WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrogen production cost

  1. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  2. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  3. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  4. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  5. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  6. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  7. Final Report: Hydrogen Production Pathways Cost Analysis (2013 – 2016)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allan [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes work conducted under a three year Department of Energy (DOE) funded project to Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) to analyze multiple hydrogen (H2) production technologies and project their corresponding levelized production cost of H2. The analysis was conducted using the H2A Hydrogen Analysis Tool developed by the DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project was led by SA but conducted in close collaboration with the NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In-depth techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five different H2 production methods was conducted. These TEAs developed projections for capital costs, fuel/feedstock usage, energy usage, indirect capital costs, land usage, labor requirements, and other parameters, for each H2 production pathway, and use the resulting cost and system parameters as inputs into the H2A discounted cash flow model to project the production cost of H2 ($/kgH2). Five technologies were analyzed as part of the project and are summarized in this report: Proton Exchange Membrane technology (PEM), High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cell technology (SOEC), Dark fermentation of biomass for H2 production, H2 production via Monolithic Piston-Type Reactors with rapid swing reforming and regeneration reactions, and Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) technology developed by Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. (FCE).

  8. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    Xu, Liwei [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Deng, Xunming [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Abken, Anka [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Cao, Xinmin [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Du, Wenhui [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Vijh, Aarohi [Xunlight Corporation, Toledo, OH (United States); Ingler, William [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Chen, Changyong [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Fan, Qihua [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Collins, Robert [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Compaan, Alvin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Yan, Yanfa [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Giolando, Dean [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  9. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  10. Cost Evaluation with G4-ECONS Program for SI based Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    Kim, Jong-ho; Lee, Ki-young; Kim, Yong-wan

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary hydrogen is production is primarily based on fossil fuels, which is not considered as environments friendly and economically efficient. To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution reducing the release of carbon dioxide. Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The economic assessment was performed for nuclear hydrogen production plant consisting of VHTR coupled with SI cycle. For the study, G4-ECONS developed by EMWG of GIF was appropriately modified to calculate the LUHC, assuming 36 months of plant construction time, 5 % of annual interest rate and 12.6 % of fixed charge rate. In G4-ECONS program, LUHC is calculated by the following formula; LUHC = (Annualized TCIC + Annualized O-M Cost + Annualized Fuel Cycle Cost + Annualized D-D Cost) / Annual Hydrogen Production Rate

  11. Potential and costs of electrolytical hydrogen production by secondary energy in Brazil

    Souza, S. N. M. de; Silva, E. P. da

    1998-01-01

    This paper makes a description of the availability supply secondary hydroelectric power (secondary energy) in the Brazilian interconnected hydroelectric systems, then with the data attained it is made an estimation of electrolytical hydrogen that can be produced by means of Brazilian secondary hydroelectric power. Also are determined the costs of electrolytical hydrogen production, by way of utilisation of the secondary hydroelectric power availability in the hydroelectric system of the South and Southeastern regions, with the variation of hydrogen plant capacity that allow identify the cases where hydrogen can be produced at a lower costs. (author)

  12. Life cycle costs for the optimized production of hydrogen and biogas from microalgae

    Meyer, Markus A.; Weiss, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known advantages of microalgae compared with other biomass providers or fossil fuels, microalgae are predominately produced for high-value products. Economic constraints might limit the commercial energetic use of microalgae. Therefore, we identify the LCCs (life cycle costs) and economic hot spots for photoautotrophic hydrogen generation from photoautotrophically grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a novel staggered PBR (photobioreactor) and the anaerobic digestion of the residual biomass to obtain biogas. The novel PBR aims at minimizing energy consumption for mixing and aeration and at optimizing the light conditions for algal growth. The LCCs per MJ amounted to 12.17 Euro for hydrogen and 0.99 Euro for biogas in 2011 for Germany. Market prices per MJ of 0.02 Euro for biogas and 0.04 Euro for hydrogen are considerably exceeded. Major contributors to operating costs, about 70% of total LCCs, are personnel and overhead costs. The investment costs consist to about 92% of those for the PBR with a share of 61% membrane costs. The choice of Madrid as another production location with higher incident solar irradiation and lower personnel costs reduces LCCs by about 40%. Projecting LCCs to 2030 with experience curves, the LCCs still exceed future market prices. - Highlights: • Life cycle cost assessment of hydrogen and biogas from microalgae in a novel photobioreactor. • Current and future (2030) economically viable production unlikely in Germany. • Personnel and photobioreactor costs are major cost drivers. • Changing the production location may significantly reduce the life cycle costs

  13. Production cost comparisons of hydrogen from fossil and nuclear fuel and water decomposition

    Ekman, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    The comparative costs entailed in producing hydrogen by major technologies that rely on petroleum, natural gas, coal, thermochemical cycles, and electrolysis are examined. Techniques were developed for comparing these processes by formulating the process data and economic assessments on a uniform and consistent basis. These data were normalized to permit a meaningful comparative analysis of product costs of these processes.

  14. Multi-Scale Ordered Cell Structure for Cost Effective Production of Hydrogen by HTWS

    Elangovan, Elango [Ceramatec, Inc., West Valley City, UT (United States); Rao, Ranjeet [PARC, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Colella, Whitney [Gaia Energy Research Inst. LLC, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2017-12-20

    Production of hydrogen using an electrochemical device provides for large scale, high efficiency conversion and storage of electrical energy. When renewable electricity is used for conversion of steam to hydrogen, a low-cost and low emissions pathway to hydrogen production emerges. This project was intended to demonstrate a high efficiency High Temperature Water Splitting (HTWS) stack for the electrochemical production of low cost H2. The innovations investigated address the limitations of the state of the art through the use of a novel architecture that introduces macro-features to provide mechanical support of a thin electrolyte, and micro-features of the electrodes to lower polarization losses. The approach also utilizes a combination of unique sets of fabrication options that are scalable to achieve manufacturing cost objectives. The development of HTWS process and device is guided by techno-economic and life cycle analyses.

  15. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  16. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  17. Membrane reforming in converting natural gas to hydrogen: Production costs, Part II

    Iaquaniello, G; Cosenza, S [Technip-KTI S.p.A., via Castello della Magliana 75, Rome (Italy); Giacobbe, F; Morico, B; Farace, A [Processi Innovativi s.r.l., L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    This paper evaluates the production costs of a hybrid system based on a new membrane reforming MRR concept to convert natural gas to hydrogen and electricity. Membrane reforming with hydrogen-selective, palladium-silver membranes pushes the chemical equilibrium and allows higher methane conversions at lower temperature such as 650 C. The new MRR concept formed of a series of modules is put forward herein. Each module is made up of a reforming step and an external membrane separation unit. The estimates, based on utilities costs of a typical Italian refinery (end of 2006), show that the production costs for the hybrid system are 30% less than conventional tubular steam reforming technology, and 13% less than a gas-fired cogeneration plant coupled with a conventional H{sub 2} plant. (author)

  18. Transportation cost of nuclear off-peak power for hydrogen production based on water electrolysis

    Shimizu, Saburo; Ueno, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes transportation cost of the nuclear off-peak power for a hydrogen production based on water electrolysis in Japan. The power could be obtainable by substituting hydropower and/or fossil fueled power supplying peak and middle demands with nuclear power. The transportation cost of the off-peak power was evaluated to be 1.42 yen/kWh when an electrolyser receives the off-peak power from a 6kV distribution wire. Marked reduction of the cost was caused by the increase of the capacity factor. (author)

  19. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  20. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  1. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  2. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  3. Future hydrogen markets for large-scale hydrogen production systems

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of delivered hydrogen includes production, storage, and distribution. For equal production costs, large users (>10 6 m 3 /day) will favor high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies to avoid collection costs for hydrogen from widely distributed sources. Potential hydrogen markets were examined to identify and characterize those markets that will favor large-scale hydrogen production technologies. The two high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies are nuclear energy and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. The potential markets for these technologies are: (1) production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet) including liquid fuels with no net greenhouse gas emissions and (2) peak electricity production. The development of high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies requires an understanding of the markets to (1) define hydrogen production requirements (purity, pressure, volumes, need for co-product oxygen, etc.); (2) define and develop technologies to use the hydrogen, and (3) create the industrial partnerships to commercialize such technologies. (author)

  4. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    Song, Hua; Ozkan, Umit S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H 2 /day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H 2 /day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H 2 /day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H 2 /day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  5. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Ota, D; Yamagami, Y; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Production cost methods and data

    Jeffe, R. E.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The general gas cost equation for utility financing is presented. Modifications and assumptions made in order to apply the cost equation to hydrogen production are described. Cost data are given for various methods of hydrogen production. The cost matrix procedure is briefly discussed.

  7. Semi-solid state fermentation of bagasse for hydrogen production; the cost-effective approach in Indian context

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-solid state fermentation route of hydrogen production from agro-waste sugar cane bagasse was tried using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas (BHU strain-1) and the non-photosynthetic Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC2822. The process seems an alternative to submerged fermentation that requires high volumes of nutrient broth. Bagasse (10 g) pre-hydrolyzed with NaOH (2%, w/v) was coated with Ca-alginate (1.5%, v/v) containing Rhodopseudomonas and E. aerogenes in the co-immobilized state (300 μg bacterial biomass ml -1 ). The fermenting medium was just 150 ml to sustain the moistened bagasse in a 0.5 L fermenter kept in light. A parallel set of free bacterial cells served as control. Hydrogen production by the immobilized sets reached 30 L within 60 h with the average rate of 0.177 L H 2 h -1 . For free cells, the values for hydrogen output (20 L) or the rate 0.1125 L H 2 h -1 were approximately 1.5-fold low. It is proposed that semi-solid fermentation route of hydrogen production from bagasse will be a cost-effective technology in countries generating this agro-waste. (authors)

  8. Semi-solid state fermentation of bagasse for hydrogen production; the cost-effective approach in Indian context

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P. [Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, (India)

    2006-07-01

    Semi-solid state fermentation route of hydrogen production from agro-waste sugar cane bagasse was tried using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas (BHU strain-1) and the non-photosynthetic Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC2822. The process seems an alternative to submerged fermentation that requires high volumes of nutrient broth. Bagasse (10 g) pre-hydrolyzed with NaOH (2%, w/v) was coated with Ca-alginate (1.5%, v/v) containing Rhodopseudomonas and E. aerogenes in the co-immobilized state (300 {mu}g bacterial biomass ml{sup -1}). The fermenting medium was just 150 ml to sustain the moistened bagasse in a 0.5 L fermenter kept in light. A parallel set of free bacterial cells served as control. Hydrogen production by the immobilized sets reached 30 L within 60 h with the average rate of 0.177 L H{sub 2} h{sup -1}. For free cells, the values for hydrogen output (20 L) or the rate 0.1125 L H{sub 2} h{sup -1} were approximately 1.5-fold low. It is proposed that semi-solid fermentation route of hydrogen production from bagasse will be a cost-effective technology in countries generating this agro-waste. (authors)

  9. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  10. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  11. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  12. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  13. A Novel Hybrid Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) for Distributed Production of Low-Cost, Low Greenhouse Gas Hydrogen

    Jahnke, Fred C. [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2017-03-28

    FuelCell Energy with support from the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has investigated the production of low-cost, low CO2 hydrogen using a molten carbonate fuel cell operating as an electrolyzer. We confirmed the feasibility of the technology by testing a large-scale short stack. Economic analysis was done with the assistance of the National Fuel Cell Center at the University of California, Irvine and we found the technology to be attractive, especially for distributed hydrogen. We explored the performance under various operating parameters and developed an accurate model for further analysis and development calculations. We achieved the expected results, meeting all program goals. We identified additional uses of the technology such as for CO2 capture, power storage, and power load leveling.

  14. Extensive analysis of hydrogen costs

    Guinea, D M; Martin, D; Garcia-Alegre, M C; Guinea, D [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Arganda, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Automatica Industrial; Agila, W E [Acciona Infraestructuras, Alcobendas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. I+D+i

    2010-07-01

    Cost is a key issue in the spreading of any technology. In this work, the cost of hydrogen is analyzed and determined, for hydrogen obtained by electrolysis. Different contributing partial costs are taken into account to calculate the hydrogen final cost, such as energy and electrolyzers taxes. Energy cost data is taken from official URLs, while electrolyzer costs are obtained from commercial companies. The analysis is accomplished under different hypothesis, and for different countries: Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Spain and the Canadian region of Ontario. Finally, the obtained costs are compared to those of the most used fossil fuels, both in the automotive industry (gasoline and diesel) and in the residential sector (butane, coal, town gas and wood), and the possibilities of hydrogen competing against fuels are discussed. According to this work, in the automotive industry, even neglecting subsidies, hydrogen can compete with fossil fuels. Hydrogen can also compete with gaseous domestic fuels. Electrolyzer prices were found to have the highest influence on hydrogen prices. (orig.)

  15. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  16. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  17. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  18. Hydrogen production by nuclear heat

    Crosbie, Leanne M.; Chapin, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    A major shift in the way the world obtains energy is on the horizon. For a new energy carrier to enter the market, several objectives must be met. New energy carriers must meet increasing production needs, reduce global pollution emissions, be distributed for availability worldwide, be produced and used safely, and be economically sustainable during all phases of the carrier lifecycle. Many believe that hydrogen will overtake electricity as the preferred energy carrier. Hydrogen can be burned cleanly and may be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. Its use could drastically reduce global CO 2 emissions. However, as an energy carrier, hydrogen is produced with input energy from other sources. Conventional hydrogen production methods are costly and most produce carbon dioxide, therefore, negating many of the benefits of using hydrogen. With growing concerns about global pollution, alternatives to fossil-based hydrogen production are being developed around the world. Nuclear energy offers unique benefits for near-term and economically viable production of hydrogen. Three candidate technologies, all nuclear-based, are examined. These include: advanced electrolysis of water, steam reforming of methane, and the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The underlying technology of each process, advantages and disadvantages, current status, and production cost estimates are given. (author)

  19. The design of a low-cost device for the production of hydrogen

    Amal NASSAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to design a generator for hydrogen gas. In this generator no need to storage the output gas, by controlling in the gas flow rate (according to usage needs so, we did not need to hydrogen storage. The prototype is developed and tested and the idea can implement practically to save time and money.

  20. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  1. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  2. The impact of carbon sequestration on the production cost of electricity and hydrogen from coal and natural-gas technologies in Europe in the medium term

    Tzimas, Evangelos; Peteves, Stathis D.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is a distinct technological option with a potential for controlling carbon emissions; it complements other measures, such as improvements in energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy sources. The deployment of carbon sequestration technologies in electricity generation and hydrogen production will increase the production costs of these energy carriers. Our economic assessment has shown that the introduction of carbon sequestration technologies in Europe in 2020, will result in an increase in the production cost of electricity by coal and natural gas technologies of 30-55% depending on the electricity-generation technology used; gas turbines will remain the most competitive option for generating electricity; and integrated gasification combined cycle technology will become competitive. When carbon sequestration is coupled with natural-gas steam reforming or coal gasification for hydrogen production, the production cost of hydrogen will increase by 14-16%. Furthermore, natural-gas steam reforming with carbon sequestration is far more economically competitive than coal gasification

  3. Microalgal hydrogen production - A review.

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Lindblad, Peter; Madamwar, Datta; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H 2 to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H 2 from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H 2 production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  5. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  6. New efficient hydrogen process production from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives

    Brunel, Jean Michel [Unite URMITE, UMR 6236 CNRS, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille 05 (France)

    2010-04-15

    While the source of hydrogen constitutes a significant scientific challenge, addressing issues of hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery is equally important. None of the current hydrogen storage options, liquefied or high pressure H{sub 2} gas, metal hydrides, etc.. satisfy criteria of size, costs, kinetics, and safety for use in transportation. In this context, we have discovered a methodology for the production of hydrogen on demand, in high yield, under kinetic control, from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives and methanol as co-reagent under mild conditions catalyzed by a cheap ammonium fluoride salt. Finally, the silicon by-products can be efficiently recycle leading to an environmentally friendly source of energy. (author)

  7. Hydrogen production methods

    Hammerli, M.

    1982-07-01

    Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of water is the only industrial process not dependent on fossil resources for large-scale hydrogen production and is likely to remain so for the next two or three decades. While many new processes, including those utilizing sunlight directly or indirectly, are presently not considered to be commercially viable for large-scale hydrogen production, research and development effort is needed to enhance our understanding of the nature of these processes. Water vapour electrolysis is compared with thermochemical processes: the former has the potential for displacing all other processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water

  8. Biological hydrogen production

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  9. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Krassen, Henning

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  10. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  11. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  12. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  13. The cost analysis of hydrogen life cycle in China

    Yao, Fei; Jia, Yuan; Mao, Zongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the increasing price of oil and the possibility of global energy crisis demand for substitutive energy to replace fossil energy. Many kinds of renewable energy have been considered, such as hydrogen, solar energy, and wind energy. Many countries including China have their own plan to support the research of hydrogen, because of its premier features. But, at present, the cost of hydrogen energy production, storage and transportation process is higher than that of fossil energy and its commercialization progress is slow. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) was used in this paper to evaluate the cost of hydrogen energy throughout the life cycle focused on the stratagem selection, to demonstrate the costs of every step and to discuss their relationship. Finally, the minimum cost program is as follows: natural gas steam reforming - high-pressure hydrogen bottles transported by car to hydrogen filling stations - hydrogen internal-combustion engines. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, César A. C.; Figueiredo, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article...

  15. Requirements for low-cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multiunit inertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    Logan, G.B.; Moir, R.W.; Hoffmman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The economy of scale for multiunit inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants is explored based on the molten salt HYLIFE-II fusion chamber concept, for the purpose of producing lower cost electricity and hydrogen fuel. The cost of electricity (CoE) is minimized with a new IFE systems code IFEFUEL5 for a matrix of plant cases with one to eight fusion chambers of 250 to 2000-MW (electric) net output each, sharing a common heavy-ion driver and target factory. Improvements to previous HYLIFE-II models include a recirculating induction linac driver optimized as a function of driver energy and rep-rate (average driver power), inclusion of beam switchyard costs, a fusion chamber cost scaling dependence on both thermal power and fusion yield, and a more accurate bypass pump power scaling with chamber rep-rate. A CoE less than 3 cents/kW(electric)-h is found for plant outputs greater than 2 GW(electric), allowing hydrogen fuel production by wafer electrolysis to provide lower fuel cost per mile for higher efficiency hydrogen engines compared with gasoline engines. These multiunit, multi-GW(electric) IFE plants allow staged utility plant deployment, lower optimum chamber rep-rates, less sensitivity to driver and target fabrication costs, and a CoE possibly lower than future fission, fossil, and solar competitors. 37 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Solar Hydrogen Production

    Koval, C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Sutin, N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turner, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This panel addressed different methods for the photoassisted dissociation of water into its component parts, hydrogen and oxygen. Systems considered include PV-electrolysis, photoelectrochemical cells, and transition-metal based microheterogeneous and homogeneous systems. While none of the systems for water splitting appear economically viable at the present time, the panel identified areas of basic research that could increase the overall efficiency and decrease the costs. Common to all the areas considered was the underlying belief that the water-to-hydrogen half reaction is reasonably well characterized, while the four-electron oxidation of water-to-oxygen is less well understood and represents a significant energy loss. For electrolysis, research in electrocatalysis to reduce overvoltage losses was identified as a key area for increased efficiency. Non-noble metal catalysts and less expensive components would reduce capital costs. While potentially offering higher efficiencies and lower costs, photoelectrochemical-based direct conversion systems undergo corrosion reactions and often have poor energetics for the water reaction. Research is needed to understand the factors that control the interfacial energetics and the photoinduced corrosion. Multi-photon devices were identified as promising systems for high efficiency conversion.

  17. Zero emission distributed hydrogen production

    Maddaloni, J.; Rowe, A.; Bailey, R.; McDonald, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The need for distributed production facilities has become a critical issue in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen generation using processes that make effective use of what would normally be considered waste streams or process inefficiencies can have more favorable economics than stand-alone technologies. Currently, natural gas is distributed to industrial and residential customers through a network of pipelines. High pressure main lines move gas to the vicinity of consumers where the pressure is reduced for local, low pressure distribution. Often, the practice is to use an isenthalpic expansion which results in a cooling of the gas stream. Some of the natural gas is burned to preheat the fuel so that the temperature after the expansion is near ambient. This results in the destruction of exergy in the high pressure gas stream and produces CO 2 in the process. If, instead, a turbo-expander is used to reduce the stream pressure, work can be recovered using a generator and hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis. This method of hydrogen production is free of green-house gas emissions, makes use of existing gas distribution facilities, and uses exergy that would otherwise be destroyed. Pressure reduction using the work producing process (turbo-expander) is accompanied by a large drop in temperature, on the average of 70 K. The local gas distributor requires the gas temperature to be raised again to near 8 o C to prevent damage to valve assemblies. The required heating power after expansion can be on the order of megawatts (site dependent.) Supplying the heat can be seen as a cost if energy is taken from the system to reheat the fuel; however, the low temperature stream may also be considered an asset if the cooling power can be used for a local process. This analysis is the second stage of a study to examine the technical and economic feasibility of using pressure let-down sites as hydrogen production facilities. This paper describes a proposed

  18. Hydrogen production processes

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  19. Hydrogen production by several cyanobacteria

    Kumar, Dhruv; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1992-11-01

    Twenty species belonging to eleven genera of nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria were screened for production of hydrogen. Only one species each of Nostoc and Anabaena showed light-and nitrogenase-dependent aerobic hydrogen production. The highest rate of aerobic hydrogen production was recorded in Anabaena sp. strain CA. When incubated anaerobically under 99% Ar + 1% CO[sub 2], all the tested strains produced hydrogen. Nickel supplementation completely abolished hydrogen production both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, except in Anabaena sp. strain CA, where only the rate of production was decreased. Species of Plectonema, Oscillatoria and Spirulina showed methyl viologen-dependent (hydrogenase-dependent) hydrogen production. Other physiological activities were also studied with a view to selecting a suitable organism for large-scale production of hydrogen. (author)

  20. Hydrogen Production for Refuelling Applications

    Hulteberg, Christian; Aagesen, Diane (Intelligent Energy, Long Beach, CA (United States))

    2009-08-15

    /day); Feedstock Cost (USD 0.15 - USD 0.45 per kg); Availability (85% - 95%). The return-on-investment is between USD 90 000 and USD 180 000 in 60 % of the 5 000 simulation runs, which leads to the conclusion that given these assumptions the owning and operation of such a unit can be profitable. As for the performance of the system, it is concluded to be within targets based on the different performance measures reported above. The conversion is in the expected range (80-85%), given the throughput of 16 kg of hydrogen per day. The efficiency as reported is in the acceptable range (approx65%), with some room for improvement within the given system architecture, if desired. However, there is a trade-off between throughput, efficiency and cost that will have to be considered in every redesign of the system. The PSA chosen for the task has performed well during the 200+ hours of operation and there is no doubt that it will be sufficient for the task. The same thing can be said with respect to the system performance with respect to thermo-mechanical stress; which was proven by operating the system for more than 500 hours and performing 58 start-and-stop cycles during the testing. There does not seem to be any major differences between operating on natural gas or methane, based on the testing performed. The slight decrease in hydrogen production can be due to a difference in the H{sub 2}/CO ratio between the various fuels. As expected the efficiency increases with load as well as the hydrogen production rate. Based on the results disseminated above, there is no indication why the current reactor system cannot be configured into a field deployable system. The operation of the system has given valuable experience that will be embedded into any field deployed unit

  1. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  2. COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN

    B. Lanning; J. Arps

    2005-08-31

    Efforts in this quarter were concentrated on developing vacuum processing procedures to produce thinner (<4 {micro}m-thick), defect-free films over larger areas (>100 cm{sup 2}). We continued to test three different types of rigid supporting substrates, thermally oxidized silicon (10 cm diameter), polished borosilicate glass (10 cm diameter), and soda-lime glass (>100 cm{sup 2} areas), each representing a different cost, surface roughness, and chemistry. Mechanical integrity, defect density, and release characteristics of the films, though similar for the oxidized silicon and borosilicate glass, were distinctly different for the inexpensive soda-lime (float) glass; i.e., more sensitive to surface impurities. In general, films less than 4 {micro}m-thick were shown to be very sensitive to surface condition of the supporting substrate, particularly in the case of the soda-lime glass, to the point where surface strain overrode and dominated the intrinsic bulk stresses that are produced during the growth process. Therefore, in the near term (over the next quarter), large area films (>100 cm{sup 2}) will be produced at a minimum thickness of 5 {micro}m while further development will be conducted in subsequent quarters to reduce membrane thickness in large area films. Continued hydrogen permeation experiments and characterization of 5 and 10 {micro}m-thick, Pd-Cu films, with compositions near the 60/40 (Pd/Cu phase boundary) in combination with air oxidation treatments to improve performance. Pure hydrogen permeability for an as-received, 5 {micro}m film at 400 C was determined to be 1.3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 3}(STP) {center_dot} cm/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s {center_dot} cmHg{sup 0.5} at steady state. Even a membrane {approx} 10 {micro}m-thick, exhibited a steady state hydrogen flux of 32 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}min after air exposure, which, when normalized for DOE's Office of Fossil Energy's specified hydrogen flux with a {Delta}P of 100 psi and a permeate

  3. Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Xerogel: Low-Cost Cathodes for Hydrogen Production by Alkaline Water Electrolysis.

    Šljukić, Biljana; Santos, Diogo M F; Vujković, Milica; Amaral, Luís; Rocha, Raquel P; Sequeira, César A C; Figueiredo, José L

    2016-05-23

    Low-cost molybdenum carbide (Mo2 C) nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and on carbon xerogel (CXG) were prepared and their activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was evaluated in 8 m KOH aqueous electrolyte at 25-85 °C. Measurements of the HER by linear scan voltammetry allowed us to determine Tafel slopes of 71 and 74 mV dec(-1) at 25 °C for Mo2 C/CNT and Mo2 C/CXG, respectively. Stability tests were also performed, which showed the steady performance of the two electrocatalysts. Moreover, the HER kinetics at Mo2 C/CNT was enhanced significantly after the long-term stability tests. The specific activity of both materials was high, and a higher stability was obtained for the activated Mo2 C/CNT (40 A g(-1) at -0.40 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. New concepts in hydrogen production in Iceland

    Arnason, B.; Sigfusson, T.I.; Jonsson, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some new concepts of hydrogen production in Iceland for domestic use and export. A brief overview of the Icelandic energy consumption and available resources is given. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis is calculated for various alternatives such as plant size, load factors and electricity cost. Comparison is made between the total cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland and from Northern America, showing that liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland would be 9% less expensive. This assumes conventional technology. New technologies are suggested in the paper and different scenarios for geothermally assisted hydrogen production and liquefaction are discussed. It is estimated that the use of geothermal steam would lead to 19% lower hydrogen gas production costs. By analysing the Icelandic fishing fleet, a very large consumer of imported fuel, it is argued that a transition of fuel technology from oil to hydrogen may be a feasible future option for Iceland and a testing ground for changing fuel technology. (Author)

  5. Hydrogen production by radiation

    Jung, Jin Ho; Lee, M. J.; Jin, J. H.; Park, K. B.; Cho, Y. H.; Jeong, H. S.; Chung, H. H.; Jeong, Y. S.; Ahn, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 production. A nanosize TiO 2 (nTiO 2 ) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the production of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) showed the most efficient H2 production and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes

  6. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    Lee, Ki Young; Chang, J. H.; Park, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production system, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. To estimate the attainments of the key technologies in progress with the performance goals of GIF, itemized are the attainment indices based on SRP published in VHTR R and D steering committee of Gen-IV. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items conformed to the NHDD concepts established in a preconceptual design in 2005. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  7. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production

    Levin, D.B.; Chahine, R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas) which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermo-catalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. These issues are being addressed by H2CAN, a recently launched NSERC funded national strategic network in hydrogen production, purification, storage, infrastructure and safety. (author)

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  9. The least-cost hydrogen for Southern California

    Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2008-01-01

    Optimization is applied to identify the least-cost sequence of hydrogen infrastructure build-up in Southern California during 2010-2060. Given an exogenous demand, the model generates temporal and spatial decisions for building a hydrogen infrastructure, in terms of when, where, at what sizes and by what technologies, that minimize the net present value of technology, environment, and fuel accessibility costs. The least-cost sequence is then analyzed with respect to technology deployment, delivered hydrogen cost, capital requirements, subsidy need, subsidy capacity, and CO 2 mitigation. It is found that industrial hydrogen could play a critical role in initiating hydrogen transition, temporally bridged by onsite SMR to central production dominated at first by biomass gasification and later by coal gasification with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). While a non-discounted capital investment of $24.43 billion is needed for the 50-year build-up, a hydrogen price below 3$/kg could pay back the costs in 20 years earning a 10% IRR. If hydrogen is purchased at the current equivalent gasoline price (2.517 $/gallon), the hydrogen industry could potentially provide $4715 as subsidy for each new FCV purchase. With CCS, 50% of 50-year CO 2 emissions could be avoided. (author)

  10. Fusion Energy for Hydrogen Production

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.; Salzano, F.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.; Fogelson, S.; Isaacs, H.; Kouts, H.; Kushner, M.; Lazareth, O.; Majeski, S.; Makowitz, H.; Sheehan, T. V.

