traditionally considered a liability. However, it represents a potential resource if valuable H-2 and elemental sulfur can be simultaneously extracted through a H2S splitting reaction. Herein a photochemical-chemical loop...... simulated solar light. This new conceptual design will not only provide a possible route for using solar energy to convert H2S into valuable resources, but also sheds light on some challenging photochemical reactions such as CH4 activation and CO2 reduction.......Abundant and toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from industry and nature has been traditionally considered a liability. However, it represents a potential resource if valuable H-2 and elemental sulfur can be simultaneously extracted through a H2S splitting reaction. Herein a photochemical-chemical loop...... linked by redox couples such as Fe2+/Fe3+ and I-/I-3(-) for photoelectrochemical H-2 production and H2S chemical absorption redox reactions are reported. Using functionalized Si as photoelectrodes, H2S was successfully split into elemental sulfur and H-2 with high stability and selectivity under...

  13. Novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine, prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Xin [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Xinghui [Departments of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai College of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Fenfen; Luo, Shanshan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ge, Ruowen [Departmentof Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yizhun, E-mail: zhuyz@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Departmentof Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-13

    In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802), a novel hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-releasing compound, had renoprotective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. SPRC treatment significantly reduced the level of creatinine, kidney to body weight ratio and in particular, markedly decreased 24-h urine microalbuminuria excretion. SPRC suppressed the mRNA expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen. In vitro, SPRC inhibited mesangial cells over-proliferation and hypertrophy induced by high glucose. Additionally, SPRC attenuated inflammation in diabetic kidneys. SPRC also reduced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) pathway. Moreover, SPRC inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, p38 protein. Taken together, SPRC was demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • We synthesized a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC). • SPRC was preliminarily demonstrated to prevent STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). • SPRC may exert potential therapeutic candidate to suppress DN.

  14. Adsorption/oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on nitrogen-containing activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, F.; Bagreev, A.; Bandosz, T.J.

    2000-02-22

    Wood-based activated carbon was modified by impregnation with urea and heat treatment at 450 and 950 C. The chemical and physical properties of materials were determined using acid/base titration, FTIR, thermal analysis, IGC, and sorption of nitrogen. The surface features were compared to those of a commercial urea-modified carbon. Then, the H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity tests were carried out, and the sorption capacity was evaluated. The results showed that urea-modified sorbents have a capacity similar to that of the received material; however, the conversion of hydrogen sulfide to a water-soluble species is significantly higher. It happens due to a high dispersion of basic nitrogen compounds in the small pores of carbons, where oxidation of hydrogen sulfide ions to sulfur radicals followed by the creation of sulfur oxides and sulfuric acid occurs. It is proposed that the process proceeds gradually, from small pores to larger, and that the degree of microporosity is an important factor.

  15. Unmodified versus caustics-impregnated carbons for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions from sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, T.J.; Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Turk, A.

    2000-03-15

    Unmodified and caustic-impregnated carbons were compared as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide in the North River Water Pollution Control Plant in New York City over a period of 2 years. The carbons were characterized using accelerated H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity tests, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis. The accelerated laboratory tests indicate that the initial capacity of caustic-impregnated carbons exceeds that of unmodified carbon, but the nature of real-life challenge streams, particularly their lower H{sub 2}S concentrations, nullifies this advantage. As the caustic content of the impregnated carbon is consumed, the situation reverses, and the unmodified carbon becomes more effective. When the concentration of H{sub 2}S is low, the developed surface area and pore volume along with the affinity to retain water create a favorable environment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation to elemental sulfur, S{sup 4+}, and S{sup 6+}. In the case of the caustic carbon, the catalytic impact of the carbon surface is limited, and its good performance lasts only while active base is present. The results also show the significant differences in performance of unmodified carbons due to combined effects of their porosity and surface chemistry.

  16. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-10-15

    It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles ( n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7) for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8) for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7) for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide ( p < 0.001). With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors.

  17. Novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine, prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xin; Li, Xinghui; Ma, Fenfen; Luo, Shanshan; Ge, Ruowen; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802), a novel hydrogen sulfide (H_2S)-releasing compound, had renoprotective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. SPRC treatment significantly reduced the level of creatinine, kidney to body weight ratio and in particular, markedly decreased 24-h urine microalbuminuria excretion. SPRC suppressed the mRNA expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen. In vitro, SPRC inhibited mesangial cells over-proliferation and hypertrophy induced by high glucose. Additionally, SPRC attenuated inflammation in diabetic kidneys. SPRC also reduced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) pathway. Moreover, SPRC inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, p38 protein. Taken together, SPRC was demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • We synthesized a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC). • SPRC was preliminarily demonstrated to prevent STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). • SPRC may exert potential therapeutic candidate to suppress DN.

  18. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nabeshima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007 on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7 for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8 for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7 for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide (p < 0.001. With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors.

  19. Chronic aerobic exercise training alleviates myocardial fibrosis in aged rats through restoring bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Hong-Mei; Xia, Ting; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2018-06-02

    Age-related fibrosis is attenuated by aerobic exercise; however, little is known concerning the underlying molecular mechanism. To address this question, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks. After exercise in aged rats, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in plasma and heart increased 39.8% and 90.9%, respectively. Exercise upregulated expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in heart of aged rats. Furthermore, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks or treated with NaHS (intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml/kg/day of 0.28 mol/l NaHS). After exercise in aged rats, Masson-trichrome staining area decreased 34.8% and myocardial hydroxyproline levels decreased 29.6%. Exercise downregulated expression of collagen-I and α-SMA in heart of aged rats. Exercise in aged rats reduced malondialdehyde levels in plasma and heart and 3-nitrotyrosine in heart. Exercise in aged rats reduced mRNA and protein expression of CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1. Exercise also reduced mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 and suppressed activation of JNK in aging heart. Similar effects were demonstrated in aged rats treated with NaHS. Collectively, exercise restored bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide in the heart of aged rats, which partly explained the benefits of exercise against myocardial fibrosis of aged population.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of color and hydrogen sulfide in water of the principal artesian aquifers in the Valdosta area, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and color occur in objectionable amounts in ground water from the principal artesian aquifer in the Valdosta , Ga., area. Generally, water from wells south of Valdosta is high in hydrogen sulfide; water from wells north of the city is high in color. Water with high sulfate is likely to be a problem in wells deeper than about 540 ft. Heavy pumpage concentrated in a small area may cause high-sulfate water to migrate vertically upward into shallower wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Antonio [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jvelasco@ine.gob.mx; Ramirez, Martha [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Volke-Sepulveda, Tania [Departamento de Biotecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Revah, Sergio [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 {+-} 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 {+-} 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  2. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    To date there are no reproducible models of hydrogen sulfide toxicity although hydrogen sulfide toxicity is reported to be one of the leading ...in the Cobinamide treated animals was 3.2 minutes. After completion of our IV arm we moved back to the IM model. We collaborated with Dr

  3. Experimental study on stress corrosion crack propagation rate of FV520B in carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Qin

    Full Text Available FV520B steel is a kind of precipitation hardening Martensitic stainless steel, it has high-strength, good plasticity and good corrosion resistance. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC is one of the main corrosion failure mode for FV520B in industrial transportation of natural gas operation. For a better understanding the effect on SCC of FV520B, the improved wedge opening loading (WOL specimens and constant displacement loading methods were employed in experimental research in carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide solution. The test results showed that the crack propagation rate is 1.941 × 10−7–5.748 × 10−7 mm/s, the stress intensity factor KISCC is not more than 36.83 MPa m. The rate increases with the increasing of the crack opening displacement. Under the condition of different initial loading, KISCC generally shows a decreasing tendency with the increase in H2S concentration, and the crack propagation rate showed an increasing trend substantially. For the enrichment of sulfur ion in the crack tip induced the generation of pitting corrosion, promoting the surrounding metal formed the corrosion micro batteries, the pit defects gradually extended and connected with the adjacent pit to form a small crack, leading to further propagation till cracking happened. Fracture microscopic morphology displayed typical brittle fracture phenomena, accompanying with trans-granular cracking, river shape and sector, many second cracks on the fracture surface. Keywords: FV520B, Wedge opening loading specimen, Stress corrosion cracking, Hydrogen sulfide

  4. Solutions to a combined problem of excessive hydrogen sulfide in biogas and struvite scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, W; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Ho, G; Costa, M; Spencer, P

    2006-01-01

    The Woodman Point Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Western Australia has experienced two separate problems causing avoidable maintenance costs: the build-up of massive struvite (MgNH4PO4. 6H2O) scaling downstream of the anaerobic digester and the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in the digester gas to levels that compromised gas engine operation and caused high operating costs on the gas scrubber. As both problems hang together with a chemical imbalance in the anaerobic digester, we decided to investigate whether both problems could be (feasibly and economically) addressed by a common solution (such as dosing of iron solutions to precipitate both sulfide and phosphate), or by using separate approaches. Laboratory results showed that, the hydrogen sulfide emission in digesters could be effectively and economically controlled by the addition of iron dosing. Slightly higher than the theoretical value of 1.5 mol of FeCl3 was required to precipitate 1 mol of dissolved sulfide inside the digester. Due to the high concentration of PO4(3-) in the digested sludge liquor, significantly higher iron is required for struvite precipitation. Iron dosing did not appear an economic solution for struvite control via iron phosphate formation. By taking advantage of the natural tendency of struvite formation in the digester liquid, it is possible to reduce the risk of struvite precipitation in and around the sludge-dewatering centrifuge by increasing the pH to precipitate struvite out before passing through the centrifuge. However, as the Mg2+/PO4(3-) molar ratio in digested sludge was low, by increasing the pH alone (using NaOH) the precipitation of PO4(3-) was limited by the amount of cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) available in the sludge. Although this would reduce struvite precipitation in the centrifuge, it could not significantly reduce PO4(3-) recycling back to the plant. For long-term operation, maximum PO4(3-) reduction should be the ultimate aim to minimise PO4

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis hydrogen sulfide enhances methyl mercaptan-induced pathogenicity in mouse abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Suguru; Shioya, Koki; Hiraoka, B Yukihiro; Suzuki, Nao; Hoshino, Tomonori; Fujiwara, Taku; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Ansai, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Akihiro

    2018-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from l-cysteine. However, the role of H2S produced by P. gingivalis in periodontal inflammation is unclear. In this study, we identified the enzyme that catalyses H2S production from l-cysteine and analysed the role of H2S using a mouse abscess model. The enzyme identified was identical to methionine γ-lyase (PG0343), which produces methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) from l-methionine. Therefore, we analysed H2S and CH3SH production by P. gingivalis W83 and a PG0343-deletion mutant (ΔPG0343) with/without l-cysteine and/or l-methionine. The results indicated that CH3SH is produced constitutively irrespective of the presence of l-methionine, while H2S was greatly increased by both P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0343 in the presence of l-cysteine. In contrast, CH3SH production by ΔPG0343 was absent irrespective of the presence of l-methionine, and H2S production was eliminated in the absence of l-cysteine. Thus, CH3SH and H2S production involves different substrates, l-methionine or l-cysteine, respectively. Based on these characteristics, we analysed the roles of CH3SH and H2S in abscess formation in mice by P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0343. Abscess formation by P. gingivalis W83, but not ΔPG0343, differed significantly in the presence and absence of l-cysteine. In addition, the presence of l-methionine did not affect the size of abscesses generated by P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0343. Therefore, we conclude that H2S produced by P. gingivalis does not induce inflammation; however, H2S enhances inflammation caused by CH3SH. Thus, these results suggest the H2S produced by P. gingivalis plays a supportive role in inflammation caused by methionine γ-lyase.

  6. Modelling of hydrogen sulfide dispersion from the geothermal power plants of Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Somma; Domenico, Granieri; Claudia, Troise; Carlo, Terranova; Natale Giuseppe, De; Maria, Pedone

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the main gaseous substances contained in deep fluids exploited by geo-thermoelectric plant. Therefore, it is a "waste" pollutant product by plants for energy production. Hydrogen sulfide is perceived by humans at very low concentrations in the air ( 0,008 ppm, World Health Organization, hereafter WHO, 2003) but it becomes odorless in higher concentrations (> 100 ppm, WHO, 2003) and, for values close to the ones lethal (> 500 ppm), produces an almost pleasant smell. The typical concentration in urban areas is <0.001ppm (<1ppb); in volcanic plumes it reaches values between 0.1 and 0.5 ppm. WHO defines the concentration and relative effects on human health. We applied the Eulerian code DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) to investigate the dispersion of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from 32 geothermal power plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). DISGAS code has simulated scenarios consistent with the prevailing wind conditions, estimating reasonable H2S concentrations for each area, and for each active power plant. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100 ug/m3) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction. Although estimated values of air H2S concentrations are orders of magnitude higher than in unpolluted areas, they do not indicate an immediate health risk for nearby communities, under the more frequent local atmospheric conditions. Starting from the estimated values, validated by measurements in the field, we make some considerations about the environmental impact of the H2S emission in all the geothermal areas of the Tuscany region. Furthermore, this study indicates the potential of DISGAS as a tool for an improved understanding of the atmospheric and environmental impacts of the H2S continuous degassing from

  7. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  8. The proteins of Fusobacterium spp. involved in hydrogen sulfide production from L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, Amina; Blomqvist, Madeleine; Dahlén, Gunnar; Svensäter, Gunnel

    2017-03-14

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a toxic foul-smelling gas produced by subgingival biofilms in patients with periodontal disease and is suggested to be part of the pathogenesis of the disease. We studied the H 2 S-producing protein expression of bacterial strains associated with periodontal disease. Further, we examined the effect of a cysteine-rich growth environment on the synthesis of intracellular enzymes in F. nucleatum polymorphum ATCC 10953. The proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1DE) and two-dimensional (2DE) gel electrophoresis An in-gel activity assay was used to detect the H 2 S-producing enzymes; Sulfide from H 2 S, produced by the enzymes in the gel, reacted with bismuth forming bismuth sulfide, illustrated as brown bands (1D) or spots (2D) in the gel. The discovered proteins were identified with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Cysteine synthase and proteins involved in the production of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'phosphate (that catalyzes the production of H 2 S) were frequently found among the discovered enzymes. Interestingly, a higher expression of H 2 S-producing enzymes was detected from bacteria incubated without cysteine prior to the experiment. Numerous enzymes, identified as cysteine synthase, were involved in the production of H 2 S from cysteine and the expression varied among Fusobacterium spp. and strains. No enzymes were detected with the in-gel activity assay among the other periodontitis-associated bacteria tested. The expression of the H 2 S-producing enzymes was dependent on environmental conditions such as cysteine concentration and pH but less dependent on the presence of serum and hemin.

  9. Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. A.

    The automotive dual mode hydrogen generation system is advocated as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage dc electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement. The second, and minor electrical generating means consists of multiple, miniature air disk generators which are mounted directly under the vehicle's hood and at other convenient locations within the engine compartment. The air disk generators are revolved at a speed which is proportionate to the vehicles forward speed and do not impose a drag on the vehicles motion.

  10. Effect of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide on radiation sensitivity of spores of Bacillus megaterium in suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C

    1966-01-01

    The effect of nitric oxide on the sensitivity to radiation of spores of B. megaterium in water suspension is similar to that seen in vegetative cells of E. coli. The spores are less sensitive in the presence of hydrogen sulfide. 11 references, 1 figure.

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates sFlt1-Induced Hypertension and Renal Damage by Upregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Kim M.; Burke, Suzanne D.; Faas, Marijke M.; Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna; Stillman, Isaac E.; Kang, Peter M.; van Goor, Harry; McCurley, Amy; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Lely, A. Titia

    Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), a circulating antiangiogenic protein, is elevated in kidney diseases and contributes to the development of preeclampsia. Hydrogen sulfide is a vasorelaxant and proangiogenic gas with therapeutic potential in several diseases. Therefore, we evaluated the

  12. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  13. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  14. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  15. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  16. Therapeutic metabolic inhibition: hydrogen sulfide significantly mitigates skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, Peter W.; Singh, Sunil P.; Weinstein, Andrew L.; Nagineni, Vijay; Rafii, Daniel C.; Kadouch, Daniel; Krijgh, David D.; Spector, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Recent evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide is capable of mitigating the degree of cellular damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is protective in skeletal muscle. METHODS:: This study used both in vitro (cultured

  17. Effect of Sulfide Removal on Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a Hydrogen fed Gas-Lift Bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Dopson, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    UNCORRECTED PROOF J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2007), 17(4), ¿ Effect of Sulfide Removal on Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a Hydrogen fed Gas-Lift Bioreactor Bijmans, Martijn F. M.1*, Mark Dopson2, Frederick Ennin1, Piet N. L. Lens1, and Cees J. N. Buisman1 1Sub Department of Environmental Technology,

  18. Electrochemical oxidation of iron and alkalinity generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Kustermans, Caroline; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2017-07-01

    The addition of iron salts is one of the most commonly used dosing strategies for sulfide control in sewers. However, iron salts decrease the sewage pH which not only reduces the effectiveness of sulfide precipitation but also enhances the release of residual sulfide to the sewer atmosphere. Equally important, concentrated iron salt solutions are corrosive and their frequent transport, handling, and on-site storage often come with Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) concerns. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a novel sulfide control approach using electrochemical systems with parallel placed iron electrodes. This enabled combining anodic dissolved iron species release with cathodic hydroxyl anion production, which alleviates all the aforementioned concerns. A long-term experiment was successfully carried out achieving an average sulfide removal efficiency of 95.4 ± 4.4% at low voltage input of 2.90 ± 0.54 V over the course of 8 weeks. This electrochemical method was demonstrated to successfully achieve efficient sulfide control. In addition, it increases the sewage pH, thereby overcoming the drawbacks associated with the pH decrease in the case of conventional iron salt dosing. Ferrous ions were produced at an overall coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2 ± 1.2%, whereas oxygen evolution and direct sulfide oxidation were not observed. Short-term experiments showed that increasing either inter-electrode gap or current density increased the cell voltage associated with the increase in the ohmic drop of the system. Overall, this study highlights the practical potential of in-situ generation of dissolved iron species and simultaneous hydroxyl anion generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving the catalytic activity of amorphous molybdenum sulfide for hydrogen evolution reaction using polydihydroxyphenylalanine modified MWCNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoguo; Yu, Muping; Li, Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Molybdenum sulfides are promising electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acid medium due to their unique properties. In order to improve their HER activity, different strategies have been developed. In this study, amorphous molybdenum sulfide was prepared by a simple wet chemical method and its HER activity was further improved by using polydihydroxyphenylalanine (PDOPA) modified MWCNTs as supports. It was found that the PDOPA can effectively improve the hydrophilic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous MoSx can uniformly grow on the surface of PDOPA@MWCNTs. Compared with MoSx and MoSx/MWCNTs, MoSx/PDOPA@MWCNTs show obviously enhanced HER activities due to the superior electrical conductivity and more exposed active sites. In addition, the effect of the ratio of MoSx and PDOPA@MWCNTs and the loading amount of catalysts on the electrodes are also investigated in detail. At the optimum conditions, MoSx/PDOPA@MWCNTs display an overpotential of 198 mV at 10 mA/cm2, a Tafel slope of 53 mV/dec and a good long-term stability in 0.5 M H2SO4, which make them promising candidates for HER application.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorated L-NAME-induced hypertensive heart disease by the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Teng, Xu; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Hongmei; Guo, Qi; Duan, Xiaocui; Chen, Yuhong; Wu, Yuming

    2017-12-01

    Reductions in hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension; however, no studies have examined the functional role of hydrogen sulfide in hypertensive heart disease. We hypothesized that the endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide would be reduced and exogenous hydrogen sulfide would ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in N ω -nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Therefore, this study investigated the cardioprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide on L-NAME-induced hypertensive heart disease and explored potential mechanisms. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control, Control + sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), L-NAME, L-NAME + NaHS, and L-NAME + NaHS + glibenclamide (Gli) groups. Systolic blood pressure was monitored each week. In Langendorff-isolated rat heart, cardiac function represented by ±LV dP/dt max and left ventricular developing pressure was recorded after five weeks of treatment. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome staining and myocardium ultrastructure under transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate cardiac remodeling. The plasma nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide concentrations, as well as nitric oxide synthases and cystathionine-γ-lyase activity in left ventricle tissue were determined. The protein expression of p-Akt, Akt, p-eNOS, and eNOS in left ventricle tissue was analyzed using Western blot. After five weeks of L-NAME treatment, there was a time-dependent hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and dysfunction accompanied by a decrease in eNOS phosphorylation, nitric oxide synthase activity, and nitric oxide concentration. Meanwhile, cystathionine-γ-lyase activity and hydrogen sulfide concentration were also decreased. NaHS treatment significantly increased plasma hydrogen sulfide concentration and subsequently promoted the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway which inhibited the development of hypertension and attenuated cardiac remodeling and

  1. Delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae after acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning: affection of motor function, memory, vision and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, B; Edland, A; Skyberg, K; Forberg, O

    1991-10-01

    A shipyard worker was poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and rescued after 15-20 min. He regained consciousness after 2 days. Three days later his condition deteriorated, and he was more or less comatose for a month. When he woke up, he was amnesic, nearly blind, had reduced hearing, and had a moderate spastic tetraparesis and ataxia. Two months after the accident, he had greatly improved. Audiograms showed hearing loss with maximum at 2000 Hz and significantly poorer speech discrimination. EEG showed generalized dysrhythmia. At follow-up 5 years later he had not been able to resume his work, and had slight motor, memory and visual symptoms. CT and MRI showed slight cerebral atrophy. EEG and evoked responses were normal.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide flux measurements from construction and demolition debris (C&D) landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Sangho; Reinhart, Debra R; Cooper, C David; Townsend, Timothy G; Faour, Ayman

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a principal odorous component of gaseous emissions from construction and demolition debris (C&D) landfills. Although several studies have reported the ambient concentrations of H2S near C&D landfills, few studies have quantified emission rates of H2S. One of the most widely used techniques for measuring surface gas emission rates from landfills is the flux chamber method. Flux measurements using the flux chamber were performed at five different C&D landfills from April to August, 2003. The flux rates of H2S measured in this research were between 0.192 and 1.76 mg/(m2-d).

  3. Nitric oxide-releasing flurbiprofen reduces formation of proinflammatory hydrogen sulfide in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Farhana; Whiteman, Matthew; Siau, Jia Ling; Kwong, Shing Erl; Bhatia, Madhav; Moore, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    The biosynthesis of both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice and rats but their interaction in these models is not known. In this study we examined the effect of the NO donor, nitroflurbiprofen (and the parent molecule flurbiprofen) on NO and H2S metabolism in tissues from LPS-pretreated rats. Administration of LPS (10 mg kg−1, i.p.; 6 h) resulted in an increase (PFlurbiprofen (21 mg kg−1, i.p.) was without effect. These results show for the first time that nitroflurbiprofen downregulates the biosynthesis of proinflammatory H2S and suggest that such an effect may contribute to the augmented anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. These data also highlight the existence of ‘crosstalk' between NO and H2S in this model of endotoxic shock. PMID:16491094

  4. Simulating pH and hydrogen sulfide in a distributed collection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Le Guennec, Anne; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2013-01-01

    A concept for modeling the pH in distributed sewer systems is presented. The concept is an extension of the existing sewer process model WATS, which simulates physical, chemical and biological processes in wastewater, biofilms, sediments, and sewer headspace, as well as water flow, gas flow, and ....... The pH decreased from 7.80 of fresh wastewater entering the nodes to 7.30 at the treatment plant. This decrease could be attributed to the processes of anaerobic fermentation and hydrogen sulfide formation in the network.......A concept for modeling the pH in distributed sewer systems is presented. The concept is an extension of the existing sewer process model WATS, which simulates physical, chemical and biological processes in wastewater, biofilms, sediments, and sewer headspace, as well as water flow, gas flow...

  5. Vasoactivity of hydrogen sulfide in normoxic and anoxic turtles (Trachemys scripta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecyk, Jonathan A.W.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Nilsson, Göran E.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic vascular resistance (Rsys) of freshwater turtles increases substantially during anoxia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenously produced metabolite believed to be an O2 sensor/transducer of vasomotor tone......, contributes to the increased Rsys of anoxic red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Vascular infusion of the H2S donor NaHS in anesthetized turtles at 21°C and fully recovered normoxic turtles at 5°C and 21°C revealed H2S to be a potent vasoconstrictor of the systemic circulation. Likewise, wire...... myography of isolated turtle mesenteric and pulmonary arteries demonstrated H2S to mediate an anoxia-induced constriction. Intriguingly, however, NaHS did not exert vasoconstrictory effects during anoxia (6 h at 21°C; 14 days at 5°C) when plasma H2S concentration, estimated from the colorimetric measurement...

  6. Noncondensable hydrogen sulfide incineration with brine scrubbing air emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, W.B.; Goddard, C.B.; McClain, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the technical and institutional feasibility of incinerating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contained in geothermal noncondensable gases, and the use of geothermal brine for sulfur dioxide scrubbing and absorption as an Air Emissions Control System (AECS), for geothermal power plant, that have been documented through engineering analysis in the Phase I grant study funded through the California Department of Health Services (DOHS), Hazardous Materials Reduction Grant Program and hosted by California Energy Company (CECI). Grant funding for Phase II now has been approved to proceed with the project through the pilot plant design phase. This innovative AECS does not necessitate the use of hazardous materials or produce hazardous wastes. Cost savings were documented compared to injection pump operation or conventional AECS without the use of hazardous materials. The phase II project is to design, improve, research and develop a source reduction demonstration pilot plant geothermal noncondensable H2S incineration AECS

  7. Hydrogen sulfide measurement by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS): application to gaseous samples and gas dissolved in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Vincent; Giuliani, Nicole; Palmiere, Cristian; Maujean, Géraldine; Augsburger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to present a new headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method applicable to the routine determination of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentrations in biological and gaseous samples. The primary analytical drawback of the GC/MS methods for H(2)S measurement discussed in the literature was the absence of a specific H(2)S internal standard required to perform quantification. Although a deuterated hydrogen sulfide (D(2)S) standard is currently available, this standard is not often used because this standard is expensive and is only available in the gas phase. As an alternative approach, D(2)S can be generated in situ by reacting deuterated chloride with sodium sulfide; however, this technique can lead to low recovery yield and potential isotopic fractionation. Therefore, N(2)O was chosen for use as an internal standard. This method allows precise measurements of H(2)S concentrations in biological and gaseous samples. Therefore, a full validation using accuracy profile based on the β-expectation tolerance interval is presented. Finally, this method was applied to quantify H(2)S in an actual case of H(2)S fatal intoxication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Kinetic analysis on photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on nanosized porous TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sopyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the UV illumination-assisted degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia on highly active nanostructured-anatase and rutile films were investigated. It was found that the anatase film showed a higher photocatalytic activity than the counterpart did, however, the magnitude of difference in the photocatalytic activity of both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide. To elucidate the reasons for the observation, the adsorption characteristics and the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of the three reactants on both films were analyzed. The adsorption analysis examined using a simple Langmuir isotherm, showed that adsorbability on both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide, which can be explained in terms of the decreasing electron-donor capacity. Acetaldehyde and ammonia adsorbed more strongly and with higher coverage on anatase film (1.2 and 5.6 molecules/nm2, respectively than on rutile (0.6 and 4.7 molecules/nm2, respectively. Conversely, hydrogen sulfide molecules adsorbed more strongly on rutile film (0.7 molecules/nm2 than on anatase (0.4 molecules/nm2. Exposure to UV light illumination brought about the photocatalytic oxidation of the three gases in contact with both TiO2 films, and the decrease in concentration were measured, and their kinetics are analyzed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. From the kinetic analysis, it was found that the anatase film showed the photocatalytic activities that were factors of ~8 and ~5 higher than the rutile film for the degradation of gaseous ammonia and acetaldehyde, respectively. However, the activity was only a factor of ~1.5 higher for the photodegradation of hydrogen sulfide. These observations are systematically explained by the charge separation efficiency and the adsorption characteristics of each catalyst as well as by the physical and electrochemical properties of each

  9. Quantification of hydrogen sulfide by near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Hoffnagle, J.; Wahl, E. H.; Kim-Hak, D.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide is an important atmospheric sulfur species. Primary natural terrestrial sources of atmospheric H2S are volcanos and wetlands; primary anthropogenic sources are landfills; wastewater treatment facilities; sewer systems; natural gas extraction, production, and distribution; and paper manufacturing. The human nose is very sensitive to H2S and other sulfur species, leading to a significant negative impact of industrial processes in which H2S is emitted into the atmosphere. However, there is a relative lack of instrumentation capable of detecting and quantifying H2S at ppb levels and below. We describe an instrument based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of hydrogen sulfide concentration in ambient air. In addition to H2S, the instrument measures water vapor and methane. The instrument has a precision (1-sigma) of about 1 ppb at a measurement rate of 1 second, and provides measurements of less than 100 ppt with averaging. The instrument provides stable measurements (drift < 1 ppb) over long periods of time (days), and has a response time of just a couple of seconds. We report on ambient atmospheric measurements at a 10m urban tower, which demonstrate the suitability of the instrument for applications in urban sulfur emissions. This instrument is also suitable for soil flux measurements in a recirculating chamber, with predicted detection limit of about 0.6 μg H2S / m2 / hr and 0.45 μg CH4 / m2 / hr in a 10-minute chamber closure time.

  10. Effect of Ni on the characteristics and hydrogenation activity of sulfide Mo/γ-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachtl, E.; Wuttke, E.; Gutierrez, O.Y.; Lercher, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogenation of phenanthrene was explored on sulfide Mo/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts promoted with increasing concentrations of Ni. The characterization of the materials was done by N 2 -physisorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, temperature programmed sulfidation and NO adsorption experiments. Increasing loading of Ni improves the dispersion of MoS 2 species; however, at Ni/(Mo+Ni) molar ratio higher than 0.5, segregation of Ni-sulfides is observed. The presence of Ni also facilitates the sulfidation of oxidic catalyst precursors by lowering the reduction temperature of Mo species. In the sulfide catalysts, Ni changes the structure of MoS 2 leading to shorter slabs with higher stacking degree than on Mo/γ-Al 2 O 3 , and increases the concentration of coordinatively unsaturated sites. The kinetic results (increased hydrogenation rate and changed reaction network in the presence of Ni) suggest that a highly active kind of active site is created by Ni promotion. (orig.)

