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Sample records for hydrogen lyase-overexpressing escherichia

  1. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  2. Formate detection by potassium permanganate for enhanced hydrogen production in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshinari [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wood, Thomas K. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli for hydrogen production is difficult since there is no high-throughput screen. Here we describe a method for rapid detection of enhanced hydrogen production by engineered strains by detecting formate via potassium permanganate; in E. coli, hydrogen is synthesized from formate using the formate hydrogen lyase system. (author)

  3. Hydrogen isotopes in individual amino acids reflect differentiated pools of hydrogen from food and water in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Marilyn L; Griffin, Patrick L; Newsome, Seth D

    2016-08-09

    Hydrogen isotope (δ(2)H) analysis is widely used in animal ecology to study continental-scale movement because δ(2)H can trace precipitation and climate. To understand the biochemical underpinnings of how hydrogen is incorporated into biomolecules, we measured the δ(2)H of individual amino acids (AAs) in Escherichia coli cultured in glucose-based or complex tryptone-based media in waters with δ(2)H values ranging from -55‰ to +1,070‰. The δ(2)H values of AAs in tryptone spanned a range of ∼250‰. In E. coli grown on glucose, the range of δ(2)H among AAs was nearly 200‰. The relative distributions of δ(2)H of AAs were upheld in cultures grown in enriched waters. In E. coli grown on tryptone, the δ(2)H of nonessential AAs varied linearly with the δ(2)H of media water, whereas δ(2)H of essential AAs was nearly identical to δ(2)H in diet. Model calculations determined that as much as 46% of hydrogen in some nonessential AAs originated from water, whereas no more than 12% of hydrogen in essential AAs originated from water. These findings demonstrate that δ(2)H can route directly at the molecular level. We conclude that the patterns and distributions in δ(2)H of AAs are determined through biosynthetic reactions, suggesting that δ(2)H could become a new biosignature for studying novel microbial pathways. Our results also show that δ(2)H of AAs in an organism's tissues provides a dual tracer for food and environmental (e.g., drinking) water.

  4. Dark fermentative hydrogen and ethanol production from biodiesel waste glycerol using a co-culture of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maru, B.T.; López, F.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Constantí, M.; Medina, F.

    2016-01-01

    In previous comparative studies, Enterobacter spH1 was selected as the best hydrogen and ethanol producer (Knothe, 2010). Here, glycerol fermentation was compared between three other strains: Escherichia coli CECT432, Escherichia coli CECT434 and Enterobacter cloacae MCM2/1. E. coli CECT432 was

  5. Hydrogen production and metabolic flux analysis of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seohyoung; Seol, Eunhee; Park, Sunghoon [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Oh, You-Kwan [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-543 (Korea); Wang, G.Y. [Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Escherichia coli can produce H{sub 2} from glucose via formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). In order to improve the H{sub 2} production rate and yield, metabolically engineered E. coli strains, which included pathway alterations in their H{sub 2} production and central carbon metabolism, were developed and characterized by batch experiments and metabolic flux analysis. Deletion of hycA, a negative regulator for FHL, resulted in twofold increase of FHL activity. Deletion of two uptake hydrogenases (1 (hya) and hydrogenase 2 (hyb)) increased H{sub 2} production yield from 1.20 mol/mol glucose to 1.48 mol/mol glucose. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) and fumarate reductase (frdAB) further improved the H{sub 2} yield; 1.80 mol/mol glucose under high H{sub 2} pressure or 2.11 mol/mol glucose under reduced H{sub 2} pressure. Several batch experiments at varying concentrations of glucose (2.5-10 g/L) and yeast extract (0.3 or 3.0 g/L) were conducted for the strain containing all these genetic alternations, and their carbon and energy balances were analyzed. The metabolic flux analysis revealed that deletion of ldhA and frdAB directed most of the carbons from glucose to the glycolytic pathway leading to H{sub 2} production by FHL, not to the pentose phosphate pathway. (author)

  6. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Stress conditions such as heat shock alter the transcriptional profile in all organisms. In Escherichia coli the heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32, out-competes upon temperature up-shift the housekeeping sigma-factor, sigma 70, for binding to core RNA polymerase and initiates heat shock...... gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...