    1978-09-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  11. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  12. Renewable solar hydrogen production and utilization

    Bakos, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a tremendous opportunity to generate large quantities of hydrogen from low grade and economical sources of methane including landfill gas, biogas, flare gas, and coal bed methane. The environmental benefits of generating hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and air contaminant reductions. Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC LABS) recently constructed and demonstrated a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) hydrogen generation system that is powered primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors in Tempe, Arizona. The system comprises a solar mirror array, a temperature controlling shutter system, and two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert methane, carbon dioxide, and water into hydrogen. This process has shown that solar hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional hydrogen production. The presentation will provide the following: An overview of the results of the testing conducted in Tempe, Arizona; A look at the design and installation of the scaled-up technology site at a landfill site in Canada; An examination of the economic and environmental benefits of renewable hydrogen production using solar energy

  13. Nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    Verfondern, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the long term, H 2 production technologies will be strongly focusing on CO 2 -neutral or CO 2 -free methods. Nuclear with its virtually no air-borne pollutants emissions appears to be an ideal option for large-scale centralized H 2 production. It will be driven by major factors such as production rates of fossil fuels, political decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and independence of foreign oil uncertainties, or the economics of large-scale hydrogen production and transmission. A nuclear reactor operated in the heat and power cogeneration mode must be located in close vicinity to the consumer's site, i.e., it must have a convincing safety concept of the combined nuclear/ chemical production plant. A near-term option of nuclear hydrogen production which is readily available is conventional low temperature electrolysis using cheap off-peak electricity from present nuclear power plants. This, however, is available only if the share of nuclear in power production is large. But as fossil fuel prices will increase, the use of nuclear outside base-load becomes more attractive. Nuclear steam reforming is another important near-term option for both the industrial and the transportation sector, since principal technologies were developed, with a saving potential of some 35 % of methane feedstock. Competitiveness will benefit from increasing cost level of natural gas. The HTGR heated steam reforming process which was simulated in pilot plants both in Germany and Japan, appears to be feasible for industrial application around 2015. A CO 2 emission free option is high temperature electrolysis which reduces the electricity needs up to about 30 % and could make use of high temperature heat and steam from an HTGR. With respect to thermochemical water splitting cycles, the processes which are receiving presently most attention are the sulfur-iodine, the Westinghouse hybrid, and the calcium-bromine (UT-3) cycles. Efficiencies of the S-I process are in the

  14. The cost of electrolytic hydrogen from off-peak power

    Stucki, S.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of electrolytic hydrogen depends on the capacity factor of the plant and the cost of electricity. Both these parameters are correlated if off-peak power is to be used for hydrogen production. Based on assumptions regarding the correlation between the electricity price and the availability of electric power, optimizations were run using a simple cost model for the electrolysis plant. The current density at which the electrolysis plant would be run is taken as a variable for optimization as well as the annual time of availability of electric power. The results of the optimizations show for a number of hypothetical electrolyser types that the optimum operation time or electricity price do not depend much on the technology used. Production cost of electrolytic hydrogen can, however, be cut by 30% by using advanced electrolysis technology. (author)

  15. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  16. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  17. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short

  18. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  19. Economical hydrogen production by electrolysis using nano pulsed DC

    Dharmaraj, C.H. [Tangedco, Tirunelveli, ME Environmental Engineering (India); Adshkumar, S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli - 627007 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogen is an alternate renewable eco fuel. The environmental friendly hydrogen production method is electrolysis. The cost of electrical energy input is major role while fixing hydrogen cost in the conventional direct current Electrolysis. Using nano pulse DC input makes the input power less and economical hydrogen production can be established. In this investigation, a lab scale electrolytic cell developed and 0.58 mL/sec hydrogen/oxygen output is obtained using conventional and nano pulsed DC. The result shows that the nano pulsed DC gives 96.8 % energy saving.

  20. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  1. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  2. Selecting appropriate technology for hydrogen production

    Tamhankar, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Technologies for the production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a precursor to hydrogen, from a variety of fossil fuels are well known in industrial applications at relatively large scale. These include Steam Reforming (SR), Auto-Thermal Reforming (ATR) and Partial Oxidation (POX). A particular technology is selected based on the feed type and the desired products. Steam reforming is a mature technology, and is most prevalent for hydrogen production because of its high efficiency. However, at the smaller scale, the capital cost becomes a more significant factor, and a substantial reduction in this cost is necessary to meet the overall H2 gas cost targets, such as that stated by DOE ($1.50/kg). In developing small-scale H2 technologies, often, incremental improvements are incorporated. While useful, these are not adequate for the desired cost reduction. Also, for effective cost reduction, the whole system, including production, purification and associated equipment needs to be evaluated; cost reduction in just one of the units is not sufficient. This paper provides a critical assessment of the existing as well as novel technology options, specifically targeted at small scale H2 production. The technology options are evaluated to clearly point out which may or may not work and why. (author)

  3. Appraisal of bio-hydrogen production schemes

    Bent Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    Work is ongoing on several schemes of biological hydrogen production. At one end is the genetic modification of biological systems (such as algae or cyanobacteria) to produce hydrogen from photosynthesis, instead of the energy-rich compounds (such as NADPH 2 ) normally constituting the endpoint of the transformations through the photo-systems. A second route is to collect and use the biomass produced by normal plant growth processes in a separate step that produces hydrogen. This may be done similar to biogas production by fermentation, where the endpoint is methane (plus CO 2 and minor constituents). Hydrogen could be the outcome of a secondary process starting from methane, involving any of the conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas. An alternative to fermentation is gasification of the biomass, followed by a shift-reaction leading to hydrogen. I compare advantages and disadvantages of these three routes, notably factors such as system efficiency, cost and environmental impacts, and also compare them to liquid biofuels. (author)

  4. CuCo2O4 nanoplate film as a low-cost, highly active and durable catalyst towards the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane for hydrogen production

    Liu, Quanbing; Zhang, Shengjie; Liao, Jinyun; Feng, Kejun; Zheng, Yuying; Pollet, Bruno G.; Li, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane is one of the most promising routes for the production of clean hydrogen as it is seen as a highly efficient and safe method. However, its large-scale industrial application is either limited by the high cost of the catalyst (usually a noble metal based catalyst) or by the low activity and poor reusability (usually a non-noble metal catalyst). In this study, we have successfully prepared three low-cost CuCo2O4 nanocatalysts, namely: (i) Ti supported CuCo2O4 film made of CuCo2O4 nanoplates, (ii) Ti supported CuCo2O4 film made of CuCo2O4 nanosheets, and (iii) unsupported CuCo2O4 nanoparticles. Among the three catalysts used for the hydrolytic dehydrogeneration of ammonia borane, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film exhibits the highest catalytic activity with a turnover frequency (TOF) of ∼44.0 molhydrogen min-1 molcat-1. This is one of the largest TOF value for noble-metal-free catalysts ever reported in the literature. Moreover, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film almost keeps its original catalytic activity after eight cycles, indicative of its high stability and good reusability. Owing to its advantages, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film can be a promising catalyst for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane, which may find important applications in the field of hydrogen energy.

  5. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  6. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  7. The hydrogen production; La production d'hydrogene

    Aujollet, P.; Goldstein, St. [CEA Cadarach, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Lucchese, P. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dir. des Nouvelles Technologies de l' Energie, 92 (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the production modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)

  8. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    Krikorian, O.H.; Brown, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO 3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs. Both public and private utility financing approaches have been used to obtain hydrogen production costs of $12-14/GJ based on July 1980 dollars

  9. Decentralized and direct solar hydrogen production: Towards a hydrogen economy in MENA region

    Bensebaa, Farid; Khalfallah, Mohamed; Ouchene, Majid

    2010-09-15

    Hydrogen has certainly some advantages in spite of its high cost and low efficiency when compared to other energy vectors. Solar energy is an abundant, clean and renewable source of energy, currently competing with fossil fuel for water heating without subsidy. Photo-electrochemical, thermo-chemicals and photo-biological processes for hydrogen production processes have been demonstrated. These decentralised hydrogen production processes using directly solar energy do not require expensive hydrogen infrastructure for packaging and delivery in the short and medium terms. MENA region could certainly be considered a key area for a new start to a global deployment of hydrogen economy.

  10. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  11. Hydrogen for buses in London: A scenario analysis of changes over time in refuelling infrastructure costs

    Shayegan, S.; Pearson, P.J.G.; Hart, D.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is one of the major obstacles to the introduction of the hydrogen vehicles to the road transport market. To help overcome this hurdle a likely transitional solution is to introduce hydrogen for niche applications such as buses or other types of fleet vehicles for which fuel demand is predictable and localised. This paper analyses the costs of different hydrogen production-delivery pathways, via a case study of buses in London. Scenario analysis over time (2007-2025) is used to investigate potential changes to the cost of hydrogen as a result of technology development, growing demand for hydrogen and changes in energy prices (gas and electricity). It is found that factors related to hydrogen demand have the greatest effect on the unit cost of hydrogen, while for the whole of the analysis period, on-site SMR (steam methane reforming) remains the least-cost production-delivery pathway. (author)

  12. A method of hydrogen production

    Schulten, R.; Teggers, H.; Schulze-Bentrop, R.

    1975-01-01

    This method of producing hydrogen from water in a multistage cycle process works without anorganic salts and requires only gases and liquids. Carbon oxide is catalytically converted into carbon dioxide and water by means of water vapour. The carbon dioxide is then converted into sulphuric acid and carbon oxide using water and sulphur dioxide at high temperatures and pressures, and the sulphuric acid is separated into sulphur dioxide, oxygen and water via the intermediate SO 2 . The SO 2 and CO 2 thus obtained are led back into the appropriate reaction stages, and hydrogen and oxygen are removed from the process as end products. (A schematic flow diagram is given.) (UWI) [de

  13. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  14. Research on hydrogen production system

    Nakagiri, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  15. Calculation of LUEC using HEEP Software for Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    Kim, Jongho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution by reducing the release of carbon dioxide. A Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is considered as an efficient reactor to couple with the thermo-chemical Sulfur Iodine (SI) cycle to achieve the hydrogen economy. HEEP(Hydrogen Economy Evaluation Program) is one of the software tools developed by IAEA to evaluate the economy of the nuclear hydrogen production system by estimating unit hydrogen production cost. In this paper, the LUHC (Levelized Unit Hydrogen Cost) is calculated by using HEEP for nuclear hydrogen production plant, which consists of 4 modules of 600 MWth VHTR coupled with SI process. The levelized unit hydrogen production cost(LUHC) was calculated by the HEEP software.

  16. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  17. Hydrogen - From hydrogen to energy production

    Klotz, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    More than a century ago, Jules Verne wrote in 'The Mysterious Island' that water would one day be employed as fuel: 'Hydrogen and oxygen, which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light'. Today, the 'water motor' is not entirely the dream of a writer. Fiction is about to become fact thanks to hydrogen, which can be produced from water and when burned in air itself produces water. Hydrogen is now at the heart of international research. So why do we have such great expectations of hydrogen? 'Hydrogen as an energy system is now a major challenge, both scientifically and from an environmental and economic point of view'. Dominated as it is by fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), our current energy system has left a dual threat hovering over our environment, exposing the planet to the exhaustion of its natural reserves and contributing to the greenhouse effect. If we want sustainable development for future generations, it is becoming necessary to diversify our methods of producing energy. Hydrogen is not, of course, a source of energy, because first it has to be produced. But it has the twofold advantage of being both inexhaustible and non-polluting. So in the future, it should have a very important role to play. (author)

  18. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    Lee, Ki Young; Park, J. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production cost. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items confirmed to the NHDD concepts. We developed and applied R and D quality management methodology to meet 'Development of Key Technologies for Nuclear Hydrogen' project. And we also distributed R and D QAM and R and D QAP to each teams and are in operation. The preconceptual flow diagrams of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes are introduced and their material and energy balances have been proposed. The hydrogen production thermal efficiencies of not only the SI process as a reference process but also the HTSE and HyS processes were also estimated. Technical feasibility assessments of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes have been carried out by using the pair-wise comparison and analytic hierarchy process, and it is revealed that the experts are considering the SI process as the most feasible process. The secondary helium pathway across the SI process is introduced. Dynamic simulation codes for the H2S04vaporizer, sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposers, and HI decomposer on the secondary helium pathway and for the primary and secondary sulfuric acid distillation columns, HIx solution distillation column, and preheater for HI vapor have been developed and integrated

  19. Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy

    Verfondern, K. [Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    world. In recent years, the scope of the IAEA's programme has been widened to include other more promising applications such as nuclear hydrogen production and higher temperature process heat applications. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Euratom and the Generation IV International Forum have also shown interest in the non-electric applications of nuclear power based on future generation advanced and innovative nuclear reactors. This report was developed under an IAEA project with the objective of providing updated, balanced and objective information on the current status of hydrogen production processes using nuclear energy. It documents the state of the art of the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier in many Member States, as well as its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. The report includes an introduction to the technology of nuclear process heat reactors as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels, with a focus on high temperature reactor technology to achieve simultaneous generation of electricity and high temperature process heat and steam. Special emphasis is placed on the safety aspects of nuclear hydrogen production systems.

  20. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H_2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H_2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H_2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H_2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H_2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H_2 at a production cost of $(1-2)/kg(H_2) (or 60 g(H_2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H_2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H_2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H_2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H_2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H_2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. (authors)

  1. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    K. Coulter

    2008-03-31

    Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

  2. Status of hydrogen production by nuclear power

    Chang, Jong Wa; Yoo, Kun Joong; Park, Chang Kue

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen production methods, such as electrolysis, thermochemical method, biological method, and photochemical method, are introduced in this report. Also reviewed are current status of the development of High Temperatrue Gas Coooled Reactor, and it application for hydrogen production

  3. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  4. Hydrogen production in fusion reactors

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated. (author).

  5. Hydrogen production in fusion reactors

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    As one of the methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors (that do not include a conventional turbine-type generator), the efficient use of fusion-reactor radiation and semiconductors to supply clean fuel in the form of hydrogen gas is studied. Taking the reactor candidates such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a plant system concept are investigated.

  6. Hydrogen production in fusion reactors

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated. (author)

  7. Hydrogen from algal biomass: A review of production process

    Archita Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

  8. Hydrogen production processes; Procedes de production d'hydrogene

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H{sub 2} question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H{sub 2} production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  9. Study on commercial HTGR hydrogen production system

    Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2000-07-01

    The Japanese energy demand in 2030 will increase up to 117% in comparison with one in 2000. We have to avoid a large consumption of fossil fuel that induces a large CO 2 emission from viewpoint of global warming. Furthermore new energy resources expected to resolve global warming have difficulty to be introduced more because of their low energy density. As a result, nuclear power still has a possibility of large introduction to meet the increasing energy demand. On the other hand, in Japan, 40% of fossil fuels in the primary energy are utilized for power generation, and the remaining are utilized as a heat source. New clean energy is required to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and hydrogen is expected as a alternative energy resource. Prediction of potential hydrogen demand in Japan is carried out and it is clarified that the demand will potentially increase up to 4% of total primary energy in 2050. In present, steam reforming method is the most economical among hydrogen generation processes and the cost of hydrogen production is about 7 to 8 yen/m 3 in Europe and the United States and about 13 yen/m 3 in Japan. JAERI has proposed for using the HTGR whose maximum core outlet temperature is at 950degC as a heat source in the steam reforming to reduced the consumption of fossil fuels and resulting CO 2 emission. Based on the survey of the production rate and the required thermal energy in conventional industry, it is clarified that a hydrogen production system by the steam reforming is the best process for the commercial HTGR nuclear heat utilization. The HTGR steam reforming system and other candidate nuclear heat utilization systems are considered from viewpoint of system layout and economy. From the results, the hydrogen production cost in the HTGR stream reforming system is expected to be about 13.5 yen/m 3 if the cost of nuclear heat of the HTGR is the same as one of the LWR. (author)

  10. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  11. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  12. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  13. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of hydrogen from water electrolysis is estimated, assuming that the electricity was produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the sectors of power generation, heat and transportation are calculated, based on a state-of-the-art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The cost of hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) is higher than the current price of fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen will not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. (Author)

  14. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  15. Exploiting Synergies in European Wind and Hydrogen Sectors: A Cost-benefit Assessment

    SHAW SUZANNE; PETEVES ESTATHIOS

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a ¿¿wind-hydrogen strategy¿¿, is analysed using a costbenefit approach to evaluate the final impact...

  16. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  17. Hydrogen production from biomass by biological systems

    Sharifan, H.R.; Qader, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier, not involved in 'greenhouse' gas and its released energy in combustion can be converted to electric power. Biological system with low energy can produce hydrogen compared to electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting which requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. The biological hydrogen production occurs in microalgae and cyanobacteria by photosynthesis. They consume biochemical energy to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen in some algae is an anaerobic production in the absence of light. In cyanobacteria the hydrogen production simultaneously happens with nitrogen fixation, and also catalyzed by nitrogenase as a side reaction. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria is mediated by nitrogenase activity, although hydrogenases may be active for both hydrogen production and hydrogen uptake under some conditions. Genetic studies on photosynthetic microorganisms have markedly increased in recent times, relatively few genetic engineering studies have focused on altering the characteristics of these microorganisms, particularly with respect to enhancing the hydrogen-producing capabilities of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. (author)

  18. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  19. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    Baghchehsaraee, B.; Nakhla, G.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': In this study of hydrogen production with activated sludge, a diverse bacterial source has been investigated and compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge, which is less diverse. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 o C) and thermophilic (55 o C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at 37 o C and 55 o C were 0.25 and 0.93 mol H 2 /mol glucose, respectively. The maximum hydrogen production rates with activated sludge in both temperatures were 4.2 mL/h. Anaerobic digester sludge showed higher hydrogen production yields and rates at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The results of repeated batch experiments with activated sludge showed an increase in the hydrogen production during the consecutive batches. However, hydrogen production was not stable along the repeated batches. The observed instability was due to the formation of lactic acid and ethanol. (author)

  20. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  1. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  2. Development of interface technology for nuclear hydrogen production system

    Lee, Ki Young; Park, J. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2012-06-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  3. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  4. Technology selection for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    Siti Alimah; Erlan Dewita

    2008-01-01

    The NPP can either be used to produce electricity, or as heat source for non-electric applications (cogeneration). High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with high outlet coolant temperature around 900~1000 o C, is a reactor type potential for cogeneration purposes such as hydrogen production and other chemical industry processes that need high heat. Considering the national energy policy that a balanced arrangement of renewable and unrenewable natural resources has to be made to keep environmental conservation for the sake of society prosperity in the future, hydrogen gas production using nuclear heat is an appropriate choice. Hydrogen gas is a new energy which is environmentally friendly that it is a prospecting alternative energy source in the future. Within the study, a comparison of three processes of hydrogen gas production covering electrolysis, steam reforming and sulfur-iodine cycle, have been conducted. The parameters that considered are the production cost, capital cost and energy cost, technological status, the independence of fossil fuel, the environmental friendly aspect, as well as the efficiency and the independence of corrosion-resistance material. The study result showed that hydrogen gas production by steam reforming is a better process compared to electrolysis and sulfur-iodine process. Therefore, steam reforming process can be a good choice for hydrogen gas production using nuclear energy in Indonesia. (author)

  5. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  6. Hydrogen production from small hyropower sites. Final report

    1980-04-01

    A synergistic relationship was not found to exist between low-head hydropower and electrolytic hydrogen production. The storageability of hydrogen was expected to mitigate problems of hydrogen generation variability associated with the use of low-head hydropower as the power source. The expense of gaseous hydrogen storage equipment effectively eliminates storage as a means to decouple hydrogen demand and power/hydrogen production. From the opposite perspective, the availability of a low and stable cost of power from low-head hydro was expected to improve the competitiveness of electrolysis. In actuality, the results indicated that hydroelectric power from small dams would be comparatively expensive by current grid power standards (mid-1979). Electrolysis, in the capacity range considered here, is less sensitive to the cost of the power than originally presumed. Other costs including depreciation and capital related charges are more significant. Due to power generation variability, sole reliance on low-head hydropower to provide electricity to the cells would reduce the utilization of the hydrogen production investment, resulting in an increase in unit production costs. These factors were paramount in the Air Products recommendation to discontinue the study before continuing to more detailed stages of analysis, including an analysis of a site specific facility and the construction of a demonstration facility. Another major factor was the unavailability of a pipeline hydrogen supply situation which, because of lower distribution and capital costs, could have been commercially viable. An unfavorable judgment on the combined facility should not be misinterpreted and extended to the component systems. Although a detailed analysis of the individual prospects for electrolysis and low-head hydropower was beyond the study scope, the reader will realize, as the study is reviewed, that each is worthy of individual consideration.

  7. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  8. HTTR workshop (workshop on hydrogen production technology)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Takakazu

    2004-12-01

    Various research and development efforts have been performed to solve the global energy and environmental problems caused by large consumption of fossil fuels. Research activities on advanced hydrogen production technology by the use of nuclear heat from high temperature gas cooled reactors, for example, have been flourished in universities, research institutes and companies in many countries. The Department of HTTR Project and the Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology of JAERI held the HTTR Workshop (Workshop on Hydrogen Production Technology) on July 5 and 6, 2004 to grasp the present status of R and D about the technology of HTGR and the nuclear hydrogen production in the world and to discuss about necessity of the nuclear hydrogen production and technical problems for the future development of the technology. More than 110 participants attended the Workshop including foreign participants from USA, France, Korea, Germany, Canada and United Kingdom. In the Workshop, the presentations were made on such topics as R and D programs for nuclear energy and hydrogen production technologies by thermo-chemical or other processes. Also, the possibility of the nuclear hydrogen production in the future society was discussed. The workshop showed that the R and D for the hydrogen production by the thermo-chemical process has been performed in many countries. The workshop affirmed that nuclear hydrogen production could be one of the competitive supplier of hydrogen in the future. The second HTTR Workshop will be held in the autumn next year. (author)

  9. USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SCHULTZ, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels, but contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels. The author has recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-slitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen, and to select one for further detailed consideration. They selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this report

  10. Microstructured reactors for hydrogen production

    Aartun, Ingrid

    2005-07-01

    Small scale hydrogen production by partial oxidation (POX) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) have been studied over Rh-impregnated microchannel Fecralloy reactors and alumina foams. Trying to establish whether metallic microchannel reactors have special advantages for hydrogen production via catalytic POX or OSR with respect to activity, selectivity and stability was of special interest. The microchannel Fecralloy reactors were oxidised at 1000 deg C to form a {alpha}-Al2O3 layer in the channels in order to enhance the surface area prior to impregnation. Kr-BET measurements showed that the specific surface area after oxidation was approximately 10 times higher than the calculated geometric surface area. Approximately 1 mg Rh was deposited in the channels by impregnation with an aqueous solution of RhCl3. Annular pieces (15 mm o.d.,4 mm i.d., 14 mm length) of extruded {alpha}-Al2O3 foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Rh(NO3)3 to obtain 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% loadings, as predicted by solution uptake. ICP-AES analyses showed that the actual Rh loadings probably were higher, 0.025, 0.077 and 0.169 wt.% respectively. One of the microchannel Fecralloy reactors and all Al2O3 foams were equipped with a channel to allow for temperature measurement inside the catalytic system. Temperature profiles obtained along the reactor axes show that the metallic microchannel reactor is able to minimize temperature gradients as compared to the alumina foams. At sufficiently high furnace temperature, the gas phase in front of the Rh/Al2O3/Frecralloy microchannel reactor and the 0.025 wt.% Rh/Al2O3 foams ignites. Gas phase ignition leads to lower syngas selectivity and higher selectivity to total oxidation products and hydrocarbon by-products. Before ignition of the gas phase the hydrogen selectivity is increased in OSR as compared to POX, the main contribution being the water-gas shift reaction. After gas phase ignition, increased formation of hydrocarbon by-products

  11. Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Block, D. L.

    1985-12-01

    Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

  12. Comparative costs of hydrogen produced from photovoltaic electrolysis and from photoelectrochemical processes

    Block, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The need for hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources is the key element to the world's large-scale usage of hydrogen and to the hydrogen economy envisioned by the World Hydrogen Energy Association. Renewables-produced hydrogen is also the most technically difficult problem to be solved. Hydrogen will never achieve large-scale usage until it can be competitively produced from renewable energy. One of the important questions that has to be addressed is: What are the economics of present and expected future technologies that will be used to produce hydrogen from renewables? The objective of this study is to give an answer to this question by determining the cost of hydrogen (in U.S.$/MBtu) from competing renewable production technologies. It should be noted that the costs and efficiencies assumed in this paper are assumptions of the author, and that the values are expected to be achieved after additional research on photoelectrochemical process technologies. The cost analysis performed is for three types of hydrogen (H 2 ) produced from five different types of renewable processes: photovoltaic (PV) electrolysis, three photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes and higher temperature electrolysis (HTE). The costs and efficiencies for PV, PEC and HTE processes are established for present day, and for expected costs and efficiencies 10 years into the future. A second objective of this analysis is to set base case costs of PV electrolysis. For any other renewable process, the costs for PV electrolysis, which is existing technology, sets the numbers which the other processes must better. (author)

  13. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  14. The hydrogen resource. Productive, technical and economic analysis

    De Fronzo, G.

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen as an energetic vector meets with a lot of obstacles that don't depend on available raw material, but on hydrogen combination with other elements. It is necessary, therefore, to separate hydrogen picking out the available different technologies to have different pure hydrogen of variable quantities. Besides, its diffusion as fuel is limited because of the great production cost compared to fuels sprung from petroleum. Hydrogen used on a large scale could have advantages on the environment and occupation, but there are economic and politic obstacles to limit its diffusion. Future of economic system, based on hydrogen as the main energetic vector, will depend on the programme that national and international qualified governing bodies will be able to do [it

  15. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  16. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  17. Hydrogen production in a PWR during LOCA

    Cassette, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen generation during a PWR LOCA has been estimated for design basis accident and for two more severe hypothetical accidents. Hydrogen production during design basis accident is a rather slow mechanism, allowing in the worst case, 15 days to connect a hydrogen recombining unit to the containment atmosphere monitoring system. Hydrogen generated by steam oxidation during more severe hypothetical accidents was found limited by steam availability and fuel melting phenomena. Uncertainty is, however, still remaining on corium-zirconium-steam interaction. In the worst case, calculations lead to the production of 500 kg of hydrogen, thus leading to a volume concentration of 15% in containment atmosphere, assuming homogeneous hydrogen distribution within the reactor building. This concentration is within flammability limits but not within detonation limits. However, hydrogen detonation due to local hydrogen accumulation cannot be discarded. A major uncertainty subsisting on hydrogen hazard is hydrogen distribution during the first hours of the accident. This point determines the effects and consequences of local detonation or deflagration which could possibly be harmful to safeguard systems, or induce missile generation in the reactor building. As electrical supply failures are identified as an important contributor to severe accident risk, corrective actions have been taken in France to improve their reliability, including the installation of a gas turbine on each site to supplement the existing sources. These actions are thus contributing to hydrogen hazard reduction

  18. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  19. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research

  20. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  1. Effects of methanogenic effluent recycle on fermentative hydrogen production

    Kraemer, J.T.; Bagley, D.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Most research on fermentative hydrogen production has focused on optimizing the process and not on the practicalities of pH control although active pH control in a hydrogen reactor is necessary for stable and efficient performance. Batch experiments have shown that hydrogen ceases to be produced when there is no pH control. This study determined if recycle effluent from the methane reactor of a two-phase hydrogen-producing system would reduce the external alkali needed for pH control in a hydrogen reactor. It also determined if recycle affected the performance of the hydrogen reactor and the overall two-phase system. This paper describes the experimental laboratory-scale, two-phase hydrogen producing system which was operated alternately with and without effluent recycle from a methane reactor to the hydrogen reactor. The two-phase hydrogen producing system yielded 5.7 times more energy recovery than that obtained by the fermentative hydrogen producing reactor alone. The use of effluent from the methane reactor can reduce the operational cost of external alkali for pH control. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  2. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

    Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use

    2004-08-31

    The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  3. Conceptual design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Teruo; Kato, Ryoma; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2007-08-01

    Since hydrogen produced by nuclear should be economically competitive compared with other methods in a hydrogen society, it is important to build hydrogen production system to be coupled with the reactor as a conventional chemical plant. Japan Atomic Energy Agency started the safety study to establish a new safety philosophy to meet safety requirements for non-nuclear grade hydrogen production system. Also, structural concepts with integrating functions for the Bunsen reactor and sulphuric acid decomposer were proposed to reduce construction cost of the IS process hydrogen production system. In addition, HI decomposer which enables the process condition to be eased consisting of conventional materials and technologies was studied. Moreover, technical feasibility of the HTTR-IS system in which the hydrogen production rate of 1,000 Nm 3 /h by using the supplied heat of 10 MW from the intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR was confirmed. This paper describes the conceptual design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system. (author)

  4. How green are the hydrogen production processes?

    Miele, Ph.; Demirci, U.B.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen is recognised as being one of the most promising fuels alternate to fossil fuels. Unfortunately it only exists combined with other elements like e.g. oxygen in the case of water and therefore has to be produced. Today various methods for producing molecular hydrogen are being investigated. Besides its energy potential, molecular hydrogen is regarded as being a green energy carrier because it can be produced from renewable sources and its combustion/oxidation generates water. However as it has to be produced its greenness merits a deeper discussion especially stressing on its production routes. The goal of the present article is to discuss the relative greenness of the various hydrogen production processes on the basis of the twelve principles of green chemistry. It is mainly showed that the combination 'renewable raw materials, biological or electrochemical methods, and renewable energies (e.g. solar or wind)' undeniably makes the hydrogen production green. (authors)

  5. Fusion reactors for hydrogen production via electrolysis

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    1979-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  6. Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications.

  7. Electrolytic production and dispensing of hydrogen

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is undoubtedly the only option that can meet both the California zero emission vehicle (ZEV) standard and the President`s goal of tripling automobile efficiency without sacrificing performance in a standard 5-passenger vehicle. The three major automobile companies are designing and developing FCEVs powered directly by hydrogen under cost-shared contracts with the Department of Energy. Once developed, these vehicles will need a reliable and inexpensive source of hydrogen. Steam reforming of natural gas would produce the least expensive hydrogen, but funding may not be sufficient initially to build both large steam reforming plants and the transportation infrastructure necessary to deliver that hydrogen to geographically scattered FCEV fleets or individual drivers. This analysis evaluates the economic feasibility of using small scale water electrolysis to provide widely dispersed but cost-effective hydrogen for early FCEV demonstrations. We estimate the cost of manufacturing a complete electrolysis system in large quantities, including compression and storage, and show that electrolytic hydrogen could be cost competitive with fully taxed gasoline, using existing residential off-peak electricity rates.

  8. Production of hydrogen by microbial fermentation

    Roychowdhury, S.; Cox, D.; Levandowsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    Production of hydrogen by defined and undefined bacterial cultures was studied, using pure sugars (glucose and maltose) or natural sources rich in either pure sugars or polysaccharides. The latter included sugar cane juice, corn pulp (enzymatically treated or untreated), and enzymatically treated paper. Mixed microbial flora from sewage and landfill sediments, as well as pure and mixed cultures of known coliform bacteria produced mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at 37/sup 0/C and 55/sup 0/C, with hydrogen concentrations as high as 87%. In the case of the pure glucose substrate, an average yield of 0.7 mol hydrogen per mol glucose was obtained.