  11. Hyperhomocysteinemia potentiates diabetes-impaired EDHF-induced vascular relaxation: Role of insufficient hydrogen sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjian Cheng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been implicated in Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy-related cardiovascular complications. We investigated the role of H2S in T2DM and HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction in small mesenteric artery (SMA of db/db mice fed a high methionine (HM diet. HM diet (8 weeks induced HHcy in both T2DM db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice (total plasma Hcy: 48.4 and 31.3 µM, respectively, and aggravated the impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, determined by the presence of eNOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and prostacyclin (PGI2 inhibitor indomethacin (INDO, in SMA from db/db mice but not that from db/+ mice. A non-selective Ca2+-active potassium channel (KCa opener NS309 rescued T2DM/HHcy-impaired EDHF-mediated vascular relaxation to ACh. EDHF-induced relaxation to ACh was inhibited by a non-selective KCa blocker TEA and intermediate-conductance KCa blocker (IKCa Tram-34, but not by small-conductance KCa (SKCa blocker Apamin. HHcy potentiated the reduction of free sulfide, H2S and cystathionine γ-lyase protein, which converts L-cysteine to H2S, in SMA of db/db mice. Importantly, a stable H2S donor DATS diminished the enhanced O2- production in SMAs and lung endothelial cells of T2DM/HHcy mice. Antioxidant PEG-SOD and DATS improved T2DM/HHcy impaired relaxation to ACh. Moreover, HHcy increased hyperglycemia-induced IKCa tyrosine nitration in human micro-vascular endothelial cells. EDHF-induced vascular relaxation to L-cysteine was not altered, whereas such relaxation to NaHS was potentiated by HHcy in SMA of db/db mice which was abolished by ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker Glycolamide but not by KCa blockers. Conclusions: Intermediate HHcy potentiated H2S reduction via CSE-downregulation in microvasculature of T2DM mice. H2S is justified as an EDHF. Insufficient H2S

  12. Toxic effects and possible mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide and/or ammonia on porcine oocyte maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei-Lei; Zhao, Yong; Luo, Shi-Ming; Ma, Jun-Yu; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Shen, Wei; Yin, Shen

    2018-03-15

    Previous studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and ammonia (NH 3 ) are two major air pollutants which can cause damage to porcine health. However, the mechanisms underlying toxic effects of these compounds on porcine oocyte maturation are not clear. To clarify the mechanism, we evaluated the oocyte quality by detecting some events during oocytes maturation. In our study, porcine oocytes were cultured with different concentrations of Na 2 S and/or NH 4 Cl in vitro and the rate of the first polar body extrusion decreased significantly. Also, actin filament was seriously disrupted to damage the cytoskeleton which resulted in reduced rate of oocyte maturation. We explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and found that the ROS level was increased significantly after Na 2 S treatment but not after NH 4 Cl treatment. Moreover, early stage apoptosis rate was significantly increased and autophagy protein LC3 B expression level was higher in oocytes treated with Na 2 S and/or NH 4 Cl, which might be caused by ROS elevation. Additionally, exposure to Na 2 S and/or NH 4 Cl also caused ROS generation and early apoptosis in cumulus cells, which might further affect oocyte maturation in vitro. In summary, our data suggested that exposure to H 2 S and/or NH 3 decreased porcine oocyte maturation in vitro, which might be caused by actin disruption, ROS generation, early apoptosis and autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A method for generating hydrogen from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, Paul; Mascarello, Jean; Millet, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method and an installation for generating hydrogen from water, through an endothermic cycle of several successive chemical reactions involving intermediate substances regenerated during said cycle, said reactions occuring at different temperatures. The reaction which takes place at the highest temperature is carried out electrochemically. This can be applied to power-generating units comprising a nuclear reactor [fr

  14. A novel peptide-based fluorescence chemosensor for selective imaging of hydrogen sulfide both in living cells and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Jiang; Di, Cuixia; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Hong; Su, Pingru; Xu, Cong; Zhou, Panpan; Ge, Yushu; Liu, Dan; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2017-06-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) plays an important role as a signaling compound (gasotransmitter) in living systems. However, the development of an efficient imaging chemosensor of H 2 S in live animals is a challenging field for chemists. Herein, a novel peptide-based fluorescence chemosensor L-Cu was designed and synthesized on the basis of the copper chelating with the peptide ligand (FITC-Ahx-Ser-Pro-Gly-His-NH 2 , L), and its H 2 S sensing ability has been evaluated both in living cells and zebrafish. The peptide backbone and Cu 2+ -removal sensing mechanism are used to deliver rapid response time, high sensitivity, and good biocompatibility. After a fast fluorescence quench by Cu 2+ coordinated with L, the fluorescence of L is recovered by adding S 2- to form insoluble copper sulfide in aqueous solution with a detection limit for hydrogen sulfide measured to be 31nM. Furthermore, the fluorescence chemosensor L-Cu showed excellent cell permeation and low biotoxicity to realize the intracellular biosensing, L-Cu has also been applied to image hydrogen sulfide in live zebrafish larvae. We expect that this peptide-based fluorescence chemosensor L-Cu can be used to study H 2 S-related chemical biology in physiological and pathological events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new type of hydrogen generator-HHEG (high-compressed hydrogen energy generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.; Tojima, K.; Takeda, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' We have developed a new type of hydrogen generator named HHEG (High-compressed Hydrogen Energy Generator). HHEG can produce 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle without any mechanical compressor. HHEG is a kind of PEM(proton exchange membrane)electrolysis. It was well known that compressed hydrogen could be generated by water electrolysis. However, the conventional electrolysis could not generate 35 MPa or higher pressure that is required for fuel cell vehicle, because electrolysis cell stack is destroyed in such high pressure. In HHEG, the cell stack is put in high-pressure vessel and the pressure difference of oxygen and hydrogen that is generated by the cell stack is always kept at nearly zero by an automatic compensator invented by Mitsubishi Corporation. The cell stack of HHEG is not so special one, but it is not broken under such high pressure, because the automatic compensator always offsets the force acting on the cell stack. Hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle must be produce by no emission energy such as solar and atomic power. These energies are available as electricity. So, water electrolysis is the only way of producing hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen fuel is also 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen and will become 70 MPa in near future. But conventional mechanical compressor is not useful for such high pressure hydrogen fuel, because of the short lifetime and high power consumption. Construction of hydrogen station network is indispensable in order to come into wide use of fuel cell vehicles. For such network contraction, an on-site type hydrogen generator is required. HHEG can satisfy above these requirements. So we can conclude that HHEG is the only way of realizing the hydrogen economy. (author)

  16. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqin; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yonggen; Du, Huaying; Wu, Shaofu

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. Little work has been done to explore the effects of H₂S on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of H₂S treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol L⁻¹ on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °C storage and the role of H₂S in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S significantly inhibited the increase in soluble sugar content and the decrease in vitamin C (Vit C), chlorophyll content and firmness, inhibited ethylene production and both superoxide production rate (O(·2)⁻) and hydrogen peroxide content. Kiwifruits with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S exhibited significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Treatment with 180 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S promoted the ripening of kiwifruits. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S could delay the maturation and senescence of kiwifruits and maintain higher titratable acid (TA) and Vit C during eating-ripe storage by inhibiting ethylene production, improving protective enzyme activities and decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species to protect the cell membrane during storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A recovery installation for sodium sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides from waste water resulting from hydrogen sulfide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazilu, Mihai; Costescu, Sanda

    2002-01-01

    An installation for recovery of sodium sulfate and sulfur suspensions from waste water was conceived. It consists from a preheater, vacuum evaporator and a refrigerating system with drum and scraper. This equipment concentration the solution by eliminating in the first stage the water in the vacuum evaporator. The water resulting at this stage is chemically pure and can be discharged in the sewage sludge system. The concentrated solution is then directed to the refrigerating system with drum and scrapper. Here the sodium sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides get crystallized onto the drum surface. The resulting aqueous solution to be discharged in the sewage sludge system is previously analyzed as in case of the absent of the recovery installation, but the amount of pollutants will be much lower because sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides were already recovered as scales from the drum. These solid scales can be used in detergent industry

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

  1. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability

  2. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Suicide Fads: Frequency and Characteristics of Hydrogen Sulfide Suicides in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reedy, Sarah Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the frequency of hydrogen sulfide (H2S suicides and describe the characteristics of victims in the United States (U.S. since the technique became common in Japan in 2007.Methods: To ascertain the frequency of intentional H2S related deaths in the U.S. prior to the start of the Japanese trend in 2007, we searched the multiple-cause-of-death data from the National Vital Statistics System. To collect as much information about the victims as possible, we sent an email to the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME listserv asking for their cooperation in identifying cases of H2S suicide. To identify cases that were not voluntarily reported by medical examiners but were reported by the media, we conducted Google searches using the search terms: “hydrogen sulfide suicide,” “H2S suicide,” “detergent suicide,” “chemical suicide,” and “suicide fad.” We obtained all available autopsy reports and abstracted information, including the site of the incident, the presence of a note warning others about the toxic gas and the demographic characteristics of the victims. We contacted medical examiners who potentially had custody of the cases that were identified through media reports and requested autopsies of these victims. When unable to obtain the autopsies, we gathered information from the media reports.Results: Forty-five deaths from H2S exposure occurred in the U.S. from 1999 to 2007, all unintentional. Responses from the NAME listserv yielded autopsy reports for 11 victims, and Google searches revealed an additional 19 H2S suicides in the U.S. since 2008. Overall (n=30, two cases were identified during 2008, 10 in 2009, and 18 in 2010. The majority of victims were white males, less than 30-years-old, left a warning note, and were found in cars. There were five reports of injuries to first responders, but no secondary fatalities.Conclusion: H2S suicides are increasing in the U.S., and their incidence is

  4. Valorization of Calcium Carbonate-Based Solid Wastes for the Treatment of Hydrogen Sulfide from the Gas Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Xuan , Huynh; Pham Minh , Doan; Galera Martinez , Marta; Nzihou , Ange; Sharrock , Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on the valorization of calcium carbonate-based solid wastes for theremoval of hydrogen sulfide from gas phase. Two solid wastes taken from industrial sites for theproduction of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate by the Solvay process® were analyzedby different physico-chemical methods. Calcium carbonate was found as the main component ofboth the solid wastes. Trace amounts of other elements such as Mg, Al, Fe, Si, Cl, Na etc. werealso present in...

  5. Experimental study on stress corrosion crack propagation rate of FV520B in carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ming; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Songying; Qu, Yanpeng

    FV520B steel is a kind of precipitation hardening Martensitic stainless steel, it has high-strength, good plasticity and good corrosion resistance. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the main corrosion failure mode for FV520B in industrial transportation of natural gas operation. For a better understanding the effect on SCC of FV520B, the improved wedge opening loading (WOL) specimens and constant displacement loading methods were employed in experimental research in carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide solution. The test results showed that the crack propagation rate is 1.941 × 10-7-5.748 × 10-7 mm/s, the stress intensity factor KISCC is not more than 36.83 MPa √{ m } . The rate increases with the increasing of the crack opening displacement. Under the condition of different initial loading, KISCC generally shows a decreasing tendency with the increase in H2S concentration, and the crack propagation rate showed an increasing trend substantially. For the enrichment of sulfur ion in the crack tip induced the generation of pitting corrosion, promoting the surrounding metal formed the corrosion micro batteries, the pit defects gradually extended and connected with the adjacent pit to form a small crack, leading to further propagation till cracking happened. Fracture microscopic morphology displayed typical brittle fracture phenomena, accompanying with trans-granular cracking, river shape and sector, many second cracks on the fracture surface.

  6. Evaluation of alternative landfill cover soils for attenuating hydrogen sulfide from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Cristine; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) generated from C&D debris landfills has emerged as a major environmental concern due to odor problems and possible health impacts to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Research was performed to evaluate the performance of various cover materials as control measures for H(2)S emissions from C&D debris landfills. Twelve laboratory-scale simulated landfill columns containing gypsum drywall were operated under anaerobic conditions to promote H(2)S production. Five different cover materials were placed on top of the waste inside duplicate columns: (1) sandy soil, (2) sandy soil amended with lime, (3) clayey soil, (4) fine concrete (particle size less than 2.5 cm), and (5) coarse concrete (particle size greater than 2.5 cm). No cover was placed on two of the columns, which were used as controls. H(2)S concentrations measured from the middle of the waste layer ranged from 50,000 to 150,000 ppm. The different cover materials demonstrated varying H(2)S removal efficiencies. The sandy soil amended with lime and the fine concrete were the most effective for the control of H(2)S emissions. Both materials exhibited reduction efficiencies greater than 99%. The clayey and sandy soils exhibited lower reduction efficiencies, with average removal efficiencies of 65% and 30%, respectively. The coarse concrete was found to be the least efficient material as a result of its large particle size.

  7. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  8. Sulfide Generation by Dominant Halanaerobium Microorganisms in Hydraulically Fractured Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Anne E.; Borton, Mikayla A.; Daly, Rebecca A.; Welch, Susan A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hoyt, David W.; Wilson, Travis; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wolfe, Richard A.; Sharma, Shikha; Mouser, Paula J.; Cole, David R.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; McMahon, Katherine

    2017-07-05

    research demonstrates that dominant microbial populations in these subsurface ecosystems contain the conserved capacity for the reduction of thiosulfate to sulfide and that this process is likely occurring in the environment. Sulfide generation (also known as “souring”) is considered deleterious in the oil and gas industry because of both toxicity issues and impacts on corrosion of the subsurface infrastructure. Critically, the capacity for sulfide generation via reduction of sulfate was not detected in our data sets. Given that current industry wellhead tests for sulfidogenesis target canonical sulfate-reducing microorganisms, these data suggest that new approaches to the detection of sulfide-producing microorganisms may be necessary.

  9. Source Of Hydrogen Sulfide To Sulfidic Spring And Watershed Ecosystems In Northern Sierra De Chiapas, Mexico Based On Sulfur And Carbon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Lagarde, L.; Boston, P. J.; Campbell, A.

    2013-12-01

    At least four watersheds in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico are fed by conspicuous karst sulfide-rich springs. The toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in these springs nurtures rich ecosystems including especially adapted microorganisms, invertebrates and fish. Sulfur and carbon isotopic analysis of various chemical species in the spring water are integrated within their hydrogeologic context to evaluate the hydrogen sulfide source. Constraining the H2S origin can also increase the understanding of this compound effect in the quality of the nearby hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the extent to which its oxidation to sulfuric acid increases carbonate dissolution and steel corrosion in surface structures. The SO42-/H2S ratio in the spring water varies from 70,000 to 2 meq/L thus sulfate is the dominant species in the groundwater system. This sulfate is mainly produced from anhydrite dissolution based on its isotopic signature. The Δ SO42--H2S range of 16 spring water samples (30-50 ‰) is similar to the values determined by Goldhaber & Kaplan (1975) and Canfield (2001) for low rates of bacterial sulfate reduction suggesting that this is the most important mechanism producing H2S. Although the carbon isotopes do not constrain the nature of the organic matter participating in this reaction, this material likely comes from depth, perhaps as hydrocarbons, due to the apparent stability of the system. The organic matter availability and reactivity probably control the progress of sulfate reduction. The subsurface environments identified in the area also have different sulfur isotopic values. The heavier residual sulfate isotopic value in the Northern brackish springs (δ34S SO42- ≥ 18 ‰) compared to the Southern springs (δ34S SO42- ~18 ‰) suggests sulfate reduction is particularly enhanced in the former, probably by contribution of organic matter associated with oil produced water. In comparison, the composition of the Southern aquifer is mainly influenced by halite

  10. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  11. In situ electrodeposition of CoP nanoparticles on carbon nanomaterial doped polyphenylene sulfide flexible electrode for electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingxia; Jiang, Yimin; Zhou, Yaxin; Du, Yongling; Wang, Chunming

    2018-06-01

    Active and durable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is pivotal to generate molecular hydrogen more energy-efficient, but directly grafting electrocatalyst on electrode material by a single-step method without compromising the catalytic activity and stability remains a challenge. Herein, an intriguing electrode, reduced graphene oxide modified carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide/polyphenylene sulfide (RGO-CNT/RGO/PPS) film, is used to replace conventional electrodes. In situ electrodeposition is proposed to fabricate CoP on the RGO-CNT/RGO/PPS (CoP-RGO-CNT/RGO/PPS) electrode and achieves a favorably electrical contact between CoP nanoparticles and RGO-CNT/RGO/PPS electrode due to without any polymer binder. Additionally, the coupling of different electrodeposition stages with scanning electron microscope (SEM) can investigate the nanostructure evolution of CoP nanoparticles, which gives valuable insights into the optimized electrodeposition cycles. The rational integration of RGO onto CNT/RGO/PPS film is an effective approach for enhancing its intrinsic electrical conductivity and favoring the formation of a high density of dispersive CoP nanoparticles. The CoP-RGO-CNT/RGO/PPS film has shown outstanding HER electrocatalytic behaviors performed a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at a relatively low overpotential of 160 mV with a Tafel slope of 60 mV dec-1 in acidic medium, which can be mainly attributed to the synergistic effect between optimized morphology and accelerated kinetics. Additionally, this film electrocatalyst exhibits a good HER activity and stability under both neutral and basic conditions.

  12. Hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide differentially affect normal and tumor-derived vascular endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bianco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: endothelial cells play a key role in vessels formation both under physiological and pathological conditions. Their behavior is influenced by blood components including gasotransmitters (H2S, NO and CO. Tumor cells are subjected to a cyclic shift between pro-oxidative and hypoxic state and, in this scenario, H2S can be both cytoprotective and detrimental depending on its concentration. H2S effects on tumors onset and development is scarcely studied, particularly concerning tumor angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that H2S is proangiogenic for tumoral but not for normal endothelium and this may represent a target for antiangiogenic therapeutical strategies. Methods: in this work, we investigate cell viability, migration and tubulogenesis on human EC derived from two different tumors, breast and renal carcinoma (BTEC and RTEC, compared to normal microvascular endothelium (HMEC under oxidative stress, hypoxia and treatment with exogenous H2S. Results: all EC types are similarly sensitive to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide; chemical hypoxia differentially affects endothelial viability, that results unaltered by real hypoxia. H2S neither affects cell viability nor prevents hypoxia and H2O2-induced damage. Endothelial migration is enhanced by hypoxia, while tubulogenesis is inhibited for all EC types. H2S acts differentially on EC migration and tubulogenesis. Conclusions: these data provide evidence for a great variability of normal and altered endothelium in response to the environmental conditions. Keywords: Hydrogen sulfide, Human microvascular endothelial cells, Human breast carcinoma-derived EC, Human renal carcinoma-derived EC, Tumor angiogenesis

  13. An antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Hui Fu

    Full Text Available In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation.

  14. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel hydrogen sulfide releasing capsaicin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxiang; Li, Jinyu; Nie, Cunbin; Song, Beibei; Yan, Lin; Qian, Hai

    2018-05-15

    Capsaicin (CAP), the prototypical TRPV1 agonist, is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, its use is limited by the low bioavailability and irritating quality. In this study, for improving the activity of CAP and alleviating its irritating effects, a series of H 2 S-releasing CAPs were designed and synthesized by combining capsaicin and dihydro capsaicin with various hydrogen sulfide donors. The resulting compounds were evaluated their TRPV1 agonist activity, analgesic activity, anticancer activities, H 2 S-releasing ability, and gastric mucosa irritation. Biological evaluation indicated that the most active compound B 9 , containing 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione moiety as H 2 S donor, had better analgesic activity and displayed more potent cytotoxic effects on the test cell lines than the lead compound CAP. Furthermore, the preferred compound, B 9 reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. Notably, the improved properties of this derivative are associated with its H 2 S-releasing capability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF A BIOTRICKLING FILTER EMPLOYING THIOBACILLUS THIOPARUS IMMOBILIZED ON POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abdehagh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S from contaminated airstream was studied in a biotrickling filter (BTF packed with open-pore polyurethane foam as a carrier of Thiobacillus thioparus (DSMZ5368 with counter current gas/liquid flows. The effect of operating parameters on BTF performance was studied. Experiments were performed at different Empty Bed Residence Times (EBRT from 9 to 45 seconds, and different initial H2S concentration from 25 to 85 ppm. The results showed reasonable performance of the BTF, in H2S removal from the synthetic gas stream. However, the performance was somewhat lower than other studies in BTF in which either Thiobacillus thioparus with other packings or polyurethane foam with other microbial cultures were used. The effect of liquid recirculation rate (LRR in the range of 175-525 ml/min (0.46-1.34 m/h on BTF performance was also studied. Results showed that increasing LRR from 175 to 350 mL/min resulted in significant enhancement of H2S removal efficiency, but further increase in LRR up to 525 mL/min had an insignificant effect. H2S elimination at different heights of the bed was studied and it was found that decrease in EBRT results in more homogeneous removal of the pollutant in BTF. Determination of microbial species in the BTF after 100 days performance showed that during BTF operation the only H2S degrading specie was Thiobacillus thioparus.

  16. Superoxide Mediates Depressive Effects Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S exerts its cardiovascular effects by reducing oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. We examined cell distributions of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS and effects of H2S on reactive oxygen species (ROS and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We found that CBS was expressed in neurons of the RVLM, and the expression was lower in SHRs than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Microinjection of NaHS (H2S donor, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM, a CBS agonist, or Apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor into the RVLM reduced the ROS level, NADPH oxidase activity, and MAP, whereas microinjection of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA, a CBS inhibitor increased MAP. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of NaHS inhibited phosphorylation of p47phox, a key step of NADPH oxidase activation. Since decreasing ROS level in the RVLM reduces MAP and heart rate and increasing H2S reduces ROS production, we conclude that H2S exerts an antihypertensive effect via suppressing ROS production. H2S, as an antioxidant, may be a potential target for cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Neurobehavioral evaluation for a community with chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inserra, S.G.; Phifer, B.L.; Anger, W.K.; Lewin, Michael; Hilsdon, Roberta; White, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2000, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry of the US government conducted a health investigation in response to community concerns regarding ambient and indoor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), odor, and health symptoms in Dakota City, Nebraska. The objective was to determine whether adult residents in an area with repeated exposure to H 2 S showed poorer performance on neurobehavioral tests than unexposed residents. Study participants were required to meet age (≥16 years of age) and length of residency (2 years) eligibility requirements. A battery of computer-assisted standardized neurobehavioral tests was administered in English or Spanish. A questionnaire was used to collect information about participants, demographic and health status. Three hundred forty-five people agreed to participate. After the exclusion of 10 persons, analyses were conducted on 335 participants; 171 residents in the target area and 164 residents in the comparison area. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics and various health conditions. Overall, neurobehavioral test results for the target and comparison groups were similar. Residence in the H 2 S-exposed area was associated with marginally poorer performance on a test of memory, namely, match to sample score, and a test of grip strength. However, these differences were not significant. Deficits in overall neurobehavioral performance were not associated with exposure to H 2 S in this study

  18. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation and differentiation by modulating autophagy in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Dai, Hui; Zhuang, Binyu; Chai, Li; Xie, Yanguang; Li, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The effects and the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation are still less known. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of exogenous H 2 S on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were treated with various concentrations (0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H 2 S) for 24 h. A CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of proteins associated with differentiation and autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe autophagic vacuoles, and flow cytometry was applied to evaluate apoptosis. NaHS promoted the viability, induced the differentiation, and enhanced autophagic activity in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Blockage of autophagy by ATG5 siRNA inhibited NaHS-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. The current study demonstrated that autophagy in response to exogenous H 2 S treatment promoted keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our results provide additional insights into the potential role of autophagy in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Exogenous H 2 S promotes keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. • The effects of H 2 S on proliferation and differentiation is modulated by autophagy. • Exogenous H 2 S has no effect on keratinocyte apoptosis.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Reaction of CH2OO with Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mica C; Chao, Wen; Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2017-02-09

    The reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO with hydrogen sulfide was measured with transient UV absorption spectroscopy in a temperature-controlled flow reactor, and bimolecular rate coefficients were obtained from 278 to 318 K and from 100 to 500 Torr. The average rate coefficient at 298 K and 100 Torr was (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -13 cm 3 s -1 . The reaction was found to be independent of pressure and exhibited a weak negative temperature dependence. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficient at the QCISD(T)/CBS level are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The reaction of CH 2 OO with H 2 S is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the reaction with H 2 O monomer. Though rates of CH 2 OO scavenging by water vapor under atmospheric conditions are primarily controlled by the reaction with water dimer, the H 2 S loss pathway will be dominated by the reaction with monomer. The agreement between experiment and theory for the CH 2 OO + H 2 S reaction lends credence to theoretical descriptions of other Criegee intermediate reactions that cannot easily be probed experimentally.

  20. Methylation reactions, the redox balance and atherothrombosis: the search for a link with hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoli, Roberta; Di Minno, Alessandro; Spadarella, Gaia; Franchini, Massimo; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Cirino, Giuseppe; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    It is now clear that homocysteine (Hcy) is irreversibly degraded to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenous gasotransmitter that causes in vivo platelet activation via upregulation of phospholipase A2 and downstream boost of the arachidonate cascade. This mechanism involves a transsulfuration pathway. Based on these new data, clinical and experimental models on the relationships between Hcy and folate pathways in vascular disease and information on the Hcy controversy have been reanalyzed in the present review. Most interventional trials focused on Hcy lowering by folate administration did not exclude patients routinely taking the arachidonate inhibitor aspirin. This may have influenced the results of some of these trials. It is also clear that nutritional intake of folate affects several enzymatic reactions of the methionine-Hcy cycle and associated one-carbon metabolism and, thereby, both methylation reactions and redox balance. Hence, it is conceivable that the abnormally high Hcy levels seen in pathologic states reflect a poorly elucidated perturbation of such reactions and of such balance. While it is unknown whether there is an interplay between H2S, methylation reactions, and redox balance, measuring the sole reduction of blood Hcy that follows folate administration may well be an oversimplified approach to a complex biologic perturbation. The need to investigate this complex framework is thoroughly discussed in this article. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide improves diabetic wound healing in ob/ob mice via attenuating inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huichen; Lu, Shengxia; Chai, Jiachao; Zhang, Yuchao; Ma, Xiaoli; Chen, Jicui; Guan, Qingbo; Wan, Meiyan; Liu, Yuantao

    2017-09-01

    The proposed mechanisms of impaired wound healing in diabetes involve sustained inflammation, excess oxidative stress and compromised agiogenesis. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported to have multiple biological activities. We aim to investigate the role of H 2 S in impaired wound healing in ob/ob mice and explore the possible mechanisms involved. Full-thickness skin dorsal wounds were created on ob/ob mice and C57BL/6 mice. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression and H 2 S production were determined in granulation tissues of the wounds. Effects of NaHS on wound healing were evaluated. Inflammation and angiogenesis in granulation tissues of the wounds were examined. CSE expression, and H 2 S content were significantly reduced in granulation tissues of wounds in ob/ob mice compared with control mice. NaHS treatment significantly improved wound healing in ob/ob mice, which was associated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, decreased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6. NaHS treatment decreased metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, whereas increased collagen deposition and vascular-like structures in granulation tissues of wounds in ob/ob mice. CSE down-regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic impaired wound healing. Exogenous H 2 S could be a potential agent to improve diabetic impaired wound healing by attenuating inflammation and increasing angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Discrimination of the oral microbiota associated with high hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Yasui, Masaki; Yoneda, Masahiro; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH) are frequently detected in large amounts in malodorous mouth air. We investigated the bacterial composition of saliva of 30 subjects with severe oral malodor exhibiting extreme CH(3)SH/H(2)S ratios (high H(2)S but low CH(3)SH concentrations, n 5 14; high CH(3)SH but low H2S concentrations, n 5 16) and 13 subjects without malodor, using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic community analysis with the UniFrac distance metric revealed a distinct bacterial community structure in each malodor group. The H2S group showed higher proportions of the genera Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and SR1 than the other two groups, whereas the CH(3)SH group had higher proportions of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella,Atopobium, Megasphaera, and Selenomonas. Our results suggested that distinct bacterial populations in the oral microbiota are involved in production of high levels of H2S and CH3SH in the oral cavity.

  3. Printed hydrogen sulfide gas sensor on paper substrate based on polyaniline composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, J.; Ihalainen, P.; Määttänen, A.; Peltonen, J.; Lindén, M.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of a hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) sensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-metal salt (CuCl 2 ) composite is demonstrated. The sensing film was produced by screen printing and spray coating of the sensing material on interdigitated silver electrodes inkjet-printed on a paper substrate. The H 2 S sensing functionality with respect to pH and metal salt concentration was optimized. In addition, the long term stability and humidity effects on the sensor performance were investigated. The printed chemiresistors showed more than five orders of magnitude change in resistance within 20 min of exposure of 15 ppm H 2 S at room temperature. The relatively fast kinetics and large response of the sensor can be explained by the formation of Cu 2 S and subsequent protonation of PANI. In addition, the relatively large roughness and porosity of the paper substrate offers an increased surface sensing area. - Highlights: • pH, salt concentration, film thickness, cross sensitivity • Printed sensor on paper substrate • Commercial polyaniline against special morphologies

  4. Aqueous studies of hydrogen sulfide releases from a heavy water extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1979-03-01

    Upsets in the operation of the wastewater strippers in the 400 Area of the Savannah River Plant have released hydrogen sulfide in quantities as large as 1800 kg to the effluent stream. Fish kills in the swamp area of Beaver Dam Creek have occurred following the large releases. A literature survey revealed volatilization and oxidation as the major loss mechanisms of H 2 S. Laboratory investigations supported the literature survey. The computer code for pollutant transport in a stream, LODIPS, has an option to account for sink-source effects in a stream. Volatilization and oxidation rate constants were developed for the sink option from two H 2 S releases (18 kg and 118 kg) and results were predicted with LODIPS. Based on the predicted concentration-time profiles for various hypothetical cases, releases as small as 568 kg if discharged over a 30-minute period or releases as large as 1818 kg if discharged over a 360-minute period or less are lethal to swamp fish

  5. Hydrogen sulfide deactivates common nitrobenzofurazan-based fluorescent thiol labeling reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-06-17

    Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including thiols and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), play important but differential roles in biological structure and function. One major challenge in separating the biological roles of thiols and H2S is developing tools to effectively separate the reactivity of these sulfhydryl-containing compounds. To address this challenge, we report the differential responses of common electrophilic fluorescent thiol labeling reagents, including nitrobenzofurazan-based scaffolds, maleimides, alkylating agents, and electrophilic aldehydes, toward cysteine and H2S. Although H2S reacted with all of the investigated scaffolds, the photophysical response to each scaffold was significantly different. Maleimide-based, alkylating, and aldehydic thiol labeling reagents provided a diminished fluorescence response when treated with H2S. By contrast, nitrobenzofurazan-based labeling reagents were deactivated by H2S addition. Furthermore, the addition of H2S to thiol-activated nitrobenzofurazan-based reagents reduced the fluorescence signal, thus establishing the incompatibility of nitrobenzofurazan-based thiol labeling reagents in the presence of H2S. Taken together, these studies highlight the differential reactivity of thiols and H2S toward common thiol-labeling reagents and suggest that sufficient care must be taken when labeling or measuring thiols in cellular environments that produce H2S due to the potential for both false-positive and eroded responses.