  7. A Kinetic Platform to Determine the Fate of Hydrogen Peroxide in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin J Adolfsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is used by phagocytic cells of the innate immune response to kill engulfed bacteria. H2O2 diffuses freely into bacteria, where it can wreak havoc on sensitive biomolecules if it is not rapidly detoxified. Accordingly, bacteria have evolved numerous systems to defend themselves against H2O2, and the importance of these systems to pathogenesis has been substantiated by the many bacteria that require them to establish or sustain infections. The kinetic competition for H2O2 within bacteria is complex, which suggests that quantitative models will improve interpretation and prediction of network behavior. To date, such models have been of limited scope, and this inspired us to construct a quantitative, systems-level model of H2O2 detoxification in Escherichia coli that includes detoxification enzymes, H2O2-dependent transcriptional regulation, enzyme degradation, the Fenton reaction and damage caused by •OH, oxidation of biomolecules by H2O2, and repair processes. After using an iterative computational and experimental procedure to train the model, we leveraged it to predict how H2O2 detoxification would change in response to an environmental perturbation that pathogens encounter within host phagosomes, carbon source deprivation, which leads to translational inhibition and limited availability of NADH. We found that the model accurately predicted that NADH depletion would delay clearance at low H2O2 concentrations and that detoxification at higher concentrations would resemble that of carbon-replete conditions. These results suggest that protein synthesis during bolus H2O2 stress does not affect clearance dynamics and that access to catabolites only matters at low H2O2 concentrations. We anticipate that this model will serve as a computational tool for the quantitative exploration and dissection of oxidative stress in bacteria, and that the model and methods used to develop it will provide important templates for the

  8. Hydrogen production by Escherichia coli {delta}hycA {delta}lacI using cheese whey as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Colunga, Luis Manuel; Ordonez, Leandro G.; De Leon-Rodriguez, Antonio (Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a secc. CP 78216, San Luis Potosi, SLP. Mexico); Razo-Flores, Elias; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe (Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a secc. CP 78216, San Luis Potosi, SLP. Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    This study reports a fermentative hydrogen production by Escherichia coli using cheese whey as substrate. To improve the biohydrogen production, an E. coli {delta}hycA {delta}lacI strain (WDHL) was constructed. The absence of hycA and lacI genes had a positive effect on the biohydrogen production. The strain produced 22% more biohydrogen in a shorter time than the wild-type (WT) strain. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to optimize pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The optimal initial conditions for biohydrogen production by WDHL strain were pH 7.5, 37 C and 20 g/L of cheese whey. The specific production rate was improved from 3.29 mL H{sub 2}/optical density at 600 nm (OD{sub 600nm}) unit-h produced by WDHL under non-optimal conditions to 5.88 mL H{sub 2}/OD{sub 600nm} unit-h under optimal conditions. Using optimal initial conditions, galactose can be metabolized by WDHL strain. The maximum yield obtained was 2.74 mol H{sub 2}/mol lactose consumed, which is comparable with the yield reached in other hydrogen production processes with Clostridium sp. or mixed cultures. (author)

  9. Co-production of hydrogen and ethanol by Escherichia coli SS1 and its recombinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Shyan Soo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: HybC could improve glycerol consumption rate and ethanol productivity of E. coli despite lower hydrogen and ethanol yields. Higher glycerol consumption rate of recombinant hybC could be an advantage for bioconversion of glycerol into biofuels. This study could serve as a useful guidance for dissecting the role of hydrogenase in glycerol metabolism and future development of effective strain for biofuels production.

  10. Photosensitized production of hydrogen by Halobacterium halobium MMT sub 22 coupled to Escherichia coli in reversed micelles of sodium lauryl sulfate in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.M.T.; Bhatt, J.P. (Central Salt and Marine Research Inst., Bhavnagar (India))

    1991-01-01

    Observation on the enhanced production of hydrogen by Halobacterium halobium MMT{sub 22} coupled to Escherichia coli entrapped inside the reversed micelles formed by sodium lauryl sulfate in various organic solvents, namely benzene, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, n-heptane, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene, are reported. In the present system, a hundred fold increase in activity as compared to the activity in the usual aqueous medium was observed. (author).