  9. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO 2 . The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO 2 , the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  10. Analysis of economic and infrastructure issues associated with hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    Summers, W.A.; Gorensek, M.B.; Danko, E.; Schultz, K.R.; Richards, M.B.; Brown, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is being given to the large-scale transition of the world's energy system from one based on carbon fuels to one based on the use of hydrogen as the carrier. This transition is necessitated by the declining resource base of conventional oil and gas, air quality concerns, and the threat of global climate change linked to greenhouse gas emissions. Since hydrogen can be produced from water using non-carbon primary energy sources, it is the ideal sustainable fuel. The options for producing the hydrogen include renewables (e.g. solar and wind), fossil fuels with carbon sequestration, and nuclear energy. A comprehensive study has been initiated to define economically feasible concepts and to determine estimates of efficiency and cost for hydrogen production using next generation nuclear reactors. A unique aspect of the study is the assessment of the integration of a nuclear plant, a hydrogen production process and the broader infrastructure requirements. Hydrogen infrastructure issues directly related to nuclear hydrogen production are being addressed, and the projected cost, value and end-use market for hydrogen will be determined. The infrastructure issues are critical, since the combined cost of storing, transporting, distributing, and retailing the hydrogen product could well exceed the cost of hydrogen production measured at the plant gate. The results are expected to be useful in establishing the potential role that nuclear hydrogen can play in the future hydrogen economy. Approximately half of the three-year study has been completed. Results to date indicate that nuclear produced hydrogen can be competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas for use at oil refineries or ammonia plants, indicating a potential early market opportunity for large-scale centralized hydrogen production. Extension of the hydrogen infrastructure from these large industrial users to distributed hydrogen users such as refueling stations and fuel cell generators could

  11. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  12. Hydrogen production from steam methane reforming and electrolysis as part of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure

    Roberts, K.

    2003-01-01

    Building a complete hydrogen infrastructure for a transportation system based on Fuel Cells (FC) and hydrogen is a risky and expensive ordeal, especially given that it is not known with complete certainty that Fuel Cells will indeed replace the gasoline ICE. But how can we expect the diffusion of an automotive technology if there is no infrastructure to support its fuel needs? This gives rise to a chicken and egg type problem. One way to get around this problem is to produce hydrogen when and where it is needed. This solves the problems of high costs associated with expensive pipeline distribution networks, the high energy-intensities associated with liquefaction of hydrogen and the high costs of cryogenic equipment. This paper will consider the advantages and disadvantages of two such hydrogen production mechanisms, namely, onsite production of hydrogen from Electrolysis and onsite production of hydrogen from Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). Although SMR hydrogen may be more economical due to the availability and low cost of methane, under certain market and technological conditions onsite electrolytic hydrogen can be more attractive. The paper analyses the final price of delivered hydrogen based on its sensitivity to market conditions and technology developments. (author)

  13. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  14. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  15. Hydrogen production using ammonia borane

    Hamilton, Charles W; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy A; Shrestha, Roshan P

    2013-12-24

    Hydrogen ("H.sub.2") is produced when ammonia borane reacts with a catalyst complex of the formula L.sub.nM-X wherein M is a base metal such as iron, X is an anionic nitrogen- or phosphorus-based ligand or hydride, and L is a neutral ancillary ligand that is a neutral monodentate or polydentate ligand.

  16. Processes of hydrogen production, coupled with nuclear reactors: Economic perspectives

    Werkoff, Francois; Avril, Sophie; Mansilla, Christine; Sigurvinsson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production, using nuclear power is considered from a technic-economic (TE) point of view. Three different processes are examined: Alkaline electrolysis, High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTE) and the thermochemical Sulphur-Iodine (S/I) cycle. The three processes differ, in the sense that the first one is operational and both last ones are still at demonstration stages. For them, it is at present only possible to identify key points and limits of competitiveness. The cost of producing hydrogen by alkaline electrolysis is analysed. Three major contributions to the production costs are examined: the electricity consumption, the operation and maintenance expenditures and the depreciation capital expenditures. A technic-economic evaluation of hydrogen production by HTE coupled to a high-temperature reactor (HTR) is presented. Key points appear to be the electrolyser and the high temperature heat exchangers. The S/I thermochemical cycle is based on the decomposition and the re-composition of H 2 SO 4 and HI acids. The energy consumption and the recovery of iodine are key points of the S/I cycle. With the hypothesis that the hydrogen energy will progressively replace the fossil fuels, we give a first estimate of the numbers of nuclear reactors (EPR or HTR) that would be needed for a massive nuclear hydrogen production. (authors)

  17. RECTIFIED ETHANOL PRODUCTION COST ANALYSIS

    Nikola J Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of the most important factors of the total production costs in bioethanol production. The most influential factors are: total investment costs, price of raw materials (price of biomass, enzymes, yeast, and energy costs. Taking into account these factors, a procedure for estimation total production costs was establish. In order to gain insight into the relationship of production and selling price of bioethanol, price of bioethanol for some countries of the European Union and the United States are given.

  18. Evaluation of Nuclear Hydrogen Production System

    Park, Won Seok; Park, C. K.; Park, J. K. and others

    2006-04-01

    The major objective of this work is tow-fold: one is to develop a methodology to determine the best VHTR types for the nuclear hydrogen demonstration project and the other is to evaluate the various hydrogen production methods in terms of the technical feasibility and the effectiveness for the optimization of the nuclear hydrogen system. Both top-tier requirements and design requirements have been defined for the nuclear hydrogen system. For the determination of the VHTR type, a comparative study on the reference reactors, PBR and PBR, was conducted. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a systematic methodology has been developed to compare the two VHTR types. Another scheme to determine the minimum reactor power was developed as well. Regarding the hydrogen production methods, comparison indices were defined and they were applied to the IS (Iodine-Sulfur) scheme, Westinghouse process, and the, high-temperature electrolysis method. For the HTE, IS, and MMI cycle, the thermal efficiency of hydrogen production were systematically evaluated. For the IS cycle, an overall process was identified and the functionality of some key components was identified. The economy of the nuclear hydrogen was evaluated, relative to various primary energy including natural gas coal, grid-electricity, and renewable. For the international collaborations, two joint research centers were established: NH-JRC between Korea and China and NH-JDC between Korea and US. Currently, several joint researches are underway through the research centers

  19. Microwave plasma for hydrogen production from liquids

    Czylkowski Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen production by conversion of liquid compounds containing hydrogen was investigated experimentally. The waveguide-supplied metal cylinder-based microwave plasma source (MPS operated at frequency of 915 MHz at atmospheric pressure was used. The decomposition of ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene was performed employing plasma dry reforming process. The liquid was introduced into the plasma in the form of vapour. The amount of vapour ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 kg/h. Carbon dioxide with the flow rate ranged from 1200 to 2700 NL/h was used as a working gas. The absorbed microwave power was up to 6 kW. The effect of absorbed microwave power, liquid composition, liquid flow rate and working gas fl ow rate was analysed. All these parameters have a clear influence on the hydrogen production efficiency, which was described with such parameters as the hydrogen production rate [NL(H2/h] and the energy yield of hydrogen production [NL(H2/kWh]. The best achieved experimental results showed that the hydrogen production rate was up to 1116 NL(H2/h and the energy yield was 223 NL(H2 per kWh of absorbed microwave energy. The results were obtained in the case of isopropanol dry reforming. The presented catalyst-free microwave plasma method can be adapted for hydrogen production not only from ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene, but also from different other liquid compounds containing hydrogen, like gasoline, heavy oils and biofuels.

  20. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  1. Microwave Hydrogen Production from Methane

    2012-04-01

    combustion NOx control of reciprocating engine exhaust and fuel cell application of biogas . Our target is to obtain the methane conversion efficiency...demonstration of MW technology removing and destroying hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and siloxanes from biogas produced by Sacramento Regional Wastewater...running on biogas and is currently conducting the field demonstration of the unit at Tollenaar Dairy in Elk Grove, CA. SMUD, California Air Resources

  2. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  3. Nuclear hydrogen production: re-examining the fusion option

    Baindur, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for nuclear hydrogen production by fusion. The basic idea is to use nuclear energy of the fuel (hydrogen plasma) to produce molecular hydrogen fro carbon-free hydrogen compounds. The hydrogen is then stored and utilized electrochemically in fuel cells or chemically as molecular hydrogen in internal combustion engines

  4. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  5. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  6. Development of hydrogen production technology using FBR

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Otaki, Akira; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Nakagiri, Toshio; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Takashi; Ooka, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the features of technology, the schedule and the organization for the research and development regarding the hydrogen production technology using FBR thermal energy. Now, the hydrogen production system is proposed as one of new business models for FBR deployment. This system is the production of hydrogen either thermal energy at approximately from 500degC to 550degC or electricity produced by a sodium cooled FBR. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the future clean secondary energies without carbon-dioxide emission. Meanwhile the global energy demand will increase, especially in Asian countries, and the energy supply by fossil fuels is not the best choice considering the green house effect and the stability of energy supply. The development of the hydrogen technology using FBR that satisfies 'sustainable energy development' and 'utilization of energies free from environmental pollution' will be one of the promising options. Based on the above mentioned recognition, we propose the direction of the development, the issues to be solved, the time schedule, the budget, and the organization for R and D of three hydrogen production technologies, the thermochemical hybrid process, the low temperature steam reforming process, and the high temperature steam electrolysis process in JNC. (author)

  7. Pyrolysis of biomass for hydrogen production

    Constantinescu, Marius; David, Elena; Bucura, Felicia; Sisu, Claudia; Niculescu, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Biomass processing is a new technology within the area of renewable energies. Current energy supplies in the world are dominated by fossil fuels (some 80% of the total use of over 400 EJ per year). Nevertheless, about 10-15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. On average, in the industrialized countries biomass contributes some 9-13% to the total energy supplies, but in developing countries the proportion is as high as a fifth to one third. In quite a number of countries biomass covers even over 50 to 90% of the total energy demand. Classic application of biomass combustion is heat production for domestic applications. A key issue for bio-energy is that its use should be modernized to fit into a sustainable development path. Especially promising are the production of electricity via advanced conversion concepts (i.e. gasification and state-of-the-art combustion and co-firing) and modern biomass derived fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ethanol from ligno-cellulosic biomass, which can reach competitive cost levels within 1-2 decades (partly depending on price developments with petroleum). (authors)

  8. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    Quade, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1990 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas - a feedstock which may not be available in large quantities in this time frame. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. Bench-scale experimental work on the hydrogasification of coal liquids is being carried out. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 0 F. (author)

  9. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  10. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  11. Economical analysis of biofuel products and nuclear plant hydrogen

    Edwaren Liun

    2011-01-01

    The increasing in oil prices over the last six years is unprecedented that should be seen as a spur to increased efficiency. The surge in oil prices on the world market today is driven by strong demand factors in the depletion of world oil reserves. To replace the fuel oil from the bowels of the earth the various alternatives should be considered, including other crops or vegetable oil production of bio-fuels and hydrogen are produced by high temperature nuclear reactors. Biofuels in the form of ethanol made from corn or sugar cane and biodiesel made from palm oil or jatropha. With the latest world oil prices, future fuel vegetable oil and nuclear hydrogen-based energy technologies become popular in various parts of the world. Economics of biodiesel will be changed in accordance with world oil prices and subsidy regulations which apply to fuel products. On the other hand the role of nuclear energy in hydrogen production with the most potential in the techno-economics is a form of high temperature steam electrolysis, using heat and electricity from nuclear reactors. The production cost of biodiesel fuel on the basis of ADO type subsidy is 10.49 US$/MMBTU, while the production cost of hydrogen as an energy carrier of high temperature reactor is 15.30 US$/MMBTU. Thus, both types seem to have strong competitiveness. (author)

  12. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  13. Annex 15 of the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement : Photobiological hydrogen production

    Lindblad, P. [Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Task 15 of the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement of the International Energy Agency is to advance the science of biophotosynthesis of hydrogen, which is the biological production of hydrogen from water and sunlight using microalgal photosynthesis. A practical process for biophotolysis would result in an innovative biological source of sustainable and environmentally benign renewable energy source. Japan, Norway, Sweden and the United States initially committed to the project. Since then Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have joined. The current task is to produce hydrogen from both green algae and cyanobacteria with focus on early-stage applied research on biophotolysis processes with intermediate carbon dioxide fixation. Significant advances have also occurred in the scientific field of cyanobacterial biohydrogen. Cyanobacteria has enzymes that metabolise hydrogen. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have simple nutritional requirements and can grow in air, water, or mineral salts with light as the only source of energy. This research will help provide the advances needed to achieve practical efficiencies and cost objectives of biological hydrogen production. tabs., figs.

  14. Nuclear Production of Hydrogen Using Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles

    Brown, L.C.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Schultz, K.R.; Marshall, A.C.; Showalter, S.K.; Pickard, P.S.; Funk, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high-temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station in a thermochemical water-splitting cycle. We carried out a detailed literature search to create a searchable database with 115 cycles and 822 references. We developed screening criteria to reduce the list to 25 cycles. We used detailed evaluation to select two cycles that appear most promising, the Adiabatic UT-3 cycle and the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. We have selected the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle for further development. We then assessed the suitability of various nuclear reactor types to the production of hydrogen from water using the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. A basic requirement is to deliver heat to the process interface heat exchanger at temperatures up to 900 deg. C. We considered nine categories of reactors: pressurized water-cooled, boiling water-cooled, organic-cooled, alkali metal-cooled, heavy metal-cooled, gas-cooled, molten salt-cooled, liquid-core and gas-core reactors. We developed requirements and criteria to carry out the assessment, considering design, safety, operational, economic and development issues. This assessment process led to our choice of the helium gas-cooled reactor for coupling to the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In continuing work, we are investigating the improvements that have been proposed to the Sulfur-Iodine cycle and will generate an integrated flowsheet describing a hydrogen production plant powered by a high-temperature helium gas-cooled nuclear reactor. This will allow us to size process equipment and calculate hydrogen production efficiency and capital cost, and to estimate the cost of the hydrogen produced as a function of nuclear reactor cost. (authors)

  15. Nuclear power production costs

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  16. Environmental costs of meat production

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  17. The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

    2006-01-01

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR

  18. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  19. Use of nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    Axente, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The potentials of three hydrogen production processes under development for the industrial production of hydrogen using nuclear energy, namely the advanced electrolysis the steam reforming, the sulfur-iodine water splitting cycle, are compared and evaluated in this paper. Water electrolysis and steam reforming of methane are proven and used extensively today for the production of hydrogen. The overall thermal efficiency of the electrolysis includes the efficiency of the electrical power generation and of the electrolysis itself. The electrolysis process efficiency is about 75 % and of electrical power generation is only about 30 %, the overall thermal efficiency for H 2 generation being about 25 %. Steam reforming process consists of reacting methane (or natural gas) and steam in a chemical reactor at 800-900 deg. C, with a thermal efficiency of about 70 %. In a reforming process, with heat supplied by nuclear reactor, the heat must be supplied by a secondary loop from the nuclear side and be transferred to the methane/steam mixture, via a heat exchanger type reactor. The sulfur-iodine cycle, a thermochemical water splitting, is of particular interest because it produces hydrogen efficiently with no CO 2 as byproduct. If heated with a nuclear source it could prove to be an ideal environmental solution to hydrogen production. Steam reforming remains the cheapest hydrogen production method based on the latest estimates, even when implemented with nuclear reactor. The S-I cycle offers a close second solution and the electrolysis is the most expensive of the options for industrial H 2 production. The nuclear plant could power electrolysis operations right away; steam reforming with nuclear power is a little bit further off into the future, the first operation with nuclear facility is expected to have place in Japan in 2008. The S-I cycle implementation is still over the horizon, it will be more than 10 years until we will see that cycle in full scale

  20. Minimizing activated carbons production cost

    Stavropoulos, G.G.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed economic evaluation of activated carbons production process from various raw materials is undertaken using the conventional economic indices (ROI, POT, and NPV). The fundamental factors that affect production cost were taken into account. It is concluded that for an attractive investment in activated carbons production one should select the raw material with the highest product yield, adopt a chemical activation production scheme and should base product price on product-surface area (or more generally on product adsorption capacity for the adsorbate in consideration). A raw material that well meets the above-mentioned criteria is petroleum coke but others are also promising (charcoals, and carbon black). Production cost then can be optimized by determining its minimum value of cost that results from the intercept between the curves of plant capacity and raw material cost - if any. Taking into account the complexity of such a techno-economic analysis, a useful suggestion could be to start the evaluations from a plant capacity corresponding to the break-even point, i. e. the capacity at which income equals production cost. (author)

  1. Concepts for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Jakobsen, Daniel; Åtland, Vegar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a techno-economic analysis of large-scale, carbon-lean hydrogen production in Norway, in order to evaluate various production methods and estimate a breakeven price level. Norway possesses vast energy resources and the export of oil and gas is vital to the country s economy. The results of this thesis indicate that hydrogen represents a viable, carbon-lean opportunity to utilize these resources, which can prove key in the future of Norwegian energy e...

  2. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture

    Arienti, S.; Cotone, P.; Davison, J. [Foster Wheeler Italiana (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study carried out by Foster Wheeler for the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme that focused on different IGCC configurations with CO{sub 2} capture and H{sub 2} production. The three following main cases are compared: production of hydrogen, with minimum amount of electricity for a stand-alone plant production; co-production of the optimum hydrogen/electricity ratio; and co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a flexible plant that varies the hydrogen/electricity ratio. The paper reviews three available gasification technologies and presents the results of a more detailed evaluation of the selected one. The scope of this paper is to underline possible advantages of hydrogen and electricity co-production from coal, that is likely going to replace natural gas and petroleum as a source of hydrogen in the long term. Expected advantage of co-production will be the ability to vary the hydrogen/electricity ratio to meet market demands. A natural gas, diesel and gasoline demand market analysis has been performed for the Netherlands and the USA to determine the expected future hydrogen demand. Plant performance and costs are established and electric power production costs are evaluated. Electricity and hydrogen co-production plants are compared to plants that produce electricity only, with and without CO{sub 2} capture, to evaluate the costs of CO{sub 2} avoidance. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Analysis of Production and Delivery Center Hydrogen Applied to the Southern Patagonian Circuit

    Maximiliano Fernando Medina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Desire department of the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, presents the greatest potential electrolytic Hydrogen Production Country, From Three primary sources of sustainable energy: wind, solar, biomass. There, the Hydrogen Plant of Pico Truncado has capacity central production of hydrogen 100m3 of H2 / day, enough to supply 353 vehicles with hybrid fuel called HGNC, made by cutting 12% V / V of hydrogen in CNG (in situ at each station. Puerto Deseado, Fitz Roy, Caleta Olivia, Las Heras, Comodoro Rivadavia, Sarmiento and the Ancients: From the production cost, the cost of delivering hydrogen to the Southern Patagonian circuit comprised analyzed. Considering various local parameters are determined as a way of delivering more profitable virtual pipeline, with total cost of hydrogen estimated 6.5 USD / kg H2 and HGNC shipped in the station at 0.50 USD / Nm3.

  4. Development of efficient photoreactors for solar hydrogen production

    Huang, Cunping; Yao, Weifeng; T-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, Fl 32922-5703 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The rate of hydrogen evolution from a photocatalytic process depends not only on the activity of a photocatalyst, but also on photoreactor design. Ideally, a photoreactor should be able to absorb the incident light, promoting photocatalytic reactions in an effective manner with minimal photonic losses. There are numerous technical challenges and cost related issues when designing a large-scale photoreactor for hydrogen production. Active stirring of the photocatalyst slurry within a photoreactor is not practical in large-scale applications due to cost related issues. Rather, the design should allow facile self-mixing of the flow field within the photoreactor. In this paper two types of photocatalytic reactor configurations are studied: a batch type design and another involving passive self-mixing of the photolyte. Results show that energy loss from a properly designed photoreactor is mainly due to reflection losses from the photoreactor window. We describe the interplay between the reaction and the photoreactor design parameters as well as effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. We found that a passive self-mixing of the photolyte is possible. Furthermore, the use of certain engineering polymer films as photoreactor window materials has the potential for substantial cost savings in large-scale applications, with minimal reduction of photon energy utilization efficiency. Eight window materials were tested and the results indicate that Aclar trademark polymer film used as the photoreactor window provides a substantial cost saving over other engineering polymers, especially with respect to fused silica glass at modest hydrogen evolution rates. (author)

  5. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  6. Construction apparatus for thermochemical hydrogen production process

    Kubo, S.; Nakajima, H.; Higashi, S.; Onuki, K.; Akino, S.S.N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Nuclear Heat Utilization Engineering Lab

    2001-06-01

    Studies have been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on hydrogen production through thermochemical processes such as water-splitting. These studies are classified with iodine-sulphur cycle studies using heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed with fluorine resin, glass and quartz. It can produce hydrogen at a rate of 50 litres per hour. Electricity provides the heat required for the operation. The closed chemical process requires special control techniques. The process flow diagram for the apparatus was designed based on the results of previous studies including one where hydrogen production was successfully achieved at a rate of one liter per hour for 48 hours. Experimental operations under atmospheric pressure will be carried out for the next four years to develop the process. The data will be used in the next research and development programs aimed at designing a bench-scale apparatus. 7 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  7. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  8. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  9. Safety issues of nuclear production of hydrogen

    Piera, Mireia; Martinez-Val, Jose M.; Jose Montes, Ma

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is not an uncommon issue in Nuclear Safety analysis, particularly in relation to severe accidents. On the other hand, hydrogen is a household name in the chemical industry, particularly in oil refineries, and is also a well known chemical element currently produced by steam reforming of natural gas, and other methods (such as coal gasification). In the not-too-distant future, hydrogen will have to be produced (by chemical reduction of water) using renewable and nuclear energy sources. In particular, nuclear fission seems to offer the cheapest way to provide the primary energy in the medium-term. Safety principles are fundamental guidelines in the design, construction and operation both of hydrogen facilities and nuclear power plants. When these two technologies are integrated, a complete safety analysis must consider not only the safety practices of each industry, but any interaction that could be established between them. In particular, any accident involving a sudden energy release from one of the facilities can affect the other. Release of dangerous substances (chemicals, radiotoxic effluents) can also pose safety problems. Although nuclear-produced hydrogen facilities will need specific approaches and detailed analysis on their safety features, a preliminary approach is presented in this paper. No significant roadblocks are identified that could hamper the deployment of this new industry, but some of the hydrogen production methods will involve very demanding safety standards

  10. Study of organic waste for production of hydrogen in reactor

    Guzmán Chinea, Jesús Manuel; Guzmán Marrero, Elizabeth; Pérez Ponce, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated before final disposal. Hydrogen can be produced sustainable by anaerobic bacteria that grow in the dark with rich carbohydrate substrates giving as final products H 2 , CO 2 and volatile fatty acids. The whey byproduct from cheese production, has great potential to be used for the generation of hydrogen as it has a high carbohydrate content and a high organic load. The main advantages of using anaerobic processes in biological treatment of organic waste, are the low operating costs, low power consumption, the ability to degrade high organic loads, resistance biomass to stay long in the absence of substrate, without lose their metabolic activity, and low nutritional requirements and increase the performance of 0.9 mol H2 / mol lactose. (full text)Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated

  11. Hydrogen production by fermentative consortia

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Department of Marine Biotechnology, Ensenada, B.C. Mexico (Mexico); Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PO Box 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, H{sub 2} production by anaerobic mixed cultures was reviewed. First, the different anaerobic microbial communities that have a direct relation with the generation or consumption of H{sub 2} are discussed. Then, the different methods used to inhibit the H{sub 2}-consuming bacteria are analyzed (mainly in the methanogenesis phase) such as biokinetic control (low pH and short hydraulic retention time), heat-shock treatment and chemical inhibitors along with their advantages/disadvantages for their application on an industrial scale. After that, biochemical pathways of carbohydrate degradation to H{sub 2}, organic acids and solvents are showed. Fourth, structure, diversity and dynamics of H{sub 2}-producers communities are detailed. Later, the hydrogenase structure and activity is related with H{sub 2} production. Also, the causes for H{sub 2} production inhibition are analyzed along with strategies to avoid it. Finally, immobilized-cells systems are presented as a way to enhance H{sub 2} production. (author)

  12. Synfuel (hydrogen) production from fusion power

    Krakowski, R.A.; Cox, K.E.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Booth, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A potential use of fusion energy for the production of synthetic fuel (hydrogen) is described. The hybrid-thermochemical bismuth-sulfate cycle is used as a vehicle to assess the technological and economic merits of this potential nonelectric application of fusion power

  13. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate

    Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga

  14. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  15. The US department of energy programme on hydrogen production

    Paster, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    production will be more cost effective, but distributed production will still play a role. Utilization of nuclear and renewable technologies inherently addresses greenhouse gas emission directly. The use of fossil fuels requires the development of carbon dioxide sequestration technology to enable a hydrogen economy that also addresses climate change concerns. Ultimately, a spectrum of feedstocks and technologies for hydrogen production will be necessary to address energy security and climate change concerns. The DOE Hydrogen Program will address multiple feedstock and technology options to provide effective and efficient hydrogen production for the short term and the long term. The U. S. DOE Hydrogen Program is contained within the Offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that are now working synergistically together to accomplish the overall program goals. The potential benefits of a hydrogen economy are immense. They include increased energy security through the use of domestic and renewable energy feedstocks and a dramatic reduction in green house gas and other criteria air pollutants. (author)

  16. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  17. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  18. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  19. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Dan, Monica, E-mail: monica.dan@itim-cj.ro; Mihet, Maria, E-mail: maria.mihet@itim-cj.ro; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  20. Hydrogen.

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  1. Comparison of conventional vs. modular hydrogen refueling stations and on-site production vs. delivery.

    Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To meet the needs of public and private stakeholders involved in the development, construction, and operation of hydrogen fueling stations needed to support the widespread roll-out of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, this work presents publicly available station templates and analyses. These ‘Reference Stations’ help reduce the cost and speed the deployment of hydrogen stations by providing a common baseline with which to start a design, enable quick assessment of potential sites for a hydrogen station, identify contributors to poor economics, and suggest areas of research. This work presents layouts, bills of materials, piping and instrumentation diagrams, and detailed analyses of five new station designs. In the near term, delivered hydrogen results in a lower cost of hydrogen compared to on-site production via steam methane reforming or electrolysis, although the on-site production methods have other advantages. Modular station concepts including on-site production can reduce lot sizes from conventional assemble-on-site stations.

  2. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  3. Renewable hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of peanut shells pyrolysis products

    Evans, R.J.; Chornet, E.; Czernik, S.; Feik, C.; French, R.; Phillips, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Abedi, J.; Yeboah, Y.D. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Day, D.; Howard, J. [Scientific Carbons Inc., Blakely, GA (United States); McGee, D. [Enviro-Tech Enterprises Inc., Matthews, NC (United States); Realff, M.J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A project was initiated to determine the feasibility of producing hydrogen from agricultural wastes at a cost comparable to methane-reforming technologies. It is possible that hydrogen can be produced cost competitively with natural gas reforming by integrating hydrogen production with existing waste product utilization processes. This report presents initial results of an engineering demonstration project involving the development of a steam reforming process by a team of government, industrial and academic organizations working at the thermochemical facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The process is to be used on the gaseous byproducts from a process for making activated carbon from densified peanut shells. The reactor is interfaced with a 20 kg/hour fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis system and takes advantage of process chemical analysis and computer control and monitoring capacity. The reactor will be tested on the pyrolysis vapors produced in the activated carbon process. The final phase of the project will look at the production of hydrogen through the conversion of residual CO to H{sub 2} over a shift catalyst and separating hydrogen from CO{sub 2} using pressure swing adsorption. The purified oxygen will be mixed with natural gas and used for transportation purposes. The study demonstrates the potential impact of hydrogen and bioenergy on the economic development and diversification of rural areas. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    Jeong, Y. H.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing concern about the global climate change spurs the development of low- or zero-carbon energy system. Nuclear hydrogen production by water electrolysis would be the one of the short-term solutions, but low efficiency and high production cost (high energy consumption) is the technical hurdle to be removed. In this paper the once-through sulfur process composed of the desulfurization and the water electrolysis systems is proposed. Electrode potential for the conventional water electrolysis (∼2.0 V) can be reduced significantly by the anode depolarization using sulfur dioxide: down to 0.6 V depending on the current density This depolarized electrolysis is the electrolysis step of the hybrid sulfur process originally proposed by the Westinghouse. However; recycling of sulfur dioxide requires a high temperature heat source and thus put another technical hurdle on the way to nuclear hydrogen production: the development of high temperature nuclear reactors and corresponding sulfuric acid decomposition system. By the once-through use of sulfur dioxide rather than the closed recycle, the hurdle can be removed. For the sulfur feed, the desulfurization system is integrated into the water electrolysis system. Fossil fuels include a few percent of sulfur by weight. During the refinement or energy conversion, most of the sulfur should be separated The separated sulfur can be fed to the water electrolysis system and the final product would be hydrogen and sulfuric acid, which is number one chemical in the world by volume. Lowered electrode potential and additional byproduct, the sulfuric acid, can provide economically affordable hydrogen. In this study, the once-through hybrid sulfur process for hydrogen production was proposed and the process was optimized considering energy consumption in electrolysis and sulfuric acid concentration. Economic feasibility of the proposed process was also discussed. Based on currently available experimental data for the electrode

  5. H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems

    Verduzco, Laura E.; Duffey, Michael R.; Deason, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost

  6. Photobiological hydrogen production : photochemical efficiency and bioreactor design

    Akkerman, I.; Janssen, M.; Rocha, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen can be carried out by photoautotrophic or photoheterotrophic organisms. Here, the photosystems of both processes are described. The main drawback of the photoautotrophic hydrogen production process is oxygen inhibition. The few efficiencies reported on the

  7. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  8. Analysis of the potential for hydrogen production in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, from wind resources

    Rodriguez, C.R.; Santa Cruz, R.; Aisa, S. [Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Monsenor Pablo Cabrera s/n calle, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Riso, M.; Jimenez Yob, G.; Ottogalli, R. [Subsecretaria de Infraestructuras y Programas, Ministerio de Obras y Servicios Publicos del Gobierno de la Provincia de Cordoba, Av. Poeta Lugones 12, 2do. Piso, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jeandrevin, G. [Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, Avenida Fuerza Aerea km 6 1/2, 5022 Cordoba (Argentina); Leiva, E.P.M. [INFIQC, Unidad de Matematica y Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre s/n, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources in the province of Cordoba, second consumer of fossil fuels for transportation in Argentina, is analyzed. Three aspects of the problem are considered: the evaluation of the hydrogen resource from wind power, the analysis of the production costs via electrolysis and the annual requirements of wind energy to generate hydrogen to fuel the vehicular transport of the province. Different scenarios were considered, including pure hydrogen as well as the so-called CNG plus, where hydrogen is mixed with compressed natural gas in a 20% V/V dilution of the former. The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources is analyzed for each department of the province, excluding those regions not suited for wind farms. The analysis takes into account the efficiency of the electrolyzer and the capacity factor of the wind power system. It is concluded that the automotive transportation could be supplied by hydrogen stemming from wind resources via electrolysis. (author)

  9. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  10. Startech Hydrogen Production Final Technical Report

    Startech Engineering Department

    2007-11-27

    The assigned work scope includes the modification and utilization of the Plasma Converter System, Integration of a StarCell{trademark} Multistage Ceramic Membrane System (StarCell), and testing of the integrated systems towards DOE targets for gasification and membrane separation. Testing and evaluation was performed at the Startech Engineering and Demonstration Test Center in Bristol, CT. The Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) Characterize the performance of the integrated Plasma Converter and StarCell{trademark} Systems for hydrogen production and purification from abundant and inexpensive feedstocks; (2) Compare integrated hydrogen production performance to conventional technologies and DOE benchmarks; (3) Run pressure and temperature testing to baseline StarCell's performance; and (4) Determine the effect of process contaminants on the StarCell{trademark} system.