  6. Development of selective colorimetric probes for hydrogen sulfide based on nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pearce, Taylor F; Hansen, Ryan J; Zakharov, Lev N; Pluth, Michael D

    2013-07-05

    Hydrogen sulfide is an important biological signaling molecule and an important environmental target for detection. A major challenge in developing H2S detection methods is separating the often similar reactivity of thiols and other nucleophiles from H2S. To address this need, the nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction of H2S with electron-poor aromatic electrophiles was developed as a strategy to separate H2S and thiol reactivity. Treatment of aqueous solutions of nitrobenzofurazan (7-nitro-1,2,3-benzoxadiazole, NBD) thioethers with H2S resulted in thiol extrusion and formation of nitrobenzofurazan thiol (λmax = 534 nm). This reactivity allows for unwanted thioether products to be converted to the desired nitrobenzofurazan thiol upon reaction with H2S. The scope of the reaction was investigated using a Hammett linear free energy relationship study, and the determined ρ = +0.34 is consistent with the proposed SN2Ar reaction mechanism. The efficacy of the developed probes was demonstrated in buffer and in serum with associated submicromolar detection limits as low as 190 nM (buffer) and 380 nM (serum). Furthermore, the sigmoidal response of nitrobenzofurazan electrophiles with H2S can be fit to accurately quantify H2S. The developed detection strategy offers a manifold for H2S detection that we foresee being applied in various future applications.

  7. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE ON ATRIUM CONTRACTILITY IN CONTROL AND DIABETHIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lifanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is endogenously synthesized gasotransmitter that has a regulatory effect in cardiovascular system. Diabetes mellitus leads to an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, so the purpose of the study was to analyze the contractility of the atria mice after application of L-cysteine and H2S. Contractile activity of the myocardium was investigated in the experiment on isolated mouse atria. Alloxan was used for modeling diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan resulted in a significant increase of glucose concentration in blood, whereas the concentration of glucose didn’t change at the injection of physiological solution. In control, the addition of NaHS resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease of the amplitude of contraction of the myocardium, whereas the negative inotropic effect of NaHS was significantly lower in terms of modeling diabetes compare to control conditions. In the control, L-cysteine reduced the amplitude contractions significantly, whereas L-cysteine did not lead to significant changes in the amplitude of contractions in terms of modeling diabetes. These data indicate that the sensitivity of mice’s atria reduced for H2S and L-cysteine in diabetes mellitus.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide interacts with calcium signaling to enhance the chromium tolerance in Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huihui; Jing, Tao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Liping; Jin, Zhuping; Pei, Yanxi

    2014-12-01

    The oscillation of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration is a primary event in numerous biological processes in plants, including stress response. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an emerging gasotransmitter, was found to have positive effects in plants responding to chromium (Cr(6+)) stress through interacting with Ca(2+) signaling. While Ca(2+) resemblances H2S in mediating biotic and abiotic stresses, crosstalk between the two pathways remains unclear. In this study, Ca(2+) signaling interacted with H2S to produce a complex physiological response, which enhanced the Cr(6+) tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Results indicate that Cr(6+) stress activated endogenous H2S synthesis as well as Ca(2+) signaling. Moreover, toxic symptoms caused by Cr(6+) stress were strongly moderated by 50μM H2S and 20mM Ca(2+). Conversely, treatments with H2S synthesis inhibitor and Ca(2+) chelators prior to Cr(6+)-exposure aggravated these toxic symptoms. Interestingly, Ca(2+) upregulated expression of two important factors in metal metabolism, MT3A and PCS, which participated in the biosynthesis of heavy metal chelators, in a H2S-dependent manner to cope with Cr(6+) stress. These findings also suggest that the H2S dependent pathway is a component of the Ca(2+) activating antioxidant system and H2S partially contributes Ca(2+)-activating antioxidant system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide: A novel nephroprotectant against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, George J; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Lobb, Ian; Sener, Alp

    2016-07-01

    Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various solid-organ cancers. However, a plethora of evidence indicates that nephrotoxicity is a major side effect of cisplatin therapy. While the antineoplastic action of cisplatin is due to formation of cisplatin-DNA cross-links, which damage rapidly dividing cancer cells upon binding to DNA, its nephrotoxic effect results from metabolic conversion of cisplatin into a nephrotoxin and production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress leading to renal tissue injury and potentially, kidney failure. Despite therapeutic targets in several pre-clinical and clinical studies, there is still incomplete protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third discovered gasotransmitter next to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, has recently been identified in several in vitro and in vivo studies to possess specific antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties that modulate several pathogenic pathways involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The current article reviews the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and displays recent findings in the H2S field that could disrupt such mechanisms to ameliorate cisplatin-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya C Wu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116 were exposed to H(2S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2S was accompanied by G(1-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip. Moreover, exposure to H(2S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+ autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

  11. Cystathionine γ-Lyase-Produced Hydrogen Sulfide Controls Endothelial NO Bioavailability and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szijártó, István András; Markó, Lajos; Filipovic, Milos R; Miljkovic, Jan Lj; Tabeling, Christoph; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Wang, Ning; Rabelo, Luiza A; Witzenrath, Martin; Diedrich, André; Tank, Jens; Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Kamata, Shotaro; Ishii, Isao; Gollasch, Maik

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and NO are important gasotransmitters, but how endogenous H 2 S affects the circulatory system has remained incompletely understood. Here, we show that CTH or CSE (cystathionine γ-lyase)-produced H 2 S scavenges vascular NO and controls its endogenous levels in peripheral arteries, which contribute to blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) and phospho-eNOS protein levels were unaffected, but levels of nitroxyl were low in CTH-deficient arteries, demonstrating reduced direct chemical interaction between H 2 S and NO. Pretreatment of arterial rings from CTH-deficient mice with exogenous H 2 S donor rescued the endothelial vasorelaxant response and decreased tissue NO levels. Our discovery that CTH-produced H 2 S inhibits endogenous endothelial NO bioavailability and vascular tone is novel and fundamentally important for understanding how regulation of vascular tone is tailored for endogenous H 2 S to contribute to systemic blood pressure function. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  13. Effect of antimony oxide on magnesium vanadates for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.T.; Chi, Z.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, ROC Taichung (Taiwan)

    2001-05-17

    The effect of antimony oxide addition to MgV{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Mg{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} was studied in the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Significant improvements in sulfur selectivity and yield were observed for the uncalcined mechanical mixtures of magnesium vanadates with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Calcination of the mechanical mixtures resulted in the much stronger synergy in catalytic activity and sulfur selectivity. For the uncalcined samples, XRD, TPR and XPS studies indicated that antimony reduction behaviors in the mechanical mixtures differed very much from those in {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone, suggested that their selectivity improvements might be due to the interactions (probably oxygen transfer) between {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesium vanadates. For the calcined samples, XRD results indicated that their better catalytic performances in H{sub 2}S oxidation were primarily attributed to the formation of VSbO{sub 4} compound from antimony oxide and magnesium vanadates.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide: a new endogenous player in an old mechanism of plant tolerance to high salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane J. da-Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High salinity affects plants due to stimulation of osmotic stress. Cell signaling triggered by nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S activates a cascade of biochemical events that culminate in plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. For instance, the NO/H2S-stimulated biochemical events that occur in plants during response to high salinity include the control of reactive oxygen species, activation of antioxidant system, accumulation of osmoprotectants in cytosol, induction of K+ uptake and Na+ cell extrusion or its vacuolar compartmentation among others. This review is a compilation of what we have learned in the last 10 years about NO participation during cell signaling in response to high salinity as well as the role of H2S, a new player in the mechanism of plant tolerance to salt stress. The main sources of NO and H2S in plant cells is also discussed together with the evidence of interplay between both signaling molecules during response to stress.

  15. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases.

  16. Phase equilibria of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Dissociation conditions of H 2 S or CO 2 hydrate + inhibitor aqueous solution are reported. → Methanol, methanol + NaCl and EG + NaCl aqueous solutions are considered as inhibitors. → Comparisons are made between our experimental data and the corresponding literature data. - Abstract: This work aims at reporting the dissociation pressures of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions at different temperatures and various concentrations of inhibitor in aqueous solution. The equilibrium results were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These values are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on the dissociation conditions of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of pure water to show the inhibition effects of the above mentioned aqueous solutions. Comparisons are finally made between our experimental values and the corresponding literature data. Some disagreements among the literature data and our data are found.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10

  18. Core-shell rhodium sulfide catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction / hydrogen oxidation reaction in hydrogen-bromine reversible fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanchao; Nguyen, Trung Van

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis and characterization of high electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) core-shell RhxSy catalysts for hydrogen evolution oxidation (HER)/hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in H2-Br2 fuel cell are discussed. Catalysts with RhxSy as shell and different percentages (5%, 10%, and 20%) of platinum on carbon as core materials are synthesized. Cyclic voltammetry is used to evaluate the Pt-equivalent mass specific ECSA and durability of these catalysts. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques are utilized to characterize the bulk and surface compositions and to confirm the core-shell structure of the catalysts, respectively. Cycling test and polarization curve measurements in the H2-Br2 fuel cell are used to assess the catalyst stability and performance in a fuel cell. The results show that the catalysts with core-shell structure have higher mass specific ECSA (50 m2 gm-Rh-1) compared to a commercial catalyst (RhxSy/C catalyst from BASF, 6.9 m2 gm-Rh-1). It also shows better HOR/HER performance in the fuel cell. Compared to the platinum catalyst, the core-shell catalysts show more stable performance in the fuel cell cycling test.

  19. Laminar shear flow increases hydrogen sulfide and activates a nitric oxide producing signaling cascade in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Chen, Chang-Ting; Chen, Chi-Shia; Wang, Yun-Ming; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen; Wang, Danny Ling

    2015-09-04

    Laminar shear flow triggers a signaling cascade that maintains the integrity of endothelial cells (ECs). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a new gasotransmitter is regarded as an upstream regulator of nitric oxide (NO). Whether the H2S-generating enzymes are correlated to the enzymes involved in NO production under shear flow conditions remains unclear as yet. In the present study, the cultured ECs were subjected to a constant shear flow (12 dyn/cm(2)) in a parallel flow chamber system. We investigated the expression of three key enzymes for H2S biosynthesis, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercapto-sulfurtransferase (3-MST). Shear flow markedly increased the level of 3-MST. Shear flow enhanced the production of H2S was determined by NBD-SCN reagent that can bind to cysteine/homocystein. Exogenous treatment of NaHS that can release gaseous H2S, ECs showed an increase of phosphorylation in Akt(S473), ERK(T202/Y204) and eNOS(S1177). This indicated that H2S can trigger the NO-production signaling cascade. Silencing of CSE, CBS and 3-MST genes by siRNA separately attenuated the phosphorylation levels of Akt(S473) and eNOS(S1177) under shear flow conditions. The particular mode of shear flow increased H2S production. The interplay between H2S and NO-generating enzymes were discussed in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide enhances nitric oxide-induced tolerance of hypoxia in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Renyi; Bian, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Lina; Cheng, Wei; Hai, Na; Yang, Changquan; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2016-11-01

    Our data present H 2 S in a new role, serving as a multi-faceted transducer to different response mechanisms during NO-induced acquisition of tolerance to flooding-induced hypoxia in maize seedling roots. Nitric oxide (NO), serving as a secondary messenger, modulates physiological processes in plants. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been demonstrated to have similar signaling functions. This study focused on the effects of treatment with H 2 S on NO-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. The results showed that treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced survival rate of submerged maize roots through induced accumulation of endogenous H 2 S. The induced H 2 S then enhanced endogenous Ca 2+ levels as well as the Ca 2+ -dependent activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), improving the capacity for antioxidant defense and, ultimately, the hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. In addition, NO induced the activities of key enzymes in H 2 S biosynthesis, such as L-cysteine desulfhydrases (L-CDs), O-acetyl-L-serine (thiol)lyase (OAS-TL), and β-Cyanoalanine Synthase (CAS). SNP-induced hypoxia tolerance was enhanced by the application of NaHS, but was eliminated by the H 2 S-synthesis inhibitor hydroxylamine (HA) and the H 2 S-scavenger hypotaurine (HT). H 2 S concurrently enhanced the transcriptional levels of relative hypoxia-induced genes. Together, our findings indicated that H 2 S serves as a multi-faceted transducer that enhances the nitric oxide-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

  2. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation and differentiation by modulating autophagy in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xin [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China); Dai, Hui [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Zhuang, Binyu [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China); Chai, Li; Xie, Yanguang [Institute of Dermatology of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yuzhen, E-mail: liyuzhen@medmail.com.cn [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-04-08

    The effects and the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation are still less known. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of exogenous H{sub 2}S on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were treated with various concentrations (0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H{sub 2}S) for 24 h. A CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of proteins associated with differentiation and autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe autophagic vacuoles, and flow cytometry was applied to evaluate apoptosis. NaHS promoted the viability, induced the differentiation, and enhanced autophagic activity in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Blockage of autophagy by ATG5 siRNA inhibited NaHS-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. The current study demonstrated that autophagy in response to exogenous H{sub 2}S treatment promoted keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our results provide additional insights into the potential role of autophagy in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Exogenous H{sub 2}S promotes keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. • The effects of H{sub 2}S on proliferation and differentiation is modulated by autophagy. • Exogenous H{sub 2}S has no effect on keratinocyte apoptosis.

  3. Role of hydrogen sulfide in portal hypertension and esophagogastric junction vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Han, Juan; Xiao, Liang; Jin, Chang-E; Li, Dong-Jian; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and portal hypertension as well as its effect on vascular smooth muscle cells. METHODS: Portal hypertension patients were categorized by Child-Pugh score based on bilirubin and albumin levels, prothrombin time, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. Plasma H2S concentrations and portal vein diameters (PVDs) were compared between portal hypertension patients and control participants, as well as between portal hypertension patients with varying degrees of severity. In addition, we established a rabbit hepatic schistosomiasis portal hypertension (SPH) model and analyzed liver morphology, fibrosis grade, plasma and liver tissue H2S concentrations, as well as cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-XL expression in portal vein smooth muscle cells, in addition to their H2S-induced apoptosis rates. RESULTS: In portal hypertension patients, endogenous H2S levels were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. The more severe the disease was, the lower were the H2S plasma levels, which were inversely correlated with PVD and Child-Pugh score. Liver tissue H2S concentrations and CSE expression were significantly lower in the SPH rabbit livers compared with the control animals, starting at 3 wk, whereas pERK 1/2 expressions gradually increased 12-20 wk after SPH model establishment. In portal vein smooth muscle cells, increasing H2S levels led to increased apoptosis, while Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression decreased. CONCLUSION: H2S prevents vascular restructuring caused by excessive proliferation of smooth muscle cells via apoptosis induction, which helps to maintain normal vascular structures. PMID:24574782

  4. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide: role in ion channel and transporter modulation in the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Fatou eNjie-Mbye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a colorless gas with a characteristic smell of rotten eggs, has been portrayed for decades as a toxic environmental pollutant. Since evidence of its basal production in mammalian tissues a decade ago, H2S has attracted substantial interest as a potential inorganic gaseous mediator with biological importance in cellular functions. Current research suggests that, next to its counterparts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, H2S is an important multifunctional signaling molecule with pivotal regulatory roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes as diverse as learning and memory, modulation of synaptic activities, cell survival, inflammation and maintenance of vascular tone in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. In contrast, there are few reports of a regulatory role of H2S in the eye. Accumulating reports on the pharmacological role of H2S in ocular tissues indicate the existence of a functional trans-sulfuration pathway and a potential physiological role for H2S as a gaseous neuromodulator in the eye. Thus, understanding the role of H2S in vision-related processes is imperative to our expanding knowledge of this molecule as a gaseous mediator in ocular tissues. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and current understanding of the potential role of H2S as a signaling molecule in the eye. This objective is achieved by discussing the involvement of H2S in the regulation of (1 ion channels such as calcium (L-type, T-type and intracellular stores, potassium (KATP and small conductance channels and chloride channels, (2 glutamate transporters such as EAAT1/GLAST and the L-cystine/glutamate antiporter. The role of H2S as an important mediator in cellular functions and physiological processes that are triggered by its interaction with ion channels/transporters in the eye will also be discussed.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide, a potential novel drug, attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ping Cheng,* Kan Chen,* Yujing Xia, Weiqi Dai, Fan Wang, Miao Shen, Chengfen Wang, Jing Yang, Rong Zhu, Huawei Zhang, Jingjing Li, Yuanyuan Zheng, Junshan Wang, Yan Zhang, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Chuanyong GuoDepartment of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis and autophagy play important roles in concanavalin A (Con A-induced acute hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on Con A-induced acute hepatitis. Methods: BALB/c mice were randomized into sham group, Con A-injection group, and 14 µmol/kg of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor pretreatment group. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by NaHS pretreatment. NaHS pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared with those of the Con A group. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3-2, which play important roles in the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, were also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-mTOR and p-AKT. Conclusion: H2S attenuates Con A-induced acute hepatitis by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy, in part, through activation of the PtdIns3K-AKT1 signaling pathway. Keywords: NaHS, apoptosis, PtdIns3K-AKT, autophagy

  7. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  8. Lens Opacity and Hydrogen Sulfide in a New Zealand Geothermal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael N; Bailey, Ian L; DiMartino, Robert B; Pope, Karl; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas with well-established, acute irritation effects on the eye. The population of Rotorua, New Zealand, sited on an active geothermal field, has some of the highest ambient H2S exposures in the world. Evidence from ecological studies in Rotorua has suggested that H2S is associated with cataract. The purpose of the present study was, using more detailed exposure characterization, clinical examinations, and anterior eye photography, to more directly investigate this previously reported association. Enrolled were 1637 adults, ages 18 to 65, from a comprehensive Rotorua primary care medical register. Patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including pupillary dilation and lens photography to capture evidence of any nuclear opacity, nuclear color, and cortical and posterior subcapsular opacity. Photographs were scored for all four outcomes on the LOCS III scale with decimalized interpolation between the exemplars. H2S exposure for up to the last 30 years was estimated based on networks of passive samplers set out across Rotorua and knowledge of residential, workplace, and school locations over the 30 years. Data analysis using linear and logistic regression examined associations between the degree of opacification and nuclear color or cataract (defined as a LOCS III score ≥2.0) in relation to H2S exposure. No associations were found between estimated H2S exposures and any of the four ophthalmic outcome measures. Overall, results were generally reassuring. They provided no evidence that H2S exposure at the levels found in Rotorua is associated with cataract. The previously found association between cataract and H2S exposure in the Rotorua population seems likely to be attributable to the limitations of the ecological study design. These results cannot rule out the possibility of an association with cataract at higher levels of H2S exposure.

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity via Decreasing Apoplast and Symplast Al Contents in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Q. Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a vital role in Al3+ stress resistance in plants, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with 2 μM of the H2S donor NaHS significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation caused by Al toxicity in rice roots, which was accompanied by a decrease in Al contents in root tips under 50 μM Al3+ treatment. NaHS pretreatment decreased the negative charge in cell walls by reducing the activity of pectin methylesterase and decreasing the pectin and hemicellulose contents in rice roots. This treatment also masked Al-binding sites in the cell wall by upregulating the expression of OsSATR1 and OsSTAR2 in roots and reduced Al binding in the cell wall by stimulating the expression of the citrate acid exudation gene OsFRDL4 and increasing the secretion of citrate acid. In addition, NaHS pretreatment decreased the symplasmic Al content by downregulating the expression of OsNRAT1, and increasing the translocation of cytoplasmic Al to the vacuole via upregulating the expression of OsALS1. The increment of antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and peroxidase (POD] activity with NaHS pretreatment significantly decreased the MDA and H2O2 content in rice roots, thereby reducing the damage of Al3+ toxicity on membrane integrity in rice. H2S exhibits crosstalk with nitric oxide (NO in response to Al toxicity, and through reducing NO content in root tips to alleviate Al toxicity. Together, this study establishes that H2S alleviates Al toxicity by decreasing the Al content in the apoplast and symplast of rice roots.

  10. Cytoprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide in novel rat models of non-erosive esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Zayachkivska

    Full Text Available Non-erosive esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus and is a form of gastroesophageal reflux disease. There are limited treatment options for non-erosive esophagitis, and it often progresses to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. Hydrogen sulfide has been demonstrated to be a critical mediator of gastric and intestinal mucosal protection and repair. However, roles for H2S in esophageal mucosal defence, inflammation and responses to injury have not been reported. We therefore examined the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in rat models of non-erosive esophagitis. Mild- and moderate-severity non-erosive esophagitis was induced in rats through supplementation of drinking water with fructose, plus or minus exposure to water-immersion stress. The effects of inhibitors of H2S synthesis or of an H2S donor on severity of esophagitis was then examined, along with changes in serum levels of a pro- and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-17 and IL-10, respectively. Exposure to water-immersion stress after consumption of the fructose-supplemented water for 28 days resulted in submucosal esophageal edema and neutrophil infiltration and the development of lesions in the muscular lamina and basal cell hyperplasia. Inhibition of H2S synthesis resulted in significant exacerbation of inflammation and injury. Serum levels of IL-17 were significantly elevated, while serum IL-10 levels were reduced. Treatment with an H2S donor significantly reduced the severity of esophageal injury and inflammation and normalized the serum cytokine levels. The rat models used in this study provide novel tools for studying non-erosive esophagitis with a range of severity. H2S contributes significantly to mucosal defence in the esophagus, and H2S donors may have therapeutic value in treating esophageal inflammation and injury.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide regulates cardiovascular function by influencing the excitability of subfornical organ neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kuksis

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor in the subfornical organ (SFO, a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC = 853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n = 5. Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90 of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ge

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG. Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun; Hu, Kang-Di; Wang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Hong; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG). Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  14. Hydrogen generation using the modular helium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.; Shenoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    Process heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor can be used to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850 deg.C to 950 deg.C can drive the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. Electricity can also be used to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyser to generate hydrogen. In this paper we investigate the coupling of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) to the SI process and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. Optimization of the MHR core design to produce higher coolant outlet temperatures is also discussed. The use of fixed orifices to control the flow distribution is a promising design solution for increasing the coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak fuel temperatures significantly

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H 2 . CO 2 , N 2 0, NO, and NH 3 . For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 , N 2 O and NO

  16. Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient China to single-cell accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-05

    With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-localization ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.

  18. Two colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence probes for hydrogen sulfide based on AIE strategy of α-cyanostilbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baoying; Yang, Binsheng; Hu, Xiangquan; Liu, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active fluorescent probes have attracted great potential in biological sensors. In this paper two cyanostilbene based fluorescence chemoprobe Cya-NO2 (1) and Cya-N3 (2) were developed and evaluated for the selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Both of these probes behave aggression-induced emission (AIE) activity which fluoresces in the red region with a large Stokes shift. They exhibit rapid response to H2S with enormous colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent changes. They are readily employed for assessing intracellular H2S levels.

  19. Quantum cascade laser-based analyzer for hydrogen sulfide detection at sub-parts-per-million levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodem, Michal; Krzempek, Karol; Stachowiak, Dorota; Wysocki, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Due to its high toxicity, monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration is essential in many industrial sites (such as natural gas extraction sites, petroleum refineries, geothermal power plants, or waste water treatment facilities), which require sub-parts-per-million sensitivities. We report on a quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system for detection of H2S in the midinfrared at ˜7.2 μm. We present a sensor design utilizing Herriott multipass cell and a wavelength modulation spectroscopy to achieve a detection limit of 140 parts per billion for 1-s integration time.

  20. Integrating nitric oxide, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide signaling in the physiological adaptions to hypoxia: A comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; B. Jensen, Frank; Tota, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO2-) are formed in vivo and are of crucial importance in the tissue response to hypoxia, particularly in the cardiovascular system, where these signaling molecules are involved in a multitude of processes including the regulation of vascular...... tone, cellular metabolic function and cytoprotection. This report summarizes current advances on the mechanisms by which these signaling pathways act and may have evolved in animals with different tolerance to hypoxia, as presented and discussed during the scientific sessions of the annual meeting...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus CstB is a novel multidomain persulfide dioxygenase-sulfurtransferase involved in hydrogen sulfide detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiangchuan; Keithly, Mary E.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Higgins, Khadine A.; Edmonds, Katherine A.; Giedroc, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is both a lethal gas and an emerging gasotransmitter in humans, suggesting that cellular H2S level must be tightly regulated. CstB is encoded by the cst operon of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and is under the transcriptional control of the persulfide sensor CstR and H2S. Here we show that CstB is a multifunctional Fe(II)-containing persulfide dioxygenase (PDO), analogous to the vertebrate protein ETHE1 (Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy Protein 1). Chromosomal deletion of ethe1 is fatal in vertebrates. In the presence of molecular oxygen (O2), hETHE1 oxidizes glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to generate sulfite and reduced glutathione. In contrast, CstB oxidizes major cellular low molecular weight (LMW) persulfide substrates from S. aureus, coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) and bacillithiol persulfide (BSSH), directly to generate thiosulfate (TS) and reduced thiols, thereby avoiding the cellular toxicity of sulfite. Both Cys201 in the N-terminal PDO domain (CstBPDO) and Cys408 in the C-terminal rhodanese domain (CstBRhod) strongly enhance the TS generating activity of CstB. CstB also possesses persulfide transferase (PT; reverse rhodanese) activity which generates TS when provided with LMW persulfides and sulfite, as well as conventional thiosulfate transferase (TST; rhodanese) activity; both activities require Cys408. CstB protects S. aureus against H2S toxicity with C201S and C408S cstB genes unable to rescue a NaHS-induced ΔcstB growth phenotype. Induction of the cst operon by NaHS reveals that functional CstB impacts the cellular TS concentrations. These data collectively suggest that CstB may have evolved to facilitate the clearance of LMW persulfides that occur upon the elevation of the level of cellular H2S and hence may have an impact on bacterial viability under H2S stress, in concert with the other enzymes encoded by the cst operon. PMID:26177047

  2. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide - An approach for electronic waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2017-09-01

    Waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is the key and difficult points in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) disposal. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process. The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent. The experimental results revealed that the lead sulfide recovery rate initially increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, the amount of sodium sulfide, the temperature, and the holding time and then reached an equilibrium value. The maximum lead sulfide recovery rate was approximately 93%, at the optimum sodium carbonate level, sodium sulfide level, temperature, and holding time of 25%, 8%, 1200°C, and 2h, respectively. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis in an environmental and economical process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice partially independent from hypometabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M Snijder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is a major cause of cardiac damage following various pathological processes. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S is protective during IRI by inducing a hypometabolic state in mice which is associated with anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated whether gaseous H2S administration is protective in cardiac IRI and whether non-hypometabolic concentrations of H2S have similar protective properties. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a 0, 10, or 100 ppm H2S-N2 mixture starting 30 minutes prior to ischemia until 5 minutes pre-reperfusion. IRI was inflicted by temporary ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 minutes. High-resolution respirometry equipment was used to assess CO2-production and blood pressure was measured using internal transmitters. The effects of H2S were assessed by histological and molecular analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with 100 ppm H2S decreased CO2-production by 72%, blood pressure by 14% and heart rate by 25%, while treatment with 10 ppm H2S had no effects. At day 1 of reperfusion 10 ppm H2S showed no effect on necrosis, while treatment with 100 ppm H2S reduced necrosis by 62% (p<0.05. Seven days post-reperfusion, both 10 ppm (p<0.01 and 100 ppm (p<0.05 H2S showed a reduction in fibrosis compared to IRI animals. Both 10 ppm and 100 ppm H2S reduced granulocyte-influx by 43% (p<0.05 and 60% (p<0.001, respectively. At 7 days post-reperfusion both 10 and 100 ppm H2S reduced expression of fibronectin by 63% (p<0.05 and 67% (p<0.01 and ANP by 84% and 63% (p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Gaseous administration of H2S is protective when administered during a cardiac ischemic insult. Although hypometabolism is restricted to small animals, we now showed that low non-hypometabolic concentrations of H2S also have protective properties in IRI. Since IRI is a frequent cause of myocardial damage during percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiac

  4. Hydrogen sulfide suicide: a new trend and threat to healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, John B; Ward, Jeanette G; Taylor, Scott; Giles, Karon; Higgins, Thomas; Haan, James M

    2015-01-01

    First popularized in Japan, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas suicide is an underreported form of suicide with known risk for secondary disaster. Mortality rate commonly exceeds 90% because of the gas's lethal, noncontained nature. Instances in the United States are increasing, up from 2 cases in 2008 to 18 in 2010. Because H2S poisonings remain rare, there exists a lack of knowledge regarding the residual effects of gas venting after victim extrication. Identifying instances of the efficacious use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is critical in the effort to alleviate risks faced by hospital and rescue personnel. The current case demonstrates the effective use of PPEs after prolonged H2S exposure. In 2011, a 20-year-old man threatened suicide using H2S gas inside a vehicle on a remote rural highway. First responders identified a "rotten egg smell" and subsequently experienced low poisoning symptoms. After prolonged Hazmat-assisted extrication (4 hours) the patient was unconscious and experiencing seizures. He was decontaminated on-scene (20 minutes) and transported to the closest hospital (22 minutes). Ambulance personnel who wore PPE and used the ambulance's reverse ventilation system (RVS)reported no adverse effects. The patient was transferred to the authors' burn facility by helicopter (38 minutes). Life-flight personnel, who did not wear PPE (no ventilatory system available), complained of watery eyes, headache, and dizziness. Hospital personnel, who did not use PPE (or RVS), complained of watery eyes or headache. Exposed personnel demonstrated no deficits or residual effects. In spite of spontaneous movement, the patient began to seize and died. This case is unique given the multiple primary and secondary H2S gas exposures involved. Exposed personnel without RVS and not using PPE demonstrated moderate H2S symptoms. PPE (self-contained breathing apparatuses) and RVS were shown to be effective during an H2S emergency; however, there are currently limited data

  5. Amperometric cell for subcutaneous detection of hydrogen sulfide in anesthetized experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, L; Nagy, G; Filotás, D; Boros, M; Pozsgai, G; Pintér, E

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a toxic gas. It has been recognized that H 2 S evolving in biochemical reactions in living organisms has an important role in different physiologic processes. Nowadays, H 2 S is known as an endogenous messenger molecule. Natural sulfurous spring water has been proved beneficial in the therapy of diseases of the skin and other organs (Boros et al 2013). In vivo real-time detection of local H 2 S concentration is an important but challenging task. We developed a two-electrode amperometric cell for selective subcutaneous detection of H 2 S in anesthetized mice. The cell is a small size implantable gas sensor containing a platinum disc anode and a silver cathode. The selectivity is provided by a membrane permeable only by gases. There is a buffered reversible electrochemical mediator solution in an oxidized form inside the cell. As gaseous H 2 S penetrates into the cell the mediator is reduced, and +0.4 V versus the reference is employed on the platinum working electrode. The reduced mediator is oxidized on the anode surface. The current provides an analytical signal representing the concentration of H 2 S. Appropriate shape, size and membrane material were selected, and optimal working parameters—such as mediator concentration, pH and cell voltage—were determined in vitro. The lower limit of detection in the stirred sample solution at pH = 5.5 was as small as 9.4  ×  10 −7  M and a dynamic concentration range of 0–6  ×  10 –4  M could be achieved. The detecting surfaces of the cell were covered with freshly dissected mouse skin to test dermal H 2 S permeability. In other experiments, the cell was implanted subcutaneously in an anesthetized mouse and the animal was submerged in a buffer solution containing different concentrations of H 2 S so that the skin surface over the sensor was covered by the solution. Measurements of subcutaneous H 2 S concentration were taken. The experiments clearly proved that H 2 S