  11. The induction of two biosynthetic enzymes helps Escherichia coli sustain heme synthesis and activate catalase during hydrogen peroxide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Stefano; Imlay, James A

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide pervades many natural environments, including the phagosomes that mediate cell-based immunity. Transcriptomic analysis showed that during protracted low-grade H(2)O(2) stress, Escherichia coli responds by activating both the OxyR defensive regulon and the Fur iron-starvation response. OxyR induced synthesis of two members of the nine-step heme biosynthetic pathway: ferrochelatase (HemH) and an isozyme of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (HemF). Mutations that blocked either adaptation caused the accumulation of porphyrin intermediates, inadequate activation of heme enzymes, low catalase activity, defective clearance of H(2)O(2) and a failure to grow. Genetic analysis indicated that HemH induction is needed to compensate for iron sequestration by the mini-ferritin Dps. Dps activity protects DNA and proteins by limiting Fenton chemistry, but it interferes with the ability of HemH to acquire the iron that it needs to complete heme synthesis. HemF is a manganoprotein that displaces HemN, an iron-sulfur enzyme whose synthesis and/or stability is apparently problematic during H(2)O(2) stress. Thus, the primary responses to H(2)O(2), including the sequestration of iron, require compensatory adjustments in the mechanisms of iron-cofactor synthesis. The results support the growing evidence that oxidative stress is primarily an iron pathology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Improved measurements of scant hydrogen peroxide enable experiments that define its threshold of toxicity for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Imlay, James A

    2018-03-14

    Escherichia coli is a model organism that has been exploited to reveal key details of hydrogen peroxide stress: the biomolecules that H 2 O 2 most rapidly damages and the defensive tactics that organisms use to fend it off. Much less clear is the amount of exogenous H 2 O 2 that is sufficient to injure the bacterium and/or to trigger its stress response. To fill this gap, we need to study the behavior of cells when they are exposed to defined amounts of H 2 O 2 on an hours-long time scale. Such experiments are difficult because bacteria rapidly consume H 2 O 2 that is added to test cultures. Further, lab media itself can generate H 2 O 2 , and media components interfere with the quantification of H 2 O 2 levels. In this study we describe mechanisms by which media components interfere with H 2 O 2 determinations, and we identify simple ways to minimize and correct for this interference. Using these techniques, it was shown that standard media generate so much H 2 O 2 that most intracellular H 2 O 2 derives from the medium rather than from endogenous metabolism. Indeed, bacteria spread on plates must induce their stress response or else perish. Finally, two straightforward methods were used to sustain low-micromolar steady-state concentrations of H 2 O 2 . In this way we determined that > 2 μM extracellular H 2 O 2 is sufficient to trigger the intracellular OxyR stress response, and > 5 μM begins to impair cell growth in a minimal medium. These concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than the doses that have typically been used in lab experiments. The new approaches should enable workers to study how various organisms cope with natural levels of H 2 O 2 stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic analysis of TCA Escherichia coli mutants reveals suitable genetic backgrounds for enhanced hydrogen and ethanol production using glycerol as main carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabrera, Gema; Muhamadali, Howbeer; Trivedi, Drupad K; Ratray, Nicholas J W; Goodacre, Royston; Cantero, Domingo; Bolivar, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel has emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels; however, the low price of glycerol feed-stocks generated from the biodiesel industry has become a burden to this industry. A feasible alternative is the microbial biotransformation of waste glycerol to hydrogen and ethanol. Escherichia coli, a microorganism commonly used for metabolic engineering, is able to biotransform glycerol into these products. Nevertheless, the wild type strain yields can be improved by rewiring the carbon flux to the desired products by genetic engineering. Due to the importance of the central carbon metabolism in hydrogen and ethanol synthesis, E. coli single null mutant strains for enzymes of the TCA cycle and other related reactions were studied in this work. These strains were grown anaerobically in a glycerol-based medium and the concentrations of ethanol, glycerol, succinate and hydrogen were analysed by HPLC and GC. It was found that the reductive branch is the more relevant pathway for the aim of this work, with malate playing a central role. It was also found that the putative C4-transporter dcuD mutant improved the target product yields. These results will contribute to reveal novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving hydrogen and ethanol production by E. coli. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Towards an integrated system for bio-energy: hydrogen production by Escherichia coli and use of palladium-coated waste cells for electricity generation in a fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, R L; Redwood, M D; Yong, P; Caldelari, I; Sargent, F; Macaskie, L E

    2010-12-01

    Escherichia coli strains MC4100 (parent) and a mutant strain derived from this (IC007) were evaluated for their ability to produce H(2) and organic acids (OAs) via fermentation. Following growth, each strain was coated with Pd(0) via bioreduction of Pd(II). Dried, sintered Pd-biomaterials ('Bio-Pd') were tested as anodes in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell for their ability to generate electricity from H(2). Both strains produced hydrogen and OAs but 'palladised' cells of strain IC007 (Bio-Pd(IC007)) produced ~threefold more power as compared to Bio-Pd(MC4100) (56 and 18 mW respectively). The power output used, for comparison, commercial Pd(0) powder and Bio-Pd made from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, was ~100 mW. The implications of these findings for an integrated energy generating process are discussed.