  11. Photochemical Production of Hydrogen from Water

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    The energy flux in sunlight is 40 000 kW per head of the world population. Theoretically much of this energy can be used to photolyze water, in presence of a sensitizer, to H2 (and 02) for a hydrogen economy. The main difficulty in a homogeneous medium is the back-reaction of the primary products. According to the 'membrane principle', the reducing and the oxidizing primary products are released on opposite sides of asymmetric membranes, and so prevented from back-reacting. In essence, this is the mechanism of the photosynthetic machinery in plants and bacteria. This therefore serves as an example in the artificial construction of suitable asymmetric, 'vectorial', membranes. Relatively small areas of photolytic collectors, e.g. in tropical deserts, could cover the energy needs of large populations through hydrogen. (author)

  12. Projected hydrogen cost from methane reforming for North America 2015-2050

    Vanderveen, K.; Lutz, A.; Klebanoff, L.; Drennen, T.; Keller, J.; Drennen, T.; Kamery, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H 2 Sim) was used to project the cost for hydrogen at the point of sale to light duty vehicles for distributed, small-scale steam methane reforming. Projections cover the period from 2010-2050 in North America, and take into account assumptions about the quantity of recoverable natural gas remaining in North America. We conclude that there is a window for distributed reforming to play a positive role in supplying a H 2 fuel infrastructure, but this window is closing rapidly. The analysis assumes that production from natural gas reserves in North America will peak sometime before 2050 and demand will cause the price to rise after the peak of production in a manner consistent with Hotelling's model. We consider three scenarios for when the peak occurs, and evaluate the impact on the cost of hydrogen fuel produced via distributed small scale reforming in these three scenarios. (authors)

  13. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production

  14. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  15. Microbial electrolysis cells as innovative technology for hydrogen production

    Chorbadzhiyska, Elitsa; Hristov, Georgi; Mitov, Mario; Hubenova, Yolina

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production is becoming increasingly important in view of using hydrogen in fuel cells. However, most of the production of hydrogen so far comes from the combustion of fossil fuels and water electrolysis. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC), also known as Bioelectrochemically Assisted Microbial Reactor, is an ecologically clean, renewable and innovative technology for hydrogen production. Microbial electrolysis cells produce hydrogen mainly from waste biomass assisted by various bacteria strains. The principle of MECs and their constructional elements are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: microbial Electrolysis Cells, hydrogen production, waste biomass purification

  16. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  17. Exploiting synergies in European wind and hydrogen sectors: A cost-benefit assessment

    Shaw, Suzanne; Peteves, Estathios

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a 'wind-hydrogen strategy', is analysed using a cost-benefit approach to evaluate the final impact at the level of the end-consumer when this strategy is implemented. The analysis is conducted for four scenarios, based on different levels of: wind energy penetration in the electricity network area, hydrogen energy price, and environmental taxation on fuels. The effect of technological learning on the outcome is also analysed for the period up to 2050. The results of the analysis indicate that the relative value of the wind energy in the electricity market compared to the hydrogen market is a deciding factor in the attractiveness of the strategy; here the wind energy penetration in the network is a key consideration. Finally, in order to exploit learning effects from linking European wind and hydrogen sectors, action would need to be taken in the short term. (author)

  18. Renewable energy for hydrogen production and sustainable urban mobility

    Briguglio, N.; Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Di Blasi, A.; Dispenza, G.; Antonucci, V.; Matteucci, F.; Breedveld, L.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the number of power plants based on renewable energy (RWE) has been increasing and hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a suitable medium-to-long term storage solution as well as a ''fuel'' for FCEV's because of its CO 2 -free potential. In this context, the aim of the present study is to carry out both an economic and environmental analysis of a start-up RWE plant using a simulation code developed in previous work and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The plant will be located in the South of Italy (Puglia) and will consist of different RWE sources (Wind Power, Photovoltaic, Biomass). RWE will be used to produce hydrogen from an electrolyzer, which will feed a fleet of buses using different fuels (methane, hydrogen, or a mixture of these). In particular, a wind turbine of 850 kW will feed a hydrogen production plant and a biomass plant will produce methane. Preliminary studies have shown that it is possible to obtain hydrogen at a competitive cost (DOE target) and that components (wind turbine, electrolyzer, vessel, etc.) influence the final price. In addition, LCA results have permitted a comparison of different minibuses using either fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. (author)

  19. Renewable energy for hydrogen production and sustainable urban mobility

    Briguglio, N.; Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Di Blasi, A.; Dispenza, G.; Antonucci, V. [Istituto di Tecnologie avanzate per l' Energia ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' Salita S, Lucia sopra Contesse, 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Matteucci, F. [TRE SpA Tozzi Renewable Energy, Via Zuccherificio, 10, 48100 Mezzano (RA) (Italy); Breedveld, L. [2B Via della Chiesa Campocroce, 4, 31021 Mogliano Veneto (TV) (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    In recent years, the number of power plants based on renewable energy (RWE) has been increasing and hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a suitable medium-to-long term storage solution as well as a ''fuel'' for FCEV's because of its CO{sub 2}-free potential. In this context, the aim of the present study is to carry out both an economic and environmental analysis of a start-up RWE plant using a simulation code developed in previous work and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The plant will be located in the South of Italy (Puglia) and will consist of different RWE sources (Wind Power, Photovoltaic, Biomass). RWE will be used to produce hydrogen from an electrolyzer, which will feed a fleet of buses using different fuels (methane, hydrogen, or a mixture of these). In particular, a wind turbine of 850 kW will feed a hydrogen production plant and a biomass plant will produce methane. Preliminary studies have shown that it is possible to obtain hydrogen at a competitive cost (DOE target) and that components (wind turbine, electrolyzer, vessel, etc.) influence the final price. In addition, LCA results have permitted a comparison of different minibuses using either fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. (author)

  20. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  1. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  2. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  3. Costs of electronuclear fuel production

    Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

    1978-07-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding 233 U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg 233 U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U 3 O 8 (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound

  4. Integrated analysis of transportation demand pathway options for hydrogen production, storage, and distribution

    Thomas, C.E.S. [Directed Technologies Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Directed Technologies, Inc. has begun the development of a computer model with the goal of providing guidance to the Hydrogen Program Office regarding the most cost effective use of limited resources to meet national energy security and environmental goals through the use of hydrogen as a major energy carrier. The underlying assumption of this programmatic pathway model is that government and industry must work together to bring clean hydrogen energy devices into the marketplace. Industry cannot provide the long term resources necessary to overcome technological, regulatory, institutional, and perceptual barriers to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, and government cannot provide the substantial investments required to develop hydrogen energy products and increased hydrogen production capacity. The computer model recognizes this necessary government/industry partnership by determining the early investments required by government to bring hydrogen energy end uses within the time horizon and profitability criteria of industry, and by estimating the subsequent investments required by industry. The model then predicts the cost/benefit ratio for government, based on contributions of each hydrogen project to meeting societal goals, and it predicts the return on investment for industry. Sensitivity analyses with respect to various government investments such as hydrogen research and development and demonstration projects will then provide guidance as to the most cost effective mix of government actions. The initial model considers the hydrogen transportation market, but this programmatic pathway methodology will be extended to other market segments in the future.

  5. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D. (PI); McFarland, Eric W. (PI)

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  6. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...

  7. Economics and synergies of electrolytic and thermochemical methods of environmentally benign hydrogen production

    Naterer, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the world's hydrogen (about 97%) is currently derived from fossil fuels. For reduction of greenhouse gases, improvement of urban air quality, and energy security, among other reasons, carbon-free sources of hydrogen production are crucial to hydrogen becoming a significant energy carrier. Nuclear hydrogen production is a promising carbon-free alternative for large-scale, low-cost production of hydrogen in the future. Two nuclear technologies, applied in tandem, have a promising potential to generate hydrogen economically without leading to greenhouse gas emissions: 1) electrolysis and 2) thermochemical decomposition of water. This paper will investigate their unique complementary roles and economics of producing hydrogen, from a Canadian perspective. Together they can serve a unique potential for both de-centralized hydrogen needs in periods of low-demand electricity, and centralized base-load production from a nuclear station. Hydrogen production has a significantly higher thermal efficiency, but electrolysis can take advantage of low electricity prices during off-peak hours. By effectively linking these systems, water-based production of hydrogen can become more competitive against the predominant existing technology, SMR (steam-methane reforming). (orig.)

  8. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  9. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  10. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  11. The value of product flexibility in nuclear hydrogen technologies: A real options analysis

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous economic studies of nuclear hydrogen technologies focused on levelized costs without accounting for risks and uncertainties faced by potential investors. To address some of these risks and uncertainties, we used real options theory to assess the profitability of three nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from the production plant. It also quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production. Under these assumptions, we conclude that investors will find significant value in the capability to switch plant output between electricity and hydrogen. (author)

  12. Electric system management through hydrogen production - A market driven approach in the French context

    Mansilla, C.; Dautremont, S.; Thais, F.; Louyrette, J.; Martin, J.; Albou, S.; Barbieri, G.; Collignon, N.; Bourasseau, C.; Salasc, B.; Valentin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon transportation, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a development is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors among which methanol production. Methanol can be produced by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen, hence facilitating carbon dioxide emission mitigation while providing a beneficial tool to manage the electric system, if hydrogen is produced by alkaline electrolysis operated in a variable way driven by the spot and balancing electricity markets. Such a concept is promoted by the VItESSE project (Industrial and Energy value of CO 2 through Efficient use of CO 2 -free electricity - Electricity Network System Control and Electricity Storage). Through the proposed market driven approach, hydrogen production offers a possibility to help managing the electric system, together with an opportunity to reduce hydrogen production costs. (authors)

  13. Hydrogen production from glucose in ionic liquids

    Assenbaum, D.W.; Taccardi, N.; Berger, M.E.M.; Boesmann, A.; Enzenberger, F.; Woelfel, R.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Depletion of oil and gas reserves and growing global warming concerns have created a world-wide interest in new concepts for future sustainable energy supplies. The development of effective ways to produce hydrogen from biomass is expected to be one important contribution to such a goal [1]. Nowadays, three main processes are considered for future industrial application, namely: gasification of biomass [2], reforming in supercritical water [3] and aqueous phase reforming [4,5]. Other technologies such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars or steam reforming of bio-oils suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements and can probably not be considered for industrial applications in the closer future [6,7]. On the other hand, either the gasification of biomass, which is typically carried out at temperatures above 800 C using Ni or Fe catalysts [8,9,10,11], or the reforming in supercritical water, which is typically carried out in presence of Ru catalyst at pressures of 300bar and temperatures ranging from 500 to 700 C [12], suffer of poor energetic efficiency as a lot of energy is required to run the reactions. More recently, an alternative to the two aforementioned high temperature processes has been proposed as ''aqueous phase reforming'' (APR) by Dumesic and coworkers [13,14,15,16,17]. They achieved the reforming of polyols (such as ethylene glycol, glycerol and sorbitol) using heterogeneous catalysts at temperatures between 200 and 250 C and pressure typically between 15-50bar.The temperature level of the reaction allows generating hydrogen with low amounts of CO in a single reactor. The process typically forms 35 % of hydrogen, 40 % of CO2 and 25 % of combined alkanes. The high amount of formed alkanes originates eventually from CO hydrogenation and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction [18,19,20,21], those are thermodynamically favored in the above mentioned conditions. However, heterogeneously catalyzed APR

  14. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  15. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  16. Cea assessment of the sulphur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production

    Caries, Ph.; Vitart, X.; Yvon, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sulphur-iodine cycle is a promising process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat: - it is a purely thermochemical cycle, implying that hydrogen production will scale with volume rather than surface; - it only involves fluids, thus avoiding the often difficult handling of solids; - its heat requirements are well matched to the temperatures available from a Generation IV very/high temperature reactor. These characteristics seem very attractive for high efficiency and low cost massive hydrogen production. On the other hand, the efficiency of the cycle may suffer from the large over-stoichiometries of water and iodine and the very important heat exchanges it involves; furthermore, due to lack of adequate thermodynamic models, its efficiency is difficult to assess with confidence. Besides, the large quantities of chemicals that need to be handled, and the corrosiveness of these chemicals, are factors not to be overlooked in terms of investment and operation costs. In order to assess the actual potential of the sulphur-iodine cycle for massive hydrogen production at a competitive cost, CEA has been conducting an important programme on this cycle, ranging from thermodynamic measurements to hydrogen production cost evaluation, with flow sheet optimisation, component sizing and investment cost estimation as intermediate steps. The paper will present the method used, the status of both efficiency and production cost estimations, and discuss perspectives for improvement. (authors)

  17. Solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Dogan, F.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), operating in a mixture of fuel and oxidant gases, provides several advantages over the conventional SOFC such as simplified cell structure (no sealing required). SC-SOFC allows using a variety of fuels without carbon deposition by selecting appropriate electrode materials and cell operating conditions. The operating conditions of single chamber SOFC was studied using hydrocarbon-air gas mixtures for a cell composed of NiO-YSZ / YSZ / LSCF-Ag. The cell performance and catalytic activity of the anode was measured at various gas flow rates. The results showed that the open-circuit voltage and the power density increased as the gas flow rate increased. Relatively high power densities up to 660 mW/cm 2 were obtained in a SC-SOFC using porous YSZ electrolytes instead of dense electrolytes required for operation of a double chamber SOFC. In addition to propane- or methane-air mixtures as a fuel source, the cells were also tested in a double chamber configuration using hydrogen-air mixtures by controlling the hydrogen/air ratio at the cathode and the anode. Simulation of single chamber conditions in double chamber configurations allows distinguishing and better understanding of the electrode reactions in the presence of mixed gases. Recent research efforts; the effect of hydrogen-air mixtures as a fuel source on the performance of anode and cathode materials in single-chamber and double-chamber SOFC configurations,will be presented. The presentation will address a review on hydrogen production by utilizing of reversible SOFC systems. (author)

  18. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  19. Hydrogen production by a PEM electrolyser

    Aragón-González, G; León-Galicia, A; Camacho, J M Rivera; Uribe-Salazar, M; González-Huerta, R

    2015-01-01

    A PEM electrolyser for hydrogen production was evaluated. It was fed with water and a 400 mA, 3.5 V cc electrical power source. The electrolyser was built with two acrylic plates to form the anode and the cathode, two meshes to distribute the current, two seals, two gas diffusers and an assembly membrane-electrode. A small commercial neoprene sheet 1.7 mm thin was used to provide for the water deposit in order to avoid the machining of the structure. For the assembly of the proton interchange membrane a thin square 50 mm layer of Nafion 115 was used

  20. Advances and bottlenecks in microbial hydrogen production.

    Stephen, Alan J; Archer, Sophie A; Orozco, Rafael L; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2017-09-01

    Biological production of hydrogen is poised to become a significant player in the future energy mix. This review highlights recent advances and bottlenecks in various approaches to biohydrogen processes, often in concert with management of organic wastes or waste CO 2 . Some key bottlenecks are highlighted in terms of the overall energy balance of the process and highlighting the need for economic and environmental life cycle analyses with regard also to socio-economic and geographical issues. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Specificities of micro-reactors for hydrogen production and purification

    Mirodatos, C.; Dupont, N.; Germani, G.; Veen, A. C. ven; Schuurman, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable chemistry and exploitation of energy sources for the next decades requires considerable progress in process intensification. A development of new tools and equipments meeting the objectives of high efficiency, improved safety, compactness and low implementation costs is therefore subject of intensive research effort. Among the various scenarios tested in R and D, micro-structured reactors appear as a highly promising technology 1 and perspectives of mass production are already announced by technology providers 2. These reactors are based on assembly/stacking of micro structured plates or fibres. Due to their high heat and/or mass transfer, low pressure drop and good phase contacting, they sound particularly adapted to the large domain of hydrogen production by fuel reforming and purification. This presentation aims at outlining the state of the art, the advantages and drawbacks of using micro-structured reactors to intensify hydrogen production and purification. Two case studies will illustrate this approach: i) comparison between fixed bed and micro-structured reactor for the reforming of methanol into hydrogen and carbon oxides and ii) use of those devices in kinetic studies on the WGS reaction. (Author)

  2. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  3. Research and development program of hydrogen production system with high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Ogawa, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Shimizu, S.

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing a hydrogen production system with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). While the HTGR hydrogen production system has the following advantages compared with a fossil-fired hydrogen production system; low operation cost (economical fuel cost), low CO 2 emission and saving of fossil fuel by use of nuclear heat, it requires some items to be solved as follows; cost reduction of facility such as a reactor, coolant circulation system and so on, development of control and safety technologies. As for the control and safety technologies, JAERI plans demonstration test with hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane coupling to 30 Wt HTGR, named high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Prior to the demonstration test, a 1/30-scale out-of-pile test facility is in construction for safety review and detailed design of the HTTR hydrogen production system. Also, design study will start for reduction of facility cost. Moreover, basic study on hydrogen production process without CO 2 emission is in progress by thermochemical water splitting. (orig.)

  4. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  5. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  6. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  7. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  9. IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production

    Onuki, Kaoru; Nakajima, Hayato; Ioka, Ikuo; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Saburo

    1994-11-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermochemical hydrogen production by IS process is reviewed including experimental data obtained at JAERI on the chemistry of the Bunsen reaction step and on the corrosion resistance of the structural materials. The present status of laboratory scale demonstration at JAERI is also included. The study on the chemistry of the chemical reactions and the products separations has identified feasible methods to function the process. The flowsheeting studies revealed a process thermal efficiency higher than 40% is achievable under efficient process conditions. The corrosion resistance of commercially available structural materials have been clarified under various process conditions. The basic scheme of the process has been realized in a laboratory scale apparatus. R and D requirements to proceed to the engineering demonstration coupled with HTTR are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Biological hydrogen production from biomass by thermophilic bacteria

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Mars, A.E.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.; de Vrije, T.; van Niel, E.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    To meet the reduction of the emission of CO 2 imposed by the Kyoto protocol, hydrogen should be produced from renewable primary energy. Besides the indirect production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind and hydropower, hydrogen can be directly produced from biomass. At present, there are two strategies for the production of hydrogen from biomass: the thermochemical technology, such as gasification, and the biotechnological approach using micro-organisms. Biological hydrogen production delivers clean hydrogen with an environmental-friendly technology and is very suitable for the conversion of wet biomass in small-scale applications, thus having a high chance of becoming an economically feasible technology. Many micro-organisms are able to produce hydrogen from mono- and disaccharides, starch and (hemi)cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic production of hydrogen is a common phenomenon, occurring during the process of anaerobic digestion. Here, hydrogen producing micro-organisms are in syn-trophy with methanogenic bacteria which consume the hydrogen as soon as it is produced. In this way, hydrogen production remains obscure and methane is the end-product. By uncoupling hydrogen production from methane production, hydrogen becomes available for recovery and exploitation. This study describes the use of extreme thermophilic bacteria, selected because of a higher hydrogen production efficiency as compared to mesophilic bacteria, for the production of hydrogen from renewable resources. As feedstock energy crops like Miscanthus and Sorghum bicolor and waste streams like domestic organic waste, paper sludge and potato steam peels were used. The feedstock was pretreated and/or enzymatically hydrolyzed prior to fermentation to make a fermentable substrate. Hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, Thermotoga elfii and T. neapolitana on all substrates was observed. Nutrient

  11. Hydrogen production by high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Conceptual design of advanced process heat exchangers of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Teruo; Kato, Ryoma; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear hydrogen production is necessary in an anticipated hydrogen society that demands a massive quantity of hydrogen without economic disadvantage. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has launched the conceptual design study of a hydrogen production system with a near-term plan to connect it to Japan's first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTTR. The candidate hydrogen production system is based on the thermochemical water-splitting iodine sulphur (IS) process.The heat of 10 MWth at approximately 900degC, which can be provided by the secondary helium from the intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR, is the energy input to the hydrogen production system. In this paper, we describe the recent progresses made in the conceptual design of advanced process heat exchangers of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system. A new concept of sulphuric acid decomposer is proposed. This involves the integration of three separate functions of sulphuric acid decomposer, sulphur trioxide decomposer, and process heat exchanger. A new mixer-settler type of Bunsen reactor is also designed. This integrates three separate functions of Bunsen reactor, phase separator, and pump. The new concepts are expected to result in improved economics through construction and operation cost reductions because the number of process equipment and complicated connections between the equipment has been substantially reduced. (author)

  12. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  13. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  14. Hydrogen

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  15. Limits for hydrogen production of a solar - hydrogen system in Cuernavaca, Mexico

    Arriaga, H.L.G.; Gutierrez, S.L.; Cano, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this work experimental data are used in order to estimate the production of hydrogen as a function of irradiance of a direct-interconnection of solar panel system with a SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolyzer (also Solar-Hydrogen system). The solar - hydrogen system, consists of a photovoltaic solar array of 36 panels (75 Watts each) of monocrystalline silicon interconnected with an electrolyzer stack of 25 cells (around 100 cm 2 of geometrical area) with a maximum hydrogen production of 1 Nm 3 /h. By the use of voltage, current density, energy consumption values of the whole solar-hydrogen system, an average efficiency up to 5% was estimated and an average of 3,800 NL of hydrogen per day can be expected. Also the maximum hydrogen production for the months of July and December (sunniest and least sunny months in the location) is predicted. (authors)

  16. Limits for hydrogen production of a solar - hydrogen system in Cuernavaca, Mexico

    Arriaga, H.L.G.; Gutierrez, S.L.; Cano, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas Av. Reforma 113, col. Palmira c.p.62490 Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work experimental data are used in order to estimate the production of hydrogen as a function of irradiance of a direct-interconnection of solar panel system with a SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolyzer (also Solar-Hydrogen system). The solar - hydrogen system, consists of a photovoltaic solar array of 36 panels (75 Watts each) of monocrystalline silicon interconnected with an electrolyzer stack of 25 cells (around 100 cm{sup 2} of geometrical area) with a maximum hydrogen production of 1 Nm{sup 3}/h. By the use of voltage, current density, energy consumption values of the whole solar-hydrogen system, an average efficiency up to 5% was estimated and an average of 3,800 NL of hydrogen per day can be expected. Also the maximum hydrogen production for the months of July and December (sunniest and least sunny months in the location) is predicted. (authors)

  17. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  18. Efficiency analysis of hydrogen production methods from biomass

    Ptasinski, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hydrogen is considered as a universal energy carrier for the future, and biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of hydrogen. This article presents an efficiency analysis of hydrogen production processes from a variety of biomass feedstocks by a thermochemical method –

  19. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.; Joshi, Meenal M.; Tijare, Saumitra N.; Polshettiwar, Vivek; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Rayalu, Sadhana Suresh

    2012-01-01

    of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural gas usage as a heat source for integrated SMR and thermochemical hydrogen production technologies

    Jaber, O.; Naterer, G.F.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates various usages of natural gas (NG) as an energy source for different hydrogen production technologies. A comparison is made between the different methods of hydrogen production, based on the total amount of natural gas needed to produce a specific quantity of hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions per mole of hydrogen produced, water requirements per mole of hydrogen produced, and a cost sensitivity analysis that takes into account the fuel cost, carbon dioxide capture cost and a carbon tax. The methods examined are the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle, steam methane reforming (SMR) and a modified sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. Also, an integrated Cu-Cl/SMR plant is examined to show the unique advantages of modifying existing SMR plants with new hydrogen production technology. The analysis shows that the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle out-performs the other conventional methods with respect to fuel requirements, carbon dioxide emissions and total cost of production. (author)

  1. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production from biomass

    Levin, David B.; Chahine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas), which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermocatalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. (author)

  2. Creating load for new hydrogen production

    Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provides an update of the activities of the Hydrogen Village. The Hydrogen Village is a public-private partnership of approximately 40 companies with the goal of advancing awareness of the environmental, economic and social benefits of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The intent of the hydrogen village is to create a sustainable commercial market for these technologies within the Greater Toronto Area and to help to catalyze such markets in other areas

  3. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    Oh, Chang H [Idaho Falls, ID; Kim, Eung S [Ammon, ID; Sherman, Steven R [Augusta, GA

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  4. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    Perret, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meeting on October 8 and 9, 2008. This document reports the initial selection process for development investment in STCH projects, the evaluation process meant to reduce the number of projects as a means to focus resources on development of a few most-likely-to-succeed efforts, the obstacles encountered in project inventory reduction and the outcomes of the evaluation process. Summary technical status of the projects under evaluation is reported and recommendations identified to improve future project planning and selection activities.

  5. Determination production costs using PBC method

    Todić Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic characteristics of modern markets make requirements in quality increasing, decreasing prices and shortening delivery of products. In the middle of this requirements are production costs for whose determination are developed many traditional and alternative methods including PBC method (Process Based Costing. This method enables precisely locating and calculating indirect production costs, and with determined direct costs enables determination of total production costs. This paper shows usage of PBC method for determination production costs for three forms of processing cutting tools.

  6. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    Joergensen, Claus; Ropenus, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm 3 . The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  7. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  8. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration.

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  9. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation of hydrogen production from natural gas; Avaliacao exergetica e termo-economica da producao de hidrogenio a partir do gas natural

    Cruz, Flavio Eduardo da [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2008-07-01

    Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is the natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This paper presents exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm{sup 3} of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.(author)

  10. An Overview of Natural Gas Conversion Technologies for Co-Production of Hydrogen and Value-Added Solid Carbon Products

    Dagle, Robert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Vanessa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krause, Theodore R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahmed, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This report was prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Congressional Appropriation language to support research on carbon-free production of hydrogen using new chemical processes that utilize natural gas to produce solid carbon and hydrogen. The U.S. produces 9-10 million tons of hydrogen annually with more than 95% of the hydrogen produced by steam-methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas. SMR is attractive because of its high hydrogen yield; but it also converts the carbon to carbon dioxide. Non-oxidative thermal decomposition of methane to carbon and hydrogen is an alternative to SMR and produces CO2-free hydrogen. The produced carbon can be sold as a co-product, thus providing economic credit that reduces the delivered net cost of hydrogen. The combination of producing hydrogen with potentially valuable carbon byproducts has market value in that this allows greater flexibility to match the market prices of hydrogen and carbon. That is, the higher value product can subsidize the other in pricing decisions. In this report we highlight the relevant technologies reported in the literature—primarily thermochemical and plasma conversion processes—and recent research progress and commercial activities. Longstanding technical challenges include the high energetic requirements (e.g., high temperatures and/or electricity requirements) necessary for methane activation and, for some catalytic processes, the separation of solid carbon product from the spent catalyst. We assess current and new carbon product markets that could be served given technological advances, and we discuss technical barriers and potential areas of research to address these needs. We provide preliminary economic analysis for these processes and compare to other emerging (e.g., electrolysis) and conventional (e.g., SMR) processes for hydrogen production. The overarching conclusion of this study is that the cost of hydrogen can be potentially

  11. Hydrogen production from wind energy in Western Canada for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    Olateju, Babatunde; Kumar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced via steam methane reforming (SMR) for bitumen upgrading which results in significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Wind energy based hydrogen can reduce the GHG footprint of the bitumen upgrading industry. This paper is aimed at developing a detailed data-intensive techno-economic model for assessment of hydrogen production from wind energy via the electrolysis of water. The proposed wind/hydrogen plant is based on an expansion of an existing wind farm with unit wind turbine size of 1.8 MW and with a dual functionality of hydrogen production and electricity generation. An electrolyser size of 240 kW (50 Nm 3 H 2 /h) and 360 kW (90 Nm 3 H 2 /h) proved to be the optimal sizes for constant and variable flow rate electrolysers, respectively. The electrolyser sizes aforementioned yielded a minimum hydrogen production price at base case conditions of $10.15/kg H 2 and $7.55/kg H 2 . The inclusion of a Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) of $0.13/kWh renders the production price of hydrogen equal to SMR i.e. $0.96/kg H 2, with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 24%. The minimum hydrogen delivery cost was $4.96/kg H 2 at base case conditions. The life cycle CO 2 emissions is 6.35 kg CO 2 /kg H 2 including hydrogen delivery to the upgrader via compressed gas trucks. -- Highlights: ► This study involves development of a data intensive techno-economic model for estimation cost of hydrogen production from wind energy. ► Wind energy based electricity is used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen in Western Canada for bitumen upgrading for oil sands. ► Several scenarios were developed to study the electricity generation and hydrogen production from wind energy. ► The cost of production of hydrogen is significantly higher than natural based hydrogen in Western Canada.