  6. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  7. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Yanxi [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); Wu, Bo [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Cao, Qiuhui [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); Wu, Lingyun [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Yang, Guangdong, E-mail: gyang@lakeheadu.ca [The School of Kinesiology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H{sub 2}S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H{sub 2}S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H{sub 2}S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H{sub 2}S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H{sub 2}S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H{sub 2}S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H{sub 2}S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H{sub 2}S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of H{sub 2}S is released from sulforaphane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S mediates the anti-survival effect of

  8. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to

  9. Human trophoblast-derived hydrogen sulfide stimulates placental artery endothelial cell angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Bao; Feng, Lin; Hodges, Jennifer K; Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly synthesized by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), has been implicated in regulating placental angiogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study was to test a hypothesis that trophoblasts synthesize H2S to promote placental angiogenesis. Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells expressed both CBS and CTH proteins, while the first trimester villous trophoblast-originated HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed CTH protein only. The H2S producing ability of BeWo cells was significantly inhibited by either inhibitors of CBS (carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride, CHH) or CTH (β-cyano-L-alanine, BCA) and that in HTR-8/SVneo cells was inhibited by CHH only. H2S donors stimulated cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in ovine placental artery endothelial cells (oFPAECs) as effectively as vascular endothelial growth factor. Co-culture with BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells stimulated oFPAEC migration, which was inhibited by CHH or BCA in BeWo but CHH only in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Primary human villous trophoblasts (HVT) were more potent than trophoblast cell lines in stimulating oFPAEC migration that was inhibited by CHH and CHH/BCA combination in accordance with its H2S synthesizing activity linked to CBS and CTH expression patterns. H2S donors activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), and extracellular signal-activated kinase 1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1, MAPK3/1) in oFPAECs. H2S donor-induced NOS3 activation was blocked by AKT1 but not MAPK3/1 inhibition. In keeping with our previous studies showing a crucial role of AKT1, MAPK3/1, and NOS3/NO in placental angiogenesis, these data show that trophoblast-derived endogenous H2S stimulates placental angiogenesis, involving activation of AKT1, NOS3/NO, and MAPK3/1. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study

  10. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Yanxi; Wu, Bo; Cao, Qiuhui; Wu, Lingyun; Yang, Guangdong

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H 2 S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H 2 S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H 2 S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H 2 S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H 2 S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H 2 S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H 2 S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H 2 S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H 2 S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: ► A large amount of H 2 S is released from sulforaphane. ► H 2 S mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells. ► Cystathionine gamma-lyase is a major H 2 S

  11. Removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using CeO2-NiAl-LDHs coating activated carbon and its mix with carbon nano-tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Chen, Fangping; Jin, Guanping; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Li, Xiaoxuan

    2015-01-01

    Ce-doped NiAl/layered double hydroxide was coated at activated carbon by urea hydrolysis method (CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC) in one pot, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and electrochemical techniques. CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC shows good uptake for aqueous sulfur dioxide (483.09mg/g) and hydrogen sulfide (181.15mg/g), respectively at 25°C. Meanwhile, the electrochemical removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were respectively investigated at the mix of CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC and carbon nano-tubes modified homed paraffin-impregnated electrode. Both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be effectively oxidized to sulfuric acid at 1.0V in alkaline aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using CeO2-NiAl-LDHs coating activated carbon and its mix with carbon nano-tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Ce-doped NiAl/layered double hydroxide was coated at activated carbon by urea hydrolysis method (CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC) in one pot, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and electrochemical techniques. CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC shows good uptake for aqueous sulfur dioxide (483.09mg/g) and hydrogen sulfide (181.15mg/g), respectively at 25°C. Meanwhile, the electrochemical removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were respectively investigated at the mix of CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC and carbon nano-tubes modified homed paraffin-impregnated electrode. Both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be effectively oxidized to sulfuric acid at 1.0V in alkaline aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Comparative exploration of hydrogen sulfide and water transmembrane free energy surfaces via orthogonal space tempering free energy sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Aitchison, Erick W; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Wei

    2016-03-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a commonly known toxic gas compound, possesses unique chemical features that allow this small solute molecule to quickly diffuse through cell membranes. Taking advantage of the recent orthogonal space tempering (OST) method, we comparatively mapped the transmembrane free energy landscapes of H2 S and its structural analogue, water (H2 O), seeking to decipher the molecular determinants that govern their drastically different permeabilities. As revealed by our OST sampling results, in contrast to the highly polar water solute, hydrogen sulfide is evidently amphipathic, and thus inside membrane is favorably localized at the interfacial region, that is, the interface between the polar head-group and nonpolar acyl chain regions. Because the membrane binding affinity of H2 S is mainly governed by its small hydrophobic moiety and the barrier height inbetween the interfacial region and the membrane center is largely determined by its moderate polarity, the transmembrane free energy barriers to encounter by this toxic molecule are very small. Moreover when H2 S diffuses from the bulk solution to the membrane center, the above two effects nearly cancel each other, so as to lead to a negligible free energy difference. This study not only explains why H2 S can quickly pass through cell membranes but also provides a practical illustration on how to use the OST free energy sampling method to conveniently analyze complex molecular processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Interaction of hydrogen sulfide with Zr0.92Y0.08O2-δ/40% Ni cermet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Poston, J.A. Jr.; Fisher, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen sulfide with a cermet composed of zirconium oxide and yttrium oxide doped with metallic nickel (Ni) in the stoichiometric form Zr 0.92 Y 0.08 O 2-δ /40 vol% Ni and a pure nickel metal was studied at 500 and 650 deg. C utilizing high temperature X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-temperature scanning electron microscopy. The hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) did not appear to interact with the cermet at 500 deg. C with H 2 S exposures of 6 x 10 -5 Torr for 1 h, but interaction of H 2 S with the cermet was observed at 650 deg. C at similar H 2 S exposures. The amount and the rate of reaction of H 2 S were significantly lower with the cermet than with the pure nickel metal at 650 deg. C with similar H 2 S exposures. The dispersion of nickel in the zirconium and yttrium oxide matrix decreased the reaction of H 2 S with nickel in the cermet

  15. Co-treatment of hydrogen sulfide and methanol in a single-stage biotrickling filter under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaomin; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Biofiltration of waste gases is cost-effective and environment-friendly compared to the conventional techniques for treating large flow rates of gas streams with low concentrations of pollutants. Pulp and paper industry off-gases usually contain reduced sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide and a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), e.g., methanol. It is desirable to eliminate both of these groups of compounds. Since the co-treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds and VOCs in biotrickling filters is a relatively unexplored area, the simultaneous biotreatment of H2S and methanol as the model VOC was investigated. The results showed that, after adaptation, the elimination capacity of methanol could reach around 236 g m(-3) h(-1) with the simultaneous complete removal (100%) of 12 ppm H2S when the empty bed residence time is 24 s. The pH of the system was around 2. Methanol removal was hardly affected by the presence of hydrogen sulfide, despite the low pH. Conversely, the presence of the VOC in the waste gas reduced the efficiency of H2S biodegradation. The maximal methanol removal decreased somewhat when increasing the gas flow rate. This is the first report on the degradation of methanol at such low pH in a biotrickling filter and on the co-treatment of H2S and VOCs under such conditions.

  16. Enhanced reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on the composites of graphene/graphite oxide with copper (hydr)oxychlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabayoje, Oluwaniyi; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-06-27

    Composites of copper (hydr)oxychlorides with graphite oxide or graphene were synthesized and used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide at dynamic conditions at ambient temperatures. The materials were extensively characterized before and after adsorption in order to link their performance to the surface features. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, TEM, SEM/EDX, and adsorption of nitrogen were used. It was found that the composite with graphene has the most favorable surface features enhancing reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide. The presence of moisture in the H2S stream has a positive effect on the removal process owing to the dissociation process. H2S is retained on the surface via a direct replacement of OH groups and via acid-base reactions with the copper (hydr)oxide. Highly dispersed reduced copper species on the surface of the composite with graphene enhance activation of oxygen and cause formation of sulfites and sulfates. Higher conductivity of the graphene phase than that of graphite oxide helps in electron transfer in redox reactions.

  17. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1979 in Sunshine Project. Development of a hydrogen sulfide removing technology; 1979 nendo ryuka suiso jokyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    Development is made on a technology to treat waste gas and fluid such as condensate generated from steam on a turbine inlet side and from the condenser on an outlet side of a geothermal power plant turbine. The technology shall remove hydrogen sulfide at a removing rate of 90% or higher. This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1979. Physical treatment in treating the steam on the turbine inlet side needs discussion on reducing the cost, while chemical treatment had the cost still higher. With regard to waste gas from treating fluid downstream the turbine, the RET method agrees with the conventionally hypothesized prerequisites, and the reliability in its application has been enhanced. High-concentration hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide containing simulated gas were used to test the RET method, where the reaction characteristics of an RET catalyst was found capable of maintaining the very stable performance for an extended period of time. An air bubble column is suitable as a suction column type. A simulated condensate with H{sub 2}S at 10 mg/L and temperature of 40 degrees C was used for an engineering test using a discharge column. It was possible to estimate a standard discharge condition. Effects of pH and NaHCO{sub 3} in the condensate requires discussions in the future using actual fluids. Fundamental experiments were carried out on a method to continually analyze hydrogen sulfide contained in geothermal steam. (NEDO)

  18. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore......-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction...

  19. Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production of Flower-like Cadmium Sulfide Decorated by Histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhao; Lian, Juhong; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Rongfang; Huang, Haohao; Su, Bitao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-09-01

    Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdS can significantly enhance the efficiency of its photocatalytic hydrogen production. In this study, a novel three-dimensional (3D) flower-like CdS is synthesized via a facile template-free hydrothermal process using Cd(NO3)2•4H2O and thiourea as precursors and L-Histidine as a chelating agent. The morphology, crystal phase, and photoelectrochemical performance of the flower-like CdS and pure CdS nanocrystals are carefully investigated via various characterizations. Superior photocatalytic activity relative to that of pure CdS is observed on the flower-like CdS photocatalyst under visible light irradiation, which is nearly 13 times of pure CdS. On the basis of the results from SEM studies and our analysis, a growth mechanism of flower-like CdS is proposed by capturing the shape evolution. The imidazole ring of L-Histidine captures the Cd ions from the solution, and prevents the growth of the CdS nanoparticles. Furthermore, the photocatalytic contrast experiments illustrate that the as-synthesized flower-like CdS with L-Histidine is more stable than CdS without L-Histidine in the hydrogen generation.

  20. Photocatalysis in Generation of Hydrogen from Water

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-18

    Solar energy can be converted by utilizing the thermal or photoelectric effects of photons. Concentrated solar power systems utilize thermal energy from the sun by either making steam and then generating power or shifting the chemical equilibrium of a reaction (e.g., water splitting or CO2 reduction) that occurs at extremely high temperatures. The photocatalytic system contains powder photocatalysts. Each photocatalyst particle should collect sufficient photons from the solar flux to cause the required multielectron reactions to occur. The band gap and band edge positions of semiconductors are the most critical parameters for assessing the suitability of photocatalysts for overall water splitting. The most important requirement when selecting photocatalyst materials is the band positions relative to hydrogen and oxygen evolution potentials. For most photocatalysts, surface modification by cocatalysts was found to be essential to achieve overall water splitting.

  1. The Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Activities of Molybdenum Sulfide for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhengxing

    2014-07-01

    In the context of the future hydrogen economy, effective production of hydrogen (H2) from readily available and sustainable resources is of crucial importance. Hydrogen generation via water splitting by solar energy or electricity has attracted great attention in recent years. In comparison with photocatalytic water-splitting directly using solar light, which is ideal but the relevant technologies are not yet mature, electrolysis of water with catalyst is more practical at the current stage. The Pt-group noble metals are the most effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water, but their high costs limit their applications. Due to the earth-abundance and low price, MoS2 is expected to be a good alternative of the Pt-group metals for HER. Plenty of researches have been conducted for improving the HER activities of MoS2 by optimizing its synthesis method. However, it remains challenging to prepare MoS2 catalysts with high and controllable activity, and more investigations are still needed to better understand the structure-performance correlation in this system. In this thesis, we report a new strategy for fabricating MoS2 eletrocatalysts which gives rise to much improved HER performance and allows us to tune the electrocatalytic activity by varying the preparation conditions. Specifically, we sulfurized molybdenum oxide on the surface of a Ti foil electrode via a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and directly used the electrode for HER testing. Depending on the CVD temperature, the MoO2-MoS2 nanocomposites show different HER activities. Under the optimal synthesis condition (400ºC), the resulting catalyst exhibited excellent HER activity: an onset potential (overpotential) of 0.095 V versus RHE and the Tafel slope of 40 mv/dec. Such a performance exceeds those of most reported MoS2 based HER electrocatalysts. We demonstrated that the CVD temperature has significant influence on the catalysts in crystallinity degree, particle

  2. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Air by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in a Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramirez, M.; Gómez, J. M.; Cantero, D.; Páca, J.; Halecký, M.; Kozliak, E. I.; Sobotka, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 409-414 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : 2-STAGE BIOTRICKLING FILTER * THIOBACILLUS-THIOPARUS * DIMETHYL SULFIDE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  4. Hydrogen evolution at nanoporous gold/tungsten sulfide composite film and its optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xinxin; Engelbrekt, Christian; Li, Zheshen

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient and economical electrochemical systems for water splitting is a key part of renewable energy technology. Amorphous films of tungsten sulfide have been deposited by electrochemical reduction of tetrathiotungstate ions (WS42-) on dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) for electroc......-term stability. The measured Tafel slope of 74 mV dec-1 implies an underlying Volmer-Heyrovsky HER mechanism....

  5. Respiratory responses of the air-breathing fish Hoplosternum littorale to hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, E G; Rantin, F T

    2005-07-01

    The present study analyzes the respiratory responses of the neotropical air-breathing fish Hoplosternum littorale to graded hypoxia and increased sulfide concentrations. The oxygen uptake (VO2), critical O2 tension (PcO2), respiratory (fR) and air-breathing (fRA) frequencies in response to graded hypoxia were determined for fish acclimated to 28 degrees C. H. littorale was able to maintain a constant VO2 down to a PcO2 of 50 mm Hg, below which fish became dependent on the environmental O2 even with significant increases in fR. The fRA was kept constant around 1 breath h(-1) above 50 mm Hg and increased significantly below 40 mm Hg, reaching maximum values (about 4.5 breaths h(-1)) at 10 mm Hg. The lethality to sulfide concentrations under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were also determined along with the fRA. For the normoxic fish the sulfide lethal limit was about 70 microM, while in the hypoxic ones this limit increased to 87 muM. The high sulfide tolerance of H. littorale may be attributed to the air-breathing capability, which is stimulated by this compound.

  6. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krischan, J.; Makaruk, A.; Harasek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Alkaline oxidative scrubbing proved for biogas desulfurization ► Effect of operating conditions on hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency. ► Minimization of caustic and oxidant consumption. ► Process control via pH, redox potential and conductivity measurement. ► Investigation of long-term behavior of pilot plant operation. - Abstract: Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H 2 S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H 2 S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H 2 S with H 2 O 2 , high H 2 S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO 2 absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180 m 3 /h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H 2 S contents in the crude gas.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy William [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.lambert@calgaryheathregion.ca; Goodwin, Verona Marie [VM Goodwin Research and Consulting Ltd. (Canada); Stefani, Dennis [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada); Strosher, Lisa [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H{sub 2}S at concentrations up to 100 ppm and that the H{sub 2}S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90 ppm H{sub 2}S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20 ppm H{sub 2}S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H{sub 2}S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear

  8. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part II. the regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide - An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to

  9. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  10. Visible-light-enhanced interactions of hydrogen sulfide with composites of zinc (oxy)hydroxide with graphite oxide and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Mabayoje, Oluwaniyi; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-17

    Composites of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphite oxide and of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphene were used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide under ambient conditions. The initial and exhausted samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, potentiometric titration, EDX, thermal analysis, and nitrogen adsorption. An increase in the amount of H(2)S adsorbed/oxidized on their surfaces in comparison with that of pure Zn(OH)(2) is linked to the structure of the composite, the relative number of terminal hydroxyls, and the kind of graphene-based phase used. Although terminal groups are activated by a photochemical process, the graphite oxide component owing to the chemical bonds with the zinc(oxy)hydroxide phase and conductive properties helps in electron transfer, leading to more efficient oxygen activation via the formation of superoxide ions. Elemental sulfur, zinc sulfide, sulfite, and sulfate are formed on the surface. The formation of sulfur compounds on the surface of zinc(oxy)hydroxide during the course of the breakthrough experiments and thus Zn(OH)(2)-ZnS heterojunctions can also contribute to the increased surface activity of our materials. The results show the superiority of graphite oxide in the formation of composites owing to its active surface chemistry and the possibility of interface bond formation, leading to an increase in the number of electron-transfer reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Effective sulfur and energy recovery from hydrogen sulfide through incorporating an air-cathode fuel cell into chelated-iron process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Cui, Yu-Zhi

    2013-12-15

    The chelated-iron process is among the most promising techniques for the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal due to its double advantage of waste minimization and resource recovery. However, this technology has encountered the problem of chelate degradation which made it difficult to ensure reliable and economical operation. This work aims to develop a novel fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process which employs an air-cathode fuel cell for the catalyst regeneration. By using such a process, sulfur and electricity were effectively recovered from H2S and the problem of chelate degradation was well controlled. Experiment on a synthetic sulfide solution showed the fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process could maintain high sulfur recovery efficiencies generally above 90.0%. The EDTA was preferable to NTA as the chelating agent for electricity generation, given the Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) of 17.8 ± 0.5% to 75.1 ± 0.5% for the EDTA-chelated process versus 9.6 ± 0.8% to 51.1 ± 2.7% for the NTA-chelated process in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. The Fe (III)/S(2-) ratio exhibited notable influence on the electricity generation, with the CEs improved by more than 25% as the Fe (III)/S(2-) molar ratio increased from 2.5:1 to 3.5:1. Application of this novel process in treating a H2S-containing biogas stream achieved 99% of H2S removal efficiency, 78% of sulfur recovery efficiency, and 78.6% of energy recovery efficiency, suggesting the fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process was effective to remove the H2S from gas streams with favorable sulfur and energy recovery efficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrophilic cobalt sulfide nanosheets as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen and hydrogen evolution in electrolysis of alkaline aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingchao; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Shicai

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophilic medium and precursors were used to synthesize a hydrophilic electro-catalyst for overall water splitting. The cobalt sulfide (Co 3 S 4 ) catalyst exhibits a layered nanosheet structure with a hydrophilic surface, which can facilitate the diffusion of aqueous substrates into the electrode pores and towards the active sites. The Co 3 S 4 catalyst shows excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The assembled water electrolyzer based on Co 3 S 4 exhibits better performance and stability than that of Pt/C-RuO 2 catalyst. Thereforce the hydrophilic Co 3 S 4 is a highly promising bifunctional catalyst for the overall water splitting reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A malonitrile-functionalized metal-organic framework for hydrogen sulfide detection and selective amino acid molecular recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiwei; Feng, Xiao; Guo, Yuexin; Chen, Didi; Li, Rui; Ren, Xiaoqian; Jiang, Xin; Dong, Yuping; Wang, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A novel porous polymeric fluorescence probe, MN-ZIF-90, has been designed and synthesized for quantitative hydrogen sulfide (H2S) fluorescent detection and highly selective amino acid recognition. This distinct crystalline structure, derived from rational design and malonitrile functionalization, can trigger significant enhancement of its fluorescent intensity when exposed to H2S or cysteine molecules. Indeed this new metal-organic framework (MOF) structure shows high selectivity of biothiols over other amino acids and exhibits favorable stability. Moreover, in vitro viability assays on HeLa cells show low cytotoxicity of MN-ZIF-90 and its imaging contrast efficiency is further demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy studies. This facile yet powerful strategy also offers great potential of using open-framework materials (i.e. MOFs) as the novel platform for sensing and other biological applications.

  14. Portable and Disposable Paper-Based Fluorescent Sensor for In Situ Gaseous Hydrogen Sulfide Determination in Near Real-Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruci, João Flávio da Silveira; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves

    2016-12-06

    Hydrogen sulfide is found in many environments including sewage systems, petroleum extraction platforms, kraft paper mills, and exhaled breath, but its determination at ppb levels remains a challenge within the analytical chemistry field. Off-line methods for analysis of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds can suffer from a variety of biases associated with high reactivity, sorptive losses, and atmospheric oxidative reactions. Here, we present a portable, online, and disposable gas sensor platform for the in situ determination of gaseous hydrogen sulfide, employing a 470 nm light emitting diode (LED) and a microfiber optic USB spectrometer. A sensing layer was created by impregnating 2.5 μL (0.285 nmol) of fluorescein mercury acetate (FMA) onto the surface of a micropaper analytical device with dimensions of 5 × 5 mm, which was then positioned in the optical detection system. The quantitative determination of H 2 S was based on the quenching of fluorescence intensity after direct selective reaction between the gas and FMA. This approach enabled linear calibration within the range 17-67 ppb of H 2 S, with a limit of detection of 3 ppb. The response time of the sensor was within 60 s, and the repeatability was 6.5% (RSD). The sensor was employed to monitor H 2 S released from a mini-scale wastewater treatment tank in a research laboratory. The appropriate integration of optoelectronic and mechanical devices, including LED, photodiode, pumps, and electronic boards, can be used to produce simple, fully automated portable sensors for the in situ determination of H 2 S in a variety of environments.

  15. Involvement of microRNA-135a-5p in the Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Development of effective therapeutic drugs for Parkinson's disease is in great need. During the progression of Parkinson's disease, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2 is activated to promote neurodegeneration. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has a neuroprotective effect during the neural injury of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of ROCK2 and H2S remain ill-defined. In the current study, we addressed these questions. Methods: We used a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced mouse subacute model of Parkinson's disease to study the effects of H2S on astrocytic activation in the mouse striatum, on the levels of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH-positive neuron loss, on the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the mice, and on the changes in ROCK2 and miR-135a-5p expression. Plasmid transfection was applied to modify miR-135a-5p levels in a neuronal cell line HCN-1A. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the relationship between ROCK2 and miR-135a-5p in neuronal cells, and then was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Results: H2S alleviated MPTP-induced astrocytic activation in the mouse striatum, alleviated the increases in TH-positive neuron loss, and improved the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the mice. H2S significantly attenuated the increases in ROCK2 and the decreases in miR-135a-5p by MPTP. MiR-135a-5p targeted the 3'-UTR of ROCK2 mRNA to inhibit its translation in neuronal cells. Conclusion: MiR-135a-5p-regulated ROCK2 may play a role in the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against Parkinson's disease.

  16. ACS6, a Hydrogen sulfide-donating derivative of sildenafil, inhibits homocysteine-induced apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiao-Qing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hydrogen sulfide-releasing sildenafil, ACS6, has been demonstrated to inhibit superoxide formation through donating hydrogen sulfide (H2S. We have found that H2S antagonizes homocysteine-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to explore the protection of ACS6 against homocysteine-triggered cytotoxicity and apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying in PC12 cells. Methods Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was observed using the chromatin dye Hoechst 33258 and analyzed by Flow Cytometry after propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using the fluorescent dye Rh123. Intracellular reactive oxygen species were determined by oxidative conversion of cell permeable 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate to fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 and bcl-2 and the accumulation of cytosolic cytochrome c were analyzed by Western blot. Results We show that ACS6 protects PC12 cells against cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by homocysteine and blocks homocysteine-triggered cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. ACS6 treatment results in not only prevention of homocysteine-caused mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ loss and reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction but also reversal of Bcl-2 down-expression. Conclusions These results indicate that ACS6 protects PC12 cells against homocysteine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial function though inhibiting both loss of Δψ and accumulation of ROS as well as modulating the expression of Bcl-2. Our study provides evidence both for a neuroprotective effect of ACS6 and for further evaluation of ACS6 as novel neuroprotectants for Alzheimer's disease associated with homocysteine.

  17. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  18. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Dezhao, Liu; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    Observed hydrogen sulfide uptake rates in a biofilter treating waste air from a pig farm were too high to be explained within conventional limits of sulfide solubility, diffusion in a biofilm and bacterial metabolism. Clone libraries of 16S and 18S rRNA genes from the biofilter found no sulfide...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  19. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Liu, Dezhao; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Observed hydrogen sulfide uptake rates in a biofilter treating waste air from a pig farm were too high to be explained within conventional limits of sulfide solubility, diffusion in a biofilm and bacterial metabolism. Clone libraries of 16S and 18S rRNA genes from the biofilter found no sulfide...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  20. Effect of Ni on the characteristics and hydrogenation activity of sulfide Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtl, E.; Wuttke, E.; Gutierrez, O.Y.; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Center

    2012-07-01

    The hydrogenation of phenanthrene was explored on sulfide Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts promoted with increasing concentrations of Ni. The characterization of the materials was done by N{sub 2}-physisorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, temperature programmed sulfidation and NO adsorption experiments. Increasing loading of Ni improves the dispersion of MoS{sub 2} species; however, at Ni/(Mo+Ni) molar ratio higher than 0.5, segregation of Ni-sulfides is observed. The presence of Ni also facilitates the sulfidation of oxidic catalyst precursors by lowering the reduction temperature of Mo species. In the sulfide catalysts, Ni changes the structure of MoS{sub 2} leading to shorter slabs with higher stacking degree than on Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and increases the concentration of coordinatively unsaturated sites. The kinetic results (increased hydrogenation rate and changed reaction network in the presence of Ni) suggest that a highly active kind of active site is created by Ni promotion. (orig.)

  1. Surface generation of negative hydrogen ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommel, P.J.M. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on negative hydrogen ion sources at the ampere level. Formation of H - ions occurs when positive hydrogen ions capture two electrons at metal surfaces. The negative ionization probability of hydrogen at metal surfaces increases strongly with decreasing work function of the surface. The converters used in this study are covered with cesium. Usually there are 'surface plasma sources' in which the hydrogen source plasma interacts with a converter. In this thesis the author concentrates upon investigating a new concept that has converters outside the plasma. In this approach a positive hydrogen ion beam is extracted from the plasma and is subsequently reflected from a low work function converter surface. (Auth.)

  2. One-step liquid phase chemical method to prepare carbon-based amorphous molybdenum sulfides: As the effective hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Qikang; Yu, Miaomiao; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2017-01-01

    Two different kinds of carbon-based amorphous molybdenum sulfide composite catalysts (activated carbon supported amorphous molybdenum sulfide and acetylene black supported amorphous molybdenum sulfide) had been prepared in a facile and scalable one-step liquid phase chemical method. The morphological and structural information of catalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it’s electro-catalytic HER activity were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry(LSV), amperometric i-t technology and AC impedance technology. The as-prepared carbon-based amorphous molybdenum sulfides showed greatly enhanced electro-catalytic activity for HER compared with pure amorphous molybdenum sulfides. Especially, the nano-sized acetylene black supported molybdenum sulfide exhibited excellent electro-catalytic HER performances with a low onset potential of −116 mV versus reverse hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade.

  3. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  4. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischan, J; Makaruk, A; Harasek, M

    2012-05-15

    Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H(2)S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H(2)S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H(2)S with H(2)O(2), high H(2)S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO(2) absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180m(3)/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H(2)S contents in the crude gas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krischan, J., E-mail: jutta_krischan@hotmail.com [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Makaruk, A., E-mail: aleksander.makaruk@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Harasek, M., E-mail: michael.harasek@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline oxidative scrubbing proved for biogas desulfurization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of operating conditions on hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minimization of caustic and oxidant consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process control via pH, redox potential and conductivity measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of long-term behavior of pilot plant operation. - Abstract: Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H{sub 2}S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H{sub 2}S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H{sub 2}S with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO{sub 2} absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180 m{sup 3}/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H{sub 2}S contents in the crude gas.

  6. Hydrogen Generation from Sugars via Aqueous-Phase Reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randy D Cortright

    2006-01-01

    Virent Energy Systems, Inc. is commercializing the Aqueous Phase Reforming (APR) process that allows the generation of hydrogen-rich gas streams from biomass-derived compounds such as glycerol, sugars, and sugar alcohols. The APR process is a unique method that generates hydrogen from aqueous solutions of these oxygenated compounds in a single step reactor process compared to the three or more reaction steps required for hydrogen generation via conventional processes that utilize non-renewable fossil fuels. The key breakthrough of the APR process is that the reforming of these aqueous solutions is done in the liquid phase. The patented APR process occurs at temperatures (150 C to 270 C) where the water-gas shift reaction is favorable, making it possible to generate hydrogen with low amounts of CO in a single chemical reactor. Furthermore, the APR process occurs at pressures (typically 15 to 50 bar) where the hydrogen-rich effluent can be effectively purified using either membrane technology or pressure swing adsorption technology. The utilization of biomass-based compounds allows the APR process to be a carbon neutral method to generate hydrogen. In the near term, the feed-stock of interest is waste glycerol that is being generated in large quantities as a byproduct in the production of bio-diesel. Virent has developed the APR system for on-demand generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from either glycerol or sorbitol (the sugar alcohol formed by hydrogenation of glucose) to fuel a stationary internal combustion engine driven generator (10 kW). Under a USDOE funded project, Virent is currently developing the APR process to generate high yields of hydrogen from corn-derived glucose. This project objective is to achieve the DOE 2010 cost target for distributed production from renewable liquid fuels of 3.60 dollars/gge (gasoline gallon equivalent) delivered. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide metabolites in the blood of free-ranging brown bears and their potential roles in hibernation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Inge G; Shen, Xinggui; Chakravarti, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), in winter-hibernating and summer-active free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. We found that levels of sulfide metabolites were overall similar in summer-active and hibernating bears but their composition in the plasma...... differed significantly, with a decrease in bound sulfane sulfur in hibernation. High levels of unbound free sulfide correlated with high levels of cysteine (Cys) and with low levels of bound sulfane sulfur, indicating that during hibernation H2S, in addition to being formed enzymatically from the substrate...... Cys, may also be regenerated from its oxidation products, including thiosulfate and polysulfides. In the absence of any dietary intake, this shift in the mode of H2S synthesis would help preserve free Cys for synthesis of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant found at high levels in the red blood...

  8. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S.