  15. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  16. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  17. Comparative study of SOS response induced by hydrogen peroxide in the absence or presence of iron ions, in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1994-01-01

    The H 2 O 2 is an reactive oxygen specie that arises from cell respiration process. It may cause deleterious effects on cell, by reacting with transition metals like iron. In this way it yields free radicals that are able to damage organic molecules, mainly DNA. Recent works have suggested that in the absence of Fe ions H 2 O 2 still damages Escherichia coli DNA. This work presents a comparative analysis of cell SOS responses to DNA damage in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium mutants pretreated or not with a Fe 2+ ion chelator (dipyridyl) and then treated with H 2 O 2 . The systems analysed were the lysogenic induction, Weigle reactivation, mutagenesis and cell inactivation curves. The cell inactivation curves were themselves distinct, in relation to both treatments. The increased sensitivity found in the lexA1 and recA13 mutants, when treated with dipyridyl and H 2 O 2 , suggests an important role of SOS response in repairing the lesions caused by this treatment. The profiles of the lysogenic induction and mutagenesis curves were also distinct in both treatments. The results of Weigle reactivation suggest that the products of uvrA and lexA genes have an important role in UV-damaged bacteriophage DNA repair, when dipyridyl-pretreated cells are treated with H 2 O 2 . All the results suggest that Fe-independent lesions produced by H 2 O 2 are different from the ones produced in the presence of this ion. (author)

  18. Optimizing strategy for Escherichia coli growth and hydrogen production during glycerol fermentation in batch culture: Effects of some heavy metal ions and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trchounian, Karen; Poladyan, Anna; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of heavy metals on Escherichia coli were revealed during glycerol fermentation at pH 6.5. • Ni"2"+ + Fe"2"+ (0.05 mM) mixture stimulated up to 1.5-fold bacterial biomass yield. • Ni"2"+ + Fe"3"+ (0.05 mM), Ni"2"+ + Fe"3"+ + Mo"6"+ (0.02 mM) and Fe"3"+ + Mo"6"+ enhanced (up to 3-fold) H_2 production. • Discrimination between Fe"2"+ and Fe"3"+ was important for H_2 production. • Cu"+ and Cu"2"+ (0.1 mM) inhibited H_2 production. - Abstract: Hydrogen (H_2) is well-known effective, ecologically clean and renewable fuel. Bacterial H_2 production is a promising one and its use in industrial level is expected to increase in the nearest future to establish sustainable and renewable energy source. Escherichia coli wild type BW25113 growth yield was shown to be stimulated 1.3–1.5-fold by nickel (Ni"2"+), iron (Fe"2"+, Fe"3"+) ions and by some metal ion mixtures: Ni"2"+ + Fe"2"+ + molybdenum (Mo"6"+), Ni"2"+ + Fe"3"+, Ni"2"+ + Fe"2"+ and Mo"6"+ + Fe"3"+ in low concentrations (<0.05 mM) stimulated the growth during glycerol (10 g L"−"1) fermentation up to stationary phase at pH 6.5; Ni"2"+ + Fe"2"+ mixture showed the maximal effect. However, the same concentrations of these metals and their mixtures had no effects or slightly inhibited bacterial specific growth rate: it was suppressed ∼1.2-fold upon Ni"2"+, Fe"3"+, Mo"6"+ and Ni"2"+ + Mo"6"+ mixture supplementation. H_2 production by E. coli from glycerol was observed with the yield of 0.75 ± 0.02 mmol L"−"1. Moreover, H_2 yield was markedly stimulated 1.7–3-fold in the presence of Ni"2"+ + Fe"3"+, Ni"2"+ + Fe"3"+ + Mo"6"+ and Fe"3"+ + Mo"6"+ mixtures, but not sole metals: maximal stimulation was established by Fe"3"+ + Mo"6"+ mixture with the concentrations of 0.05 mM and 0.02 mM, respectively. While copper (Cu"+, Cu"2"+) ions in low concentration (0.1 mM) had H_2 production suppressing effect. The results point out that some heavy metal ions and their mixtures can stimulate E