  12. Offshore wind farms for hydrogen production subject to uncertainties

    Kassem, Nabil [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Processes

    2002-07-01

    Wind power is a source of clean, nonpolluting electricity, which is fully competitive, if installed at favorable wind sites, with fossil fuel and nuclear power generation. Major technical growth has been in Europe, where government policies and high conventional energy costs favor the use of wind power. As part of its strategy, the EU-Commission has launched a target to increase the installed capacity of Wind power from 7 GWe, in 1998 to 40 GWe by year 2012. Wind power is an intermittent electricity generator, thus it does not provide electric power on an 'as needed' basis. Off-peak power generated from offshore wind farms can be utilized for hydrogen production using water electrolysis. Like electricity, hydrogen is a second energy carrier, which will pave the way for future sustainable energy systems. It is environmentally friendly, versatile, with great potentials in stationary and mobile power applications. Water electrolysis is a well-established technology, which depends on the availability of cheap electrical power. Offshore wind farms have longer lifetime due to lower mechanical fatigue loads, yet to be economic, they have to be of sizes greater than 150 MW using large turbines (> 1.5 MW). The major challenge in wind energy assessment is how accurately the wind speed and hence the error in wind energy can be predicted. Therefore, wind power is subject to a great deal of uncertainties, which should be accounted for in order to provide meaningful and reliable estimates of performance and economic figures-of-merit. Failure to account for uncertainties would result in deterministic estimates that tend to overstate performance and underestimate costs. This study uses methods of risk analysis to evaluate the simultaneous effect of multiple input uncertainties, and provide Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the-economic viability of offshore wind systems for hydrogen production subject to technical and economical uncertainties (Published in summary form only)

  13. Hydrogen production using Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 with hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent

    Chi-Mei Lee; Kuo-Tsang Hung

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the dark hydrogen fermentation stage effluents for photo hydrogen production using purple non-sulfur bacteria should be elucidated. In the previous experiments, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 was proven to efficiently produce hydrogen from the effluent of hydrogen fermentation reactors. The highest hydrogen production rate was obtained at a HRT value of 48 h when feeding a 5 fold effluent dilution from anaerobic hydrogen fermentation. Besides, hydrogen production occurred only when the NH 4 + concentration was below 17 mg-NH 4 + /l. Therefore, for successful fermentation effluent utilization, the most important things were to decrease the optimal HRT, increase the optimal substrate concentration and increase the tolerable ammonia concentration. In this study, a lab-scale serial photo-bioreactor was constructed. The reactor overall hydrogen production efficiency with synthetic wastewater exhibiting an organic acid profile identical to that of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent and with effluent from two anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactors was evaluated. (authors)

  14. Dispatchable Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt for Electricity Demand Shaping

    Abdulla Rahil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues and concerns about depletion of fossil fuels have driven rapid growth in the generation of renewable energy (RE and its use in electricity grids. Similarly, the need for an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels means that the number of fuel cell vehicles is also expected to increase. The ability of electricity networks to balance supply and demand is greatly affected by the variable, intermittent output of RE generators; however, this could be relieved using energy storage and demand-side response (DSR techniques. One option would be production of hydrogen by electrolysis powered from wind and solar sources. The use of tariff structures would provide an incentive to operate electrolysers as dispatchable loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts in Libya, for both dispatchable and continuous operation, without interruption of fuel supply to vehicles. The coastal city of Derna was chosen as a case study, with the renewable energy being produced via a wind turbine farm. Wind speed was analysed in order to determine a suitable turbine, then the capacity was calculated to estimate how many turbines would be needed to meet demand. Finally, the excess power was calculated, based on the discrepancy between supply and demand. The study looked at a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation, using an optimisation algorithm. The following three scenarios were considered to determine whether the cost of electrolytic hydrogen could be reduced by a lower off-peak electricity price. These scenarios are: Standard Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a standard tariff of 12 p/kWh; Off-peak Only, in which the electrolyser operates only during off-peak periods at the lower price of 5 p/kWh; and 2-Tier Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a low tariff at off-peak times and a high tariff at other

  15. A techno-economic analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate and hydrogen production from syngas fermentation of gasified biomass.

    Choi, DongWon; Chipman, David C; Bents, Scott C; Brown, Robert C

    2010-02-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a gasification-based hybrid biorefinery producing both hydrogen gas and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), biodegradable polymer materials that can be an attractive substitute for conventional petrochemical plastics. The biorefinery considered used switchgrass as a feedstock and converted that raw material through thermochemical methods into syngas, a gaseous mixture composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The syngas was then fermented using Rhodospirillum rubrum, a purple non-sulfur bacterium, to produce PHA and to enrich hydrogen in the syngas. Total daily production of the biorefinery was assumed to be 12 Mg of PHA and 50 Mg of hydrogen gas. Grassroots capital for the biorefinery was estimated to be $55 million, with annual operating costs at $6.7 million. With a market value of $2.00/kg assumed for the hydrogen, the cost of producing PHA was determined to be $1.65/kg.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Production Methods with Nuclear Reactors

    Morozov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. It can be produced by a variety of methods. Presently the most common are through electrolysis of water and through the steam reforming of natural gas. It is evident that the leading method for the future production of hydrogen is nuclear energy. Several types of reactors are being considered for hydrogen production, and several methods exist to produce hydrogen, including thermochemical cycles and high-temperature electrolysis. In the article the comparative analysis of various hydrogen production methods is submitted. It is considered the possibility of hydrogen production with the nuclear reactors and is proposed implementation of research program in this field at the IPPE sodium-potassium eutectic cooling high temperature experimental facility (VTS rig). (authors)

  17. Advances in hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition: A review

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen demand as an energy currency is anticipated to rise significantly in the future, with the emergence of a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen production is a key component of a hydrogen economy. Several production processes are commercially available, while others are under development including thermochemical water decomposition, which has numerous advantages over other hydrogen production processes. Recent advances in hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition are reviewed here. Hydrogen production from non-fossil energy sources such as nuclear and solar is emphasized, as are efforts to lower the temperatures required in thermochemical cycles so as to expand the range of potential heat supplies. Limiting efficiencies are explained and the need to apply exergy analysis is illustrated. The copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle is considered as a case study. It is concluded that developments of improved processes for hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition are likely to continue, thermochemical hydrogen production using such non-fossil energy will likely become commercial, and improved efficiencies are expected to be obtained with advanced methodologies like exergy analysis. Although numerous advances have been made on sulphur-iodine cycles, the copper-chlorine cycle has significant potential due to its requirement for process heat at lower temperatures than most other thermochemical processes.

  18. EVALUATING HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN BIOGAS REFORMING IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR

    F. S. A. Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syngas and hydrogen production by methane reforming of a biogas (CH4/CO2 = 2.85 using carbon dioxide was evaluated in a fixed bed reactor with a Pd-Ag membrane in the presence of a nickel catalyst (Ni 3.31% weight/γ-Al2O3 at 773 K, 823 K, and 873 K and 1.01×105 Pa. Operation with hydrogen permeation at 873 K increased the methane conversion to approximately 83% and doubled the hydrogen yield relative to operation without hydrogen permeation. A mathematical model was formulated to predict the evolution of the effluent concentrations. Predictions based on the model showed similar evolutions for yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide at temperatures below 823 K for operations with and without the hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen yield reached approximately 21% at 823 K and 47% at 873 K under hydrogen permeation conditions.

  19. Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Vrije, de G.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.H.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Batch cultures of

  20. Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystallites for Sustainable Hydrogen Production Application

    Rajendra S. Gaikwad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite, CoFe2O4, nanocrystalline films were deposited using electrostatic spray method and explored in sustainable hydrogen production application. Reflection planes in X-ray diffraction pattern confirm CoFe2O4 phase. The surface scanning microscopy photoimages reveal an agglomeration of closely-packed CoFe2O4 nanoflakes. Concentrated solar-panel, a two-step water splitting process, measurement technique was preferred for measuring the hydrogen generation rate. For about 5 hr sustainable, 440 mL/hr, hydrogen production activity was achieved, confirming the efficient use of cobalt ferrite nanocrystallites film in hydrogen production application.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substrate and product inhibition of hydrogen production by the extreme thermophile, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Substrate and product inhibition of hydrogen production during sucrose fermentation by the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was studied. The inhibition kinetics were analyzed with a noncompetitive, nonlinear inhibition model. Hydrogen was the most severe

  3. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  4. Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm-cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current, AC, to direct current, DC, conversion is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of the plant was also performed using the H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. A required cost of $3.23 per kg of hydrogen produced was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. Approximately 73% of this cost ($2.36/kg) is the result of capital costs associated with

  5. French perspectives for production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Vitart, Xavier; Yvon, Pascal; Carles, Philippe; Naour, Francois Le

    2009-01-01

    the technological viability of the processes investigated and contribute to their optimization. The extensive research programs needed are led in the frame of the Hydrogen Production Project of the generation IV Very/High temperature Reactor System which helps mutualise the costs. In addition, techno-economical studies are underway to evaluate the potential production cost and help the selection of one or two processes for which demonstrators will be built in the next few years

  6. Principle and perspectives of hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biocatalyzed electrolysis is a novel biological hydrogen production process with the potential to efficiently convert a wide range of dissolved organic materials in wastewaters. Even substrates formerly regarded to be unsuitable for hydrogen production due to the endothermic nature of the involved

  7. Achievements of European projects on membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    di Marcoberardino, G.; Binotti, M.; Manzolini, G.; Viviente, J.L.; Arratibel Plazaola, A.; Roses, L.; Gallucci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane reactors for hydrogen production can increase both the hydrogen production efficiency at small scale and the electric efficiency in micro-cogeneration systems when coupled with Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells. This paper discusses the achievements of three European projects

  8. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  9. Composition of hydrogenation products of Borodino brown coal

    M.A. Gyul' malieva; A.S. Maloletnev; G.A. Kalabin; A.M. Gyul' maliev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    The composition of liquid products of hydrogenation of brown coal from the Borodino deposit was determined by means of {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and chemical thermodynamics methods. It was shown that the group composition of the liquid hydrogenation products at thermodynamic equilibrium is predictable from the elemental composition of the organic matter of parent coal. 9 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  11. Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Via Photovoltaic Panel

    Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Via Photovoltaic Panel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen fuel is a good alternative to fossil fuels. It can be produced using a clean energy without contaminated emissions. This work is concerned with experimental study on hydrogen production via solar energy. Photovoltaic module is used to convert solar radiation to electrical energy. The electrical energy is used for electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen by using alkaline water electrolyzer with stainless steel electrodes. A MATLAB computer program is developed to solve a four-parameter-model and predict the characteristics of PV module under Baghdad climate conditions. The hydrogen production system is tested at different NaOH mass concentration of (50,100, 200, 300 gram. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 153.3 ml/min, the efficiency of the system is 20.88% and the total amount of hydrogen produced in one day is 220.752 liter.

  12. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  13. Fermentative hydrogen production from agroindustrial lignocellulosic substrates

    Reginatto, Valeria; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2. PMID:26273246

  14. Hydrogen peroxide as a sustainable energy carrier: Electrocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide and the fuel cell

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal–oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  16. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen - an economic assessment

    Licht, Stuart [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chitayat, Olivia; Bergmann, Harry; Dick, Andrew; Ayub, Hina [Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ghosh, Susanta [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (India)

    2010-10-15

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low voltage, electrolysis (water-splitting), resulting in H{sub 2} at decreased energy and higher solar efficiency. This study provides evidence that the STEP system is an economically viable solution for the production of hydrogen. STEP occurs at both higher electrolysis and solar conversion efficiencies than conventional room temperature photovoltaic (PV) generation of hydrogen. This paper probes the economic viability of this process, by comparing four different systems: (1) 10% or (2) 14% flat plate PV driven aqueous alkaline electrolysis H{sub 2} production, (3) 25% CPV driven molten electrolysis H{sub 2} production, and (4) 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis H{sub 2} production. The molten and solid oxide electrolysers are high temperature systems that can make use of light, normally discarded, for heating. This significantly increases system efficiency. Using levelized cost analysis, this study shows significant cost reduction using the STEP system. The total price per kg of hydrogen is shown to decrease from 5.74 to 4.96 to 3.01 to 2.61 with the four alternative systems. The advanced STEP plant requires less than one seventh of the land area of the 10% flat cell plant. To generate the 216 million kg H{sub 2}/year required by 1 million fuel cell vehicles, the 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis requires a plant only 9.6 mi{sup 2} in area. While PV and electrolysis components dominate the cost of conventional PV generated hydrogen, they do not dominate the cost of the STEP-generated hydrogen. The lower cost of STEP hydrogen is driven by residual distribution and

  17. The ''reference costs'' of the electrical production

    1997-05-01

    This study objective is to give an aid for the investments choice in the field of electricity production and for national choices in the field of long-dated production. Important evolutions appeared since the last exercise ''reference costs'' of 1993. Electricity production costs, presented in this study, are actualized economic costs. They consider the following production facilities: nuclear, pulverized coal with fumes processing, circulating fluidized bed, combustion turbines, cogeneration and wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  18. The prisoner's dilemma in the production of nuclear hydrogen

    Mendoza, A.; Francois, J. L.; Martin del Campo, C.

    2011-11-01

    The human beings take to daily decisions, so much at individual as social level, that affect their quality of life in more or minor measure and modify the conditions of their environment. Decisions like to use the car or the public transportation or government policies to adopt and energy development plan that includes technologies like the production of nuclear hydrogen, present a grade of global influence, not only affect or benefit at the person or government that it carries out them, but also present consequences in the individuals and resources of the environment. The hydrogen production using nuclear energy as supply of thermal energy is in itself decision matter; from investing or not in their investigation until fomenting laws and policies that impel their development and incorporation to the industrial panorama. The countries and institutes that opt to impel this technology have the possibility to obtain economic and environmental benefits in contrast with those that do not make it, these last only benefited of the first ones in the environmental aspect. High cost for the technological transfer and economic sanctions sustained in environmental arguments toward those -non cooperators- would be a possible consequence of the cooperators action in the search of a Nash balance. The Prisoner's dilemma exemplifies and increases the comprehension of this type of problems to search for better conditions in the system that improve the situation of all the participants, in this case: governments and institutions. (Author)

  19. Hydrogen production at hydro-power plants

    Tarnay, D. S.

    A tentative design for hydrogen-producing installations at hydropower facilities is discussed from technological, economic and applications viewpoints. The plants would use alternating current to electrolyze purified river water. The hydrogen would be stored in gas or liquid form and oxygen would be sold or vented to the atmosphere. The hydrogen could later be burned in a turbine generator for meeting peak loads, either in closed or open cycle systems. The concept would allow large hydroelectric plants to function in both base- and peak-load modes, thus increasing the hydraulic utilization of the plant and the capacity factor to a projected 0.90. Electrolyzer efficiencies ranging from 0.85-0.90 have been demonstrated. Excess hydrogen can be sold for other purposes or, eventually, as domestic and industrial fuel, at prices competitive with current industrial hydrogen.

  20. Cost Accounting: Production and Equipment Services.

    Schmid, William T.

    Cost accounting for audiovisual productions should include direct costs, and, in some cases, the media administrator may have to calculate a per-hour surcharge for general operating overhead as well. Such procedures enable the administrator to determine cost effectiveness, to control cost overruns, and to generate more staff efficiency. Cost…

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production by microbial consortium

    Maintinguer, Sandra I.; Fernandes, Bruna S.; Duarte, Iolanda C.S.; Saavedra, Nora Katia; Adorno, M. Angela T.; Varesche, M. Bernadete [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Heat pre-treatment of the inoculum associated to the pH control was applied to select hydrogen-producing bacteria and endospores-forming bacteria. The source of inoculum to the heat pre-treatment was from a UASB reactor used in the slaughterhouse waste treatment. The molecular biology analyses indicated that the microbial consortium presented microorganisms affiliated with Enterobacter cloacae (97% and 98%), Clostridium sp. (98%) and Clostridium acetobutyricum (96%), recognized as H{sub 2} and volatile acids' producers. The following assays were carried out in batch reactors in order to verify the efficiencies of sucrose conversion to H{sub 2} by the microbial consortium: (1) 630.0 mg sucrose/L, (2) 1184.0 mg sucrose/L, (3) 1816.0 mg sucrose/L and (4) 4128.0 mg sucrose/L. The subsequent yields were obtained as follows: 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 20% (1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and 4% (0.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), respectively. The intermediary products were acetic acid, butyric acid, methanol and ethanol in all of the anaerobic reactors. (author)

  2. Life cycle cost analysis to examine the economical feasibility of hydrogen as an alternative fuel

    Lee, Ji-Yong; Yoo, Moosang; Cha, Kyounghoon; Hur, Tak; Lim, Tae Won

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a life cycle costing (LCC) methodology to identify when hydrogen can become economically feasible compared to the conventional fuels and which energy policy is the most effective at fostering the penetration of hydrogen in the competitive fuel market. The target hydrogen pathways in this study are H 2 via natural gas steam reforming (NG SR), H 2 via naphtha steam reforming (Naphtha SR), H 2 via liquefied petroleum gas steam reforming (LPG SR), and H 2 via water electrolysis (WE). In addition, the conventional fuels (gasoline, diesel) are also included for the comparison with the H 2 pathways. The life cycle costs of the target fuels are computed and several key factors are examined to identify the economical feasibilities of the target systems: fuel cell vehicle (FCV) price, social cost of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and regulated air emissions (CO, VOC, SO x , NO x , PM), fuel efficiency of FCV, capital costs of H 2 equipments at a H 2 fueling station. The life cycle costs of a H 2 pathway also depend on the production capacity. Although, at present, all H 2 pathways are more cost efficient than the conventional fuels in the fuel utilization stage, the H 2 pathways have lack competitiveness against the conventional fuels in the life cycle (well to wheel) costs due to the high price of FCV. From future scenario analyses in 2015, all H 2 pathways are expected to have lower life cycle costs than the conventional fuels as a transportation fuel. It is evident that the FCV price is the most important factor for encouraging the hydrogen economy and FCVs. Unless the FCV price is below US $62,320, it is necessary for the institution to subsidize the FCV price by any amount over US $62,320 in order to inject H 2 into the market of transportation fuel. The incentive or taxes on GHGs and regulated air emissions are also expected to effectively encourage the diffusion of H 2 and FCV, especially for the H 2 pathway of WE with wind power (WE[Wind]). The uncertainties

  3. Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C

    Koutrouli, E.C.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C. This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2.5 mmole of hydrogen per gram of total carbohydrates. It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process. It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    A process is described for the production of hydrogen from water by a sulfuric acid process employing electrolysis and thermo-chemical decomposition. The water containing SO/sub 2/ is electrolyzed to produce H/sub 2/ at the cathode and to oxidize the SO/sub 2/ to form H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at the anode. After the H/sub 2/ has been separated, a compound of the type M/sub r/X/sub s/ is added to produce a water insoluble sulfate of M and a water insoluble oxide of the metal in the radical X. In the compound M/sub r/X/sub s/, M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, La/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; X is at least one radical selected from the group consisting of molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), tungstate (WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and metaborate (BO/sub 2//sup 1 -/); and r and s are either 1, 2, or 3 depending upon the valence of M and X. The precipitated mixture is filtered and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to form SO/sub 3/ gas and to reform M/sub r/X/sub s/. The SO/sub 3/ is dissolved in a small amount of H/sub 2/O to produce concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the M/sub r/X/sub s/ is recycled to the process. Alternatively, the SO/sub 3/ gas can be recycled to the beginning of the process to provide a continuous process for the production of H/sub 2/ in which only water need be added in a substantial amount. (BLM)

  5. Cost Optimization of Product Families using Analytic Cost Models

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysing the cost structure of a mass customized product family. The method uses linear regression and backwards selection to reduce the complexity of a data set describing a number of historical product configurations and incurred costs. By reducing the data...... set, the configuration variables which best describe the variation in product costs are identified. The method is tested using data from a Danish manufacturing company and the results indicate that the method is able to identify the most critical configuration variables. The method can be applied...... in product family redesign projects focusing on cost reduction to identify which modules contribute the most to cost variation and should thus be optimized....

  6. Development of a low-cost oxy-hydrogen bio-fuel cell for generation of electricity using Nostoc as a source of hydrogen

    Sangeeta Dawar; Behera, B.K. [Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (India). Dept. of Biosciences; Prasanna Mohanty [Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences

    1998-10-10

    An oxy-hydrogen bio-fuel cell, based on a carbon-carbon electrode has been fabricated. The electrode pellets were prepared by taking carbon powder mixed with polyvinylalcohol as a binder. The anode was charged with Co-Al spinel mixed oxide at 700{sup o}C, 30% KOH acted as an electrolyte. For the cyanobacterial bioreactor, a potential heterocystous blue green alga of Nostoc spp. has been used for hydrogen production and electrical energy generation. Various nutrient enrichment techniques are employed to increase the hydrogen generation efficiency of the algae. One litre free cell algal reactor attached to the fuel cell, at the anode end for hydrogen gas input, generated about 300 mV of voltage and 100 mA of current. Our present findings on the development of a low cost fuel cell with high efficiency of current output may be helpful in commercializing this technology. (author)

  7. Status and Planning of South Africa's Nuclear Hydrogen Production Program

    Ravenswaay, J. P.; Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R. J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H. M.; Niekerk, W. M. K.; Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H. C. M. [North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2009-05-15

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The Strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for (amongst others) by building on the existing knowledge in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production methods. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centers (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing Hydrogen Production, Storage, Distribution as well as Codes and Standards programs within the framework of the DST strategic objectives. A 700kW Heliostat field is to be constructed at the CSIR. It is planned that the following processes will be investigated there: Steam Methane Reforming, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis, Metal-oxide redox process. At the NWU the main focus will be on the large scale, CO{sub 2} free, hydrogen production through thermo-chemical water splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR. The following will be investigated: Plasma-arc reforming of methane, Investigating the integration of a HTGR with a coal-to-liquid process, steel manufacture and ammonia production, The Hybrid-Sulphur process for the production of hydrogen.

  8. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in an unbiased solar photoelectrochemical cell

    Zong, Xu; Chen, Hongjun; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A solar-to-chemical conversion process is demonstrated using a photoelectrochemical cell without external bias for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfur (S). The process integrates two redox couples anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone and I−/I3......−, and conceptually illustrates the remediation of a waste product for producing valuable chemicals....

  9. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  10. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    Miller, William E [Naperville, IL; Maroni, Victor A [Naperville, IL; Willit, James L [Batavia, IL

    2010-05-25

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  11. Techno-economic study of hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis and coupling with different thermal energy sources

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.

    2009-03-01

    This work focuses on the techno-economic study of massive hydrogen production by the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process and also deals with the possibility of producing the steam needed in the process by using different thermal energy sources. Among several sources, those retained in this study are the biomass and domestic waste incineration units, as well as two nuclear reactors (European Pressurised water Reactor - EPR and Sodium Fast Reactor - SFR). Firstly, the technical evaluation of the steam production by each of these sources was carried out. Then, the design and modelling of the equipments composing the process, specially the electrolysers (Solid Oxides Electrolysis Cells), are presented. Finally, the hydrogen production cost for each energy sources coupled with the HTE process is calculated. Moreover, several sensibility studies were performed in order to determine the process key parameter and to evaluate the influence of the unit size effect, the electric energy cost, maintenance, the cells current density, their investment cost and their lifespan on the hydrogen production cost. Our results show that the thermal energy cost is much more influent on the hydrogen production cost than the steam temperature at the outlet stream of the thermal source. It seems also that the key parameters for this process are the electric energy cost and the c ells lifespan. The first one contributes for more than 70% of the hydrogen production cost. From several cell lifespan values, it seems that a 3 year value, rather than 1 year, could lead to a hydrogen production cost reduced on 34%. However, longer lifespan values going from 5 to 10 years would only lead to a 8% reduction on the hydrogen production cost. (author)

  12. Scope and perspectives of industrial hydrogen production and infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in North Rhine-Westphalia

    Pastowski, Andreas; Grube, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A promising candidate that may follow conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines combines hydrogen from regenerative sources of energy, fuel cells and an electric drive train. For early fleets introduced the refuelling infrastructure needs to be in place at least to the extent of the vehicles operational reach. The question arises which strategies may help to keep initial hydrogen and infrastructure cost low? Industrial production, distribution and use of hydrogen is well-established and the volumes handled are substantial. Even though today's industrial hydrogen is not in tune with the long-term sustainable vision, hydrogen production and infrastructure already in place might serve as a nucleus for putting that vision into practice. This contribution takes stock of industrial production and use of hydrogen in North Rhine-Westphalia based on a recently finalized project. It demonstrates to which extent industrial hydrogen could be used for a growing number of vehicles and at which time additional capacity might need to be installed.

  13. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  14. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  15. Economic Analysis for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System Based on HyS Process

    Yang, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2009-01-01

    The current promising base for massive hydrogen production on high temperature environment derives primarily from three sources: the commercial production of chemicals for the sulfur-iodine (SI) process, the development of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and the hybrid method of chemicals and fuel cells. The three kinds of process requires high temperature heat energy over 850∼950 .deg. C for the efficient and economic hydrogen production. One of the clean, economic, and moreover promising heat sources supplied to the process is nuclear plants. The nuclear plants producing high temperature heat energy over 950 .deg. C are well known as Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) which could have two types of prismatic and pebble-bed cores along reactor core shape. In this paper, we report on the Hybrid Sulfur Process (HyS), and the estimated costs for the system which composes of VHTR of prismatic core type and HyS plant. Nuclear hydrogen production system based on HyS process has been configured to optimally use the thermal energy from VHTR and electric energy to produce hydrogen and oxygen from clean water. High temperature thermal energy is transferred to the HyS process by way of intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with associated piping. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs for a system composed of a VHTR with six 600MWth module, a power conversion unit (PCU) and a HyS plant are presented, where the thermal energy produced in two module was converted to electric energy in PCU and then transferred to the electrolysis cells for hydrogen production and circulating units on HyS plant, and the remaining thermal energy was supplied to chemical process on HyS plants. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GT-MHR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4- ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production

  16. Hydrogen production in a PWR during LOCA

    Cassette, P.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information on hydrogen generation during LOCA in French 900 MW PWR power plants. The design basis accident is taken into account as well as more severe accidents assuming failure of emergency systems

  17. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.

    2012-07-01

    Nano structured metal oxides including TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 have been synthesized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The photocatalytic activity of nano cobalt oxide was then compared with two other nano structured metal oxides namely TiO 2 and Fe 3O 4. The synthesized nano cobalt oxide was characterized thoroughly with respect to EDX and TEM. The yield of hydrogen was observed to be 900, 2000 and 8275 mmol h -1 g -1 of photocatalyst for TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 respectively under visible light. It was observed that the hydrogen yield in case of nano cobalt oxide was more than twice to that of TiO 2 and the hydrogen yield of nano Fe 3O 4 was nearly four times as compared to nano Co 3O 4. The influence of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  19. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied

  20. Bibliographic Review about Solar Hydrogen Production Through Thermochemical Cycles

    Fernandez Saavedra, R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the different thermical processes used to obtain hydrogen through solar energy, paying more attention to the production of hydrogen from water through thermochemical cycles. In this aspect, it is briefly described the most interesting thermochemical cycles, focusing on thermochemical cycles based on oxides. (Author) 25 refs

  1. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-07-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  2. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  3. Hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of water vapour and nuclear reactors

    Jean-Pierre Py; Alain Capitaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents hydrogen production by a nuclear reactor (High Temperature Reactor, HTR or Pressurized Water Reactor, PWR) coupled to a High Temperature Electrolyser (HTE) plant. With respect to the coupling of a HTR with a HTE plant, EDF and AREVA NP had previously selected a combined cycle HTR scheme to convert the reactor heat into electricity. In that case, the steam required for the electrolyser plant is provided either directly from the steam turbine cycle or from a heat exchanger connected with such cycle. Hydrogen efficiency production is valued using high temperature electrolysis. Electrolysis production of hydrogen can be performed with significantly higher thermal efficiencies by operating in the steam phase than in the water phase. The electrolysis performance is assessed with solid oxide and solid proton electrolysis cells. The efficiency from the three operating conditions (endo-thermal, auto-thermal and thermo-neutral) of a high temperature electrolysis process is evaluated. The technical difficulties to use the gases enthalpy to heat the water are analyzed, taking into account efficiency and technological challenges. EDF and AREVA NP have performed an analysis to select an optimized process giving consideration to plant efficiency, plant operation, investment and production costs. The paper provides pathways and identifies R and D actions to reach hydrogen production costs competitive with those of other hydrogen production processes. (authors)

  4. Modeling of combustion products composition of hydrogen-containing fuels

    Assad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the usage of entropy maximum principal the algorithm and the program of chemical equilibrium calculation concerning hydrogen--containing fuels are devised. The program enables to estimate the composition of combustion products generated in the conditions similar to combustion conditions in heat engines. The program also enables to reveal the way hydrogen fraction in the conditional composition of the hydrocarbon-hydrogen-air mixture influences the harmful components content. It is proven that molecular hydrogen in the mixture is conductive to the decrease of CO, CO 2 and CH x concentration. NO outlet increases due to higher combustion temperature and N, O, OH concentrations in burnt gases. (authors)

  5. Prospect of HTGRs for hydrogen production in Indonesia

    Rusli, A.; Dasuki, A.S.; Rahman, M.; Nuriman; Sudarto

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen energy system is interesting to many people of the world that because of hydrogen promised to save our planet earth from destroying of burning of fossil fuels. The selected development of hydrogen production from water such as electrolysis and thermochemical cycles are evaluated. These processes are allowed to split the water at lower temperature, still in the range of HTGRs' working temperature. An overview of related studies in recent years enables the development of research to be followed, studied and evaluated are mentioned. The prospect of hydrogen market in Indonesia and economic consideration based on previous studied are also analyzed and evaluated. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 13 tabs

  6. Evidence For The Production Of Slow Antiprotonic Hydrogen In Vacuum

    Zurlo, N.; Amsler, C.; Bonomi, G.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hayano, R.S.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Mitchard, D.; Montagna, P.; Posada, L.G.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; der Werf, D.P.Van; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence showing how antiprotonic hydrogen, the quasistable antiproton-proton (pbar-p) bound system, has been synthesized following the interaction of antiprotons with the hydrogen molecular ion (H2+) in a nested Penning trap environment. From a careful analysis of the spatial distributions of antiproton annihilation events, evidence is presented for antiprotonic hydrogen production with sub-eV kinetic energies in states around n=70, and with low angular momenta. The slow antiprotonic hydrogen may be studied using laser spectroscopic techniques.

  7. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  8. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  9. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

  10. Research and development of HTTR hydrogen production systems

    Shiozawa, Shusaku; Ogawa, Masuro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Onuki, Kaoru; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Kubo, Shinji; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) with a thermal output of 30MW and a reactor out let coolant temper at ure of 950 .deg. C. There search and development (R and D) program on nuclear production of hydrogen was started on January in 1997 as a study consigned by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. A hydrogen production system connected to the HTTR is being designed to be able to produce hydrogen of about 4000m 3 /h by steam reforming of natural gas, using a nuclear heat of 10MW supplied by the HTTR hydrogen production system. In order to confirm controllability, safety and performance of key components in the HTTR hydrogen production system, the facility for the out-of-pile test was constructed on the scale of approximately 1/30 of the HTTR hydrogen production system. In parallel to the out-of-pile test, the following tests as essential problem, a corrosion test of a reforming tube, a permeation test of hydrogen isotopes through heat exchanger and reforming tubes, and an integrity test of a high-temperature isolation valve are carried out to obtain detailed data for safety review and development of analytical codes. Other basis studies on the hydrogen production technology of thermochemical water splitting called an iodine sulfur (IS) process, has been carried out for more effective and various uses of nuclear heat. This paper describes the present status and a future plan on the R and D of the HTTR hydrogen production systems in JAERI

  11. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  12. Applications of Nuclear Energy to Oil Sands and Hydrogen Production

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.