  9. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  10. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  12. A self-regulating hydrogen generator for micro fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Pengwang, Eakkachai; Shannon, Mark A. [Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Masel, Richard I. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 213 Roger Adams Lab, 600 S. Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The ever-increasing power demands and miniaturization of portable electronics, micro-sensors and actuators, and emerging technologies such as cognitive arthropods have created a significant interest in development of micro fuel cells. One of the major challenges in development of hydrogen micro fuel cells is the fabrication and integration of auxiliary systems for generating, regulating, and delivering hydrogen gas to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this paper, we report the development of a hydrogen gas generator with a micro-scale control system that does not consume any power. The hydrogen generator consists of a hydride reactor and a water reservoir, with a regulating valve separating them. The regulating valve consists of a port from the water reservoir and a movable membrane with via holes that permit water to flow from the reservoir to the hydride reactor. Water flows towards the hydride reactor, but stops within the membrane via holes due to capillary forces. Water vapor then diffuses from the via holes into the hydride reactor resulting in generation of hydrogen gas. When the rate of hydrogen consumed by the MEA is lower than the generation rate, gas pressure builds up inside the hydride reactor, deflecting the membrane, closing the water regulator valve, until the pressure drops, whereby the valve reopens. We have integrated the self-regulating micro hydrogen generator to a MEA and successfully conducted fuel cell tests under varying load conditions. (author)

  13. Thermochemical hydrogen generation of indium oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy resources is an urgent requirement to alleviate current energy constraints. As such, hydrogen gas is gaining attention as a future alternative energy source to address existing issues related to limited energy resources and air pollution. In this study, hydrogen generation by a thermochemical water-splitting process using two types of In2O3 thin films was investigated. The two In2O3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD and sputtering deposition systems contained different numbers of oxygen vacancies, which were directly related to hydrogen generation. The as-grown In2O3 thin film prepared by CVD generated a large amount of hydrogen because of its abundant oxygen vacancies, while that prepared by sputtering had few oxygen vacancies, resulting in low hydrogen generation. Increasing the temperature of the In2O3 thin film in the reaction chamber caused an increase in hydrogen generation. The oxygen-vacancy-rich In2O3 thin film is expected to provide a highly effective production of hydrogen as a sustainable and efficient energy source.

  14. Reactions of Hydrogen Sulfide with Singly and Doubly Tucked-in Titanocenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Císařová, I.; Horáček, Michal; Kubišta, Jiří; Mach, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2011), s. 1034-1045 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : hydrogen sulphide * titanocene * chemical structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.963, year: 2011

  15. Hydrogen generator from light hydrocarbons for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, F.; Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, L.; Vita, A.; Lagana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present article describes the activities carried out in the CNR institute, particularly the development, realization and testing of one unit of hydrogen generation to integrate with fuel-cells for residential applications [it

  16. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, Y.; Liu, G.; Yan, Y.; Huang, D.; Luo, W.; Martínková, M.; Man, Petr; Shimizu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 839-852 ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Heme oxygenase * Heme protein * Hydrogen sulfide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.689, year: 2013

  17. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) on Z. marina seedlings, seed germination and shoot density from 2013-01-16 to 2015-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple experiments were conducted to determine the effects hydrogen sulfide had on seedlings and seed germination in the seagrass Zostera marina. One study...

  18. Production of Hydrogen by Superadiabatic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide - Final Technical Report for the Period June 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology, Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, and Synaptic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pradip K; Kyles, Philip; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-05-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) level is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). During transsulfuration pathways, Hcy is metabolized into hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is a synaptic modulator, as well as a neuro-protective agent. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide, as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation, in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and synaptic dysfunction, leading to AD pathology is not clear. Therefore, we hypothesized that the inhibition of neuronal NMDA-R by H2S and MK801 mitigate the Hcy-induced BBB disruption and synapse dysfunction, in part by decreasing neuronal matrix degradation. Hcy intracerebral (IC) treatment significantly impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral circulation and memory function. Hcy treatment also decreases the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in the brain along with increased expression of NMDA-R (NR1) and synaptosomal Ca(2+) indicating excitotoxicity. Additionally, we found that Hcy treatment increased protein and mRNA expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 and also increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the brain. The increased expression of ICAM-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the decreased expression of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and claudin-5 indicates BBB disruption and vascular inflammation. Moreover, we also found decreased expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP-97), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), synaptophysin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) showing synapse dysfunction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NaHS and MK801 treatment ameliorates BBB disruption, CBF, and synapse functions in the mice brain. These results demonstrate a neuro-protective effect of H2S over Hcy

  20. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  1. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Selective detection of acetone and hydrogen sulfide for the diagnosis of diabetes and halitosis using SnO(2) nanofibers functionalized with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Bong-Hoon; Lee, Seo-Jin; Min, Byoung Koun; Rothschild, Avner; Kim, Il-Doo

    2014-02-26

    Sensitive detection of acetone and hydrogen sulfide levels in exhaled human breath, serving as breath markers for some diseases such as diabetes and halitosis, may offer useful information for early diagnosis of these diseases. Exhaled breath analyzers using semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) gas sensors have attracted much attention because they offer low cost fabrication, miniaturization, and integration into portable devices for noninvasive medical diagnosis. However, SMO gas sensors often display cross sensitivity to interfering species. Therefore, selective real-time detection of specific disease markers is a major challenge that must be overcome to ensure reliable breath analysis. In this work, we report on highly sensitive and selective acetone and hydrogen sulfide detection achieved by sensitizing electrospun SnO2 nanofibers with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets. SnO2 nanofibers mixed with a small amount (0.01 wt %) of RGO nanosheets exhibited sensitive response to hydrogen sulfide (Rair/Rgas = 34 at 5 ppm) at 200 °C, whereas sensitive acetone detection (Rair/Rgas = 10 at 5 ppm) was achieved by increasing the RGO loading to 5 wt % and raising the operation temperature to 350 °C. The detection limit of these sensors is predicted to be as low as 1 ppm for hydrogen sulfide and 100 ppb for acetone, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than in the exhaled breath of healthy people. This demonstrates that optimization of the RGO loading and the operation temperature of RGO-SnO2 nanocomposite gas sensors enables highly sensitive and selective detection of breath markers for the diagnosis of diabetes and halitosis.

  3. Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume III. Final report: demonstration plant equipment descriptions, test plan, and operating instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.C.; Harvey, W.W.; Warren, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The elements of the final, detailed design of the demonstration plant for the copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal steam are summarized. Descriptions are given of all items of equipment in sufficient detail that they can serve as purchase specifications. The process and mechanical design criteria which were used to develop the specifications, and the process descriptions and material and energy balance bases to which the design criteria were applied are included. (MHR)

  4. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  5. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  6. Hydrogen sulfide removal in water-based drilling fluid by metal oxide nanoparticle and ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Morgani, M.; Saboori, R.; Sabbaghi, S.

    2017-07-01

    Advanced approaches to the application of nanomaterials for environmental studies, such as waste-water treatment and pollution removal/adsorption, have been considered in recent decades. In this research, hydrogen sulfide removal from water-based drilling fluid by ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles and a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite was studied experimentally. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sedimentation and the sol-gel method. A sol-chemical was employed to synthesize the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the produced ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles, and the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite. The results showed that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased from 800 ppm to about 250 ppm (about 70% removal) and less than 150 ppm (more than 80% removal) using the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles with a 0.67 wt% concentration, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide removal using the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite with a 0.67 wt% showed the highest value of removal in comparison with the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The hydrogen sulfide level was lowered from 800 ppm to less than 5 ppm (99% removal) by the nanocomposite.

  7. A new method for the simultaneous enhancement of methane yield and reduction of hydrogen sulfide production in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Hu, Chongliang; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang

    2017-11-01

    The biogas generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) also includes undesirable by-product such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which must be removed before the biogas can be used as a clean energy source. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane yield and reduce H 2 S production. An efficient strategy-pretreating sludge at pH 10 for 8d and adjusting the system at neutral pH to produce methane for 20d-is reported for the synchronous enhancement of methane production and reduction of H 2 S production during AD. The experimental results showed that the cumulative methane yield was 861.2±6.1mL/g volatile solids (VS) of sludge pretreated at pH 10 in semi-continuous stirred anaerobic reactors for 84d, an increase of 49.6% over the yield in the control. Meanwhile, the cumulative production of H 2 S was 144.1×10 -4 mL/g VS, 54.2% lower than that in the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cystathionine-β-synthase-derived hydrogen sulfide is required for amygdalar long-term potentiation and cued fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bo; Wu, Wen-Ning; Wang, Wei; Gu, Xun-Hu; Yu, Bin; Wei, Bo; Yang, Yuan-Jian

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule that functions as a neuromodulator in the brain. We previously reported that H 2 S regulated amygdalar synaptic plasticity and cued fear memory in rats. However, whether endogenous H 2 S is required for amygdalar long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and cued fear memory formation remains unclear. Here, we show that cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), the predominant H 2 S-producing enzyme in the brain, was highly expressed in the amygdala of rats. Suppressing CBS activity by inhibitor prevented activity-triggered generation of H 2 S in the lateral amygdala (LA) region. Incubating brain slices with CBS inhibitor significantly prevented the induction of NMDA receptors (NMDARs)-dependent LTP in the thalamo-LA pathway, and intra-LA infusion of CBS inhibitor impaired cued fear memory in rats. Notably, treatment with H 2 S donor, but not CBS activator, significantly reversed the impairments of LTP and fear memory caused by CBS inhibition. Mechanismly, inhibition of CBS activity led to a reduction in NMDAR-mediated synaptic response in the thalamo-LA pathway, and treatment with H 2 S donor restored the function of NMDARs. Collectively, these results indicate that CBS-derived H 2 S is required for amygdalar synaptic plasticity and cued fear memory in rats, and the effects of endogenous H 2 S might involve the regulation of NMDAR function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cysteine and hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of metabolism:Insights from genetics and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Roderick N; Morton, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity and diabetes represent a significant and escalating worldwide health burden. These conditions are characterized by abnormal nutrient homeostasis. One such perturbation is altered metabolism of the sulphur?containing amino acid cysteine. Obesity is associated with elevated plasma cysteine, whereas diabetes is associated with reduced cysteine levels. One mechanism by which cysteine may act is through its enzymatic breakdown to produce hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a gasotransmitter ...

  10. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration Processes in Biogas Tri-Reforming Process. The Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Izquierdo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies Ni-based catalyst deactivation and regeneration processes in the presence of H2S under a biogas tri-reforming process for hydrogen production, which is an energy vector of great interest. 25 ppm of hydrogen sulfide were continuously added to the system in order to provoke an observable catalyst deactivation, and once fully deactivated two different regeneration processes were studied: a self-regeneration and a regeneration by low temperature oxidation. For that purpose, several Ni-based catalysts and a bimetallic Rh-Ni catalyst supported on alumina modified with CeO2 and ZrO2 were used as well as a commercial Katalco 57-5 for comparison purposes. Ni/Ce-Al2O3 and Ni/Ce-Zr-Al2O3 catalysts almost recovered their initial activity. For these catalysts, after the regeneration under oxidative conditions at low temperature, the CO2 conversions achieved—79.5% and 86.9%, respectively—were significantly higher than the ones obtained before sulfur poisoning—66.7% and 45.2%, respectively. This effect could be attributed to the support modification with CeO2 and the higher selectivity achieved for the Reverse Water-Gas-Shift (rWGS reaction after catalysts deactivation. As expected, the bimetallic Rh-Ni/Ce-Al2O3 catalyst showed higher resistance to deactivation and its sulfur poisoning seems to be reversible. In the case of the commercial and Ni/Zr-Al2O3 catalysts, they did not recover their activity.

  11. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon Sub [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada); Greenhouse Gas Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Gyu [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Croiset, Eric, E-mail: ecroiset@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada); Chen, Zhongwei [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada); Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung [Greenhouse Gas Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: cosy32@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H{sub 2}S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H{sub 2}S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} on H{sub 2}S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H{sub 2}S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H{sub 2}S since it allows a reducing environment for Zn-O and Zn-S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn{sup 2+}) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}.

  12. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Moon Gyu; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Yi, Kwang Bok

    2013-09-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H2S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H2S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H2 and CO2 on H2S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H2S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H2S since it allows a reducing environment for Znsbnd O and Znsbnd S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn2+) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H2S and CO2.

  13. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Moon Gyu; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Yi, Kwang Bok

    2013-01-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H 2 S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H 2 S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H 2 and CO 2 on H 2 S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H 2 S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H 2 S since it allows a reducing environment for Zn-O and Zn-S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn 2+ ) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H 2 S and CO 2 .

  14. Relationship between endogenous hydrogen sulfide and blood stasis syndrome based on the Qi-blood theory of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Xue-mei

    2013-09-01

    "Qi" and "blood" are two essential concepts in Chinese medicine (CM). As qi is intangible, the concept of qi is still controversial between CM and Western medicine. However, the endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other gaseous signaling molecules provides a new approach for understanding the essence of qi in CM. Blood stasis syndrome is a common syndrome in CM. According to the CM theory, the incidence of blood stasis syndrome is closely correlated to the reckless movement of qi, as qi and blood are inseparable in regulating physiological functions. In recent years, more and more evidences suggest a close correlation between blood stasis syndrome and microcirculation dysfunction. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between endogenous H2S and blood stasis syndrome based on qi-blood theory of CM. We found that endogenous H2S maybe a material basis in concept of qi in CM, while dysfunctional microcirculation is the pathological basis of the blood stasis syndrome. As qi is closely associated with incidence and progression of blood stasis syndrome, endogenous H2S may play an important role in preventing and treating the blood stasis syndrome by improving the function of microcirculation.

  15. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gaseous Mediators Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Mechanism of Gastrointestinal Integrity, Protection and Ulcer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Magierowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S are known as biological messengers; they play an important role in human organism and contribute to many physiological and pathophysiological processes. NO is produced from l-arginine by constitutive NO synthase (NOS and inducible NOS enzymatic pathways. This gaseous mediator inhibits platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion and contributes to the vessel homeostasis. NO is known as a vasodilatory molecule involved in control of the gastric blood flow (GBF and the maintenance of gastric mucosal barrier integrity in either healthy gastric mucosa or that damaged by strong irritants. Biosynthesis of H2S in mammals depends upon two enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. This gaseous mediator, similarly to NO and carbon monoxide, is involved in neuromodulation, vascular contractility and anti-inflammatory activities. For decades, H2S has been known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and reduce cell energy production. Nowadays it is generally considered to act through vascular smooth muscle ATP-dependent K+ channels, interacting with intracellular transcription factors and promote sulfhydration of protein cysteine moieties within the cell, but the mechanism of potential gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties of H2S has not been fully explained. The aim of this review is to compare current results of the studies concerning the role of H2S and NO in gastric mucosa protection and outline areas that may pose new opportunities for further development of novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Size-tunable copper nanocluster aggregates and their application in hydrogen sulfide sensing on paper-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chi; Ma, Jia-Yin; Huang, Jia-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2016-04-01

    Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), a strong polyelectrolyte, was used to prepare red photoluminescent PSS-penicillamine (PA) copper (Cu) nanoclusters (NC) aggregates, which displayed high selectivity and sensitivity to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The size of the PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be readily controlled from 5.5 μm to 173 nm using different concentrations of PSS, which enabled better dispersity and higher sensitivity towards H2S. PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates provided rapid H2S detection by using the strong Cu-S interaction to quench NC photoluminescence as a sensing mechanism. As a result, a detection limit of 650 nM, which is lower than the maximum level permitted in drinking water by the World Health Organization, was achieved for the analysis of H2S in spring-water samples. Moreover, highly dispersed PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be incorporated into a plate-format paper-based analytical device which enables ultra-low sample volumes (5 μL) and feature shorter analysis times (30 min) compared to conventional solution-based methods. The advantages of low reagent consumption, rapid result readout, limited equipment, and long-term storage make this platform sensitive and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation in novel Horizontal-Flow Biofilm Reactors dominated by an Acidithiobacillus and a Thiobacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, S; Kennelly, C; Clifford, E; Collins, G

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is an odourous, highly toxic gas commonly encountered in various commercial and municipal sectors. Three novel, laboratory-scale, Horizontal-Flow Biofilm Reactors (HFBRs) were tested for the removal of H2S gas from air streams over a 178-day trial at 10°C. Removal rates of up to 15.1 g [H2S] m(-3) h(-1) were achieved, demonstrating the HFBRs as a feasible technology for the treatment of H2S-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures. Bio-oxidation of H2S in the reactors led to the production of H(+) and sulfate (SO(2-)4) ions, resulting in the acidification of the liquid phase. Reduced removal efficiency was observed at loading rates of 15.1 g [H2S] m(-3) h(-1). NaHCO3 addition to the liquid nutrient feed (synthetic wastewater (SWW)) resulted in improved H2S removal. Bacterial diversity, which was investigated by sequencing and fingerprinting 16S rRNA genes, was low, likely due to the harsh conditions prevailing in the systems. The HFBRs were dominated by two species from the genus Acidithiobacillus and Thiobacillus. Nonetheless, there were significant differences in microbial community structure between distinct HFBR zones due to the influence of alkalinity, pH and SO4 concentrations. Despite the low temperature, this study indicates HFBRs have an excellent potential to biologically treat H2S-contaminated airstreams.

  19. Study and modeling of the evolution of gas-liquid partitioning of hydrogen sulfide in model solutions simulating winemaking fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Farines, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of gas-liquid partitioning of aroma compounds during winemaking fermentation could allow optimization of fermentation management, maximizing concentrations of positive markers of aroma and minimizing formation of molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), responsible for defects. In this study, the effect of the main fermentation parameters on the gas-liquid partition coefficients (Ki) of H2S was assessed. The Ki for this highly volatile sulfur compound was measured in water by an original semistatic method developed in this work for the determination of gas-liquid partitioning. This novel method was validated and then used to determine the Ki of H2S in synthetic media simulating must, fermenting musts at various steps of the fermentation process, and wine. Ki values were found to be mainly dependent on the temperature but also varied with the composition of the medium, especially with the glucose concentration. Finally, a model was developed to quantify the gas-liquid partitioning of H2S in synthetic media simulating must to wine. This model allowed a very accurate prediction of the partition coefficient of H2S: the difference between observed and predicted values never exceeded 4%.

  20. A nanoscale Zr-based fluorescent metal-organic framework for selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Ke; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been commonly viewed as a gas signaling molecule in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the highly efficient H2S detection still remains challenging. Herein, we designed a new robust nano metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66-CH=CH2 as a fluorescent probe for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of biological H2S. UiO-66-CH=CH2 was prepared by heating ZrCl4 and 2-vinylterephthalic acid via a simple method. UiO-66-CH=CH2 displayed fluorescence quenching to H2S and kept excellent selectivity in the presence of biological relevant analytes especially the cysteine and glutathione. This MOF-based probe also exhibited fast response (10 s) and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 6.46 μM which was within the concentration range of biological H2S in living system. Moreover, this constructed MOF featured water-stability, nanoscale (20-30 nm) and low toxicity, which made it a promising candidate for biological H2S sensing.

  1. Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas for the community in the province of Maha Sarakham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinate, W.; Dangphonthong, D.; Sirirach, S.; Sukkhon, S.

    2017-09-01

    Biogas produced from the fermentation in the province of Maha Sarakham of excreta from cow dung, fattening pigs and buffalo dung in small scale farms contained hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at 764, 926 and 1,103 ppm, respectively. This gas has offensive smell and is corrosive to motor and metal stove of farmers, thus needs to be eliminated. The adsorbent granules soaking in FeCl3 and NaOH made from grey cement mixed with diatomaceous earth or fine sand. The experiment cow dung, fattening pigs and buffalo dung farms revealed that the adsorbent granules made from fine sand mixed with grey cement had better efficiency in reducing H2S than diatomaceous earth plus grey cement or scrap iron (97.1-91.4 vs. 86.0-64.3 and 77.9-89.4%, Pbiogas from 3,141 to 0 ppm in the first day and to 6 ppm on day 25 of using period, during which the colour of adsorbent granules changed from red brown to dark brown.

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK397, and -FAK925. Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway.

  3. Impacts of a massive release of methane and hydrogen sulfide on oxygen and ozone during the late Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiho, Kunio; Koga, Seizi

    2013-08-01

    The largest mass extinction of animals and plants in both the ocean and on land occurred in the late Permian (252 Ma), largely coinciding with the largest flood basalt volcanism event in Siberia and an oceanic anoxic/euxinic event. We investigated the impacts of a massive release of methane (CH4) from the Siberian igneous province and the ocean and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from the euxinic ocean on oxygen and ozone using photochemical model calculations. Our calculations indicated that an approximate of 14% decrease in atmospheric O2 levels would have occurred in the case of a large combined CH4 and H2S flux to the atmosphere, whereas an approximate of 8 to 10% decrease would have occurred from the CH4 flux and oxidation of all H2S in the ocean. The slight decrease in atmospheric O2 levels may have contributed to the extinction event. We demonstrate for the first time that a massive release of CH4 from the Siberian igneous province and a coincident massive release of CH4 and H2S did not cause ozone collapse. A collapse of stratospheric ozone leading to an increase in UV is not supported by the maximum model input levels for CH4 and H2S. These conclusions on O2 and O3 are correspondent to every H2S release percentages from the ocean to the atmosphere.

  4. Nitric oxide-activated hydrogen sulfide is essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important gaseous molecules, serving as important secondary messengers in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interaction between NO and H2S in plant stress response was largely unclear. In this study, endogenous NO and H2S were evidently induced by cadmium stress treatment in bermudagrass, and exogenous applications of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) or H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved cadmium stress tolerance. Additionally, SNP and NaHS treatments alleviated cadmium stress-triggered plant growth inhibition, cell damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, partly via modulating enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, SNP and NaHS treatments also induced the productions of both NO and H2S in the presence of Cd. Interestingly, combined treatments with inhibitors and scavengers of NO and H2S under cadmium stress condition showed that NO signal could be blocked by both NO and H2S inhibitors and scavengers, while H2S signal was specifically blocked by H2S inhibitors and scavengers, indicating that NO-activated H2S was essential for cadmium stress response. Taken together, we assigned the protective roles of endogenous and exogenous NO and H2S in bermudagrass response to cadmium stress, and speculated that NO-activated H2S might be essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Exogenous application of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-10-01

    As a gaseous molecule, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be involved in plant responses to multiple abiotic stress. In this study, salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl), osmotic (15% and 30% PEG6000) and cold (4 °C) stress treatments induced accumulation of endogenous H2S level, indicating that H2S might play a role in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and cold stresses. Exogenous application of H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved salt, osmotic and freezing stress tolerances in bermudagrass, which were evidenced by decreased electrolyte leakage and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Additionally, NaHS treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress, via modulating metabolisms of several antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and GR (glutathione reductase)] and non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool and redox state. Moreover, exogenous NaHS treatment led to accumulation of osmolytes (proline, sucrose and soluble total sugars) in stressed bermudagrass plants. Taken together, all these data indicated the protective roles of H2S in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and freezing stresses, via activation of the antioxidant response and osmolyte accumulation. These findings might be applicable to grass and crop engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Double ionization of the hydrogen sulfide molecule by electron impact: Influence of the target orientation on multiple differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imadouchene, N. [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Aouchiche, H., E-mail: h_aouchiche@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Champion, C. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, Boîte Postale 120, Gradignan 33175 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The double ionization of the H{sub 2}S molecule is here theoretically studied. • The orientation dependence of the differential cross sections is scrutinized. • The specific double ionizing mechanisms are clearly identified. - Abstract: Multiple differential cross sections of double ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecule impacted by electrons are here investigated within the first Born approximation. In the initial state, the incident electron is represented by a plane wave function whereas the target is described by means of a single-center molecular wave function. In the final state, the two ejected electrons are described by Coulomb wave functions coupled by the Gamow factor, whereas the scattered electron is described by a plane wave. In this work, we analyze the role played by the molecular target orientation in the double ionization of the four outermost orbitals, namely 2b{sub 1}, 5a{sub 1}, 2b{sub 2} and 4a{sub 1} in considering the particular case of two electrons ejected from the same orbital. The contribution of each final state to the double ionization process is studied in terms of shape and magnitude for specific molecular orientations and for each molecular orbital we identified the mechanisms involved in the double ionization process, namely, the Shake-Off and the Two-Step 1.

  7. Nicotine affects hydrogen sulfide concentrations in mouse kidney and heart but not in brain and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Jerzy; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kameczura, Tomasz; Zygmunt, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

  8. High hydrogen desorption properties of Mg-based nanocomposite at moderate temperatures: The effects of multiple catalysts in situ formed by adding nickel sulfides/graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiubo; Chen, Ming; Liu, Peng; Shang, Jiaxiang; Liu, Tong

    2017-12-01

    Nickel sulfides decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been produced by co-reducing Ni2+ and graphene oxide (GO), and is subsequently ball milled with Mg nanoparticles (NPs) produced by hydrogen plasma metal reaction (HPMR). The nickel sulfides of about 800 nm completely in situ change to MgS, Mg2Ni and Ni multiple catalysts after first hydrogenation/dehydrogenation process at 673 K. The Mg-5wt%NiS/rGO nanocomposite shows the highest hydrogen desorption kinetics and capacity properties, and the catalytic effect order of the additives is NiS/rGO, NiS and rGO. At 573 K, the Mg-NiS/rGO nanocomposite can quickly desorb 3.7 wt% H2 in 10 min and 4.5 wt% H2 in 60 min. The apparent hydrogen absorption and desorption activation energies of the Mg-5wt%NiS/rGO nanocomposite are decreased to 44.47 and 63.02 kJ mol-1, smaller than those of the Mg-5wt%rGO and Mg-5wt%NiS samples. The best hydrogen desorption properties of the Mg-5wt%NiS/rGO nanocomposite can be explained by the synergistic catalytic effects of the highly dispersed MgS, Mg2Ni and Ni catalysts on the rGO sheets, and the more nucleation sites between the catalysts, rGO sheets and Mg matrix.

  9. IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement's Second Generation R and D and the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, N.; Garcia-Conde, A. G.; Riis, T. U.; Luzzi, A.; Valladares, M. R. de

    2005-07-01

    Since its creation by the International Energy Agency in the late 1970's, the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (HIA) has been at the forefront of collaborative international hydrogen research and development (R and D) (http://www.ieahia.org. ) The collective body of HIA hydrogen R and D will contribute to definition of the hydrogen economy. The five-year [2004-2009) mission of the IEA HIA is to advance the adoption of a Hydrogen Economy through strategic implementation of collaborative R and D and outreach programs that address key issues and barriers. The three goals for the Second Generation HIA are: Advancement of science and technology via pre-commercial collaborative RD and D programs; Assessment of market environment, including the non-energy sector; and Implementation of outreach program, aimed at community acceptance and support. The HIA launched its Second Generation of hydrogen R and D in the latter part of 2004. The HIA's anniversary report: In Pursuit of the Future: 25 Years of IEA Research towards the realization of Hydrogen Energy Systems (http://ieahia.org/pdfs/IEA_AnniversaryReport_HIA.pdf) chronicles its contributions to hydrogen R and D. As the hydrogen economy takes shape, the HIA is pleased to share highlights of its R and D history together with progress on planned activities and its six current annexes, listed below: Task 15 Photobiological Production of Hydrogen Task 16 Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials Task 17 Solid and Liquid Storage Task 18 Integrated Systems Evaluation Task 19 Safety Task 20 Hydrogen from Waterphotolysis Planned successor annexes in storage and photobiological hydrogen production will also be discussed, along with a task on high temperature hydrogen production that is now in the definition phase. Over 250 experts from the sixteen member HIA countries and the European Union contribute to this portfolio of cutting edge hydrogen R and D and analysis activities. Several other countries are expected to

  10. Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production of Flower-like Cadmium Sulfide Decorated by Histidine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qizhao; Lian, Juhong; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Rongfang; Huang, Haohao; Su, Bitao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdS can significantly enhance the efficiency of its photocatalytic hydrogen production. In this study, a novel three-dimensional (3D) flower-like CdS is synthesized via a facile template-free hydrothermal process using Cd(NO3)2•4H2O and thiourea as precursors and L-Histidine as a chelating agent. The morphology, crystal phase, and photoelectrochemical performance of the flower-like CdS and pure CdS nanocrystals are carefully investigated via various characte...

  11. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits high glucose-induced NADPH oxidase 4 expression and matrix increase by recruiting inducible nitric oxide synthase in kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Doug Yoon; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Feliers, Denis; Ghosh-Choudhury, Goutam; Abboud, Hanna E; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2017-04-07

    High-glucose increases NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and matrix protein synthesis by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in renal cells. Because hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibits high glucose-induced matrix protein increase by activating AMPK in renal cells, we examined whether H 2 S inhibits high glucose-induced expression of NOX4 and matrix protein and whether H 2 S and NO pathways are integrated. High glucose increased NOX4 expression and activity at 24 h in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, which was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a source of H 2 S. High glucose decreased AMPK phosphorylation and activity, which was restored by NaHS. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, prevented NaHS inhibition of high glucose-induced NOX4 expression. NaHS inhibition of high glucose-induced NOX4 expression was abrogated by N (ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NOS. NaHS unexpectedly augmented the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) but not endothelial NOS. iNOS siRNA and 1400W, a selective iNOS inhibitor, abolished the ameliorative effects of NaHS on high glucose-induced NOX4 expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and, matrix laminin expression. Thus, H 2 S recruits iNOS to generate NO to inhibit high glucose-induced NOX4 expression, oxidative stress, and matrix protein accumulation in renal epithelial cells; the two gasotransmitters H 2 S and NO and their interaction may serve as therapeutic targets in diabetic kidney disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The solubility of gold in hydrogen sulfide gas: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis Yu.; Migdisov, Artashes A.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2007-06-01

    The solubility of gold in H 2S gas has been investigated at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C and pressures up to 230 bars. Experimentally determined values of the solubility of Au are 0.4-1.4 ppb at 300 °C, 1-8 ppb at 350 °C and 8.6-95 ppb at 400 °C. Owing to a positive dependence of the logarithm of the fugacity of gold on the logarithm of the fugacity of H 2S, it is proposed that the solubility of Au can be attributed to formation of a solvated gaseous sulfide or bisulfide complex through reactions of the type: Au(s)+(n+1)·HS(g)=AuS·(HS)n(g)+H(g) or Au(g)+(n+1)·HS(g)=AuHS·(HS)n(g)+{1}/{2}H(g) which are f-dependent; n is a statistical solvation number. If the redox potential is buffered by S/H 2S (the case in our study), the corresponding reactions are: Au(s)+n·HS(g)+S(l)=AuS·(HS)n(g) or Au(s)+(n+{1}/{2})·HS(g)+{1}/{2}S(l)=AuHS·(HS)n(g) Values of n for these latter reactions were calculated to be 1.8 and 1.2 at 300 °C, 1.7 and 1.0 at 350 °C, 2.2 and 1.7 at 400 °C, respectively. The equilibrium constants for reactions 3 and D increase with temperature and have values of log K = -11.1 ± 0.2 at 300 °C (both reactions), -10.7 ± 0.3 and -10.5 ± 0.3 at 350 °C, and -10.6 ± 0.2 and -10.4 ± 0.2 at 400 °C, respectively. At the conditions of this study, the solubility of gold in H 2S gas is relatively high, and the results obtained provide strong evidence that H 2S can play an important role in the vapor transport of gold and the formation of hydrothermal gold deposits.

  13. Short-Term Vitamin B-6 Restriction Does Not Affect Plasma Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biomarkers Lanthionine and Homolanthionine in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRatt, Barbara N; Ralat, Maria A; Gregory, Jesse F

    2016-03-09

    Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the mechanism is unknown. The synthesis of the vasodilator hydrogen sulfide occurs through side reactions of the transsulfuration enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. Two proposed hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, lanthionine and homolanthionine, are produced concurrently. To determine whether hydrogen sulfide production is reduced by vitamin B-6 deficiency, we examined the relations between plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine, along with other components of the transsulfuration pathway (homocysteine, cystathionine, and Cys), in a secondary analysis of samples from 2 vitamin B-6 restriction studies in healthy men and women. Metabolite concentrations were measured in plasma from 23 healthy adults (12 men and 11 women) before and after 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (0.37 ± 0.04 mg/d). Vitamin B-6 restriction effects on lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were assessed. Associations between hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, transsulfuration metabolites, and functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency were analyzed by linear regression. Preprandial plasma lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations ranged from 89.0 to 372 nmol/L and 5.75 to 32.3 nmol/L, respectively, in healthy adults. Mean lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were not affected by vitamin B-6 restriction (P restriction, homolanthionine was positively associated with functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency, which differed from hypothesized negative associations. Plasma lanthionine was positively correlated with the concentration of its precursor, Cys, before (R 2 = 0.36; P = 0.002) and after (R 2 = 0.37; P = 0.002) restriction. Likewise, homolanthionine concentration was positively correlated with its precursor homocysteine, but only in vitamin B-6 adequacy (R 2 = 0.41; P

  14. Short-Term Vitamin B-6 Restriction Does Not Affect Plasma Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biomarkers Lanthionine and Homolanthionine in Healthy Men and Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRatt, Barbara N; Ralat, Maria A; Gregory, Jesse F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the mechanism is unknown. The synthesis of the vasodilator hydrogen sulfide occurs through side reactions of the transsulfuration enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, with pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a coenzyme. Two proposed hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, lanthionine and homolanthionine, are produced concurrently. Objective: To determine whether hydrogen sulfide production is reduced by vitamin B-6 deficiency, we examined the relations between plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine, along with other components of the transsulfuration pathway (homocysteine, cystathionine, and Cys), in a secondary analysis of samples from 2 vitamin B-6 restriction studies in healthy men and women. Methods: Metabolite concentrations were measured in plasma from 23 healthy adults (12 men and 11 women) before and after 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (0.37 ± 0.04 mg/d). Vitamin B-6 restriction effects on lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were assessed. Associations between hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, transsulfuration metabolites, and functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency were analyzed by linear regression. Results: Preprandial plasma lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations ranged from 89.0 to 372 nmol/L and 5.75 to 32.3 nmol/L, respectively, in healthy adults. Mean lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were not affected by vitamin B-6 restriction (P restriction, homolanthionine was positively associated with functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency, which differed from hypothesized negative associations. Plasma lanthionine was positively correlated with the concentration of its precursor, Cys, before (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.002) and after (R2 = 0.37; P = 0.002) restriction. Likewise, homolanthionine concentration was positively correlated with its precursor homocysteine, but only in

  15. Hydrogen generation at ambient conditions: application in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddien, Albert; Loges, Björn; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The efficient generation of hydrogen from formic acid/amine adducts at ambient temperature is demonstrated. The highest catalytic activity (TOF up to 3630 h(-1) after 20 min) was observed in the presence of in situ generated ruthenium phosphine catalysts. Compared to the previously known methods to generate hydrogen from liquid feedstocks, the systems presented here can be operated at room temperature without the need for any high-temperature reforming processes, and the hydrogen produced can then be directly used in fuel cells. A variety of Ru precursors and phosphine ligands were investigated for the decomposition of formic acid/amine adducts. These catalytic systems are particularly interesting for the generation of H2 for new applications in portable electric devices.

  16. Determination of the products from the oxidation of aqueous hydrogen sulfide by sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vairavamurthy, A.; Manowitz, B.; Jeon, Yongseog; Zhou, Weiqing.

    1993-01-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation based XANES spectroscopy is described for determining the products formed from oxidation of aqueous sulfide.This technique allows simultaneous characterization of all the different forms of sulfur both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, it is superior to other commonly used techniques, such as chromatography, which are usually targeted at specific compounds. Since the use of XANES-based technique is relatively new in geochemistry, we present here an overview of the principles of the technique as well as the approach used for quantitative analysis. We studied the sulfide oxidation under conditions of high sulfide to oxygen ratio using 0.1 M sulfide solutions and the catalytic effects of sea sand, Fe 2+ , and Ni 2+ , were also examined. Significant results obtained from this study are presented to illustrate the value of the XANES technique for the determination of the products formed from the oxidation of sulfide at high concentrations

  17. Hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon fiber. Tests on Parisian subway; Elimination du sulfure d'hydrogene par adsorption sur tissu de charbon actif. Essais sur site RATP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaza, A.; Marsteau, St.; Laplanche, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. Chimie des Nuissances et Genie de l' Environnement - CNGE, 35 - Rennes (France); Garrot, B. [RATP, Dept. Environnement et Securite-Domaines d' Expertises de l' Environnement-Entite Qualite de l' Air, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has an unpleasant odor and may cause damage to the electrical materials of the Parisian subway. The activated carbon has some intrinsic catalytic activity, so the removal of hydrogen sulfide is due to an adsorption-oxidation process. In a laboratory scale, some kinetic parameters were acquired, which allowed us to build up two dynamic reactors. These continuous reactors, equipped with activated carbon fibers, were tested on the Madeleine station of the Parisian subway. The feasibility of the elimination of H{sub 2}S by continuous adsorption-oxidation was confirmed. The relative humidity of the gas phase was found to play an important role in the performance of the elimination. The durability of the pilot tested was compatible with an industrial exploitation of the process. (authors)

  18. Study on supported binary sulfide catalysts for secondary hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids; Sekitan ekikayu niji suisoka shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, H.; Matsubayashi, N.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nishijima, A. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-07-28

    To utilize the high performance of supported catalysts in coal liquefaction processes, one of the promising ways is to apply hydroprocessing sulfide catalysts to the secondary hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids which have undergone the solid separation unit. However, when the product yield from the first-stage liquefaction is maximized, the feed stocks in the secondary hydrogenation contain large amounts of residual fractions with preasphaltenes and metallic components. In this case, the development of a long-life catalyst is essential to establish the two-stage process as a practical one. From this viewpoint, the authors have investigated the deactivation causes of supported Ni-Mo sulfide catalysts through the analysis of the used catalysts in the secondary hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids for long periods. The major cause of the catalyst deactivation has been found to be metallic and carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst, which results thin layer which covers the catalyst particles. The catalysts located at the reactor inlet are more rapidly deactivated than those at the rector exit because of larger amounts of metallic foul ants and the above described shell-like layer. Hydrocracking active sites are much heavily deactivated compared with hydrogenation active sites. It is inferred that the basic or polar compounds contained in coal liquids are permanency adsorbed on the hydrocracking active sites. Spectroscopic analysis of the used catalysts clarified the destruction of the active phase of the binary sulfides, through the segregation and crystal growth. The structural changes of the catalysts are very likely caused by heteroatom compounds in the preasphaltenes. Thus, the primary cause of the catalyst deactivation is the preasphaltenes in the coal liquids. Hydroaromatic compounds in the coal liquids suppress the change of the deposited carbonaceous materials into inert coke which permanently deactivate the catalyst.

  19. Effects of L-tryptophan, Fructan, and Casein on Reducing Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Skatole in Fermented Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. K. Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of daily dietary Bacillus subtilis (Bs, and adding L-tryptophan, fructan, or casein to fecal fermentation broths were investigated as means to reduce the production of noxious gas during manure fermentation caused by ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, and 3-methylindole (skatole. Eighty swine (50.0±0.5 kg were equally apportioned to an experimental group given Bs in daily feed, or a control group without Bs. After 6 weeks, fresh manure was collected from both groups for fermentation studies using a 3×3 orthogonal array, in which tryptophan, casein, and fructan were added at various concentrations. After fermentation, the ammonia, H2S, L-tryptophan, skatole, and microflora were measured. In both groups, L-tryptophan was the principle additive increasing skatole production, with significant correlation (r = 0.9992. L-tryptophan had no effect on the production of ammonia, H2S, or skatole in animals fed Bs. In both groups, fructan was the principle additive that reduced H2S production (r = 0.9981. Fructan and Bs significantly interacted in H2S production (p = 0.014. Casein was the principle additive affecting the concentration of ammonia, only in the control group. Casein and Bs significantly interacted in ammonia production (p = 0.039. The predominant bacteria were Bacillus spp. CWBI B1434 (26% in the control group, and Streptococcus alactolyticus AF201899 (36% in the experimental group. In summary, daily dietary Bs reduced ammonia production during fecal fermentation. Lessening L-tryptophan and increasing fructan in the fermentation broth reduced skatole and H2S.

  20. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  1. The anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory response of COPD airway smooth muscle cells to hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark M; Tildy, Bernadett; Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo; Caramori, Gaetano; Rempel, Karen Limbert; Halayko, Andrew J; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian Fan

    2018-05-09

    COPD is a common, highly debilitating disease of the airways, primarily caused by smoking. Chronic inflammation and structural remodelling are key pathological features of this disease caused, in part, by the aberrant function of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We have previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can inhibit ASM cell proliferation and CXCL8 release, from cells isolated from non-smokers. We examined the effect of H 2 S upon ASM cells from COPD patients. ASM cells were isolated from non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD (n = 9). Proliferation and cytokine release (IL-6 and CXCL8) of ASM was induced by FCS, and measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and ELISA, respectively. Exposure of ASM to H 2 S donors inhibited FCS-induced proliferation and cytokine release, but was less effective upon COPD ASM cells compared to the non-smokers and smokers. The mRNA and protein expression of the enzymes responsible for endogenous H 2 S production (cystathionine-β-synthase [CBS] and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphur transferase [MPST]) were inhibited by H 2 S donors. Finally, we report that exogenous H 2 S inhibited FCS-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in the non-smoker and smoker ASM cells, with little effect in COPD cells. H 2 S production provides a novel mechanism for the repression of ASM proliferation and cytokine release. The ability of COPD ASM cells to respond to H 2 S is attenuated in COPD ASM cells despite the presence of the enzymes responsible for H 2 S production.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway contributes to the proliferation of hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yan; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition of H 2 S/CSE pathway strongly stimulates cellular apoptosis. • Inhibition of H 2 S/CSE pathway suppresses cell growth by blocking EGFR pathway. • H 2 S/CSE pathway is critical for maintaining the proliferation of hepatoma cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H 2 S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H 2 S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H 2 S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of Dried Activated Sludge and Mixed Dried Activated Sudge with Rice Husk silica to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mehdinia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dried activated sludge (DAS and mixed dried activated sludge with rice husk silica (DAS & RHS for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S. Two laboratory-scale filter columns (packed one litter were operated. Both systems were operated under different conditions of two parameters, namely different inlet gas concentrations and different inlet flow rates. The DAS & RHS packed filter showed more than 99.96% removal efficiency (RE with empty bed residence time (EBRT of 45 to 90 s and 300 mg/L inlet concentration of H2S. However, the RE decreased to 96.87% with the EBRT of 30 s. In the same condition, the DAS packed filter showed 99.37% RE. Nonetheless, the RE was shown to have dropped to 82.09% with the EBRT of 30 s. The maximum elimination capacity (EC was obtained in the DAS & RHS packed filter up to 52.32 g/m3h, with the RE of 96.87% and H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. The maximum EC in the DAS packed filter was obtained up to 44.33 g/m3h with the RE of 82.09% and the H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. After 53 days of operating time and 54 g/m3h of loading rates, the maximum pressure drop reached to 3.0 and 8.0 (mm H2O for the DAS & RHS packed and DAS packed filters, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, the DAS & RHS could be considered as a more suitable packing material to remove H2S.

  4. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S protects alveolar growth in experimental O2-induced neonatal lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Vadivel

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, the chronic lung disease of prematurity, remains a major health problem. BPD is characterized by impaired alveolar development and complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Currently there is no specific treatment for BPD. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide (NO, belong to a class of endogenously synthesized gaseous molecules referred to as gasotransmitters. While inhaled NO is already used for the treatment of neonatal PHT and currently tested for the prevention of BPD, H2S has until recently been regarded exclusively as a toxic gas. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous H2S exerts beneficial biological effects, including cytoprotection and vasodilatation. We hypothesized that H2S preserves normal alveolar development and prevents PHT in experimental BPD.We took advantage of a recently described slow-releasing H2S donor, GYY4137 (morpholin-4-ium-4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino phosphinodithioate to study its lung protective potential in vitro and in vivo.In vitro, GYY4137 promoted capillary-like network formation, viability and reduced reactive oxygen species in hyperoxia-exposed human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. GYY4137 also protected mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo, GYY4137 preserved and restored normal alveolar growth in rat pups exposed from birth for 2 weeks to hyperoxia. GYY4137 also attenuated PHT as determined by improved pulmonary arterial acceleration time on echo-Doppler, pulmonary artery remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. GYY4137 also prevented pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.H2S protects from impaired alveolar growth and PHT in experimental O2-induced lung injury. H2S warrants further investigation as a new therapeutic target for alveolar damage and PHT.

  5. Highly sensitive and selective determination of hydrogen sulfide by resonance light scattering technique based on silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yangfang; Chen, Shu; Long, Yunfei

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a green approach to prepare DNA-templated silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from the direct reaction between Ag + and ascorbic acid in the presence of DNA and sodium hydroxide. The Ag-NPs showed strong resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity property. Then, the interaction between hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and Ag-NPs was studied by measuring their RLS spectra. The results showed that there is a strong interaction between Ag-NPs and H 2 S, which resulted in a decrease in the size of Ag-NPs and a decrease in the RLS intensity of the Ag-NPs solution at the wavelength of 467 nm. The results demonstrated that the RLS technique offers a sensitive and simple tool for investigating the interaction between Ag-NPs and H 2 S, which can be applied to detect H 2 S with high sensitivity and selectivity without complex readout equipment. The linear range for H 2 S determination was found to be the range from 5.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -7  mol L -1 , and the detection limit (3σ/k) was 2.8 × 10 -9  mol L -1 . Moreover, the proposed method was applied for the determination of H 2 S in natural water samples with satisfactory results. Graphical abstract The application of Ag-NPs in H 2 S detection.

  6. Techno-economic assessment of biogas plant upgrading by adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on treated sewage–sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, P.G.; Gutiérrez Ortiz, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three processes were considered: desulfurization by adsorption, in-situ sorbent regeneration and its production. • The steam for regeneration was studied considering it as a bought external utility and as an in-situ produced utility. • From the cash flow analysis, the cost of the overall desulfurization process was between 2.5 and 4.0 c€/Nm"3. • A sensitivity analysis was carried out to consider the uncertainty of the methodology. • The competitiveness of the technology seems to be promising versus other biogas H_2S removal technologies. - Abstract: Biogas plant upgrading by adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on treated sewage–sludge was techno-economically assessed. Three different processes were included in the study: the desulfurization of biogas by adsorption, the in-situ regeneration of the adsorbent and its production from sewage-sludge. Biogas plant upgrading was performed for a flow rate of 1000 Nm"3/h of biogas with a H_2S concentration of 2000 ppmv and a breakthrough concentration of 200 ppmv, which is the technical limit value for internal combustion engines. The cost due to the steam required for the in-situ regeneration was evaluated in two different scenarios: as a bought external utility and as an in-situ produced utility, installing an electric or a biogas steam boiler. According to the cash flow analysis carried out, all the options require a similar minimum selling price for the upgraded biogas (about 0.27–0.29 €/Nm"3), with a cost of the overall desulfurization process between 2.5 and 4.0 c€/Nm"3.

  7. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S 0 ) (known to result in increased H 2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S 0 led to increased H 2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L -1 ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L -1 ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L -1 . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Preliminary investigation of air bubbling and dietary sulfur reduction to mitigate hydrogen sulfide and odor from swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, O Grant; Morin, Brent; Zhang, Yongcheng; Sauer, Willem C; Feddes, John J R

    2005-01-01

    When livestock manure slurry is agitated, the sudden release of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) can raise concentrations to dangerous levels. Low-level air bubbling and dietary S reduction were evaluated as methods for reducing peak H(2)S emissions from swine (Sus scrofa) manure slurry samples. In a first experiment, 15-L slurry samples were stored in bench-scale digesters and continuously bubbled with air at 0 (control), 5, or 10 mL min(-1) for 28 d. The 5-L headspace of each digester was also continuously ventilated at 40 mL min(-1) and the mean H(2)S concentration in the outlet air was 120 microL L(-1)) from the control treatment, and was 47 and 3.4 microL L(-1) for the 5 and 10 mL min(-1) treatments, respectively. In a second experiment, individually penned barrows were fed rations with dietary S concentrations of 0.34, 0.24, and 0.15% (w/w). Slurry derived from each diet was bubbled with air in bench-scale digesters, as before, at 10 mL min(-1) for 12 d and the mean H(2)S concentration in the digester outlet air was 11 microL L(-1). On Day 12, the slurry was agitated but the H(2)S emissions did not change significantly. Both low-level bubbling of air through slurry and dietary S reduction appear to be viable methods for reducing peak H(2)S emissions from swine manure slurry at a bench scale, but these approaches must be validated at larger scales.

  9. Molecular cobalt pentapyridine catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Sun, Yujie

    2013-11-05

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition including the moiety of the general formula. [(PY5Me.sub.2)CoL].sup.2+, where L can be H.sub.2O, OH.sup.-, a halide, alcohol, ether, amine, and the like. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water or sea water can be subject to low electric potentials, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide regulates intracellular Ca2+ concentration in endothelial cells from excised rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Francesco; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Pla, Alessandra Florio; Dragoni, Silvia; Pupo, Emanuela; Merlino, Annalisa; Mancardi, Daniele; Munaron, Luca; Tanzi, Franco

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a recently discovered gasotransmitter that may regulate a growing number of endothelial functions, including nitric oxide (NO) release, proliferation, adhesion and migration, which are the key steps of angiogenesis. The mechanism whereby H2S impacts on endothelial physiology is still unclear: however, the aforementioned processes are driven by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the present study, we exploited the excised rat aorta to gain insights into the regulation of [Ca2+]i by H2S within in situ endothelial cells (ECs). Sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), a H2S donor, caused an elevation in [Ca2+]i, which disappeared in absence of extracellular Ca2+. NaHSinduced Ca2+ inflow was sensitive to high doses of Gd3+, but not BTP-2. Inhibition of the reverse-mode of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), with KB-R7943 or upon removal of extracellular Na+, abrogated the Ca2+ response to NaHS. Moreover, NaHS-elicited Ca2+ entry was significantly reduced by TEA and glybenclamide, which hinted at the involvement of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels. Conversely, NaHS-evoked Ca2+ signal was not affected by the reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Acute addition of NaHS hindered both Ca2+ release and Ca2+ entry induced by ATP, a physiological agonist of ECs. Consistently, inhibition of endogenous H2S synthesis with DL-propargylglycine impaired ATP-induced Ca2+ inflow, whereas it did not affect Ca2+ mobilization. These data provide the first evidence that H2S may stimulate Ca2+ influx into ECs by recruiting the reverse-mode of NCX and KATP channels. In addition, they show that such gasotransmitter may modulate the Ca2+ signals elicited by physiological stimuli in intact endothelium.

  11. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  12. Controllable atomistic graphene oxide model and its application in hydrogen sulfide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Liangliang; Gubbins, Keith E.; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Duin, Adri C. T. van; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    The determination of an atomistic graphene oxide (GO) model has been challenging due to the structural dependence on different synthesis methods. In this work we combine temperature-programmed molecular dynamics simulation techniques and the ReaxFF reactive force field to generate realistic atomistic GO structures. By grafting a mixture of epoxy and hydroxyl groups to the basal graphene surface and fine-tuning their initial concentrations, we produce in a controllable manner the GO structures with different functional groups and defects. The models agree with structural experimental data and with other ab initio quantum calculations. Using the generated atomistic models, we perform reactive adsorption calculations for H 2 S and H 2 O/H 2 S mixtures on GO materials and compare the results with experiment. We find that H 2 S molecules dissociate on the carbonyl functional groups, and H 2 O, CO 2 , and CO molecules are released as reaction products from the GO surface. The calculation reveals that for the H 2 O/H 2 S mixtures, H 2 O molecules are preferentially adsorbed to the carbonyl sites and block the potential active sites for H 2 S decomposition. The calculation agrees well with the experiments. The methodology and the procedure applied in this work open a new door to the theoretical studies of GO and can be extended to the research on other amorphous materials

  13. Hydrogen Generation, Combustibility and Mitigation in Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha, K.A.; El-Sheikh, B.M.; Gad El-Mawla, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear power plant is provided with features to insure safety. The engineered safety features (ESFs) are devoted to set operating conditions under accident conditions. If ESFs fail to apply in some accidents, this would lead to what called severe accidents, and core damage. In this case hydrogen will be generated from different sources particularly from metal-water reactions. Since the containment is the final barrier to protect the environment from the release of radioactive materials; its integrity should not be threatened. In recent years, hydrogen concentration represents a real problem if it exceeds the combustibility limits. This work is devoted to calculate the amount of hydrogen to be generated, indelicate its combustibility and how to inertize the containment using different gases to maintain its integrity and protect the environment from the release of radioactive materials

  14. Correlation energy generating potentials for molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.; Thakkar, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of local correlation energy functionals are currently in use. All of them depend, to some extent, on modeling the correlation energy of a homogeneous electron fluid. Since atomic and molecular charge densities are neither uniform nor slowly varying, it is important to attempt to use known high accuracy wave functions to learn about correlation energy functionals appropriate to such systems. We have extended the definition of the correlation energy generating potentials V/sub c/ introduced by Ros. A charge density response to correlation has been allowed for by inclusion of an electron--nuclear component V/sup e/n/sub c/ in addition to the electron--electron component V/sup e/e/sub c/. Two different definitions of V/sup e/n/sub c/ are given. We present the first calculations of V/sub c/ for a molecular system: H 2 . The results show that V/sup e/n/sub c/, in either definition, is by no means negligible. Moreover, V/sup e/e/sub c/ and both forms of V/sup e/n/sub c/ show significant nonlocal dependence on the charge density. Calculations with ten different model correlation energy functionals show that none of them is particularly sensitive to the charge density. However, they are quite sensitive to the parametrization of the electron fluid correlation energy. The schemes which include self-interaction corrections (SIC) are found to be superior to those of Kohn--Sham type. The correlation energy generating potentials implied by the SIC type and empirical correlation energy functionals are found to correspond roughly to averages of one of the accurate potentials

  15. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  16. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  17. Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van G.J.; Veremiyenko, V.P.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Versloot, T.W.; Whyte, D.G.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5×1020 m-3 electron density, ~2 eV electron and ion

  18. Method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Carter, John David; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-03-30

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  19. Attenuation of hydrogen sulfide at construction and demolition debris landfills using alternative cover materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The attenuation of H(2)S emissions by various landfill cover materials was evaluated using both laboratory and field experiments. The results demonstrated that cover materials consisting of selected waste products (compost and yard trash) and soils amended with quicklime and calcium carbonate effectively attenuated H(2)S emissions and detectable H(2)S emissions were only encountered in a testing plot using a sandy soil cover (average emission rate was 4.67x10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1)). H(2)S concentration profiles in the cover materials indicated that H(2)S was removed as it migrated through the cover materials. At the same depth in the testing area, the H(2)S concentration in the sandy soil field plot was always higher than that of other testing plots because the sand (a) demonstrated less ability to remove H(2)S and (b) exhibited a higher H(2)S concentration at the base of the cover. Laboratory experiments confirmed these observations, with a combination of physical adsorption, chemical reactions, and biological oxidation, accounting for the enhanced removal. In addition to removal, the results suggest that some of the cover materials reduced H(2)S generation by creating less favorable conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., high pH and temperature). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigations of the diverse corrosion products on steel in a hydrogen sulfide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Pengpeng; Zheng, Shuqi; Zhao, Hui; Ding, Yu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Diverse corrosion products on steel are investigated in H 2 S environment. • The sequence of the main corrosion products is mackinawite + cubic FeS → troilite. • The large single beam-shaped troilite has a growth pattern along the c axis. • The flower-like troilite develops from beam- or hexagonal wire-shaped grains. • The corresponding crystal structure and morphology of the products are provided. - Abstract: The corrosion products of carbon steel in aqueous H 2 S environment are investigated. The products, which include mackinawite, cubic FeS, troilite, and pyrite, are characterized through their shapes, chemical compositions and crystal structures. Mackinawite appears with a flake shape. Cubic FeS has a perfect/truncated octahedral shape, and pyrite is framboid-shaped. Flower-shaped troilite is developed from beam- or hexagonal wire-shaped grains by electrostatic interactions along a certain lattice plane. The large single beam-shaped troilite has a growth pattern along the c axis. The corresponding crystal structure and micro-morphology of the corrosion products are provided, and the three-dimensional models of them are generated

  1. Decrease in male mouse fertility by hydrogen sulfide and/or ammonia can Be inheritable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Pengfei; Hao, Yanan; Yu, Shuai; Min, Lingjiang; Li, Lan; Ma, Dongxue; Chen, Liang; Yi, Bao; Tang, Xiangfang; Meng, Qingshi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Shukun; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Hongfu

    2018-03-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that air pollutants cause a decline in the quality of human spermatozoa and thus a reduction in fertility. However, the exact cause of infertility remains unknown. Air pollution gases, such as NH 3 and H 2 S are either free or bound to airborne particular materials (PM) and are abundant and reactive. The aim of this current investigation was to explore the impacts of NH 3 and/or H 2 S on male fertility and the underlying mechanisms. Male mouse exposed to H 2 S and/or NH 3 and after two generations were used to evaluate the impacts on fertility. The fertility, and spermatozoa quality parameters and proteins involved in spermatogenesis were investigated. Our current investigation demonstrates: i) H 2 S and/or NH 3 decrease male fertility by 20-30%, reduce the spermatozoa concentration about 20-40%, decrease 10-20%, increase around 30%; ii) the reduction in male fertility by H 2 S and/or NH 3 can be inheritable; iii) H 2 S and/or NH 3 can diminish male fertility through the disruption of spermatogenesis without affecting other body parameters such as body weight and organ index. One component of air pollutants, for example NH 3 , does not have a severe impact; however, two or more pollutants such as H 2 S and NH 3 combined can cause serious health problems, especially with regard to male fertility. We suggest that greater attention should be paid to these air pollutants to improve human health and fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dealloyed Ruthenium Film Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Chemical Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis B. Serin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film ruthenium (Ru and copper (Cu binary alloys have been prepared on a Teflon™ backing layer by cosputtering of the precious and nonprecious metals, respectively. Alloys were then selectively dealloyed by sulfuric acid as an etchant, and their hydrogen generation catalysts performances were evaluated. Sputtering time and power of Cu atoms have been varied in order to tailor the hydrogen generation performances. Similarly, dealloying time and the sulfuric acid concentration have also been altered to tune the morphologies of the resulted films. A maximum hydrogen generation rate of 35 mL min−1 was achieved when Cu sputtering power and time were 200 W and 60 min and while acid concentration and dealloying time were 18 M and 90 min, respectively. It has also been demonstrated that the Ru content in the alloy after dealloying gradually increased with the increasing the sputtering power of Cu. After 90 min dealloying, the Ru to Cu ratio increased to about 190 times that of bare alloy. This is the key issue for observing higher catalytic activity. Interestingly, we have also presented template-free nanoforest-like structure formation within the context of one-step alloying and dealloying used in this study. Last but not least, the long-time hydrogen generation performances of the catalysts system have also been evaluated along 3600 min. During the first 600 min, the catalytic activity was quite stable, while about 24% of the catalytic activity decayed after 3000 min, which still makes these systems available for the development of robust catalyst systems in the area of hydrogen generation.

  3. [Potentiation of anti-ischemic and anti-anginal action of nitrates by hydrogen sulfide balneotherapy in patients with angina of effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunnunov, Z R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this comparative study was to evaluate effects of nitrosorbid (NS) and hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy (HSB) applied alone or in combination for the treatment of patients presenting with angina of effort. It was shown that long-term HSB therapy enhances the anti-anginal and anti-ischemic action of NS in such patients. The authors argue that prolonged HSB-based maintenance therapy in combination with nitrates prevents habituation to these preparations and potentiates their beneficial therapeutic effect.

  4. Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas as a Treatment against P. falciparum, Murine Cerebral Malaria, and the Importance of Thiolation State in the Development of Cerebral Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellavalle, Brian; Staalsoe, Trine; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a potentially fatal cerebrovascular disease of complex pathogenesis caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a physiological gas, similar to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, involved in cellular metabolism, vascular tension, inflammation, and cell death....... HS treatment has shown promising results as a therapy for cardio- and neuro- pathology. This study investigates the effects of fast (NaHS) and slow (GYY4137) HS-releasing drugs on the growth and metabolism of P. falciparum and the development of P. berghei ANKA CM. Moreover, we investigate the role...