    2011-01-01

    natural gas prices, an unlikely circumstance but one that would undermine the very development of oilsands as surely as high cost and limited availability of natural gas. We examine the applications of nuclear energy to oil sands production, and the concomitant hydrogen production, utilizing realistic reactor designs, modern power and energy market considerations, and environmental constraints on waste and emissions. We cover all aspects of feasibility, specifically technical issues, comparative economics, schedule, regulatory requirements, and other implementation factors. We compare and contrast the claims versus the realities, and also provide the synergistive utilization of co-generation of hydrogen using coupled nuclear and windpower. Among the many non-technological issues expressed by the oil industry are their lack of experience with nuclear technology or nuclear power generation, and with the regulatory framework. The application of any nuclear technology must also consider Government and public support, local and First Nations acceptance, site selection, access to water, oil sands, and transmission, oil industry buy-in on the basis of hard nosed economics, the impacts of oil and gas prices, labour costs and the need for long-term contracts for steam and electricity, together with an experienced nuclear plant owner/operator. (author)

  13. Status of the Korean nuclear hydrogen production project

    Jonghwa, Chang; Won-Jae, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The rapid climate changes and the heavy reliance on imported fuel in Korea have motivated interest in the hydrogen economy. The Korean government has set up a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy. To meet the expected demand of hydrogen as a fuel, hydrogen production using nuclear energy was also discussed. Recently the Korean Atomic Energy Committee has approved nuclear hydrogen production development and demonstration which will lead to commercialisation in late 2030's. An extensive research and development programme for the production of hydrogen using nuclear power has been underway since 2004 in Korea. During the first three years, a technological area was identified for the economic and efficient production of hydrogen using a VHTR. A pre-conceptual design of the commercial nuclear hydrogen production plant was also performed. As a result, the key technology area in the core design, the hydrogen production process, the coupling between reactor and chemical side, and the coated fuel were identified. During last three years, research activities have been focused on the key technology areas. A nuclear hydrogen production demonstration plant (NHDD) consisting of a 200 MWth capacity VHTR and five trains of water-splitting plants was proposed for demonstration of the performance and the economics of nuclear hydrogen. The computer tools for the VHTR and the water-splitting process were created and validated to some extent. The TRISO-coated particle fuel was fabricated and qualified. The properties of high temperature materials, including nuclear graphite, were studied. The sulphur-iodine thermochemical process was proved on a 3 litre/ hour scale. A small gas loop with practical pressure and temperature with the secondary sulphur acid loop was successfully built and commissioned. The results of the first phase research increased the confidence in the nuclear hydrogen technology. From 2009, the government decided to support further key technology

  14. Hydrogen Production by Homogeneous Catalysis: Alcohol Acceptorless Dehydrogenation

    Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    in hydrogen production from biomass using homogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis has the advance of generally performing transformations at much milder conditions than traditional heterogeneous catalysis, and hence it constitutes a promising tool for future applications for a sustainable energy sector...

  15. Hydrogen production from algal biomass - Advances, challenges and prospects.

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Yan, Yuegen; Ling, Ming; Ye, Guoxiang; Li, Ting; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive effort is being made to explore renewable energy in replacing fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is a promising future fuel because of its clean and high energy content. A challenging issue in establishing hydrogen economy is sustainability. Biohydrogen has the potential for renewable biofuel, and could replace current hydrogen production through fossil fuel thermo-chemical processes. A promising source of biohydrogen is conversion from algal biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Unlike other well-developed biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel, production of hydrogen from algal biomass is still in the early stage of development. There are a variety of technologies for algal hydrogen production, and some laboratory- and pilot-scale systems have demonstrated a good potential for full-scale implementation. This work presents an elucidation on development in biohydrogen encompassing biological pathways, bioreactor designs and operation and techno-economic evaluation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accident sequences and causes analysis in a hydrogen production process

    Jae, Moo Sung; Hwang, Seok Won; Kang, Kyong Min; Ryu, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Cho, Nam Chul; Jeon, Ho Jun; Jung, Gun Hyo; Han, Kyu Min; Lee, Seng Woo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Since hydrogen production facility using IS process requires high temperature of nuclear power plant, safety assessment should be performed to guarantee the safety of facility. First of all, accident cases of hydrogen production and utilization has been surveyed. Based on the results, risk factors which can be derived from hydrogen production facility were identified. Besides the correlation between risk factors are schematized using influence diagram. Also initiating events of hydrogen production facility were identified and accident scenario development and quantification were performed. PSA methodology was used for identification of initiating event and master logic diagram was used for selection method of initiating event. Event tree analysis was used for quantification of accident scenario. The sum of all the leakage frequencies is 1.22x10{sup -4} which is similar value (1.0x10{sup -4}) for core damage frequency that International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group of IAEA suggested as a criteria.

  17. Hydrogen production from fusion reactors coupled with high temperature electrolysis

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and complement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Processes which may be considered for this purpose include electrolysis, thermochemical decomposition or thermochemical-electrochemical hybrid cycles. Preliminary studies at Brookhaven indicate that high temperature electrolysis has the highest potential efficiency for production of hydrogen from fusion. Depending on design electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60 percent and hydrogen production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70 percent are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  18. Hydrogen production as a promising nuclear energy application

    Vanek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from nuclear is a field of application which eventually can outweigh power production by nuclear power plants. There are two feasible routes of hydrogen production. The one uses heat to obtain hydrogen from natural gas through steam reforming of methane. This is an highly energy-consuming process requiring temperatures up to 900 deg C and producing carbon dioxide as a by-product. The other method includes direct thermochemical processes to obtain hydrogen, using sulfuric acid for instance. Sulfuric acid is decomposed thermally by the reaction: H 2 SO 4 -> H 2 O = SO 2 + (1/2) O 2 , followed by the processes I 2 + SO 2 + 2H O -> 2HI + H 2 SO 4 and 2HI -> H 2 + I 2 . The use of nuclear for this purpose is currently examined in Japan and in the US. (P.A.)

  19. Biological hydrogen production by moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    HP Goorissen; AJM Stams

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the biological production of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (65-75 C) by anaerobic bacteria. A survey was made to select the best (moderate) thermophiles for hydrogen production from cellulolytic biomass. From this survey we selected Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Thermotoga elfii (a gram-negative bacterium) as potential candidates for biological hydrogen production on mixtures of C 5 -C 6 sugars. Xylose and glucose were used as model substrates to describe growth and hydrogen production from hydrolyzed biomass. Mixed substrate utilization in batch cultures revealed differences in the sequence of substrate consumption and in catabolites repression of the two microorganisms. The regulatory mechanisms of catabolites repression in these microorganisms are not known yet. (authors)

  20. DESIGN OF A NOVEL CONDUCTING COMPOSITE SUPPORTED BY PLATINUM NANOPARTICLES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER

    Didem BALUN KAYAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the decrease in fossil fuel resources and the continuous increase in energy demands, clean energy requirements become extremely important for future energy generation systems. Hydrogen is well known as an efficient and environmentally friendly energy carrier. Highly catalytic active and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen production are key issues for sustainable energy technologies. Here we report an aluminium electrode modified with polypyrrole (PPy-chitosan (Chi composite film decorated with Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen production from water. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV, Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in 0.5M H2SO4. The structural properties of the modified surfaces analyses were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The stability tests also performed for aluminium electrode coted with PPy-Chi/Pt composite film.

  1. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  2. Hydrogen production system coupled with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTTR)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2003-01-01

    On the HTTR program, R and D on nuclear reactor technology and R and D on thermal application technology such as hydrogen production and so on, are advanced. When carrying out power generation and thermal application such as hydrogen production and so on, it is, at first, necessary to supply nuclear heat safely, stably and in low cost, JAERI carries out some R and Ds on nuclear reactor technology using HTTR. In parallel to this, JAERI also carries out R and D for jointing nuclear reactor system with thermal application systems because of no experience in the world on high temperature heat of about 1,000 centigrade supplied by nuclear reactor except power generation, and R and D on thermochemical decomposition method IS process for producing hydrogen from water without exhaust of carbon dioxide. Here were described summaries on R and D on nuclear reactor technology, R and D on jointing technology using HTTR hydrogen production system, R and D on IS process hydrogen production, and comparison hydrogen production with other processes. (G.K.)

  3. Metabolic flux analysis of the hydrogen production potential in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Navarro, E. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Campus de Teatrinos, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Montagud, A.; Fernandez de Cordoba, P.; Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen is a promising energy vector; however, finding methods to produce it from renewable sources is essential to allow its wide-scale use. In that line, biological hydrogen production, although it is considered as a possible alternative, requires substantial improvements to overcome its present low yields. In that direction, genetic manipulation probably will play a central role and from that point of view metabolic flux analysis (MFA) constitutes an important tool to guide a priori most suitable genetic modifications oriented to a hydrogen yield increase. In this work MFA has been applied to analyze hydrogen photoproduction of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Flux analysis was carried out based on literature data and several basic fluxes were estimated in different growing conditions of the system. From this analysis, an upper limit for hydrogen photoproduction has been determined indicating a wide margin for improvement. MFA was also used to find a feasible operating space for hydrogen production, which avoids oxygen inhibition, one of the most important limitations to make hydrogen production cost effective. In addition, a set of biotechnological strategies are proposed that would be consistent with the performed mathematical analysis. (author)

  4. Cost Decision Support in Product Design

    Liebers, A.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The constraints addressed in decision making during product design, process planning and production planning determine the admissible solution space for the manufacture of products. The solution space determines largely the costs that are incurred in the production process. In order to be able to

  5. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  7. An Efficiency Model For Hydrogen Production In A Pressurized Electrolyzer

    Smoglie, Cecilia; Lauretta, Ricardo

    2010-09-15

    The use of Hydrogen as clean fuel at a world wide scale requires the development of simple, safe and efficient production and storage technologies. In this work, a methodology is proposed to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen in a self pressurized electrolyzer connected to separate containers that store each of these gases. A mathematical model for Hydrogen production efficiency is proposed to evaluate how such efficiency is affected by parasitic currents in the electrolytic solution. Experimental set-up and results for an electrolyzer are also presented. Comparison of empirical and analytical results shows good agreement.

  8. The resources and methods of hydrogen production

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2010), s. 175-183 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen * pyrolysis * co-pyrolysis Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.452, year: 2010

  9. Safe production and application of hydrogen at Munich airport

    Szamer, R.

    2005-07-01

    At Munich International Airport the world's first public filling station for liquid and gaseous hydrogen with on-site hydrogen gas production has been installed. In order to prove the safety, liability and economic feasibility of hydrogen this pilot project examined the complete sequence of hydrogen production and application: on-site production with pressurized electrolyser and steam reformer, storage and filling of gaseous and liquid hydrogen, application of hydrogen for propelling several vehicles, e.g. airport busses in day to day operation, cars, fork lifter. TUV SUD Group, one of the largest service provider for technical safety and quality, was involved in the safety evaluation of the hydrogen project from the very beginning with the following services: safety consultancy throughout all project phases, e.g. for licensing procedures, plant design and operation safety analysis of the overall plant and of subsystems (electrolyser, filling stations, storage tanks, control systems etc.) safety assessment and acceptance testing of CH2 busses, CH2 fork lifter and LH2 passenger cars inspections and tests The challenges of this complex project relating to safety will be presented in the lecture, e.g. identification of potential hazards, safety requirements for the design and operation of the hydrogen plant as wells as for the various applications. Project description The hydrogen plant (cf. Figure 1) comprises two supply paths, one for compressed gaseous hydrogen (CH2) and one for cryogenic liquid hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen is produced via high-pressure electrolysis at an operating pressure of 3 MPa (30 bar) and/or steam reforming process. The hydrogen will be led into a compressor, compressed to 35 MPa (350 bar) and stored in high pressure cylinders with a total geometrical storage volume of 10 m. The cylinders supply the high-pressure filling stations which refuels the 3 hydrogen buses and the fork lifter. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is delivered in tank trucks and

  10. Durability of solid oxide electrolysis cells for hydrogen production

    Hauch, A.; Hoejgaard Jensen, S.; Dalgaard Ebbesen, S.

    2007-05-15

    In the perspective of the increasing interest in renewable energy and hydrogen economy, the reversible solid oxide cells (SOCs) is a promising technology as it has the potential of providing efficient and cost effective hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of steam (HTES). Furthermore development of such electrolysis cells can gain from the results obtained within the R and D of SOFCs. For solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) to become interesting from a technological point of view, cells that are reproducible, high performing and long-term stable need to be developed. In this paper we address some of the perspectives of the SOEC technology i.e. issues such as a potential H2 production price as low as 0.71 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} using SOECs for HTES; is there a possible market for the electrolysers? and what R and D steps are needed for the realisation of the SOEC technology? In the experimental part we present electrolysis test results on SOCs that have been optimized for fuel cell operation but applied for HTES. The SOCs are produced on a pre-pilot scale at Risoe National Laboratory. These cells have been shown to have excellent initial electrolysis performance, but the durability of such electrolysis cells are not optimal and examples of results from SOEC tests over several hundreds of hours are given here. The long-term tests have been run at current densities of -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} and -1 A/cm{sup 2}, temperatures of 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C and p(H{sub 2}O)/p(H{sub 2}) of 0.5/0.5 and 0.9/0.1. Long-term degradation rates are shown to be up to 5 times higher for SOECs compared to similar SOFC testing. Furthermore, hydrogen and synthetic fuel production prices are calculated using the experimental results from long-term electrolysis test as input and a short outlook for the future work on SOECs will be given as well. (au)

  11. High Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production.

    McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This research and development project is focused on the advancement of a technology that produces hydrogen at a cost that is competitive with fossil-based fuels for transportation. A twostep, solar-driven WS thermochemical cycle is theoretically capable of achieving an STH conversion ratio that exceeds the DOE target of 26% at a scale large enough to support an industrialized economy [1]. The challenge is to transition this technology from the laboratory to the marketplace and produce hydrogen at a cost that meets or exceeds DOE targets.

  12. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  13. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  14. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  18. Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear heat from an HTGR for hydrogen production

    Peterman, D. D.; Fontaine, R. W.; Quade, R. N.; Halvers, L. J.; Jahromi, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen production using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the heat from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen production price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program.

  19. Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear heat from an HTGR for hydrogen production

    Peterman, D.D.; Fontaine, R.W.; Quade, R.N.; Halvers, L.J.; Jahromi, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen production using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the heat from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen production price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program

  20. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen-Production Plant

    Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; Sohal, M.S.; O'Brien, J.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  1. Production costs for SRIC Populus biomass

    Strauss, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Production costs for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) Populus biomass were developed from commercial-sized plantations under investigation throughout the US. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 850 cuttings/acre was projected to yield an average of 7 ovendry (OD) tons/acre/year. Discounted cash-flow analysis of multiple rotations showed preharvest production costs of $14/ton (OD). Harvesting and transportation expenses would increase the delivered cost to $35/ton (OD). Although this total cost compared favorably with the regional market price for aspen (Populus tremuloides), future investments in SRIC systems will require the development of biomass energy markets

  2. A Study on Methodology of Assessment for Hydrogen Explosion in Hydrogen Production Facility

    Jung, Gun Hyo

    2007-02-01

    Due to the exhaustion of fossil fuel as energy sources and international situation insecurity for political factor, unstability of world energy market is rising, consequently, a substitute energy development have been required. Among substitute energy to be discussed, producing hydrogen from water by nuclear energy which does not release carbon is a very promising technology. Very high temperature gas cooled reactor is expected to be utilized since the procedure of producing hydrogen requires high temperature over 1000 .deg. C. Hydrogen production facility using very high temperature gas cooled reactor lies in situation of high temperature and corrosion which makes hydrogen release easily. In case of hydrogen release, there lies a danger of explosion. Moreover explosion not only has a bad influence upon facility itself but very high temperature gas cooled reactor which also result in unsafe situation that might cause serious damage. However, from point of thermal-hydraulics view, long distance makes low efficiency result. In this study, therefore, outlines of hydrogen production using nuclear energy is researched. Several methods for analyzing the effects of hydrogen explosion upon high temperature gas cooled reactor are reviewed. Reliability physics model which is appropriate for assessment is used. Using this model, leakage probability, rupture probability and structure failure probability of very high temperature gas cooled reactor is evaluated classified by detonation volume and distance. Also based on standard safety criteria which is a value of 1x10 -6 , the safety distance between very high temperature and hydrogen production facility is calculated. In the future, assessment for characteristic of very high temperature gas cooled reactor, capacity to resist pressure from outside hydrogen explosion and overpressure for large amount of detonation volume in detail is expected to identify more precise distance using reliability physics model in this paper. This

  3. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  4. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Shwetha Ramkumar; Mahesh Iyer; Danny Wong; Himanshu Gupta; Bartev Sakadjian; Liang-Lhih Fan

    2008-09-30

    High purity hydrogen is commercially produced from syngas by the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) in high and low temperature shift reactors using iron oxide and copper catalysts respectively. However, the WGSR is thermodynamically limited at high temperatures towards hydrogen production necessitating excess steam addition and catalytic operation. In the calcium looping process, the equilibrium limited WGSR is driven forward by the incessant removal of CO{sub 2} by-product through the carbonation of calcium oxide. At high pressures, this process obviates the need for a catalyst and excess steam requirement, thereby removing the costs related to the procurement and deactivation of the catalyst and steam generation. Thermodynamic analysis for the combined WGS and carbonation reaction was conducted. The combined WGS and carbonation reaction was investigated at varying pressures, temperatures and S/C ratios using a bench scale reactor system. It was found that the purity of hydrogen increases with the increase in pressure and at a pressure of 300 psig, almost 100% hydrogen is produced. It was also found that at high pressures, high purity hydrogen can be produced using stoichiometric quantities of steam. On comparing the catalytic and non catalytic modes of operation in the presence of calcium oxide, it was found that there was no difference in the purity of hydrogen produced at elevated pressures. Multicyclic reaction and regeneration experiments were also conducted and it was found that the purity of hydrogen remains almost constant after a few cycles.

  5. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  6. Energy analysis of hydrogen and electricity production from aluminum-based processes

    Wang, Huizhi; Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Leung, Michael K.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aluminum energy conversion processes have been characterized to be carbon-free and sustainable. However, their applications are restrained by aluminum production capacity as aluminum is never found as a free metal on the earth. This study gives an assessment of typical aluminum-based energy processes in terms of overall energy efficiency and cost. Moreover, characteristics associated with different processes are identified. Results in this study indicate the route from which aluminum is produced can be a key factor in determining the efficiency and costs. Besides, the aluminum–air battery provides a more energy-efficient manner for the conversion of energy stored in primary aluminum and recovered aluminum from products compared to aluminum-based hydrogen production, whereas the aluminum-based hydrogen production gives a more energy-efficient way of utilizing energy stored in secondary aluminum or even scrap aluminum.

  7. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    C. Raineri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i costs composition, and ii cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses.

  8. Estimating the cost of production stoppage

    Delionback, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation model considers learning curve quantities, and time of break to forecast losses due to break in production schedule. Major parameters capable of predicting costs are number of units made prior to production sequence, length of production break, and slope of learning curve produced prior to break.

  9. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  10. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2003-07-31

    This report describes activities for the third quarter of work performed under this agreement. Atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on June 5 through June 13, 2003. The test results were encouraging, however, the rate of carbon dissolution was below expectations. Additional atmospheric testing is scheduled for the first week of September 2003. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product stream. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  11. Hydrogenation of rapeseed oil for production of liquid bio-chemicals

    Pinto, F.; Martins, S.; Gonçalves, M.; Costa, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Alves, A.; Mendes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production of renewable liquid hydrocarbons through rapeseed oil hydrogenation. ► Hydrogenation at lower temperature and lower hydrogen pressures. ► Test of a catalyst commonly employed in petrochemical industry. ► Improve of hydrogenation process viability by decreasing operational costs. ► Analysis of hydrogenated product applications as bio-chemicals. -- Abstract: The main objective of rapeseed oil hydrogenation tests was the production of liquid bio-chemicals to be used as renewable raw material for the production of several chemicals and in chemical synthesis to substitute petroleum derived stuff. As, hydrogenation of vegetable oils is already applied for the production of biofuels, the work done focused in producing aromatic compounds, due to their economic value. The effect of experimental conditions on rapeseed oil hydrogenation was studied, namely, reaction temperature and time with the aim of selecting the most favourable conditions to convert rapeseed oil into liquid valuable bio-chemicals. Rapeseed oil was hydrogenated at a hydrogen initial pressure of 1.10 MPa. Reaction temperature varied in the range from 200 °C to 400 °C, while reaction times between 6 and 180 min were tested. The performance of a commercial cobalt and molybdenum catalyst was also studied. The highest hydrocarbons yields were obtained at the highest temperature and reaction times tested. At a temperature of 400 °C and at the reaction time of 120 min hydrocarbons yield was about 92% in catalyst presence, while in the absence of the catalyst this value decreased to 85%. Hydrocarbons yield was even higher when the reaction time of 180 min was used in the presence of catalyst, as the yield of 97% was observed. At these conditions hydrocarbons formed had a high content of aromatic compounds, around 50%. For this reason, the viscosity values of hydrogenated oils were lower than that established by EN590, which together with hydrogenated liquids composition

  12. THE COST OF PRODUCTION UNDER DIRECT COSTING AND ABSORPTION COSTING – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH

    Bunea-Bontaş Cristina Aurora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Managerial accounting has an important role in strategic management of a company, being designed especially for managers, in order to optimise their decision regarding operating activities. One of the objectives of managerial accounting is the cost calculation, for measuring inventory costs, and the costs and profitability of products and services. Cost calculation systems can vary in terms of which costs are assigned to cost objects, two significant calculation systems being adopted by the costing theory: full cost accounting, which includes all costs of production as product costs, and partial cost accounting, which includes only those costs that vary with output. This article provides a comparative approach regarding the differences between the calculation of the cost of production under direct costing and absorption costing. It also examines the implication of using each of these calculation systems on the financial position and financial performance of the companies reported on the statement of financial position and the income statement. Finally, the advantages of using direct costing for internal reporting are discussed, considering that this method is not acceptable for external reporting to stockholders and other external users.

  13. Hydrogen economy

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  14. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  15. Thermoeconomic analysis of a copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle for nuclear-based hydrogen production

    Orhan, Mehmet F.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Thermochemical water splitting with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a promising process that could be linked with nuclear reactors to decompose water into its constituents, oxygen and hydrogen, through intermediate copper and chlorine compounds. In this paper, a comprehensive exergoeconomic analysis of the Cu-Cl cycle is reported to evaluate the production costs as a function of the amount and quality of the energy used for hydrogen production, as well as the costs of the exergy losses and the exergoeconomic improvement potential of the equipment used in the process. An additional objective is to determine changes in the design parameters of the Cu-Cl cycle that improve the cost effectiveness of the overall system. (orig.)

  16. The Utilization of Solar Energy by Way of Hydrogen Production

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested to produce hydrogen gas by photolytic splitting of water, and to feed it into a hydrogen economy. One approach to obtain good yields in photolysis consist in the application of asymmetric membranes that release the different, reactive, primary products of the photochemical reaction on opposite sides of the membranes so that a back reaction is prevented. Through this solar-chemical option a very large part of the energy needs of mankind could be covered in the long run. (author)

  17. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  18. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  19. The preparation and application of crude cellulase for cellulose-hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation

    Guo, Yi-Ping; Fan, Yao-Ting; Pan, Chun-Mei; Hou, Hong-Wei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Fan, Shao-Qun [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Beijing Alcatel-Lucent R and D Center, Beijing, 100102 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Strategies were adopted to cost-efficiently produce cellulose-hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation in this paper. First, cellulase used for hydrolyzing cellulose was prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF) on cheap biomass from Trichoderma viride. Several cultural conditions for cellulase production on cheap biomass such as moisture content, inoculum size and culture time were studied. And the components of solid-state medium were optimized using statistical methods to further improve cellulase capability. Second, the crude cellulase was applied to cellulose-hydrogen process directly. The maximal hydrogen yield of 122 ml/g-TVS was obtained at the substrate concentration of 20 g/L and cultured time of 53 h. The value was about 45-fold than that of raw corn stalk wastes. The hydrogen content in the biogas was 44-57%(v/v) and there was no significant methane gas observed. (author)

  20. Historical Cost Curves for Hydrogen Masers and Cesium Beam Frequency and Timing Standards

    Remer, D. S.; Moore, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Historical cost curves were developed for hydrogen masers and cesium beam standards used for frequency and timing calibration in the Deep Space Network. These curves may be used to calculate the cost of future hydrogen masers or cesium beam standards in either future or current dollars. The cesium beam standards are decreasing in cost by about 2.3% per year since 1966, and hydrogen masers are decreasing by about 0.8% per year since 1978 relative to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration inflation index.

  1. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  2. Hydrogen production from biomass by thermochemical recuperative energy conversion

    Fushimi, C.; Araki, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tsutsumi, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The authors conducted, using a thermogravimetric reactor, a kinetic study of production of thermochemical recuperative hydrogen from biomass. The four different biomass materials used were: cellulose, lignin, metroxylon stem, and coconut husk. Under both rapid heating and slow heating conditions, the weight changes of the biomass samples during the steam gasification or pyrolysis were measured at 973 Kelvin. Simultaneously, measurements of the evolution rates of low-molecular-weight gas products such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were taken with the help of a mass spectrometer and a micro gas chromatograph (GC). The steam gasification of char significantly increased the amount of hydrogen and carbon dioxide production. The results also indicated that at higher heating rate, the cold gas efficiency of steam gasification was increased. This can be explained by the suppression of the tar production at lower temperature. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  4. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm 3 ) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  5. Two dimensional simulation of hydrogen iodide decomposition reaction using fluent code for hydrogen production using nuclear technology

    Chi, Jung Sik [The Institute of Machinery and Electronic Technology, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Ki Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hyuk [Division of Marine Engineering System, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The operating characteristics of hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition for hydrogen production were investigated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, and various factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare device performance with that expected for device development. Hydrogen production increased with an increase of the surface-to-volume (STV) ratio. With an increase of hydrogen production, the reaction heat increased. The internal pressure and velocity of the HI decomposer were estimated through pressure drop and reducing velocity from the preheating zone. The mass of H2O was independent of the STV ratio, whereas that of HI decreased with increasing STV ratio.

  6. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  7. Potential Fusion Market for Hydrogen Production Under Environmental Constraints

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Potential future hydrogen market and possible applications of fusion were analyzed. Hydrogen is expected as a major energy and fuel mediun for the future, and various processes for hydrogen production can be considered as candidates for the use of fusion energy. In order to significantly contribute to reduction of CO 2 emission, fusion must be deployed in developing countries, and must substitute fossil based energy with synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. Hydrogen production processes will have to evaluated and compared from the aspects of energy efficiency and CO 2 emission. Fusion can provide high temperature heat that is suitable for vapor electrolysis, thermo-chemical water decomposition and steam reforming with biomass waste. That is a possible advantage of fusion over renewables and Light water power reactor. Despite of its technical difficulty, fusion is also expected to have less limitation for siting location in the developing countries. Under environmental constraints, fusion has a chance to be a major primary energy source, and production of hydrogen enhances its contribution, while in 'business as usual', fusion will not be selected in the market. Thus if fusion is to be largely used in the future, meeting socio-economic requirements would be important

  8. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  10. Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH) - low temperature hydrogen production from renewable fuels

    Reichman, B.; Mays, W.; Strebe, J.; Fetcenko, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': ECD has developed a new technology to produce hydrogen from various organic matters. In this technology termed Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH), base material such as NaOH is used as a reactant to facilitate the reforming of the organic matters to hydrogen gas. This Base-Facilitated Reforming (BFR) process is a one-step process and has number of advantages over the conventional steam reforming and gasification processes including lower operation temperature and lower heat consumption. This paper will describe the ORH process and discuss its technological and economics advantages over the conventional hydrogen production processes. ORH process has been studied and demonstrated on variety of renewable fuels including liquid biofuels and solid biomass materials. Results of these studies will be presented. (author)

  11. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  12. Hydrogen production by aqueous phase catalytic reforming of glycerine

    Ozguer, Derya Oncel; Uysal, Bekir Zuehtue

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is believed to be the one of the main energy carriers in the near future. In this research glycerine, which is produced in large quantities as a by-product of biodiesel process, was converted to hydrogen aiming to contribute to clean energy initiative. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen was achieved via aqueous-phase reforming (APR) with Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. The experiments were carried out in an autoclave reactor and a continuous fixed-bed reactor. The effects of reaction temperature (160-280 o C), feed flow rate (0.05-0.5 mL/dak) and feed concentration (5-85 wt-% glycerine) on product distribution were investigated. Optimum temperature for hydrogen production with APR was determined as 230 o C. Maximum gas production rate was found at the feed flow rates around 0.1 mL/min. It was also found that hydrogen concentration in the gas product increased with decreasing glycerol concentration in the feed.

  13. Measuring the environmental benefits of hydrogen transportation fuel cycles under uncertainty about external costs

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ('oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine') in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ('natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell'). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove this ambiguity highlighting that the hydrogen pathway provides significant environmental benefits ,especially in densely populated areas, assuming 100% city driving.

  14. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY INFRASTRUCTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    Tolley, George S

    2010-06-29

    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not

  15. Examining the production costs of antiretroviral drugs.

    Pinheiro, Eloan; Vasan, Ashwin; Kim, Jim Yong; Lee, Evan; Guimier, Jean Marc; Perriens, Joseph

    2006-08-22

    To present direct manufacturing costs and price calculations of individual antiretroviral drugs, enabling those responsible for their procurement to have a better understanding of the cost structure of their production, and to indicate the prices at which these antiretroviral drugs could be offered in developing country markets. Direct manufacturing costs and factory prices for selected first and second-line antiretroviral drugs were calculated based on cost structure data from a state-owned company in Brazil. Prices for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) were taken from a recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO). The calculated prices for antiretroviral drugs are compared with quoted prices offered by privately-owned, for-profit manufacturers. The API represents the largest component of direct manufacturing costs (55-99%), while other inputs, such as salaries, equipment costs, and scale of production, have a minimal impact. The calculated prices for most of the antiretroviral drugs studied fall within the lower quartile of the range of quoted prices in developing country markets. The exceptions are those drugs, primarily for second-line therapy, for which the API is either under patent, in short supply, or in limited use in developing countries (e.g. abacavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir). The availability of data on the cost of antiretroviral drug production and calculation of factory prices under a sustainable business model provide benchmarks that bulk purchasers of antiretroviral drugs could use to negotiate lower prices. While truly significant price decreases for antiretroviral drugs will depend largely on the future evolution of API prices, the present study demonstrates that for several antiretroviral drugs price reduction is currently possible. Whether or not these reductions materialize will depend on the magnitude of indirect cost and profit added by each supplier over the direct production costs. The ability to

  16. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  17. Quality costs in the production process

    J. Michalska

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is showing the relationship of the quality costs with a production process. In this paper it was worked out and introduced the way of marking the documents with regard to the quality costs.Design/methodology/approach: In the frames of own research it has been analysed the quality costs in the production process from the documents marked using the worked out way of marking.Findings: On the basis of the own research it can be stated, that the majority of the eleme...