  5. Performance of polydimethylsiloxane membrane contactor process for selective hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Ebrahim; Bayrakdar, Alper; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Çalli, Bariş

    2017-03-01

    H 2 S in biogas affects the co-generation performance adversely by corroding some critical components within the engine and it has to be removed in order to improve the biogas quality. This work presents the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane contactor for selective removal of H 2 S from the biogas. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of different pH of absorption liquid, biogas flowrate and temperature on the absorption performances. The results revealed that at the lowest loading rate (91mg H 2 S/m 2 ·h) more than 98% H 2 S and 59% CO 2 absorption efficiencies were achieved. The CH 4 content in the treated gas increased from 60 to 80% with nearly 5% CH 4 loss. Increasing the pH (7-10) and loading rate (91-355mg H 2 S/m 2 ·h) enhanced the H 2 S absorption capacity, and the maximum H 2 S/CO 2 and H 2 S/CH 4 selectivity factors were 2.5 and 58, respectively. Temperature played a key role in the process and lower temperature was beneficial for intensifying H 2 S absorption performance. The highest H 2 S fluxes at pH 10 and 7 were 3.4g/m 2 ·d and 1.8g/m 2 ·d with overall mass transfer coefficients of 6.91×10 -6 and 4.99×10 -6 m/s, respectively. The results showed that moderately high H 2 S fluxes with low CH 4 loss may be achieved by using a robust and cost-effective membrane based absorption process for desulfurization of biogas. A tubular PDMS membrane contactor was tested for the first time to remove H 2 S from biogas under slightly alkaline conditions and the suggested process could be a promising for real scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  7. Generating para-water from para-hydrogen: A Gedankenexperiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2018-07-01

    A novel conceptual approach is described that is based on the transfer of hyperpolarization from para-hydrogen in view of generating a population imbalance between the two spin isomers of H 2 O. The approach is analogous to SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) and makes use of the transfer of spin order from para-hydrogen to H 2 O in a hypothetical organometallic complex. The spin order transfer is expected to be most efficient at avoided level crossings. The highest achievable enrichment levels of para- and ortho-water are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  9. Perspectives for generation companies and the emerging hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, N.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canadian and global power generation supply is evolving towards inclusion of emerging types of technologies for electricity production. Although much of Canadian electricity supply will continue to be derived from traditional sources in the foreseeable future the band for capital cost competitiveness is narrowing between the once clear-cut technological winners and emerging generation technologies creating opportunity for new technologies to commercialize in the market. OPG has been active in the development and commercialization of stationary high temperature fuel cells for several years. The major activity has been a partnering initiative to engineer and implement Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) demonstration installations. The relationship with SOFC developer Siemens-Westinghouse out of Pittsburgh has allowed OPG to maintain an ongoing involvement in the emerging fuel cell industry, while exploring the broader implications of this technology for the power industry business model. OPG is part of the 'Hydrogen Village Partnership'. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production, storage and delivery techniques as well as applications of hydrogen such as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. OPG maintains an active role in the demonstration of emerging technologies for a number of reasons: 1) advancing commercialization of emerging generation technologies, 2) 'hands-on' participation in the deployment of such technology in order to gather and apply market knowledge 3) Involvement in developing technology as a part of commitment to sustainable development. (author)

  10. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing naproxen suppresses colon cancer cell growth and inhibits NF-κB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodela R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ravinder Kodela,1 Niharika Nath,2 Mitali Chattopadhyay,1 Diandra E Nesbitt,1 Carlos A Velázquez-Martínez,3 Khosrow Kashfi11Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, 2Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY, USA; 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of death due to cancer and the third most common cancer in men and women in the USA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is known to be activated in CRC and is strongly implicated in its development and progression. Therefore, activated NF-κB constitutes a bona fide target for drug development in this type of malignancy. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have established nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a viable chemopreventive strategy against CRC. Our previous studies have shown that several novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs are promising anticancer agents and are safer derivatives of NSAIDs. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effect of a novel H2S-releasing naproxen (HS-NAP, which has a repertoire as a cardiovascular-safe NSAID, for its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle phase transitions, and apoptosis using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also investigated its effect as a chemopreventive agent in a xenograft mouse model. HS-NAP suppressed the growth of HT-29 cells by induction of G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis and downregulated NF-κB. Tumor xenografts in mice were significantly reduced in volume. The decrease in tumor mass was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and decreases in NF-κB levels in vivo. Therefore, HS-NAP demonstrates strong anticancer potential in CRC. Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cell cycle, apoptosis, xenograft, NF

  11. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  12. Portable Fuel Cell Battery Charger with Integrated Hydrogen Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, Ulf G. [CH-5452 Oberrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    1999-10-01

    A fully self-sufficient portable fuel cell battery charger has been designed, built, operated and is now prepared for commercialisation. The lightweight device is equipped with 24 circular polymer electrolyte cells of an innovative design. Each cell is a complete unit and can be tested prior to stacking. Hydrogen is admitted to the anode chamber from the centre of the cell. Air can reach the cathode by diffusion through a porous metal foam layer placed between cathode and separator plate. Soft seals surround the centre hole of the cells to separate hydrogen from air. Water vapour generated by the electrochemical conversion is released into the atmosphere via the porous metal foam on the cathode. All hydrogen fed to the dead-ended anode chamber is converted to electric power. The device is equipped with a chemical hydrogen generator. The fuel gas is formed by adding small amounts of water to a particular chemical compound which is contained in disposable cartridges. With one such cartridge enough hydrogen can be generated to operate CD-players, radios, recorders or portable computers for some hours, depending on the current drawn by the electronic device. The handy portable battery charger delivers about 10 W at 12 V DC. It is designed to be used in remote areas as autonomous power source for charging batteries used in radios, CD players, cellular telephones, radio transmitters, flash lights or model air planes. The power can also be used directly to provide light, sound or motion. Patents have been filed and partners are sought for commercialisation. (author) 4 figs.

  13. Sensitivity analyses on in-vessel hydrogen generation for KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Park, S.Y.; Park, S.H.; Park, J.H.

    2001-03-01

    Sensitivity analyses for the in-vessel hydrogen generation, using the MELCOR program, are described in this report for the Korean Next Generation Reactor. The typical accident sequences of a station blackout and a large LOCA scenario are selected. A lower head failure model, a Zircaloy oxidation reaction model and a B 4 C reaction model are considered for the sensitivity parameters. As for the base case, 1273.15K for a failure temperature of the penetrations or the lower head, an Urbanic-Heidrich correlation for the Zircaloy oxidation reaction model and the B 4 C reaction model are used. Case 1 used 1650K as the failure temperature for the penetrations and Case 2 considered creep rupture instead of penetration failure. Case 3 used a MATPRO-EG and G correlation for the Zircaloy oxidation reaction model and Case 4 turned off the B 4 C reaction model. The results of the studies are summarized below : (1) When the penetration failure temperature is higher, or the creep rupture failure model is considered, the amount of hydrogen increases for two sequences. (2) When the MATPRO-EG and G correlation for a Zircaloy oxidation reaction is considered, the amount of hydrogen is less than the Urbanic-Heidrich correlation (Base case) for both scenarios. (3) When the B 4 C reaction model turns off, the amount of hydrogen decreases for two sequences

  14. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  15. Hydrogen, a bridge between mobility and distributed generation. Some consideration towards the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino Romeri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper were analysed the most recent energy initiatives started by some national and international institution, with particular focus on hydrogen and fuel cell. It were also overviewed the national road-maps towards the hydrogen economy. In 2004, based on the most authoritative available data regarding future FCVs penetration it was observed that, if vehicle power-generation system fuel cell based becomes more sophisticated, the role of the vehicles within the power grid might change. Fuel Cell Vehicle (FVC) could become a new power-generation source, supplying electricity to home and to the grid. Also, it was defined the dimension of this new kind of power generation source in different areas and it was compared with the related power grid installed generation capacity and it was found that this new source could be a multiple of the foreseeable installed capacity in year 2030. In the present work it was revised the analysis with the most recent scenarios and it was found that the results do not change significantly. Unfortunately this kind of analysis is still not considered in the energy debate or in the road-maps towards the hydrogen economy. (author)

  16. CdS/TiO2 photoanodes via solution ion transfer method for highly efficient solar hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Karuturi, Siva; Yew, Rowena; Reddy Narangari, Parvathala; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Li, Li; Vora, Kaushal; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a unique semiconducting material for solar hydrogen generation applications with a tunable, narrow bandgap that straddles water redox potentials. However, its potential towards efficient solar hydrogen generation has not yet been realized due to low photon-to-current conversions, high charge carrier recombination and the lack of controlled preparation methods. In this work, we demonstrate a highly efficient CdS/TiO2 heterostructured photoelectrode using atomic layer deposition and solution ion transfer reactions. Enabled by the well-controlled deposition of CdS nanocrystals on TiO2 inverse opal (TiIO) nanostructures using the proposed method, a saturation photocurrent density of 9.1 mA cm-2 is realized which is the highest ever reported for CdS-based photoelectrodes. We further demonstrate that the passivation of a CdS surface with an ultrathin amorphous layer (˜1.5 nm) of TiO2 improves the charge collection efficiency at low applied potentials paving the way for unassisted solar hydrogen generation.

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  18. Hydrogen Production Using a Molybdenum Sulfide Catalyst on a Titanium-Protected n+p-Silicon Photocathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Laursen, Anders Bo; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost substitute: A titanium protection layer on silicon made it possible to use silicon under highly oxidizing conditions without oxidation of the silicon. Molybdenum sulfide was electrodeposited on the Ti-protected n+p-silicon electrode. This electrode was applied as a photocathode for wat...

  19. Determination of arsenic speciation in sulfidic waters by Ion Chromatography Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (IC-HG-AFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nicole S; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    A method for the analysis of arsenic species in aqueous sulfide samples is presented. The method uses an ion chromatography system connected with a Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (IC-HG-AFS). With this method inorganic As(III) and As(V) species in water samples can be analyzed, including arsenite (HnAs(III)O3(n-3)), thioarsenite (HnAs(III)S3(n-3)), arsenate (HnAs(V)O4(n-3)), monothioarsenate (HnAs(V)SO3(n-3)), dithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S2O2(n-3)), trithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S3O(n-3)) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAs(V)S4(n-3)). The peak identification and retention times were determined based on standard analysis of the various arsenic compounds. The analytical detection limit was ~1-3 µg L(-1) (LOD), depending on the quality of the baseline. This low detection limit makes this method also applicable to discriminate between waters meeting the drinking water standard of max. 10 µg L(-1) As, and waters that do not meet this standard. The new method was successfully applied for on-site determination of arsenic species in natural sulfidic waters, in which seven species were unambiguously identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular metal-Oxo catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2015-02-24

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition having the general formula [(PY5W.sub.2)MO].sup.2+, wherein PY5W.sub.2 is (NC.sub.5XYZ)(NC.sub.5H.sub.4).sub.4C.sub.2W.sub.2, M is a transition metal, and W, X, Y, and Z can be H, R, a halide, CF.sub.3, or SiR.sub.3, where R can be an alkyl or aryl group. The two accompanying counter anions, in one embodiment, can be selected from the following Cl.sup.-, I.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, and CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water containing electrolyte or straight sea water can be subject to an electric potential of between 1.0 V and 1.4 V relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, which at pH 7 corresponds to an overpotential of 0.6 to 1.0 V, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen with an optimal turnover frequency of ca. 1.5 million mol H.sub.2/mol catalyst per h.

  1. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Jeff [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2017-08-03

    One-step hydrogen generation, using Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) technology, is an innovative means of providing critical energy and environmental improvements to US manufacturing processes. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a Compact Hydrogen Generator (CHG) process, based on SER technology, which successfully integrates previously independent process steps, achieves superior energy efficiency by lowering reaction temperatures, and provides pathways to doubling energy productivity with less environmental pollution. GTI’s prior CHG process development efforts have culminated in an operational pilot plant. During the initial pilot testing, GTI identified two operating risks- 1) catalyst coating with calcium aluminate compounds, 2) limited solids handling of the sorbent. Under this contract GTI evaluated alternative materials (one catalyst and two sorbents) to mitigate both risks. The alternate catalyst met performance targets and did not experience coating with calcium aluminate compounds of any kind. The alternate sorbent materials demonstrated viable operation, with one material enabling a three-fold increase in sorbent flow. The testing also demonstrated operation at 90% of its rated capacity. Lastly, a carbon dioxide co-production study was performed to assess the advantage of the solid phase separation of carbon dioxide- inherent in the CHG process. Approximately 70% lower capital cost is achievable compared to SMR-based hydrogen production with CO2 capture, as well as improved operating costs.

  2. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  3. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krier, James M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.

  4. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  5. Lewis acid-promoted hydrofluorination of alkynyl sulfides to generate α-fluorovinyl thioethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bello

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the preparation of α-fluorovinyl thioethers is reported which involves the hydrofluorination of alkynyl sulfides with 3HF·Et3N, a process that requires Lewis acid activation using BF3·Et2O and TiF4. The method gives access to a range of α-fluorovinyl thioethers, some in high stereoselectivity with the Z-isomer predominating over the E-isomer. The α-fluorovinyl thioether motif has prospects as a steric and electronic mimetic of thioester enols and enolates, important intermediates in enzymatic C–C bond forming reactions. The method opens access to appropriate analogues for investigations in this direction.

  6. Methanol absorption characteristics for the removal of H2S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in a pilot-scale biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Myung Won; Yun, Young Min; Cho, Won Chul; Ra, Ho Won; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Kim, Yong Ku; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, See Hoon; Eom, Won Hyun; Lee, Uen Do; Lee, Sang Bong

    2014-01-01

    The BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is an attractive process that produces liquid biofuels from biomass. The FT (Fisher–Tropsch) process is used to produce synfuels such as diesel and gasoline from gasified biomass. However, the H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) in the syngas that are produced from the biomass gasifiers cause a decrease of the conversion efficiency and deactivates the catalyst that is used in the FT process. To remove the acid gases, a pilot-scale methanol absorption tower producing diesel at a rate of 1 BPD (barrel per day) was developed, and the removal characteristics of the acid gases were determined. A total operation time of 500 h was achieved after several campaigns. The average syngas flow rate at the inlet of methanol absorption tower ranged from 300 to 800 L/min. The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S from 30 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV and COS from 2 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV with a removal of CO 2 from 20% to 5%. The outlet gas composition adhered to the guidelines for FT reactors. No remaining sulfurous components were found, and the tar component was analyzed in the spent methanol after long-term operations. - Highlights: • The gas cleaning system in a pilot-scale BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is reported. • Although methanol absorption tower is conventional process, its application to BTL process is attempted. • The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S, COS and CO 2 in the syngas. • The sulfurous and tar components in the methanol are analyzed

  7. Hydrogen sulfide protects against chemical hypoxia-induced injury by inhibiting ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Lan

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent. Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2 is a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent. We have demonstrated that H(2S protects against CoCl(2-induced injuries in PC12 cells. However, whether the members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, in particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2(ERK1/2 and p38MAPK are involved in the neuroprotection of H(2S against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries of PC12 cells is not understood. We observed that CoCl(2 induced expression of transcriptional factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α, decreased cystathionine-β synthase (CBS, a synthase of H(2S expression, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to injuries of the cells, evidenced by decrease in cell viability, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP , caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, which were attenuated by pretreatment with NaHS (a donor of H(2S or N-acetyl-L cystein (NAC, a ROS scavenger. CoCl(2 rapidly activated ERK1/2, p38MAPK and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK or JNK with kinase inhibitors (U0126 or SB203580 or SP600125, respectively or genetic silencing of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK by RNAi (Si-ERK1/2 or Si-p38MAPK significantly prevented CoCl(2-induced injuries. Pretreatment with NaHS or NAC inhibited not only CoCl(2-induced ROS production, but also phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. Thus, we demonstrated that a concurrent activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK participates in CoCl(2-induced injuries and that H(2S protects PC12 cells against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries by inhibition of ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK or antioxidants may be useful for preventing and treating hypoxia-induced neuronal injury.

  8. CO2-based hydrogen storage - Hydrogen generation from formaldehyde/water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincado, Monica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Prechtl, Martin H. G.

    2018-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the simplest and most significant industrially produced aldehyde. The global demand is about 30 megatons annually. Industrially it is produced by oxidation of methanol under energy intensive conditions. More recently, new fields of application for the use of formaldehyde and its derivatives as, i.e. cross-linker for resins or disinfectant, have been suggested. Dialkoxymethane has been envisioned as a combustion fuel for conventional engines or aqueous formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde may act as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier molecule (LOHC) for hydrogen generation to be used for hydrogen fuel cells. For the realization of these processes, it requires less energy-intensive technologies for the synthesis of formaldehyde. This overview summarizes the recent developments in low-temperature reductive synthesis of formaldehyde and its derivatives and low-temperature formaldehyde reforming. These aspects are important for the future demands on modern societies' energy management, in the form of a methanol and hydrogen economy, and the required formaldehyde feedstock for the manufacture of many formaldehyde-based daily products.

  9. Selenium Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  10. Sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning is discussed. The complexity of the sensitivity is due to the different equilibration time-scales of the constituents of the p-p chain and CN cycle and the dependence of their abundances and time-scales on temperature. The time-scale of the temperature perturbation, compared to the equilibrium time-scale of a constituent, determines whether the constituent is in equilibrium and affects the sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity of the p-p chain for different values of hydrogen abundance, when different constituents come into equilibrium is presented, as well as its variation with 3 He abundance. The temperature sensitivity is drastically different from n 11 , the temperature sensitivity of the proton-proton reaction, unless the time-scale of temperature perturbation is long enough for 3 He to remain in equilibrium. Even in this case the sensitivity of the p-p chain differs significantly from n 11 , unless the temperature is so low that PP II and PP III chains can be neglected. The variation of the sensitivity of CN energy generation is small for different time-scales of temperature variation, because the temperature sensitivities of individual reactions are so similar. The combined sensitivity to temperature of energy generation by hydrogen burning is presented and shown to have a maximum of 16.4 at T 6 = 24.5. For T 6 > 25 the temperature sensitivity is given by the sensitivity of 14 N + p reaction. (author)

  11. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: phenotypic and genetic divergence across two abiotic environmental gradients in Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system.

  12. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  13. Reforming water to generate hydrogen using mechanical alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena F, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to generate a hydrogen production system by means of mechanical milling, in which 0.1 g of magnesium were weighed using a volume of 300 μL for each water solvent (H_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH) in a container to start mechanical milling for 2, 4 and 6 h. Once the mechanical milling was finished, the hydrogen that was produced every two hours was measured to determine the appropriate milling time in the production, also in each period of time samples of the powders produced during the milling of Mg were taken, in this process we used characterization techniques such as: X-ray diffraction at an angle of 2θi 5 and 2θf 90 degrees and scanning electron microscopy, taking micrographs of 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 magnifications. According to the mechanical milling results hydrogen was obtained when using water, as well as with methanol. In the techniques of X-ray diffraction characterization different results were obtained before and after the milling, since by the diffractogram s is possible to observe how the magnesium to be put in the mechanical milling along with the water and methanol was diminishing to be transformed into hydroxide and magnesium oxide, as well as in the micrographs taken with scanning electron microscopy the change in the magnesium morphology to hydroxide and magnesium oxide is observed. (Author)

  14. Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

    2015-03-02

    A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7 μm) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200 nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488 mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4 mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Compact PEM fuel cell system combined with all-in-one hydrogen generator using chemical hydride as a hydrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jincheol; Kim, Taegyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compact fuel cell system was developed for a portable power generator. • Novel concept using an all-in-one reactor for hydrogen generation was proposed. • Catalytic reactor, hydrogen chamber and separator were combined in a volume. • The system can be used to drive fuel cell-powered unmanned autonomous systems. - Abstract: Compact fuel cell system was developed for a portable power generator. The power generator features a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using a chemical hydride as a hydrogen source. The hydrogen generator extracted hydrogen using a catalytic hydrolysis from a sodium borohydride alkaline solution. A novel concept using an all-in-one reactor was proposed in which a catalyst, hydrogen chamber and byproduct separator were combined in a volume. In addition, the reactor as well as a pump, cooling fans, valves and controller was integrated in a single module. A 100 W PEMFC stack was connected with the hydrogen generator and was evaluated at various load conditions. It was verified that the stable hydrogen supply was achieved and the developed system can be used to drive fuel cell-powered unmanned autonomous systems.

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of thiosulfate in human blood and urine as an indicator of hydrogen sulfide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Chikatoshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Asari, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamada, Hiromi; Jin, Shigeki; Horioka, Kie; Matoba, Kotaro; Shiono, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shimizu, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    Being a stable metabolite of hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate has been utilized as an index for hydrogen sulfide poisoning (HSP). Thiosulfate analysis is mainly performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) due to its high sensitivity and specificity. The GC-MS analysis requires two-step derivatizations of thiosulfate, and the derivative is not stable in solution as it has a disulfide moiety. To resolve this stability issue, we developed a novel analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for monitoring the pentafluorobenzyl derivative of thiosulfate (the first reaction product of the GC-MS method) in this study. The established method exhibited high reproducibility despite being a more simplified and rapid procedure compare to the GC-MS method. Phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate was used as an internal standard because 1,3,5-tribromobenzene which had been used in the GC-MS method was not suitable compound for LC-MS/MS with Electrospray ionization (ESI) negative detection. The linear regression of the peak area ratios versus concentrations was fitted over the concentration ranges of 0.5-250μM and 0.25-250μM in blood and urine, respectively. The validation results satisfied the acceptance criteria for intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision. Blood and urine samples from 12 suspected HSP cases were tested using this method. The thiosulfate concentration detected in the sample coincided well with that determined at the scene of each HSP accident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of intrinsic catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of water molecules to generate hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hydronium ion activities at near-neutral pH and under unbuffered conditions induce diffusion-limited currents for hydrogen evolution, followed by a reaction with water molecules to generate hydrogen at elevated potentials. The observed

  18. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general.

  19. Development of a high-efficiency hydrogen generator for fuel cells for distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraiswamy, K.; Chellappa, Anand [Intelligent Energy, 2955 Redondo Ave., Long Beach, CA 90806 (United States); Smith, Gregory; Liu, Yi; Li, Mingheng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A collaborative effort between Intelligent Energy and Cal Poly Pomona has developed an adsorption enhanced reformer (AER) for hydrogen generation for use in conjunction with fuel cells in small sizes. The AER operates at a lower temperature (about 500 C) and has a higher hydrogen yield and purity than those in the conventional steam reforming. It employs ceria supported rhodium as the catalyst and potassium-promoted hydrotalcites to remove carbon dioxide from the products. A novel pulsing feed concept is developed for the AER operation to allow a deeper conversion of the feedstock to hydrogen. Continuous production of near fuel-cell grade hydrogen is demonstrated in the AER with four packed beds running alternately. In the best case of methane reforming, the overall conversion to hydrogen is 92% while the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations in the production stream are on the ppm level. The ratio of carbon dioxide in the regeneration exhaust to the one in the product stream is on the order of 10{sup 3}. (author)

  20. Life on the edge: hydrogen sulfide and the fish communities of a Mexican cave and surrounding waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Heubel, Katja U; Riesch, Rüdiger; de León, Francisco J García; Giere, Olav; Plath, Martin

    2006-12-01

    Most eucaryotic organisms classified as living in an extreme habitat are invertebrates. Here we report of a fish living in a Mexican cave (Cueva del Azufre) that is rich in highly toxic H(2)S. We compared the water chemistry and fish communities of the cave and several nearby surface streams. Our study revealed high concentrations of H(2)S in the cave and its outflow (El Azufre). The concentrations of H(2)S reach more than 300 muM inside the cave, which are acutely toxic for most fishes. In both sulfidic habitats, the diversity of fishes was heavily reduced, and Poecilia mexicana was the dominant species indicating that the presence of H(2)S has an all-or-none effect, permitting only few species to survive in sulfidic habitats. Compared to habitats without H(2)S, P. mexicana from the cave and the outflow have a significantly lower body condition. Although there are microhabitats with varying concentrations of H(2)S within the cave, we could not find a higher fish density in areas with lower concentrations of H(2)S. We discuss that P. mexicana is one of the few extremophile vertebrates. Our study supports the idea that extreme habitats lead to an impoverished species diversity.

  1. Surface- and interface-engineered heterostructures for solar hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyan; Li, Yanrui; Shen, Shaohua

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting based on semiconductor photoelectrodes provides a promising platform for reducing environmental pollution and solving the energy crisis by developing clean, sustainable and environmentally friendly hydrogen energy. In this context, metal oxides with their advantages including low cost, good chemical stability and environmental friendliness, have attracted extensive attention among the investigated candidates. However, the large bandgap, poor charge transfer ability and high charge recombination rate limit the PEC performance of metal oxides as photoelectrodes. To solve this limitation, many approaches toward enhanced PEC water splitting performance, which focus on surface and interface engineering, have been presented. In this topical review, we concentrate on the heterostructure design of some typical metal oxides with narrow bandgaps (e.g. Fe2O3, WO3, BiVO4 and Cu2O) as photoelectrodes. An overview of the surface- and interface-engineered heterostructures, including semiconductor heterojunctions, surface protection, surface passivation and cocatalyst decoration, will be given to introduce the recent advances in metal oxide heterostructures for PEC water splitting. This article aims to provide fundamental references and principles for designing metal oxide heterostructures with high activity and stability as photoelectrodes for PEC solar hydrogen generation.

  2. Generation of hydrogen free radicals from water for fuels by electric field induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Yiyi; Li, Ming; Zhou, Zongwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen free radicals are generated from water splitting. • Hydrogen fuel is generated from water by electric field induction. • Hydrocarbon fuel is generated from CO_2 and water by electric field induction. - Abstract: Water is the most abundant resource for generating hydrogen fuel. In addition to dissociating H"+ and "−OH ions, certain water molecules dissociate to radicals under an electric field are considered. Therefore, an electric field inducing reactor is constructed and operated to generate hydrogen free radicals in this paper. Hydrogen free radicals begin to be generated under a 1.0 V electric field, and increasing the voltage and temperature increases the number of hydrogen free radicals. The production rate of hydrogen free radicals is 0.245 mmol/(L h) at 5.0 V and room temperature. The generated hydrogen free radicals are converted to polymer fuel and hydrogen fuel at production rates of 0.0093 mmol/(L h) and 0.0038 mmol/(L h) respectively, under 5.0 V and 0.25 mA. The results provide a way to generate hydrogen free radicals, which might be used to generate hydrocarbon fuel in industrial manufacture.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide prolongs postharvest storage of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia by alleviation of oxidative damage and inhibition of fungal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Di Hu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia. H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide radicals (•O2(- and malondialdehyde (MDA. Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and guaiacol peroxidase (POD, while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and polyphenol oxidase (PPO. Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide.

  4. Three Gaseous Neurotransmitters, Nitric oxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen Sulfide, Are Involved in the Neurogenic Relaxation Responses of the Porcine Internal Anal Sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folasire, Oladayo; Mills, Kylie A; Sellers, Donna J; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2016-01-31

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 μM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 μM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P 40-50% reduction), zinc protoprophyrin IX (10 μM), an inhibitor of carbon monoxide synthesis (20-40% reduction), and also propargylglycine (30 μM) and aminooxyacetic acid (30 μM), inhibitors of hydrogen sulphide synthesis (15-20% reduction). Stimulation of IAS efferent nerves releases excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: noradrenaline is the predominant contractile transmitter with a smaller component from ATP, whilst 3 gases mediate relaxation responses to EFS, with the combined contributions being nitric oxide > carbon monoxide > hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Super-hydrophilic copper sulfide films as light absorbers for efficient solar steam generation under one sun illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenzhen; Ming, Xin; Wang, Gang; Hou, Baofei; Liu, Xinghang; Mei, Tao; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Xianbao

    2018-02-01

    Solar steam technology is one of the simplest, most direct and effective ways to harness solar energy through water evaporation. Here, we report the development using super-hydrophilic copper sulfide (CuS) films with double-layer structures as light absorbers for solar steam generation. In the double-layer structure system, a porous mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane is used as a supporting layer, which enables water to get into the CuS light absorbers through a capillary action to provide continuous water during solar steam generation. The super-hydrophilic property of the double-layer system (CuS/MCE) leads to a thinner water film close to the air-water interface where the surface temperature is sufficiently high, leading to more efficient evaporation (˜80 ± 2.5%) under one sun illumination. Furthermore, the evaporation efficiencies still keep a steady value after 15 cycles of testing. The super-hydrophilic CuS film is promising for practical application in water purification and evaporation as a light absorption material.

  6. Broad Spectrum Photoelectrochemical Diodes for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Craig A.

    2014-11-26

    Under program auspices we have investigated material chemistries suitable for the solar generation of hydrogen by water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon, and extended, our knowledge base on the synthesis and application of TiO2 nanotube arrays, a material architecture that appears ideal for water photoelectrolysis. To date we have optimized, refined, and greatly extended synthesis techniques suitable for achieving highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays of given length, wall thickness, pore diameter, and tube-to-tube spacing for use in water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon this knowledge based to achieve visible light responsive, photocorrosion stable n-type and p-type ternary oxide nanotube arrays for use in photoelectrochemical diodes.

  7. Next-generation TCAP hydrogen isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L. K.; Sessions, H. T.; Poore, A. S.; Jacobs, W. D.; Williams, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermal cycling absorption process (TCAP) for hydrogen isotope separation has been in operation at Savannah River Site since 1994. The process uses a hot/cold nitrogen system to cycle the temperature of the separation column. The hot/cold nitrogen system requires the use of large compressors, heat exchanges, valves and piping that is bulky and maintenance intensive. A new compact thermal cycling (CTC) design has recently been developed. This new design uses liquid nitrogen tubes and electric heaters to heat and cool the column directly so that the bulky hot/cold nitrogen system can be eliminated. This CTC design is simple and is easy to implement, and will be the next generation TCAP system at SRS. A twelve-meter column has been fabricated and installed in the laboratory to demonstrate its performance. The design of the system and its test results to date is discussed. (authors)

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-04-20

    Photocatalytic hydrogen (H2 ) generation in a water splitting process has recently attracted tremendous interest because it allows the direct conversion of clean and unlimited solar energy into the ideal energy resource of H2 . For efficient photocatalytic H2 generation, the role of the photocatalyst is critical. With increasing demand for more efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective photocatalysts, various types of semiconductor photocatalysts have been intensively developed. In particular, on the basis of its superior catalytic and tunable electronic properties, nitrogen-doped graphene is a potential candidate for a high-performance photocatalyst. Nitrogen-doped graphene also offers additional advantages originating from its unique two-dimensional sp(2) -hybridized carbon network including a large specific surface area and exceptional charge transport properties. It has been reported that nitrogen-doped graphene can play diverse but positive functions including photo-induced charge acceptor/meditator, light absorber from UV to visible light, n-type semiconductor, and giant molecular photocatalyst. Herein, we summarize the recent progress and general aspects of nitrogen-doped graphene as a photocatalyst for photocatalytic H2 generation. In addition, challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Potential for Low-Temperature Abiotic Hydrogen Generation and a Hydrogen-Driven Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The release and oxidation of ferrous iron during aqueous alteration of the mineral olivine is known to reduce aqueous solutions to such extent that molecular hydrogen, H2, forms. H2 is an efficient energy carrier and is considered basal to the deep subsurface biosphere. Knowledge of the potential for H2 generation is therefore vital to understanding the deep biosphere on Earth and on extraterrestrial bodies. Here, we provide a review of factors that may reduce the potential for H2 generation with a focus on systems in the core temperature region for thermophilic to hyperthermophilic microbial life. We show that aqueous sulfate may inhibit the formation of H2, whereas redox-sensitive compounds of carbon and nitrogen are unlikely to have significant effect at low temperatures. In addition, we suggest that the rate of H2 generation is proportional to the dissolution rate of olivine and, hence, limited by factors such as reactive surface areas and the access of water to fresh surfaces. We furthermore suggest that the availability of water and pore/fracture space are the most important factors that limit the generation of H2. Our study implies that, because of large heat flows, abundant olivine-bearing rocks, large thermodynamic gradients, and reduced atmospheres, young Earth and Mars probably offered abundant systems where microbial life could possibly have emerged. Key Words: Serpentinization—Olivine—Hydrogen—Deep biosphere—Water—Mars. Astrobiology 11, 711–724. PMID:21923409

  10. Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high zinc regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2018-02-21

    In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H 2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H 2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly enhanced plant growth, fruit yield, water status, the levels of H 2 S and proline as well as the activities of different antioxidant enzymes, while it significantly suppressed EL, MDA, and H 2 O 2 contents in the pepper plants receiving low level Zn. NaHS application to the control plants did not significantly change all these parameters tested except the dry matter which increased significantly. High Zn regime led to increase intrinsic Zn levels in the leaves and roots, but it lowered leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) concentrations. However, NaHS reduces the Zn conc. and enhances Fe and N in leaf and root organs. It can be concluded that NaHS can mitigate the harmful effects of Zn on plant growth particularly by lowering the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , Zn, EL, and MDA, and enhancing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of essential nutrients in pepper plants.