  18. Hydrogen and oxygen production with nuclear heat

    Barnert, H.

    1979-09-01

    After some remarks on the necessity of producing secondary energy sources for the heat market, the thermodynamic fundamentals of the processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water on the basis of nuclear thermal energy are briefly explained. These processes are summarized as one class of the 'thermochemical cycle process' for the conversion of thermal into chemical energy. A number of thermochemical cycle processes are described. The results of the design work so far are illustrated by the example of the 'sulphuric acid hybrid process'. The nuclear heat source of the thermochemical cycle process is the high-temperature reactor. Statements concerning rentability are briefly commented upon, and the research and development efforts and expenditure required are sketched. (orig.) 891 GG/orig. 892 MB [de

  19. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  20. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  1. Design of a novel flat-plate photobioreactor system for green algal hydrogen production

    Tamburic, B.; Zemichael, F.W.; Maitland, G.C.; Hellgardt, K. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Some unicellular green algae have the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen using sunlight and water. This renewable, carbon-neutral process has the additional benefit of sequestering carbon dioxide during the algal growth phase. The main costs associated with this process result from building and operating a photobioreactor system. The challenge is to design an innovative and cost effective photobioreactor that meets the requirements of algal growth and sustainable hydrogen production. We document the details of a novel 1 litre vertical flat-plate photobioreactor that has been designed to accommodate green algal hydrogen production at the laboratory scale. Coherent, non-heating illumination is provided by a panel of cool white LEDs. The reactor body consists of two compartments constructed from transparent Perspex sheets. The primary compartment holds the algal culture, which is agitated by means of a recirculating gas flow. A secondary compartment is filled with water and used to control the temperature and wavelength of the system. The reactor is fitted with instruments that monitor the pH, pO{sub 2}, temperature and optical density of the culture. A membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system has been developed for hydrogen collection and in situ monitoring. The reactor is fully autoclaveable and the possibility of hydrogen leaks has been minimised. The modular nature of the reactor allows efficient cleaning and maintenance. (orig.)

  2. Economic competitiveness of off-peak hydrogen production today - A European comparison

    Mansilla, C.; Dautremont, S.; Louyrette, J.; Albou, S.; Bourasseau, C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen has a wide range of applications. In view of the environmental benefits, hydrogen can be produced by de-carbonized means. When alkaline electrolysis is the selected process, extra value is offered by flexible operation that could bring both; an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen produced (by consuming electricity during off-peak hours, and stopping the process during peak hours) and also a complementary tool to help balancing of the electric system. This paper assesses the profitability of market-driven operation for three different markets: France, Germany and Spain, with an analysis on the spot market. The market that exhibits the biggest potential in terms of profitability thanks to flexible operation is the French one, for each studied year. France is also the country that has the smallest installed renewable capacity amongst three considered countries. The gain on the hydrogen production cost allowed by the optimization is less than 3%. Hence, market-driven operation does not seem highly favourable to valorize fluctuating hydrogen production, when only the market price opportunities are considered. The balancing tool provided by the electrolysis system needs to be specifically valorized, in order to make flexible operation profitable. (authors)

  3. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system. Joint research

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2003-09-01

    Research of hydrogen energy has been performed in order to spread use of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in all of countries. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-either (DME) has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced by steam reforming hydrogen generation system by the use of nuclear heat. Therefore, the system would be one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. In the present study, we focused on the production of hydrogen and DME. Economic evaluation was estimated for hydrogen and DME production in commercial and nuclear heat utilization plant. At first, heat and mass balance of each process in commercial plant of hydrogen production was estimated and commercial prices of each process were derived. Then, price was estimated when nuclear heat was used instead of required heat of commercial plant. Results showed that the production prices produced by nuclear heat were cheaper by 10% for hydrogen and 3% for DME. With the consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release, utilization of nuclear heat would be more effective. (author)

  4. Studies on membrane acid electrolysis for hydrogen production

    Silva, Marco Antonio Oliveira da; Linardi, Marcelo; Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Celulas a Combustivel e Hidrogenio], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen represents great opportunity to be a substitute for fossil fuels in the future. Water as a renewable source of hydrogen is of great interest, since it is abundant and can decompose, producing only pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This decomposition of water can be accomplished by processes such as electrolysis, thermal decomposition and thermochemical cycles. The electrolysis by membrane has been proposed as a viable process for hydrogen production using thermal and electrical energy derived from nuclear energy or any renewable source like solar energy. In this work, within the context of optimization of the electrolysis process, it is intended to develop a mathematical model that can simulate and assist in parameterization of the electrolysis performed by polymer membrane electrolytic cell. The experimental process to produce hydrogen via the cell membrane, aims to optimize the amount of gas produced using renewable energy with noncarbogenic causing no harm by producing gases deleterious to the environment. (author)

  5. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed . It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production. - Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • The hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed .

  6. Coupling the modular helium reactor to hydrogen production processes

    Richards, M.B.; Shenoy, A.S.; Schultz, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of natural gas (methane) currently produces the bulk of hydrogen gas used in the world today. Because this process depletes natural gas resources and generates the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as a by-product, there is a growing interest in using process heat and/or electricity generated by nuclear reactors to generate hydrogen by splitting water. Process heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor can be used directly to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850 deg C to 950 deg C can drive the sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. The S-I process produces highly pure hydrogen and oxygen, with formation, decomposition, regeneration, and recycle of the intermediate chemical reagents. Electricity can also 1)e used directly to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis (LTE). Hydrogen can also be produced with hybrid processes that use both process heat and electricity to generate hydrogen. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyzer to generate hydrogen. This process is of interest because the efficiency of electrolysis increases with temperature. Because of its high temperature capability, advanced stage of development relative to other high-temperature reactor concepts, and passive-safety features, the modular helium reactor (MHR) is well suited for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy. In this paper we investigate the coupling of the MHR to the S-I process, LTE, and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. (author)

  7. A study of wind hydrogen production of systems for Malaysia

    Ibrahim, M.Z.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Veziroglu, T.N.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia is looking into the potential of using hydrogen as future fuel. By recognizing the potential of hydrogen fuel, the government had channeled a big amount of money in funds to related organizations to embark on hydrogen research and development programmed. The availability of indigenous renewable resources, high trade opportunities, excellent research capabilities and current progress in hydrogen research at the university are some major advantages for the country to attract government and industry investment in hydrogen. It is envisaged that overall energy demand in Malaysia as stated in the Eighth Malaysia Plan (EMP) report will increase by about 7.8 percent per annum in this decade at the present economic growth. Considering the vast potential inherent in renewable energy (RE), it could be a significant contributor to the national energy supply. Malaysia had been blessed with abundant and varied resources of energy, nevertheless, concerted efforts should be undertaken to ensure that the development of energy resources would continue to contribute to the nation's economic expansion. In this regard, an initial study has been carried out to see the available potential of wind energy towards the hydrogen production, that could be utilized in various applications particularly in Malaysian climate condition via a computer simulation (HYDROGEMS), which built for TRNSYS (a transient system simulation program) version 15. The system simulated in this study consist of one unit (1 kW) wind turbine, an electrolyze (1 kW), a hydrogen (H 2 ) storage tank, and a power conditioning system. A month hourly data of highest wind speed is obtained from the local weather station that is at Kuala Terengganu Air Port located at 5''o 23'' latitude (N) and 103''o 06'' Longitude (E). The results show, wind energy in Malaysian Climate has a potential to generate hydrogen with the minimum rate approximately 9 m 3 /hr and storage capacity of 60 Nm 3 , State of Charge (SOC

  8. Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites as low-cost/high-performance catalysts for hydrogen generation

    Zhang, Fei; Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    The production of clean and renewable hydrogen through the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has received much attention owing to increasing global energy demands. Graphene sheets/cobalt (GRs/Co) nanocomposites, which are highly efficient catalysts, have been prepared using a one-step solvothermal method in ethylene glycol. Co 2+ salts were converted to Co nanoparticles, which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers with the reduction of graphite oxide sheets to GRs. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The maximum saturation magnetization value reached 80.8 emu g −1 , meaning they are more suitable for magnet-controlled generation of H 2 than noble metal catalysts. The catalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in aqueous solution both with and without a GRs support. It was found that the high electronic conductive GRs support increased the hydrogen generation rate (about two times) compared with pure cobalt. The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling makes the GRs/Co nanocomposites promising candidates as catalysts for hydrogen generation. Highlights: ► Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites were prepared by a one-step solvothermal method. ► The maximum saturation magnetization value of the composites reached 80.8 emu g −1 . ► The graphene support greatly increased the catalytic activity of cobalt. ► An easily removed, recycled and controlled functional filter was obtained.

  9. The use of solar energy - photovoltaic - in hydrogen production and arid zones like Saudi Arabia

    Sayigh, A. A. M.

    This paper deals with the use of photovoltaic technology for the production of hydrogen from water by electrolysis. First of all the amount of electricity needed for this process was assessed, then various types of solar cell systems to generate the electricity needed were discussed and the best system was established. Some of the investigations involved testing of solar cells with concentrators and with fixed tilt or tracking devices. Several small panels of solar cells were used in testing the effect of local dust and sand as well as the fixed tilt in the area of Riyadh. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from a conventional grid was calculated. This cost was compared with the cost of production of hydrogen if a solar cell array was used. The paper outlines the continuous price increase of oil to produce electricity and the rapid decrease in price of solar cells. Both these advances will lead to a cheaper way of producing hydrogen by solar energy. In addition it is shown that technology is almost trouble free and requires very little know-how as far as operation is concerned.

  10. Combined production of hydrogen and power from heavy oil gasification: Pinch analysis, thermodynamic and economic evaluations

    Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M. [Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa, via Caboto 1, 20094 Corsico (Milano) (Italy); Lazzaretto, A. [University of Padova, Department of Mechanical Engineering, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO{sub 2} capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price. (author)

  11. Combined production of hydrogen and power from heavy oil gasification: Pinch analysis, thermodynamic and economic evaluations

    Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO 2 capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO 2 avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO 2 capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price.

  12. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  13. Thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    Two-step processes for the preparation of hydrogen are described: CrCl/sub 3/(g) ..-->.. CrCl/sub 2/(g) + 1/2Cl/sub 2/(g) and CrCl/sub 2/(s) + HCl(g) reversible CrCl/sub 3/(s) + 1/2H/sub 2/(g); UCl/sub 4/(g) ..-->.. UCl/sub 3/(g) + 1/2Cl/sub 2/(g) and UCl/sub 3/(s) + HCl(g) ..-->.. UCl/sub 4/(s) + 1/2H/sub 2/(g); and CaSO/sub 4/(s) ..-->.. CaO(s) + SO/sub 2/(g) + 1/2O/sub 2/(g) and CaO(s) + SO/sub 2/(g) + H/sub 2/O(l) ..-->.. CaSO/sub 4/(s) + H/sub 2/(g). The high temperature available from solar collectors, high temperature gas reactors or fusion reactors is utilized in the first step in which the reaction is endothermic. The efficiency is at least 60% and with process heat recovery, the efficiency may be increased up to 74.4%. An apparatus fr carrying out the process in conjunction with a fusion reactor, is described.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  15. Carbon-free hydrogen production from low rank coal

    Aziz, Muhammad; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2018-02-01

    Novel carbon-free integrated system of hydrogen production and storage from low rank coal is proposed and evaluated. To measure the optimum energy efficiency, two different systems employing different chemical looping technologies are modeled. The first integrated system consists of coal drying, gasification, syngas chemical looping, and hydrogenation. On the other hand, the second system combines coal drying, coal direct chemical looping, and hydrogenation. In addition, in order to cover the consumed electricity and recover the energy, combined cycle is adopted as addition module for power generation. The objective of the study is to find the best system having the highest performance in terms of total energy efficiency, including hydrogen production efficiency and power generation efficiency. To achieve a thorough energy/heat circulation throughout each module and the whole integrated system, enhanced process integration technology is employed. It basically incorporates two core basic technologies: exergy recovery and process integration. Several operating parameters including target moisture content in drying module, operating pressure in chemical looping module, are observed in terms of their influence to energy efficiency. From process modeling and calculation, two integrated systems can realize high total energy efficiency, higher than 60%. However, the system employing coal direct chemical looping represents higher energy efficiency, including hydrogen production and power generation, which is about 83%. In addition, optimum target moisture content in drying and operating pressure in chemical looping also have been defined.

  16. Study on hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of steam

    Hino, Ryutaro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Tomo-o.

    1997-09-01

    In JAERI, design and R and D works on hydrogen production process have been conducted for connecting to the HTTR under construction at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI as a nuclear heat utilization system. As for a hydrogen production process by high-temperature electrolysis of steam, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out with a practical electrolysis tube with 12 cells connected in series. Hydrogen was produced at a maximum density of 44 Nml/cm 2 h at 950degC, and know-how of operational procedures and operational experience were also accumulated. Thereafter, a planar electrolysis cell supported by a metallic plate was fabricated in order to improve hydrogen production performance and durability against thermal cycles. In the preliminary test with the planar cell, hydrogen has been produced continuously at a maximum density of 33.6 Nml/cm 2 h at an electrolysis temperature of 950degC. This report presents typical test results mentioned above, a review of previous studies conducted in the world and R and D items required for connecting to the HTTR. (author)

  17. Potential of biogenic hydrogen production for hydrogen driven remediation strategies in marine environments.

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-09-25

    Fermentative production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) from organic residues has emerged as a promising alternative for providing the required electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Unlike the widely used production of H2 by bacteria in fresh water systems, few reports are available regarding the generation of biogenic H2 and optimisation processes in marine systems. The present research aims to optimise the capability of an indigenous marine bacterium for the production of bio-H2 in marine environments and subsequently develop this process for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Fermentative conversion of organics in marine media to H2 using a marine isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BH11, was determined. A Taguchi design of experimental methodology was employed to evaluate the optimal nutritional composition in batch tests to improve bio-H2 yields. Further optimisation experiments showed that alginate-immobilised bacterial cells were able to produce bio-H2 at the same rate as suspended cells over a period of several weeks. Finally, bio-H2 was used as electron donor to successfully dehalogenate trichloroethylene (TCE) using biogenic palladium nanoparticles as a catalyst. Fermentative production of bio-H2 can be a promising technique for concomitant generation of an electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies and treatment of organic residue in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen Production by Geobacter Species and a Mixed Consortium in a Microbial Electrolysis Cell

    Call, D. F.; Wagner, R. C.; Logan, B. E.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrogen utilizing exoelectrogenic bacterium (Geobacter sulfurreducens) was compared to both a nonhydrogen oxidizer (Geobacter metallireducens) and a mixed consortium in order to compare the hydrogen production rates and hydrogen recoveries

  19. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  20. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  1. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  2. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  3. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH 4 -CO 2 gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH 4 -CO 2 feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH 4 -CO 2 and CH 4 -CO 2 -O 2 gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  4. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  5. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation without oxygen - oxidation products and pathways

    Fossing, H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation was studied in anoxic marine sediments-both in undisturbed sediment cores and in sediment slurries. The turn over of hydrogen sulfide was followed using 35 S-radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide which was injected into the sediment. However, isotope exchange reactions between the reduced sulfur compounds, in particular between elemental sulfur and hydrogen sulfide, influenced on the specific radioactivity of these pools. It was, therefore, not possible to measure the turn over rates of the reduced sulfur pools by the radiotracer technique but merely to use the radioisotope to demonstrate some of the oxidation products. Thiosulfate was one important intermediate in the anoxic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and was continuously turned over by reduction, oxidation and disproportionation. The author discusses the importance of isotope exchange and also presents the results from experiments in which both 35 S-radiolabeled elemental sulfur, radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide and radiolabeled thiosulfate were used to study the intermediates in the oxidative pathways of the sulfur cycle

  7. Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification

    Nipattummakul, Nimit [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand); Ahmed, Islam I.; Gupta, Ashwani K. [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kerdsuwan, Somrat [The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for energy recovery. In this investigation, sewage sludge samples were gasified at various temperatures to determine the evolutionary behavior of syngas characteristics and other properties of the syngas produced. The syngas characteristics were evaluated in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen production, syngas chemical analysis, and efficiency of energy conversion. In addition to gasification experiments, pyrolysis experiments were conducted for evaluating the performance of gasification over pyrolysis. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased generation of hydrogen. Hydrogen yield at 1000 C was found to be 0.076 g{sub gas} g{sub sample}{sup -1}. Steam as the gasifying agent increased the hydrogen yield three times as compared to air gasification. Sewage sludge gasification results were compared with other samples, such as, paper, food wastes and plastics. The time duration for sewage sludge gasification was longer as compared to other samples. On the other hand sewage sludge yielded more hydrogen than that from paper and food wastes. (author)

  8. Methane and hydrogen production from crop biomass through anaerobic digestion

    Pakarinen, O.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of methane and hydrogen production from energy crops through anaerobic digestion was evaluated in this thesis. The effects of environmental conditions, e.g. pH and temperature, as well as inoculum source on H{sub 2} yield were studied in batch assays. In addition, the effects of pre-treatments on methane and hydrogen yield as well as the feasibility of two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} production was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of storage on methane yield of grasses was evaluated. Monodigestion of grass silage for methane production was studied, as well as shifting the methanogenic process to hydrogenic. Hydrogen production from grass silage and maize was shown to be possible with heat-treated inoculum in batch assays, with highest H{sub 2} yields of 16.0 and 9.9 ml gVS{sub added}-1 from untreated grass silage and maize, respectively. Pre-treatments (NaOH, HCl and water-extraction) showed some potential in increasing H{sub 2} yields, while methane yields were not affected. Two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} producing process was shown to improve CH{sub 4} yields when compared to traditional one-stage CH{sub 4} process. Methane yield from grass silage monodigestion in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 kgVS (m3d)-1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days was at most 218 l kgVS{sub fed}-1. Methanogenic process was shifted to hydrogenic by increasing the OLR to 10 kgVS (m3d)-1 and shortening the HRT to 6 days. Highest H{sub 2} yield from grass silage was 42 l kgVS{sub fed}-1 with a maximum H{sub 2} content of 24 %. Energy crops can be successfully stored even for prolonged periods without decrease in methane yield. However, under sub-optimal storage conditions loss in volatile solids (VS) content and methane yield can occur. According to present results energy crops such as grass silage and maize can be converted to hydrogen or methane in AD process. Hydrogen energy yields are typically only 2-5 % of the

  9. Rubisco mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    Pinto, T S; Malcata, F X; Arrabaça, J D; Silva, J M; Spreitzer, R J; Esquível, M G

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an ideal fuel characterized by high enthalpy change and lack of greenhouse effects. This biofuel can be released by microalgae via reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenases. The main competitor for the reducing power required by the hydrogenases is the Calvin cycle, and rubisco plays a key role therein. Engineered Chlamydomonas with reduced rubisco levels, activity and stability was used as the basis of this research effort aimed at increasing hydrogen production. Biochemical monitoring in such metabolically engineered mutant cells proceeded in Tris/acetate/phosphate culture medium with S-depletion or repletion, both under hypoxia. Photosynthetic activity, maximum photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll and protein levels were all measured. In addition, expression of rubisco, hydrogenase, D1 and Lhcb were investigated, and H2 was quantified. At the beginning of the experiments, rubisco increased followed by intense degradation. Lhcb proteins exhibited monomeric isoforms during the first 24 to 48 h, and D1 displayed sensitivity under S-depletion. Rubisco mutants exhibited a significant decrease in O2 evolution compared with the control. Although the S-depleted medium was much more suitable than its complete counterpart for H2 production, hydrogen release was observed also in sealed S-repleted cultures of rubisco mutated cells under low-moderate light conditions. In particular, the rubisco mutant Y67A accounted for 10-15-fold higher hydrogen production than the wild type under the same conditions and also displayed divergent metabolic parameters. These results indicate that rubisco is a promising target for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered microalgae.

  10. Study of Systems and Technology for Liquid Hydrogen Production Independent of Fossil Fuels

    Sprafka, R. J.; Escher, W. J. D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Shingleton, J.; Moore, J. S.; Baker, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on Kennedy Space Center siting and logistics requirements and the nonfossil energy resources at the Center, a number of applicable technologies and system candidates for hydrogen production were identified and characterized. A two stage screening of these technologies in the light of specific criteria identified two leading candidates as nonfossil system approaches. Conceptual design and costing of two solar-operated, stand alone systems, one photovoltaic based on and the other involving the power tower approach reveals their technical feasibility as sited as KSC, and the potential for product cost competitiveness with conventional supply approaches in the 1990 to 1210 time period. Conventional water hydrolysis and hydrogen liquefaction subsystems are integrated with the solar subsystems.

  11. Renewable hydrogen production via thermochemical/electrochemical coupling

    Ambrosini, Andrea [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babiniec, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    A coupled electrochemical/thermochemical cycle was investigated to produce hydrogen from renewable resources. Like a conventional thermochemical cycle, this cycle leverages chemical energy stored in a thermochemical working material that is reduced thermally by solar energy. However, in this concept, the stored chemical energy only needs to be partially, but not fully, capable of splitting steam to produce hydrogen. To complete the process, a proton-conducting membrane is driven to separate hydrogen as it is produced, thus shifting the thermodynamics toward further hydrogen production. This novel coupled-cycle concept provides several benefits. First, the required oxidation enthalpy of the reversible thermochemical material is reduced, enabling the process to occur at lower temperatures. Second, removing the requirement for spontaneous steam-splitting widens the scope of materials compositions, allowing for less expensive/more abundant elements to be used. Lastly, thermodynamics calculations suggest that this concept can potentially reach higher efficiencies than photovoltaic-to-electrolysis hydrogen production methods. This Exploratory Express LDRD involved assessing the practical feasibility of the proposed coupled cycle. A test stand was designed and constructed and proton-conducting membranes were synthesized. While the full proof of concept was not achieved, the individual components of the experiment were validated and new capabilities that can be leveraged by a variety of programs were developed.

  12. Photobiological production of hydrogen: a solar energy conversion option

    Weaver, P.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

    1979-01-01

    This literature survey of photobiological hydrogen production covers the period from its discovery in relatively pure cultures during the early 1930s to the present. The focus is hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms (and their components) which occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. The survey covers the major contributions in the area; however, in many cases, space has limited the degree of detail provided. Among the topics included is a brief historical overview of hydrogen metabolism in photosynthetic bacteria, eucaryotic algae, and cyanobacteria (blue--green algae). The primary enzyme systems, including hydrogenase and nitrogenase, are discussed along with the manner in which they are coupled to electron transport and the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis. A number of in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen evolving schemes including photosynthetic bacterial, green algal, cyanobacterial, two-stage, and cell-free systems are examined in some detail. The remainder of the review discusses specific technical problem areas that currently limit the yield and duration of many of the systems and research that might lead to progress in these specific areas. The final section outlines, in broadest terms, future research directions necessary to develop practical photobiological hydrogen-producing systems. Both whole cell (near- to mid-term) and cell-free (long-term) systems should be emphasized. Photosynthetic bacteria currently show the most promise for near-term applied systems.

  13. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production from high temperature electrolysis and fusion reactor

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, J.F.; Issacs, H.S.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.R.; Salzano, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from high temperature electrolysis of steam coupled with a fusion reactor is studied. The process includes three major components: the fusion reactor, the high temperature electrolyzer and the power conversion cycle each of which is discussed in the paper. Detailed process design and analysis of the system is examined. A parametric study on the effect of process efficiency is presented

  15. Hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent by fermentation

    Tanisho, S.; Shimazaki, T. [Yokohama National Univ., Shigeharu TANISHO and Tsuruyo SHIMAZAKI, Yokohama (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    Hydrogen production by fermentation was examined by using palm oil mill effluent. Clostridium butyricum produced more than 2.2 NL of hydrogen from 1 L of raw POME at pH 5.0, and Enterobacter aerogenes produced ca. 1.9 NL at pH 6.0. While from the culture liquid added 1% of peptone on the raw POME, C. butyricum produced more than 3.3 NL and also E. aerogenes 3.4 NL at pH 6.0 and 5.0, respectively. In this manner, the addition of nitrogen source to the POME liquid exerted an influence on the volume of hydrogen production. Since Aspergillus niger has ability to produce cellulase, co-cultivation of C.butyricum with A. niger was tried to utilize celluloses in the POME. Against our expectations, however, the results were lower productivities than pure cultivation's. We analyzed the components of POME by liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis before and after cultivation. The main substrate for hydrogen production was found to be glycerol. (authors)

  16. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  17. Managing ulcerative colitis by increasing hydrogen production via ...

    The main side-effect of treatment with Acarbose, flatulence, occurs when undigested carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria, resulting in considerable amounts of hydrogen. We found that the enteric benefits of Acarbose are partly due to be their ability to neutralise oxidative stress via increased production of H2 in ...

  18. Production of hydrogen from renewable resources and its effectiveness

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 16 (2012), s. 11563-11578 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen production * biological processes * conventional methods Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  19. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION:

  20. Study on hydrogen production using the fast breeder reactors (FBR)

    Kani, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    As the fast breeder reactor (FBR) can effectively convert uranium-238 difficult to carry out nuclear fission at thermal neutron reactors to nuclear fissionable plutonium-239 to use it remarkable upgrading of application on uranium can be performed, to be expected for sustainable energy source. And, by reuse minor actinides of long half-life nuclides in reprocessed high level wasted solutions for fuels of nuclear reactors, reduction of radioactive poison based on high level radioactive wastes was enabled. As high temperature of about 800 centigrade was required on conventional hydrogen production, by new hydrogen production technique even at operation temperature of sodium-cooled FBR it can be enabled. Here were described for new hydrogen production methods applicable to FBR on palladium membrane hydrogen separation method carrying out natural gas/steam modification at reaction temperature of about 500 centigrade, low temperature thermo-chemical method expectable simultaneous simplification of production process, and electrolysis method expected on power load balancing. (G.K.)

  1. Hydrogen Production From catalytic reforming of greenhouse gases ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    a fixed bed stainless steel reactor. The 20wt%. ... catalytic activity for hydrogen production with the highest yield and selectivity of 32.5% and 17.6% respectively. © JASEM ... CO2 reforming of methane is however not fully developed ..... Design and preparation of .... catalytic nickel membrane for gas to liquid (GTL) process.

  2. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet

  3. [Productivity costs of rheumatoid arthritis in Germany. Cost composition and prediction of main cost components].

    Merkesdal, S; Huelsemann, J L; Mittendorf, T; Zeh, S; Zeidler, H; Ruof, J

    2006-10-01

    Identification of predictors for the productivity cost components: (1) sick leave, and (2) work disability in gainfully employed and (3) impaired household productivity in unemployed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the societal perspective. Investigation of productivity costs was linked to a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of clinical quality management in 338 patients with RA. The productivity losses were assessed according to the German Guidelines on Health Economic Evaluation. By means of multivariate logistic regression analyses, predictors of sick leave, work disability (employed patients, n=96), and for days confined to bed in unemployed patient (n=242) were determined. Mean annual costs of 970 EUR arose per person taking into consideration all patients (453 EUR sick leave, 63 EUR work disability, 454 EUR impaired productivity of unemployed patients). Disease activity, disease severity, and impaired physical function were global predictors for all of the cost components investigated. Sick leave costs were predicted by prior sick leave periods and the vocational status blue collar worker, work disability costs by sociodemographic variables (marital status, schooling), and the productivity costs of unemployed patients by impaired mental health and impaired physical functions. Interventions such as reduction in disease progression and control of disease activity, early vocational rehabilitation measures and vocational retraining in patients at risk of quitting working life, and self-management programs to learn coping strategies might decrease future RA-related productivity costs.

  4. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  5. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  6. Carbon catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen peroxide production in acidic media

    Čolić, Viktor; Yang, Sungeun; Révay, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commodity chemical, as it is an environmentally friendly oxidant. The electrochemical production of H2O2 from oxygen and water by the reduction of oxygen is of great interest, as it would allow the decentralized, on-site, production of pure H2O2. The ability to run...... the reaction in an acidic electrolyte with high performance is particularly important, as it would allow the use of polymer solid electrolytes and the production of pH-neutral hydrogen peroxide. Carbon catalysts, which are cheap, abundant, durable and can be highly selective show promise as potential catalysts...... for such systems. In this work, we examine the electrocatalytic performance and properties of seven commercially available carbon materials for H2O2 production by oxygen electroreduction. We show that the faradaic efficiencies for the reaction lie in a wide range of 18-82% for different carbon catalysts. In order...

  7. Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media

    Anjom, Mouzhgun

    Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068

  8. Catalytic activation of molecular hydrogen in alkyne hydrogenation reactions by lanthanide metal vapor reaction products

    Evans, W.J.; Bloom, I.; Engerer, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary metal vapor was used in the synthesis of Lu, Er, Nd, Sm, Yb, and La alkyne, diene, and phosphine complexes. A typical catalytic hydrogenation experiment is described. The lanthanide metal vapor product is dissolved in tetrahydrofuran or toluene and placed in a pressure reaction vessel 3-hexyne (or another substrate) is added, the chamber attached to a high vacuum line, cooled to -196 0 C, evacuated, warmed to ambient temperature and hydrogen is added. The solution is stirred magnetically while the pressure in monitored. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. Rates and products of various systems are listed. This preliminary survey indicates that catalytic reaction chemistry is available to these metals in a wide range of coordination environments. Attempts to characterize these compounds are hampered by their paramagnetic nature and their tendency to polymerize

  9. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  10. Thermo-economic analysis of integrated membrane-SMR ITM-oxy-combustion hydrogen and power production plant

    Sanusi, Yinka S.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.; Habib, Mohamed A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A methane reforming reactor integrated to an oxy-combustion plant is proposed. •Co-production of power and hydrogen was investigated and presented. •Optimal thermo-economic operating conditions of the system were identified and presented. •The ion transport membrane oxygen separation unit has the highest capital cost. •The combustor has the highest exergy destruction. -- Abstract: The demand for hydrogen has greatly increased in the last decade due to the stringent regulations enacted to address environmental pollution concerns. Natural gas reforming is currently the most mature technology for large-scale hydrogen production. However, it is usually associated with greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, new designs need to be developed to integrate hydrogen production facilities that are based on natural gas reforming with carbon capture facilities. In this study, we carried out energy, exergy and economic analysis of hydrogen production in a steam methane reforming reactor integrated with an oxy-combustion plant for co-production of power and hydrogen. The results show that the overall system efficiency and hydrogen production efficiency monotonically increase with increasing the combustor exit temperature (CET), increasing the amount of hydrogen extracted and decreasing the auxiliary fuel added to the system. The optimal thermo-economic operating conditions of the system were obtained as reformer pressure of 15 bar, auxiliary fuel factor of 0.8 and hydrogen extraction factor of 0.6. The production cost of hydrogen using the proposed system, under these optimal operating conditions, is within the range suggested by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Further analysis shows that the capital cost of the membrane-air separation unit (ITM) has the major share in the total investment cost of the system and constitutes 37% of the total capital cost of the system at the CET of 1500 K. The exergy

  11. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  12. The hydrogen resource. Productive, technical and economic analysis; La risorsa idrogeno: analisi produttiva tecnica ed economica

    De Fronzo, G. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Economiche, Matematico-Statistiche, Economici-Aziendali

    2000-02-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen as an energetic vector meets with a lot of obstacles that don't depend on available raw material, but on hydrogen combination with other elements. It is necessary, therefore, to separate hydrogen picking out the available different technologies to have different pure hydrogen of variable quantities. Besides, its diffusion as fuel is limited because of the great production cost compared to fuels sprung from petroleum. Hydrogen used on a large scale could have advantages on the environment and occupation, but there are economic and politic obstacles to limit its diffusion. Future of economic system, based on hydrogen as the main energetic vector, will depend on the programme that national and international qualified governing bodies will be able to do. [Italian] L'articolo analizza l'uso dell'idrogeno come risorsa dal punto di vista tecnico ed economico. Si discute la relazione con i programmi che governi nazionali sapranno mettere in campo per il suo sfruttamento.