  11. Spark Discharge Generated Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest obstacles to the large scale application of hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles is the absence of hydrogen storage methods suitable for application on-board of these vehicles. Metal hydrides are materials in which hydrogen is reversibly absorbed by one or more metals or

  12. Interfacial electrochemistry of colloidal ruthenium dioxide and catalysis of the photochemical generation of hydrogen from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen from water using solar energy is a very attractive research topic, because of the potential use of hydrogen as an alternative, clean fuel. It has been shown by many workers in the field that photochemical hydrogen generation can be achieved in an aqueous system,

  13. A Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a procedure for oxygen generation by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate in presence of manganese dioxide, reacted with various sulfides. Provides a table of sample product yields for various sulfides. (JM)

  14. Hydrogen generation, distribution and combustion under severe LWR accident conditions: a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report include hydrogen generation, distribution in containment, and combustion characteristics. A companion report addresses hydrogen control. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  15. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solehudin, Agus, E-mail: asolehudin@upi.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung, West Java (Indonesia); Nurdin, Isdiriayani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  16. Investigations of the thermal treatment effect on the generation of cadmium sulfide clusters in polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, Anca; Socol, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last years a special interest has been paid to the field of nanometer-sized semiconductor compound crystalline clusters synthesized in different matrix (inorganic or organic), due to their special physical and chemical properties intermediate between the molecular and bulk limits. To obtain the thin film samples of CdS particles embedded in a polymeric transparent matrix, as bisphenol A polycarbonate, we followed a process containing three important steps: preparation of the so-called 'mother solution', film deposition and thermal treatment. The samples obtained after the first two steps were heat treated at different temperatures (90 deg. C and 150 deg. C) for 0.5 h, 1 h and 1.5 h, and we have analyzed the influence of these parameters on the film quality using UV-VIS spectrophotometric methods. This paper presents a study of the influence of the thermal treatment on the CdS clusters' generation process and film quality and homogeneity. The parameters of the processing procedure of the polymeric film, as the cooling rate, have a great influence on the rate of germination and development of the crystalline phase. A slow cooling rate is a more favorable process for CdS clusters' formation, indicated .by structured features of the fundamental absorption situated between 350-450 nm. When the temperature for thermal treatment increases to 90 deg. C a sharp rise and a shift to shorter wavelengths of the absorption onset edge was observed. This shift proves the existence of a weak quantum confinement effects. We concluded that these two parameters have some equivalent effects on the CdS clusters' generation in polymeric matrix. Varying the treatment duration with a fixed temperature produces similar results as the fixed duration, varied temperature treatment. (authors)

  17. Fluorinated cobalt for catalyzing hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdim, O.; Demirci, U.B.; Brioude, A.; Miele, P. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS Universite Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-07-15

    The present paper reports preliminary results relating to a search for durable cobalt-based catalyst intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). Fluorination of Co [Suda S, Sun YM, Liu BH, Zhou Y, Morimitsu S, Arai K, et al. Catalytic generation of hydrogen by applying fluorinated-metal hydrides as catalysts. Appl Phys A 2001; 72: 209-12.] has attracted our attention whereas the fluorination of Co boride has never been envisaged so far. Our first objective was to compare the reactivity of fluorinated Co with that of Co boride. We focused our attention on the formation of Co boride from fluorinated Co. Our second objective was to show the fluorination effect on the reactivity of Co. Our third objective was to find an efficient, durable Co catalyst. It was observed a limited stabilization of the Co surface by virtue of the fluorination, which made the formation of surface Co boride more difficult while the catalytic activity was unaltered. The fluorination did not affect the number of surface active sites. Nevertheless, it did not prevent the formation of Co boride. The fluorination of Co boride was inefficient. Hence, fluorination is a way to gain in stabilization of the catalytic surface but it is quite inefficient to hinder the boride formation. Accordingly, it did not permit to compare the reactivity of Co boride with that of Co. (author)

  18. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 287 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

  19. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  20. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  1. Covalent attachment of thionine onto gold electrode modified with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles: Improvement of electrocatalytic and photelectrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Rahmatpanah, Rojzin; Hallaj, Rahman; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed strategy based on gold (Au) electrode modified with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdSnp) and thionine (Th) was proposed toward electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) reduction. At first, a thin film of CdS nanoparticles was electrodeposited onto Au electrode. Then, the CdS/Au electrode was modified with mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), which not only acts as a stabilizing agent to prevent the chalcogenide CdS nanocrystals from aggregation but also as a linker for subsequent attachment of Th onto the CdS nanoparticles. The effective covalent immobilization of Th was achieved through amide bond formation reaction between -NH 2 groups of Th and -COOH groups of MAA, using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as condensation agent. The Au/CdS/Th modified electrode showed a well-defined redox couple with surface confined characteristics at wide pH range (2–12). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and the surface coverage of immobilized Th on the modified electrode was obtained as 0.12 s −1 and 4.35 × 10 −9 mole cm −2 , respectively. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the modified electrode toward hydrogen peroxide reduction was investigated and it was found that the Au/CdS/Th electrode illustrates excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction at reduced overpotential. The detection limit, sensitivity and catalytic rate constant (k cat ) of the modified electrode toward H 2 O 2 were 55 nM, 3.4 μA μM −1 cm −2 and 3.75 (±0.1) × 10 3 M −1 s −1 , respectively, at linear concentration range up to 10 mM. Upon light irradiation, about two-fold improvements were attained in sensitivity and detection limit of the modified electrode toward H 2 O 2 electrocatalytic determination

  2. Emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at a waterfall in a sewer: study of main factors affecting H2S emission and modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daniel; Hatrait, Laetitia; Gouello, Julien; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Parez, Vincent; Renner, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) represents one of the main odorant gases emitted from sewer networks. A mathematical model can be a fast and low-cost tool for estimating its emission. This study investigates two approaches to modeling H 2 S gas transfer at a waterfall in a discharge manhole. The first approach is based on an adaptation of oxygen models for H 2 S emission at a waterfall and the second consists of a new model. An experimental set-up and a statistical data analysis allowed the main factors affecting H 2 S emission to be studied. A new model of the emission kinetics was developed using linear regression and taking into account H 2 S liquid concentration, waterfall height and fluid velocity at the outlet pipe of a rising main. Its prediction interval was estimated by the residual standard deviation (15.6%) up to a rate of 2.3 g H 2 S·h -1 . Finally, data coming from four sampling campaigns on sewer networks were used to perform simulations and compare predictions of all developed models.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion of weld regions in API X52 steel; Corrosion por acido sulfhidrico de las regiones de soldadura en acero API X52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.arenas@uadec.edu.mx; Garcia-Cerecero, G. [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion behavior of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) regions has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and polarization resistance (LPR) techniques. Experiments were conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-containing brine and in H{sub 2}S-free brine. Welds were made on API 5L X52 steel. Due to differences in their microstructure, chemical composition and residual stress level, weld regions exhibited different responses under H{sub 2}S corrosion. Base metal exhibited the highest corrosion rate (CR) and the most cathodic corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se estudio el comportamiento ante la corrosion de las regiones de soldadura de un cordon realizado por arco metalico con gas (GMAW) sobre un acero grado API X52 mediante las tecnicas de polarizacion potencio dinamica y resistencia a la polarizacion (LPR). Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando salmuera con 300 ppm de acido sulfhidrico (H{sub 2}S) y salmuera libre de H{sub 2}S como electrolitos. Debido a las diferencias en su microestructura, composicion quimica y el nivel de esfuerzos residuales, las regiones de soldadura mostraron diferentes respuestas a la corrosion por H{sub 2}S. El metal base exhibio la velocidad de corrosion (VC) mas alta y el potencial de corrosion mas catodico.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide formation control and microbial competition in batch anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater sludge: Effect of initial sludge pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Ye, Jie; Zhang, Panyue; Xu, Dong; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Wang, Bei; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-07-01

    High sulfur content in excess sludge impacts the production of biomethane during anaerobic digestion, meanwhile leads to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) formation in biogas. Effect of initial sludge pH on H 2 S formation during batch mesophilic anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater sludge was studied in this paper. The results demonstrated that when the initial sludge pH increased from 6.5 to 8.0, the biogas production increased by 10.1%, the methane production increased by 64.1%, while the H 2 S content in biogas decreased by 44.7%. The higher initial sludge pH inhibited the competition of sulfate-reducing bacteria with methane-producing bacteria, and thus benefitted the growth of methanogens. Positive correlation was found between the relative abundance of Desulfomicrobium and H 2 S production, as well as the relative abundance of Methanosarcina and methane production. More sulfates and organic sulfur were transferred to solid and liquid rather than H 2 S formation at a high initial pH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  6. Micro-oxygenation does not eliminate hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans from wine; it simply shifts redox and complex-related equilibria to reversible oxidized species and complexed forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Eduardo; Hernandez-Orte, Purificación; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-03-15

    This work seeks to assess the effects of micro-oxygenation (MOX) on the present and potential levels of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSCs) of wine. With such purpose, three red wines with a tendency to develop sulfury off-odors were subjected to three different MOX conditions (4.4-20mg/L delivered at 0.05 or 0.2mg/L/day). Samples were further subjected to Accelerated Reductive aging (AR) and analyzed for free and Brine Releasable (BR) VSCs and redox potential. Although MOX induced strong decreases in the levels of all free VSCs, hardly affected the ability of the wine to release back hydrogen sulfide and other mercaptans during AR-aging. During aging BR-levels of MOX samples became in most cases similar or higher than non-oxygenated controls. BR-levels and the fractions free/BR follow characteristic sigmoid plots when represented versus redox potential suggesting that all changes are the result of reversible equilibria between free, metal-complexed and oxidized forms of VSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide-mediated regulation of contractility in the mouse ileum with electrical stimulation: roles of L-cysteine, cystathionine β-synthase, and K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Kanno, Toshio; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2014-10-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered to be a signaling molecule. The precise mechanisms underlying H2S-related events, including the producing enzymes and target molecules in gastrointestinal tissues, have not been elucidated in detail. We herein examined the involvement of H2S in contractions induced by repeated electrical stimulations (ES). ES-induced contractions were neurotoxin-sensitive and increased by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase, but not by D,L-propargylglycine, a selective inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase, in an ES trial-dependent manner. ES-induced contractions were markedly decreased in the presence of L-cysteine. This response was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid and an antioxidant, and accelerated by L-methionine, an activator of CBS. The existence of CBS was confirmed. NaHS transiently inhibited ES- and acetylcholine-induced contractions, and sustainably decreased basal tone for at least 20 min after its addition. The treatment with glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, reduced both the L-cysteine response and NaHS-induced inhibition of contractions. The NaHS-induced decrease in basal tone was inhibited by apamin, a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker. These results suggest that H2S may be endogenously produced via CBS in ES-activated enteric neurons, and regulates contractility via multiple K+ channels in the ileum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) α, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide potentiates interleukin-1β-induced nitric oxide production via enhancement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun-Oh; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Oh, Gi-Su; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Lee, Bok-Soo; Lee, Seoul; Kim, Du Yong; Rhew, Hyun Yul; Lee, Kang-Min; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and nitric oxide (NO) are endogenously synthesized from L-cysteine and L-arginine, respectively. They might constitute a cooperative network to regulate their effects. In this study, we investigated whether H 2 S could affect NO production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Although H 2 S by itself showed no effect on NO production, it augmented IL-β-induced NO production and this effect was associated with increased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. IL-1β activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and this activation was also enhanced by H 2 S. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by the selective inhibitor U0126 inhibited IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation, iNOS expression, and NO production either in the absence or presence of H 2 S. Our findings suggest that H 2 S enhances NO production and iNOS expression by potentiating IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation through a mechanism involving ERK1/2 signaling cascade in rat VSMCs

  11. Hydrogen sulfide removal from hot coal gas by various mesoporous silica supported Mn2O3 sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.F.; Liu, B.S.; Wang, F.; Wang, W.S.; Xia, C.; Zheng, S.; Amin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 presented the best desulfurization performance at 600–850 °C. • High sulfur capacity of Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 correlated closely with 3-D channel of KIT-1. • Desulfurization character depended strongly on framework structure of sorbents. • High steam content suppressed greatly the occurrence of sulfidation reaction. - Abstract: A series of 50 wt% Mn 2 O 3 sorbents was prepared using various mesoporous silica, MCM-41, HMS, and KIT-1 as support. The influence of textural parameters of mesoporous silica, especially type of channel on the desulfurization performance of Mn 2 O 3 sorbents was investigated at 600–850 °C using hot coal gas containing 0.33 vol.% H 2 S. The fresh and used sorbents were characterized by means of N 2 -adsorption, x-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and H 2 temperature- programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR) techniques. The results confirmed that the manganese oxide was dispersed highly in regular pore channel of the mesoporous supports due to high surface area. Compared with the Mn 2 O 3 /diatomite, all mesoporous silica supported Mn 2 O 3 sorbents exhibited high breakthrough sulfur capacity and a sharp deactivation rate after the breakthrough point. Compared to Mn 2 O 3 /MCM-41 and Mn 2 O 3 /HMS sorbent, the Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 showed better desulfurization performance because of the 3D wormhole-like channel. The high sulfur capacity of the Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 sorbent was maintained during the eight consecutive desulfurization-regeneration cycles. The Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 still presented high desulfurization activity when hot coal gas contained low steam (<5%)

  12. Hydrogen sulfide booster compressors for HWP Manuguru - oil reclamation study - BHEL experience (Paper No. 5.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, A.; Santanam, N.; Murthy, T.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    BHEL undertook the development of hydrogen sulphide booster compressor with a view to indigenise this most critical equipment in a heavy water plant. Throughout the design, manufacture and shop testing of these booster compressors BHEL had close interaction with Heavy Water Board. This paper describes the problems faced during commissioning of compressors at KCR -Manuguru such as deficiencies in the sizing of LP seal oil drain, development of a process for reclamation of oil and development of alternate sealing arrangement, etc. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Use of portable analytical methods to determine the stoichiometry of reaction for hexahydrotriazine-based hydrogen sulfide scavenger operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Grahame N; Matherly, Ron

    2014-05-20

    During the reaction between 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine and hydrogen sulphide, the principle by-product is the organic sulphide 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiazine. It can be determined by a novel, portable, field-capable ion mobility spectrometry method described herein and enables the "degree spent" to be determined. Dependant upon the level of carbon dioxide in the produced gas, a mixture of ethanolaminium bicarbonate and ethanolamine bisulphide is also produced. Using a field capable spectrophotometric method the level of inorganic sulphide can be determined, thus allowing the ethanolaminium bisulphide concentration to be calculated. Provided the fluid is only partially spent, and there is some unreacted 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine remaining; the only source of inorganic sulphide is the amine salt. From a knowledge of the original fluid concentration, the combination of these two methods allows the effective stoichiometry, or observed molar reaction proportions between 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine and hydrogen sulphide, to be measured for a specific field location.

  14. Sulfide Generated by Sulfate Reduction is a Primary Controller of the Occurrence of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Swain, E. B.; Engstrom, D. R.; Coleman Wasik, J.; Brenner, J.; Dykhuizen Shore, M.; Peters, E. B.; Blaha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Field observations suggest that surface water sulfate concentrations control the distribution of wild rice, an aquatic grass (Zizania palustris). However, hydroponic studies show that sulfate is not toxic to wild rice at even unrealistically high concentrations. To determine how sulfate might directly or indirectly affect wild rice, potential wild rice habitat was characterized for 64 chemical and physical variables in over 100 sites spanning a relatively steep climatic and geological gradient in Minnesota. Habitat suitability was assessed by comparing the occurrence of wild rice with the field variables, through binary logistic regression. This analysis demonstrated that sulfide in sediment pore water, generated by the microbial reduction of sulfate that diffuses or advects into the sediment, is the primary control of wild rice occurrence. Water temperature and water transparency independently control the suitability of habitat for wild rice. In addition to generating phytotoxic sulfide, sulfate reduction also supports anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, releasing nutrients that can compound the harm of direct sulfide toxicity. These results are important because they show that increases in sulfate loading to surface water can have multiple negative consequences for ecosystems, even though sulfate itself is relatively benign.

  15. Inhibition and Promotion of Pyrolysis by Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and Sulfanyl Radical (SH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhe; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Oluwoye, Ibukun

    2016-01-01

    processes. For the three groups of hydrocarbon, Evans–Polanyi plots display linear correlations between the bond dissociation enthalpies of the abstracted hydrogens and the relevant activation energies. In the case of methane, we demonstrated that the reactivity of SH radicals toward abstracting H atoms......This study resolves the interaction of sulfanyl radical (SH) with aliphatic (C1–C4) hydrocarbons, using CBS-QB3 based calculations. We obtained the C–H dissociation enthalpies and located the weakest link in each hydrocarbon. Subsequent computations revealed that, H abstraction by SH from...... the weakest C–H sites in alkenes and alkynes, except for ethylene, appears noticeably exothermic. Furthermore, abstraction of H from propene, 1-butene, and iso-butene displays pronounced spontaneity (i.e., ΔrG° bond. However...

  16. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  17. Steam generators of Phenix: Measurement of the hydrogen concentration in sodium for detecting water leaks in the steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Lacroix, A.; Langlois, J.; Viala, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Phenix secondary circuits are provided with measurement systems of hydrogen concentration in sodium, that allow for the detection of possible water leaks in steam generators and the location of a faulty module. A measurement device consists of : a detector with nickel membranes of 0, 3 mm wall thickness, an ion pump with a 200 l/s flow rate, a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a calibrated hydrogen leak. The temperature correction is made automatically. The main tests carried out on the leak detection systems are reported. Since the first system operation (October 24, 1973), the measurements allowed us to obtain the hydrogen diffusion rates through the steam generator tube walls. (author)

  18. Hydrogen generation monitoring and mass gain analysis during the steam oxidation for Zircaloy using hydrogen and oxygen sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Michihisa; Hara, Motoi; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Sakuraba, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 at high temperatures in a flowing Ar-H_2O (saturated at 323 K) mixed gas was investigated using hydrogen and oxygen sensors installed at a gas outlet, and the utility of the gas sensing methods by using both sensors was examined. The generated amount of hydrogen was determined from the hydrogen partial pressure continuously measured by the hydrogen sensor, and the resultant calculated oxygen amount that reacted with the specimen was in close agreement with the mass gain gravimetrically measured after the experiment. This result demonstrated that the hydrogen partial pressure measurement using a hydrogen sensor is an effective method for examining the steam oxidation of this metal as well as monitoring the hydrogen evolution. The advantage of this method is that the oxidation rate of the metal at any time as a differential quantity is able to be obtained, compared to the oxygen amount gravimetrically measured as an integral quantity. When the temperature was periodically changed in the range of 1173 K to 1523 K, highly accurate measurements could be carried out using this gas monitoring method, although reasonable measurements were not gravimetrically performed due to the fluctuating thermo-buoyancy during the experiment. A change of the oxidation rate was clearly detected at a monoclinic tetragonal transition temperature of ZrO_2. From the calculation of the water vapor partial pressure during the thermal equilibrium condition using the hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures, it became clear that a thermal equilibrium state is maintained when the isothermal condition is maintained, but is not when the temperature increases or decreases with time. Based on these results, it was demonstrated that the gas monitoring system using hydrogen and oxygen sensors is very useful for investigating the oxidation process of the Zircaloy in steam. (author)

  19. Micro hydrogen for portable power : generating opportunities for hydrogen and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A new fuel cell technology for portable applications was reviewed. Success for the fuel cell industry will be achieved primarily by supplanting lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cells for portable applications have clear advantages to batteries in addition to their known environmental benefits. Micro hydrogen {sup TM} is the integrated combination of hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen storage and delivery, fluidic interconnects and power conditioning electronics required for creating high energy density portable power sources. The small size, low heat production, environmental sustainability and refueling flexibility of the systems provides enormous economic opportunities for the use of micro hydrogen in cell phone technology, personal digital assistants and other electronic gadgets. Details of a trial to test and evaluate micro hydrogen fuel cell powered bike lights were presented. Further programs are planned for external demonstrations of high-beam search and rescue lighting, flashlights for security personnel and portable hydrogen power sources that will be used by multiple organizations throughout British Columbia. It was concluded that fuel cell technology must match the lithium-ion battery's performance by providing fast recharge, high energy density, and adaptability. Issues concerning refueling and portable and disposable cartridges for micro hydrogen systems were also discussed. 8 figs.

  20. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  1. Graphene Composites with Cobalt Sulfide: Efficient Trifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reversible Catalysis and Hydrogen Production in the Same Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Li, Ligui; Zhao, Dengke; Kang, Xiongwu; Tang, Zhenghua; Chen, Shaowei

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur-codoped graphene composites with Co 9 S 8 (NS/rGO-Co) are synthesized by facile thermal annealing of graphene oxides with cobalt nitrate and thiourea in an ammonium atmosphere. Significantly, in 0.1 m KOH aqueous solution the best sample exhibits an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity that is superior to that of benchmark RuO 2 catalysts, an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity that is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C, and an overpotential of only -0.193 V to reach 10 mA cm -2 for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). With this single catalyst for oxygen reversible electrocatalysis, a potential difference of only 0.700 V is observed in 0.1 m KOH solution between the half-wave potential in ORR and the potential to reach 10 mA cm -2 in OER; in addition, an overpotential of only 450 mV is needed to reach 10 mA cm -2 for full water splitting in the same electrolyte. The present trifunctional catalytic activities are markedly better than leading results reported in recent literature, where the remarkable trifunctional activity is attributed to the synergetic effects between N,S-codoped rGO, and Co 9 S 8 nanoparticles. These results highlight the significance of deliberate structural engineering in the preparation of multifunctional electrocatalysts for versatile electrochemical reactions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt-GSK-3β signaling and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70% warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury.

  3. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells involved in the modulation of calcium sensing receptor in high homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuwen; Wang, Xiyao; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Jichao; Dong, Shiyun; Li, Hongzhu; Jin, Meili; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Weihua; Zhong, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induces the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibits the phenotype switch of VSMCs and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulated the production of endogenous H 2 S. However, whether CaSR inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs by regulating the endogenous cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, a major enzyme that produces H 2 S) pathway in high homocysteine (HHcy) has not been previously investigated. The intracellular calcium concentration, the concentration of H 2 S, the cell viability, the proliferation and the expression of proteins of cultured VSMCs from rat thoracic aortas were measured, respectively. The results showed that the [Ca 2+ ] i and the expression of p-CaMK and CSE increased upon treatment with CaSR agonist. In HHcy, the H 2 S concentration decrease, the proliferation and migration rate increased, the expression of Cyclin D1, PCNA, Osteopontin and p-Erk1/2 increased while the α-SM actin, P21 Cip/WAK−1 and Calponin decreased. The CaSR agonist or exogenous H 2 S significantly reversed the changes of VSMCs caused by HHcy. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that CaSR regulate the endogenous CSE/H 2 S is related to the PLC-IP 3 receptor and CaM signal pathways which inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs, and the latter is involved in the Erk1/2 dependent signal pathway in high homocysteine. - Highlights: • CaSR activation increased the production of endogenous H 2 S in high homocysteine VSMCs. • CaSR modulated the CSE/H 2 S are related to the PLC-IP 3 R and Ca 2+ -CaM signal pathways. • Inhibition of H 2 S on the proliferation of VSMCs is involved in the Erk1/2 pathway. • Explore the potential roles of CaSR in regulating VSMCs proliferation in high homocysteine.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide reduces neutrophil recruitment in hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury in an L-selectin and ADAM-17 dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Carissa J.; Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Chintalapani, Sathvika; Kim, Minsoo; Spector, Jason A.; King, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reperfusion following ischemia leads to neutrophil recruitment injured tissue. Selectins and β2 integrins regulate neutrophil interaction with the endothelium during neutrophil rolling and firm adhesion. Excessive neutrophil infiltration into tissue is thought to contribute to IRI damage. NaHS mitigates the damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). This study's objective was to determine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) on neutrophil adhesion receptor expression. Methods Human neutrophils were either left untreated or incubated in 20 μM NaHS, and/or 50 μg/mL pharmacological ADAM-17 inhibitor TAPI-0; activated by IL-8, fMLP, or TNF-α; and labeled against PSGL-1, LFA-1, Mac-1 α, L-selectin and β2 integrin epitopes CBRM1/5 or KIM127 for flow cytometry. Cohorts of 3 C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous dose of saline vehicle, or 20 μM NaHS with or without 50 μg/mL TAPI-0 before unilateral tourniquet induced hind-limb ischemia for 3 hours followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Bilateral gastrocnemius muscles were processed for histology before neutrophil infiltration quantification. Results NaHS treatment significantly increased L-selectin shedding from human neutrophils following activation by fMLP and IL-8 in an ADAM-17 dependent manner. Mice treated with NaHS to raise bloodstream concentration by 20 μM prior to ischemia or reperfusion showed a significant reduction in neutrophil recruitment into skeletal muscle tissue following tourniquet-induced hindlimb IRI. Conclusions NaHS administration results in the downregulation of L-selectin expression in activated human neutrophils. This leads to a reduction in neutrophil extravasation and tissue infiltration and may partially account for the protective effects of NaHS seen in the setting of IRI. PMID:23446563

  5. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway contributes to the proliferation of hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yan; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway strongly stimulates cellular apoptosis. • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway suppresses cell growth by blocking EGFR pathway. • H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway is critical for maintaining the proliferation of hepatoma cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H{sub 2}S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction.

  6. Vasoconstriction triggered by hydrogen sulfide: Evidence for Na+,K+,2Cl-cotransport and L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Gusakova, Svetlana V; Smaglii, Liudmila V; Koltsova, Svetlana V; Sidorenko, Svetalana V

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na + /K + -pump and Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the 86 Rb influx, respectively. NaHS exhibited the bimodal action on contractions triggered by modest depolarization ([K + ] o =30 mM). At 10 -4 M, NaHS augmented contractions of intact and endothelium-denuded strips by ~ 15% and 25%, respectively, whereas at concentration of 10 -3  M it decreased contractile responses by more than two-fold. Contractions evoked by 10 -4  M NaHS were completely abolished by bumetanide, a potent inhibitor of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport, whereas the inhibition seen at 10 -3  M NaHS was suppressed in the presence of K + channel blocker TEA. In cultured SMC, 5×10 -5  M NaHS increased Na + ,K + ,2Cl - - cotransport without any effect on the activity of this carrier in endothelial cells. In depolarized SMC, 45 Ca influx was enhanced in the presence of 10 -4  M NaHS and suppressed under elevation of [NaHS] up to 10 -3  M. 45 Ca influx triggered by 10 -4  M NaHS was abolished by bumetanide and L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Our results strongly suggest that contractions of rat aortic rings triggered by low doses of NaHS are mediated by activation of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport and Ca 2+ influx via L-type channels.

  7. A high performance hydrogen sulfide gas sensor based on porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} operates at room-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanwu; Chen, Weimei; Zhang, Shouchao; Kuang, Zhong; Ao, Dongyi [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Alkurd, Nooraldeen Rafat; Zhou, Weilie [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Liu, Wei [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Shen, Wenzhong [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, 030001 (China); Li, Zhijie, E-mail: zhijieli@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. • The sensor based on porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits high sensitivity towards H{sub 2}S gas. • The detection limit towards H{sub 2}S gas was as low as 50 ppb at room temperature. • The sensor exhibits excellent selectivity against other toxic and noxious gases. - Abstract: Porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by simple annealing of β-FeOOH precursor derived from a facile hydrothermal route, the structures and morphologies of the as-prepared product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the average crystallite size of the obtained porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 34 nm and exits numerous irregularly distributed pores with a diameter varying from 2 nm to 10 nm on the particle surface. The gas-sensing properties of the sensor based on porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated, and the result showed that the sensor exhibited a high performance in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection at room temperature. The highest sensitivity reached 38.4 for 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, and the detection limit was as low as 50 ppb. In addition, the response of the sensor towards other gases including C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, CO, H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} indicates the sensor has an excellent selectivity to detection H{sub 2}S gas. Finally, the sensing mechanism of the sensor towards H{sub 2}S was also discussed.

  8. The endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine-β synthase contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiande DZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, a characteristic pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, remains elusive. Recent studies suggest a role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S in pain signaling but this has not been well studied in visceral models of hyperalgesia. We therefore determined the role for the endogenous H2S producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS in a validated rat model of IBS-like chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH. CVH was induced by colonic injection of 0.5% acetic acid (AA in 10-day-old rats and experiments were performed at 8–10 weeks of age. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons innervating the colon were labeled by injection of DiI (1,1'-dioleyl-3,3,3',3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate into the colon wall. Results In rat DRG, CBS-immunoreactivity was observed in approximately 85% of predominantly small- and medium-sized neurons. Colon specific DRG neurons revealed by retrograde labeling DiI were all CBS-positive. CBS-positive colon neurons co-expressed TRPV1 or P2X3 receptors. Western blotting analysis showed that CBS expression was significantly increased in colon DRGs 8 weeks after neonatal AA-treatment. Furthermore, the CBS inhibitor hydroxylamine markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in response to colorectal distention in rats with CVH. By contrast, the H2S donor NaHS significantly enhanced the frequency of action potentials of colon specific DRG neurons evoked by 2 times rheobase electrical stimulation. Conclusion Our results suggest that upregulation of CBS expression in colonic DRG neurons and H2S signaling may play an important role in developing CVH, thus identifying a specific neurobiological target for the treatment of CVH in functional bowel syndromes.

  9. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leptin-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of peripheral arteries in lean and obese rats: role of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide.

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    Anna Jamroz-Wiśniewska

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue hormone leptin induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by nitric oxide (NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF. Previously it has been demonstrated that in short-term obesity the NO-dependent and the EDHF-dependent components of vascular effect of leptin are impaired and up-regulated, respectively. Herein we examined the mechanism of the EDHF-dependent vasodilatory effect of leptin and tested the hypothesis that alterations of acute vascular effects of leptin in obesity are accounted for by chronic hyperleptinemia. The study was performed in 5 groups of rats: (1 control, (2 treated with exogenous leptin for 1 week to induce hyperleptinemia, (3 obese, fed highly-palatable diet for 4 weeks, (4 obese treated with pegylated superactive rat leptin receptor antagonist (PEG-SRLA for 1 week, (5 fed standard chow and treated with PEG-SRLA. Acute effect of leptin on isometric tension of mesenteric artery segments was measured ex vivo. Leptin relaxed phenylephrine-preconstricted vascular segments in NO- and EDHF-dependent manner. The NO-dependent component was impaired and the EDHF-dependent component was increased in the leptin-treated and obese groups and in the latter group both these effects were abolished by PEG-SRLA. The EDHF-dependent vasodilatory effect of leptin was blocked by either the inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase, propargylglycine, or a hydrogen