  13. Advanced Intermediate Heat Transport Loop Design Configurations for Hydrogen Production Using High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    Chang Oh; Cliff Davis; Rober Barner; Paul Pickard

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic evaluations and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various

  14. Nuclear hydrogen production programme in the United States

    Sink, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is focused on demonstrating the economic, commercial-scale production of hydrogen using process heat derived from nuclear energy. NHI-supported research has concentrated to date on three technologies compatible with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP): high temperature steam electrolysis (HTE); sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical; and hybrid sulphur (HyS) thermochemical. In 2009 NHI will down select to a single technology on which to focus its future development efforts, for which the next step will be a pilot-scale experiment. (author)

  15. Thermochemical hydrogen production studies at LLNL: a status report

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Currently, studies are underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and solar central receivers as heat sources. These areas of study were described earlier at the previous IEA Annex I Hydrogen Workshop (Juelich, West Germany, September 23-25, 1981), and a brief update will be given here. Some basic research has also been underway at LLNL on the electrolysis of water from fused phosphate salts, but there are no current results in that area, and the work is being terminated

  16. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  17. Formate detection by potassium permanganate for enhanced hydrogen production in Escherichia coli

    Maeda, Toshinari [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wood, Thomas K. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli for hydrogen production is difficult since there is no high-throughput screen. Here we describe a method for rapid detection of enhanced hydrogen production by engineered strains by detecting formate via potassium permanganate; in E. coli, hydrogen is synthesized from formate using the formate hydrogen lyase system. (author)

  18. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  19. Efficiency of hydrogen gas production in a stand-alone solar hydrogen system

    Singh, K.; Tamakloe, R.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Many photovoltaic systems operate in a decentralised electricity producing system, or stand-alone mode and the total energy demand is met by the output of the photovoltaic array. The output of the photovoltaic system fluctuates and is unpredictable for many applications making some forms of energy storage system necessary. The role of storage medium is to store the excess energy produced by the photovoltaic arry, to absorb momentary power peaks and to supply energy during sunless periods. One of the storage modes is the use of electrochemical techniques, with batteries and water electrolysis as the most important examples. The present study includes three main parts: the first one is the hydrogen production form the electrolysis of water depending on the DC output current of the photovoltaic (PV) energy source and the charging of the battery. The second part presents the influence of various parameters on the efficiency of hydrogen gas production. The final part includes simulation studies with focus on solar hydrogen efficiency under the influence of various physical and chemical parameters. For a 50W panel-battery-electrolyser system, the dependence of volume of hydrogen gas on voltage, current and power yielded a maximum efficiency of 13.6% (author)

  20. Hydrogen production by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima Part II: modeling and experimental approaches for hydrogen production.

    Auria, Richard; Boileau, Céline; Davidson, Sylvain; Casalot, Laurence; Christen, Pierre; Liebgott, Pierre Pol; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophilic bacterium known to produce hydrogen from a large variety of substrates. The aim of the present study is to propose a mathematical model incorporating kinetics of growth, consumption of substrates, product formations, and inhibition by hydrogen in order to predict hydrogen production depending on defined culture conditions. Our mathematical model, incorporating data concerning growth, substrates, and products, was developed to predict hydrogen production from batch fermentations of the hyperthermophilic bacterium, T. maritima . It includes the inhibition by hydrogen and the liquid-to-gas mass transfer of H 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S. Most kinetic parameters of the model were obtained from batch experiments without any fitting. The mathematical model is adequate for glucose, yeast extract, and thiosulfate concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 mmol/L, 0.2-0.5 g/L, or 0.01-0.06 mmol/L, respectively, corresponding to one of these compounds being the growth-limiting factor of T. maritima . When glucose, yeast extract, and thiosulfate concentrations are all higher than these ranges, the model overestimates all the variables. In the window of the model validity, predictions of the model show that the combination of both variables (increase in limiting factor concentration and in inlet gas stream) leads up to a twofold increase of the maximum H 2 -specific productivity with the lowest inhibition. A mathematical model predicting H 2 production in T. maritima was successfully designed and confirmed in this study. However, it shows the limit of validity of such mathematical models. Their limit of applicability must take into account the range of validity in which the parameters were established.

  1. An overview of renewable hydrogen production from thermochemical process of oil palm solid waste in Malaysia

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ganjehkaviri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 40% of energy demand of Malaysia could be supplied by thermochemical process of PSR. • SCWG of PSR is preferable thermochemical process due to char and tar elimination. • Potential of H 2 production from SCWG of PSR is 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 per year in Malaysia. • Highly moisturized PSR could be used in hydrogen production by SCWG process. - Abstract: Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future of the world due to its tremendous capability of pollution reduction. Hydrogen utilization is free of toxic gases formation as well as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. Hydrogen production can be implemented using a wide variety of resources including fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable and sustainable energy (RSE). Amongst various RSE resources, biomass has great capacity to be employed for renewable hydrogen production. Hydrogen production from palm solid residue (PSR) via thermochemical process is a perfect candidate for waste-to-well strategy in palm oil mills in Malaysia. In this paper, various characteristics of hydrogen production from thermochemical process of PSR includes pyrolysis and gasification are reviewed. The annual oil palm fruits production in Malaysia is approximately 100 million tonnes which the solid waste of the fruits is capable to generate around 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 (1.26 EJ) via supercritical water gasification (SCWG) process. The ratio of energy output to energy input of SCWG process of PSR is about 6.56 which demonstrates the priority of SCWG to transform the energy of PSR into a high energy end product. The high moisture of PSR which is the most important barrier for its direct combustion, emerges as an advantage in thermochemical reactions and highly moisturized PSR (even more than 50%) is utilized directly in SCWG without application of any high cost drying process. Implementation of appropriate strategies could lead Malaysia to supply about 40% of its annual energy demand by hydrogen yield from

  2. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  3. Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water

    Funk, J.E.; Conger, W.L.; Carty, R.H.; Barker, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the selection and evaluation of multi-step thermochemical water-splitting cycles is presented. A computerized and thermodynamic and chemical engineering analysis procedure is discussed with calculates, among other things, the thermal efficiency of the process which is defined to be the ratio of the enthalpy change for water decomposition to the total thermal energy required by the process. Changes in the thermodynamic state in each step of the process are also determined. Engineering considerations such as the effect of approach to equilibrium in the chemical reaction steps on the work of separation, and the magnitude of the recycle streams are included. Important practical matters such as thermal regeneration in the product and reactant streams are dealt with in some detail. The effect of reaction temperature on thermal efficiency is described and the use of the analysis procedure is demonstrated by applying it to several processes. (author)

  4. Sequestration of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to useful products

    Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.; Hawkins, Aaron B.; Menon, Angeli Lal; Lipscomb, Gina Lynette Pries; Schut, Gerrit Jan

    2017-03-07

    Provided herein are genetically engineered microbes that include at least a portion of a carbon fixation pathway, and in one embodiment, use molecular hydrogen to drive carbon dioxide fixation. In one embodiment, the genetically engineered microbe is modified to convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof at levels greater than a control microbe. Other products may also be produced. Also provided herein are cell free compositions that convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof. Also provided herein are methods of using the genetically engineered microbes and the cell free compositions.

  5. A CFD Simulation of Hydrogen Production in Microreactors

    Javad Sabziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the modeling of hydrogen production process in microreactors by methanol-steam reforming reaction is investigated. The catalytic reaction of methanol-steam reforming producing hydrogen is simulated considering a 3D geometry for the microreactor. To calculate diffusion among species, mixture average correlations are compared to Stephan-Maxwell equations. The reactions occurring inside the microreactor include reforming of methanol with steam, methanol decomposition, and a reaction between carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The main objectives of this study are the prediction of temperature profile along the microreactor using either mixture average method or Stephan-Maxwell one and the comparison between the present predictions and some existing experimental data. The simulation results indicate that Stephan-Maxwell method conforms more suitably to the experimental results. The difference is more at lower feed flow rates since, when the flow rate increases, mass transfer mechanism changes from diffusion to convection, which in turn reduces the difference.

  6. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  7. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

    Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz

    2009-07-31

    This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

  8. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system II

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Utilization and production of hydrogen has been studied in order to spread utilization of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in the world. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-ether (DME). has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced from natural gas by steam reforming. Therefore, the system would become one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. Following the study in 2002, we performed economic evaluation of the hydrogen and DME production by nuclear heat utilization plant where heat generated by HTGR is completely consumed for the production. The results show that hydrogen price produced by nuclear was about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by increase in recovery rate of high purity hydrogen with increased in PSA process. Price of DME in indirect method produced by nuclear heat was also about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by producing high purity hydrogen in the DME producing process. As for the DME, since price of DME produced near oil land in petroleum exporting countries is cheaper than production in Japan, production of DME by nuclear heat in Japan has disadvantage economically in this time. Trial study to estimate DME price produced by direct method was performed. From the present estimation, utilization of nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen would be more effective with coupled consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release. (author)

  9. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermo-electrochemical production of compressed hydrogen from methane with near-zero energy loss

    Malerød-Fjeld, Harald; Clark, Daniel; Yuste-Tirados, Irene; Zanón, Raquel; Catalán-Martinez, David; Beeaff, Dustin; Morejudo, Selene H.; Vestre, Per K.; Norby, Truls; Haugsrud, Reidar; Serra, José M.; Kjølseth, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Conventional production of hydrogen requires large industrial plants to minimize energy losses and capital costs associated with steam reforming, water-gas shift, product separation and compression. Here we present a protonic membrane reformer (PMR) that produces high-purity hydrogen from steam methane reforming in a single-stage process with near-zero energy loss. We use a BaZrO3-based proton-conducting electrolyte deposited as a dense film on a porous Ni composite electrode with dual function as a reforming catalyst. At 800 °C, we achieve full methane conversion by removing 99% of the formed hydrogen, which is simultaneously compressed electrochemically up to 50 bar. A thermally balanced operation regime is achieved by coupling several thermo-chemical processes. Modelling of a small-scale (10 kg H2 day-1) hydrogen plant reveals an overall energy efficiency of >87%. The results suggest that future declining electricity prices could make PMRs a competitive alternative for industrial-scale hydrogen plants integrating CO2 capture.

  11. Hydrogen production by catalytic processing of renewable methane-rich gases

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Biomass-derived methane-rich gases such as landfill gas (LFG), biogas and digester gas are promising renewable resources for near-future production of hydrogen. The technical and economical feasibility of hydrogen production via catalytic reforming of LFG and other methane-rich gases is evaluated in this paper. The thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experimental measurements of reformation of methane-rich CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures over Ni-based catalyst were conducted. The problems associated with the catalyst deactivation due to carbon lay down and effects of steam and oxygen on the process sustainability were explored. Two technological approaches distinguished by the mode of heat input to the endothermic process (i.e., external vs autothermal) were modeled using AspenPlus trademark chemical process simulator and validated experimentally. A 5 kW{sub th} pilot unit for hydrogen production from LFG-mimicking CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture was fabricated and operated. A preliminary techno-economic assessment indicates that the liquid hydrogen production costs are in the range of 3.00-7.00 per kilogram depending upon the plant capacity, the process heat input option and whether or not carbon sequestration is included in the process. (author)

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production from Jerusalem artichoke by Clostridium tyrobutyricum expressing exo-inulinase gene.

    Jiang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Liying; Huang, He

    2017-08-11

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC25755 has been reported as being able to produce significant quantities of hydrogen. In this study, the exo-inulinase encoding gene cloned from Paenibacillus polymyxa SC-2 was into the expression plasmid pSY6 and expressed in the cells of C. tyrobutyricum. The engineered C. tyrobutyricum strain efficiently fermented the inulin-type carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without any pretreatment being necessary for the production of hydrogen. A comparatively high hydrogen yield (3.7 mol/mol inulin-type sugar) was achieved after 96 h in a batch process with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with an overall volumetric productivity rate of 620 ± 60 mL/h/L when the initial total sugar concentration of the inulin extract was increased to 100 g/L. Synthesis of inulinase in the batch SSF culture was closely associated with strain growth until the end of the exponential phase, reaching a maximum activity of 28.4 ± 0.26 U/mL. The overall results show that the highly productive and abundant biomass crop Jerusalem artichoke can be a good substrate for hydrogen production, and that the application of batch SSF for its conversion has the potential to become a cost-effective process in the near future.

  13. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  14. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  15. Production of hydrogen gas from novel chemical hydrides

    Aiello, R.; Matthews, M.A. [South Carolina Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Columbia, SC (United States); Reger, D.L.; Collins, J.E. [South Carolina Univ., Chemistry and Biochemistry Dept., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Six ligand-stabilized complexes have been synthesized and tested for use as hydrogen storage media for portable fuel cell applications. The new hydrides are: [HC(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 3}]LiBH{sub 4} (1), [[H{sub 2}C(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 2}]LiBH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (2) (pz = pyrazolyl), [(TMEDA)Li(BH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (3) (TMEDA (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}), [HC(pz){sub 3}]LiBH{sub 4} (4), [[H{sub 2}C(pz){sub 2}]Li(BH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (5) and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}3THF (6) (THF = tetrahydrofuran). Hydrolysis reactions of the compounds liberate hydrogen in quantities which range from 56 to 104 ({+-}5%) of the theoretical yield. Gas chromatographic analysis of the product gases from these reactions indicate that hydrogen is the only gas produced. Thermally initiated reactions of the novel compounds with NH{sub 4}Cl were unsuccessful. Although the amount of hydrogen energy which can be theoretically obtained per unit weight is lower than that of the classical hydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} and NaBH{sub 4}, the reactions are less violent and hydrolysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 releases less heat per mole of hydrogen generated. (Author)

  16. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  17. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  18. Reference costs of the electric power production

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  19. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    Lin, Jerry Y.S. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  20. Production of hydrogen from fermentation of pina agroindustrial waste

    Montoya Perez, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The performance of biohydrogen production was assesed a laboratory level, by anaerobic fermentation using agroindustrial residue of pineapple heart and employing microorganisms own of sludges from the bottom of an anaerobic digester belonging to a wastewater treatment plant from a seafood processor. Residue of pineapple heart was characterized physicochemically. The amounts were quantified: moisture, ashes, crude fiber, glucose, reducing sugars, hydrogen potential, soluble solids (Brix grades), boron, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and manganese. Per gram of pineapple heart is obtained 0,113 g of reducing sugars and 0,0114 g of glucose, which has made it a carbohydrate rich material that could ferment and produce hydrogen or other metabolites of commercial interest. A maximum yield was obtained of 0,0484 mol H 2 / mol of glucose consumed with a hydrogen maximum output of 1,260 mmol, at a maximum production rate of 0.070 mmol/h with a time lag in the production of hydrogen to 7,833 h under the following conditions: initial pH of 5,5, substrate initial concentration of 5 g/L and using a medium of mineral formulation based on sodium, calcium, iodine, zinc, nickel and molybdenum, in a container 125 mL where was consumed 88,4% of the initial glucose. A maximum yield of 1,541 mol H 2 / mol of consumed glucose was obtained, in a fermentation time of 30 h, with a maximum hydrogen production of 41,227 mmol, at a maximum production rate of 6,740 mmol/h with a lag time in the production of hydrogen for 16 h, under the following conditions: initial pH of 5,5, substrate initial concentration of 5 g/L and using a middle of mineral formulation based on sodium, calcium, iodine, zinc, nickel and molybdenum in a fermentor of 5 L where 96,39% was consumed of the initial glucose. The maximum yield from 1,541 mol H 2 / mol of glucose consumed has corresponded to 38% of the target value of the United States Department of Energy equivalent

  1. High temperature electrolysis for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    Herring, J. Stephen; O'brien, James E.; Stoots, Carl M.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Hartvigsen, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from water splitting, which can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) or thermochemical processes. In order to achieve competitive efficiencies, both processes require high-temperature operation (∼850degC). High-temperature electrolytic water splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce hydrogen with overall system efficiencies of 45 to 55%. At the Idaho National Laboratory, we are developing solid-oxide cells to operate in the steam electrolysis mode. The research program includes both experimental and modeling activities. Experimental results were obtained from ten-cell and 22-cell planar electrolysis stacks, fabricated by Ceramatec, Inc. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (∼200 μm thick, 64 cm 2 active area), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions, gas glow rates, and current densities. Hydrogen production rates greater than 100 normal liters per hour for 196 hours have been demonstrated. In order to evaluate the performance of large-scale HTE operations, we have developed single-cell models, based on FLUENT, and a process model, using the systems-analysis code HYSYS. (author)

  2. Potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in Pakistan

    Uqaili, M. A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The transport sector consumes about 34% of the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 97% of fuel used in this sector is oil and the remaining 3% is CNG and electricity. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is serious strain on the country's economy. The production, transportation and consumption of fossil fuels also degrade the environment. Therefore, it is important to explore the opportunities for clean renewable energy for long-term energy supply in the transport sector. Sindh, the second largest province of Pakistan, has about 250 km long coastline. The estimated average annual wind speed at 50 m height at almost all sites is about 6-7 m/s, indicating that Sindh has the potential to effectively utilize wind energy source for power generation and hydrogen production. A system consisting of wind turbines coupled with electrolyzers is a promising design to produce hydrogen. This paper presents an assessment of the potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in the coastal area of Sindh, Pakistan. The estimated technical potential of wind power is 386 TWh per year. If the wind electricity is used to power electrolyzers, 347.4 TWh hydrogen can be produced annually, which is about 1.2 times the total energy consumption in the transport sector of Pakistan in 2005. The substitution of oil with renewable hydrogen is essential to increase energy independence, improve domestic economies, and reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions

  3. IEA hydrogen agreement, task 15: photobiological hydrogen production - an international collaboration

    Lindblad, P.; Asada, Y.; Benemann, J.; Hallenbeck, P.; Melis, A.; Miyake, J.; Seibert, M.; Skulberg, O.

    2000-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production, the production of H 2 by microorganisms, has been an active field of basic and applied research for many years. Realization of practical processes for photobiological hydrogen production from water using solar energy would result in a major, novel source of sustainable and renewable energy, without greenhouse gas emissions or environmental pollution. However, development of such processes requires significant scientific and technological advances, and long-term basic and applied R and D. This International Energy Agency (lEA) Task covers research areas and needs at the interface of basic and applied R and D which are of mutual interest to the countries and researchers participating in the lEA Hydrogen Agreement. The overall objective is to sufficiently advance the basic and early-stage applied science in this area of research over the next five years to allow an evaluation of the potential of such a technology to be developed as a practical renewable energy source for the 21st Century. (author)

  4. Project feasibility and mine production costs

    Longworth, C R

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines the present investment environment existing in the Australian Coal Industry and places this in the context of the current world seaborne coal trade. Those factors which have the greatest influence on the viability of coal projects today, namely coal prices and quality, exchange rates, cash cost of production, capital and borrowing costs, infrastructure and government charges are dealt with briefly. The paper concludes by giving a schedule of those factors of a local character which can be changed to render projects more competitive and also presents some external factors beyond Australia's control which will, in part, influence the development of the industry in the next decade. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  6. Technoeconomical analysis of the co-production of hydrogen energy and carbon materials

    Guerra, Zuimdie

    HECAM (Hydrogen Energy and Carbon Materials) is a new energy production strategy. The main paradigm of HECAM is that energy extracted from the carbon in hydrocarbon fuels is not worth the production of carbon dioxide. The hydrocarbon fuel is heated in an oxygen free environment and it is chemically decomposed by the heat into gases (mostly hydrogen and methane), small quantities of liquid (light oil and tar), and a solid residue containing carbon and ash (char or coke). More quantities of hydrocarbons will need to be used, but less carbon dioxide will be produced. HECAM is going to compete with steam methane reforming (SMR) to produce hydrogen. HECAM with thermocatalytic decomposition of methane and efficient sensible heat recovery has a production cost per gigajoule of hydrogen about 9% higher than SMR, but will produce about half the carbon dioxide emissions that SMR produces. If HECAM with efficient sensible heat recovery is used to produce electricity in a power plant, it will have a comparable electricity production cost and carbon dioxide emissions to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant. The byproduct coke is not a waste residue, but a valuable co-product. Uses for the byproduct coke material may be carbon sequestration, mine land restoration, additive to enhance agricultural soils, low sulfur and mercury content heating fuel for power plants, new construction materials, or carbon-base industrial materials. This study investigated the use of byproduct coke for new construction materials. HECAM concrete substitute (HCS) materials will have a comparable cost with concrete when the cost of the raw materials is $65 per metric ton of HCS produced. HECAM brick substitute (HBS) materials will have 20% higher cost per brick than clay bricks. If the HECAM byproduct coke can be formed into bricks as a product of the HECAM process, the manufacture of HBS bricks will be cheaper and may be cost competitive with clay bricks. The results of this analysis are

  7. A comparative economic assessment of hydrogen production from large central versus smaller distributed plant in a carbon constrained world

    Nguyen, Y.V.; Ngo, Y.A.; Tinkler, M.J.; Cowan, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the economics of producing hydrogen at large central plants versus smaller distributed plants at user sites. The economics of two types of central plant, each at 100 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen, based on electrolysis and natural gas steam reforming technologies, will be discussed. The additional cost of controlling CO 2 emissions from the natural gas steam reforming plant will be included in the analysis in order to satisfy the need to live in a future carbon constrained world. The cost of delivery of hydrogen from the large central plant to the user sites in a large metropolitan area will be highlighted, and the delivered cost will be compared to the cost from on-site distributed generation plants. Five types of distributed generation plants, based on proton exchange membrane, alkaline electrolysis and advanced steam reforming, will be analysed and discussed. Two criteria were used to rank various hydrogen production options, the cost of production and the price of hydrogen to achieve an acceptable return of investment. (author)

  8. Hydrogen production with a solar steam–methanol reformer and colloid nanocatalyst

    Lee, Ming-Tsang; Werhahn, Michael; Hwang, David J.; Hotz, Nico; Greif, Ralph; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2010-01-01

    of the reformer and thereby increase hydrogen production. The hydrogen production output efficiency is determined and a value of 5% is achieved. Experiments using concentrated solar simulator light as the radiation source are also carried out. The results show

  9. Viability analysis for use of hydrogen as fuel in logistics centers

    Clemente Jul, María del Carmen; Fúnez Guerra, Carlos; Nieto Calderón, Beatriz; Jaén Caparros, María; Sendarrubias Carbonero, Vanessa; Reyes Bozo, Lorenzo; Godoy-faúndez, Álex; Vyhmeister, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The electricity cost in battery logistic center is cheaper (access to electricity grid with three period contract) that green hydrogen cost in hydrogen logistic center (hydrogen production plant, hydrogen transport and hydrogen refueling station in logistic center). The investment cost of hydrogen logistic center is cheaper (hydrogen forklift) than battery logistic center (battery forklift, second battery, battery charger and batteries area). The operation and maintenance cost for hydrogen lo...

  10. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    Heaton, H. [Solar Reactor Technologies Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Economic feasibility of hydrogen enrichment for reducing NOx emissions from landfill gas power generation alternatives: A comparison of the levelized cost of electricity with present strategies

    Kornbluth, Kurt; Greenwood, Jason; Jordan, Eddie; McCaffrey, Zach; Erickson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent research showing that hydrogen enrichment can lower NO x emissions from landfill gas combustion below future NO x emission control standards imposed by both federal and California state regulations, an investigation was performed to compare the levelized cost of electricity of this technology with other options. In this cost study, a lean-burn reciprocating engine with no after-treatment was the baseline case to compare six other landfill gas-to-energy projects. These cases include a lean burn engine with selective catalytic reduction after treatment, a lean-burn microturbine, and four variations on an ultra-lean-burn engine utilizing hydrogen enrichment with each case using a different method of hydrogen production. Only hydrogen enrichment with an in-stream autothermal fuel reformer was shown to be potentially cost-competitive with current strategies for reaching the NO x reduction target in IC engines. - Highlights: ► Levelized cost of electricity for hydrogen enriched combustion was compared. ► Various ultra-lean-burn engines and microturbines with hydrogen were analyzed. ► Combustion with an autothermal fuel reformer was potentially cost-competitive.

  12. Utilization of solar and nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    Fischer, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the world-wide energy supply situation appears to have eased at present, non-fossil primary energy sources and hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier will have to take over a long-term and increasing portion of the energy supply system. The only non-fossil energy sources which are available in relevant quantities, are nuclear energy, solar energy and hydropower. The potential of H 2 for the extensive utilization of solar energy is of particular importance. Status, progress and development potential of the electrolytic H 2 production with photovoltaic generators, solar-thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are studied and discussed. The joint German-Saudi Arabian Research, Development and Demonstration Program HYSOLAR for the solar hydrogen production and utilization is summarized. (orig.)

  13. Advances in ethanol reforming for the production of hydrogen

    Laura Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol (SRE is a promising route for the production of renewable hydrogen (H2. This article reviews the influence of doping supported-catalysts used in SRE on the conversion of ethanol, selectivity for H2, and stability during long reaction periods. In addition, promising new technologies such as membrane reactors and electrochemical reforming for performing SRE are presented.

  14. Yttrium bismuth titanate pyrochlore mixed oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Merka, Oliver

    2012-10-18

    In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of new non-stoichiometric pyrochlore titanates and their application in photocatalytic hydrogen production is reported. Visible light response is achieved by introducing bismuth on the A site or by doping the B site by transition metal cations featuring partially filled d orbitals. This work clearly focusses on atomic scale structural changes induced by the systematical introduction of non-stoichiometry in pyrochlore mixed oxides and the resulting influence on the activity in photocatalytic hydrogen production. The materials were characterized in detail regarding their optical properties and their atomic structure. The pyrochlore structure tolerates tremendous stoichiometry variations. The non-stoichiometry in A{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich compositions is compensated by distortions in the cationic sub-lattice for the smaller Y{sup 3+} cation and by evolution of a secondary phase for the larger Bi{sup 3+} cation on the A site. For TiO{sub 2} rich compositions, the non-stoichiometry leads to a special vacancy formation in the A and optionally O' sites. It is shown that pyrochlore mixed oxides in the yttrium bismuth titanate system represent very active and promising materials for photocatalytic hydrogen production, if precisely and carefully tuned. Whereas Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} yields stable hydrogen production rates over time, the bismuth richer compounds of YBiTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} are found to be not stable under irradiation. This drawback is overcome by applying a special co-catalyst system consisting of a precious metal core and a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell on the photocatalysts.

  15. Process Integration Analysis of an Industrial Hydrogen Production Process

    Stolten, Detlef; Grube, Thomas; Tock, Laurence; Maréchal, François; Metzger, Christian; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to expl...

  16. Safety considerations for continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour

    Onuki, Kaoru; Akino, Norio; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Higashi, Shunichi; Kubo, Shinji

    2001-03-01

    Since the thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen using toxic chemicals such as sulfuric acid, iodine and hydriodic acid, safety considerations are very important in its research and development. Therefore, before construction of continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour, comprehensive safety considerations were carried out to examine the design and construction works of the test apparatus, and the experimental plans using the apparatus. Emphasis was given on the safety considerations on prevention of breakage of glasswares and presumable abnormalities, accidents and their countermeasures. This report summarizes the results of the considerations. (author)

  17. Current U.S. uranium production costs

    Steyn, J.J.; Douglas, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. uranium industry has undergone significant changes in the 1980s. These changes have come about largely as a result of the much slower growth of nuclear power than that initially anticipated and the deployment of an excess uranium supply capacity by 1979. The demand and supply imbalance has led to a substantial build-up in excess inventories which will not be remedied until well into the 1990s. At the same time as domestic inventories were building, large low cost uranium deposits were being discovered and developed in Canada and Australia. Additionally, in the past year or so it has become apparent that low cost uranium from the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China will increasingly become a factor in the marketplace. The soft demand, large inventories, and competitive imports, stimulated by the recently ratified U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, have caused the U.S. uranium industry to contract to one-tenth of its size ten years ago, if employment is taken at the gage. In light of the foregoing, this paper examines the current U.S. uranium production cost outlook for the 1990s. It is based on a direct cost analysis of all identifiable uranium deposits, mines, and production centers

  18. Hydrogen production and purification for fuel cell applications

    Chin, Soo Yin

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. Currently, production of hydrogen for fuel cells is primarily achieved via steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas, or steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed due to its adverse effects on the Pt-based electrocatalysts of the PEM fuel cell. Our efforts have focused on production of CO-free hydrogen via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons and purification of H2 via the preferential oxidation of CO. The catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons is an attractive alternative for the production of H2. Previous studies utilizing methane have shown that this approach can indeed produce CO-free hydrogen, with filamentous carbon formed as the by-product and deposited on the catalyst. We have further extended this approach to the decomposition of ethane. In addition to hydrogen and filamentous carbon however, methane is also formed in this case as a by-product. Studies conducted at different temperatures and space velocities suggest that hydrogen is the primary product while methane is formed in a secondary step. Ni/SiO2 catalysts are active for ethane decomposition at temperatures above 500°C. Although the yield of hydrogen increases with temperature, the catalyst deactivation rate also accelerates at higher temperatures. The preferential oxidation of CO is currently used for the purification of CO-contaminated hydrogen streams due to its efficiency and simplicity. Conventional Pt catalysts used for this reaction have been shown to effectively remove CO, but have limited selectivity (i.e., substantial amounts of H 2 also react with O2). Our work focused on alternative catalytic materials, such as Ru and bimetallic Ru-based catalysts (Pt-Ru, Ru

  19. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H 2 concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH 4 is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)