  19. Modifications on the hydrogen bond network by mutations of Escherichia coli copper efflux oxidase affect the process of proton transfer to dioxygen leading to alterations of enzymatic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajikawa, Takao; Kataoka, Kunishige [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Sakurai, Takeshi, E-mail: tsakurai@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton transfer pathway to dioxygen in CueO was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glu506 is the key amino acid to transport proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala mutation at Glu506 formed a compensatory proton transfer pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ile mutation at Glu506 shut down the hydrogen bond network. -- Abstract: CueO has a branched hydrogen bond network leading from the exterior of the protein molecule to the trinuclear copper center. This network transports protons in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. We replaced the acidic Glu506 and Asp507 residues with the charged and uncharged amino acid residues. Peculiar changes in the enzyme activity of the mutants relative to the native enzyme indicate that an acidic amino acid residue at position 506 is essential for effective proton transport. The Ala mutation resulted in the formation of a compensatory hydrogen bond network with one or two extra water molecules. On the other hand, the Ile mutation resulted in the complete shutdown of the hydrogen bond network leading to loss of enzymatic activities of CueO. In contrast, the hydrogen bond network without the proton transport function was constructed by the Gln mutation. These results exerted on the hydrogen bond network in CueO are discussed in comparison with proton transfers in cytochrome oxidase.

  20. Comparative study of SOS response induced by hydrogen peroxide in the absence or presence of iron ions, in Escherichia coli; Estudo comparativo da resposta SOS induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio em presenca e ausencia de ions ferro, em Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1994-07-01

    The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is an reactive oxygen specie that arises from cell respiration process. It may cause deleterious effects on cell, by reacting with transition metals like iron. In this way it yields free radicals that are able to damage organic molecules, mainly DNA. Recent works have suggested that in the absence of Fe ions H{sub 2}O{sub 2} still damages Escherichia coli DNA. This work presents a comparative analysis of cell SOS responses to DNA damage in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium mutants pretreated or not with a Fe{sup 2+} ion chelator (dipyridyl) and then treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The systems analysed were the lysogenic induction, Weigle reactivation, mutagenesis and cell inactivation curves. The cell inactivation curves were themselves distinct, in relation to both treatments. The increased sensitivity found in the lexA1 and recA13 mutants, when treated with dipyridyl and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, suggests an important role of SOS response in repairing the lesions caused by this treatment. The profiles of the lysogenic induction and mutagenesis curves were also distinct in both treatments. The results of Weigle reactivation suggest that the products of uvrA and lexA genes have an important role in UV-damaged bacteriophage DNA repair, when dipyridyl-pretreated cells are treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. All the results suggest that Fe-independent lesions produced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are different from the ones produced in the presence of this ion. (author)

  1. Cold Plasma-activated hydrogen peroxide aerosol inactivates Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria innocua and maintains quality of grape tomato, spinach and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide in inactivating bacteria and maintaining quality of grape tomato, baby spinach leaves and cantaloupe. Stem scar and smooth surfaces of tomatoes, spinach leaves, and cantaloupe rinds, inoculated with Escherich...

  2. Thio and hydrogen peroxide modofication of recA induction in UV-irradiated wild-type and catalase-deficient Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claycamp, H.G.; Kam-Kuen Ho; DeRose, C.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA

    1990-01-01

    Induction of recA in Escherichia coli, monitored as β-D-galactosidase activity in recA-lacZ fusion strains, was shown to be elevated and prolonged by dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment after far-UV radiation. Pretreatment of UV-irradiated coltures using DTT led to a shortened recA response and little increase of β-Gal yield. Similar studies were performed using a catalase-deficient recA-lacZ strain in which the major feature was elevated levels of recA-lacZ induction. Catalase activity in UV-irradiated wild-type cells was reduced by DTT treatment to levels as low as in a katE mutant strain, leading to similar recA-lacZ induction patterns between the strains. Neither DTT nor H 2 O 2 treatment of cells could induce significant recA transcription in the absence of UV-radiation, implying that both agents modify recA activity primarily by interfering with repair of recA-inducing DNA lesions. The results confirm previous studies suggesting that modification of DNA repair is probably a significant portion of thiol radiation protection. (author). 36 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  4. Hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This book consists of seven chapters, which deals with hydrogen energy with discover and using of hydrogen, Korean plan for hydrogen economy and background, manufacturing technique on hydrogen like classification and hydrogen manufacture by water splitting, hydrogen storage technique with need and method, hydrogen using technique like fuel cell, hydrogen engine, international trend on involving hydrogen economy, technical current for infrastructure such as hydrogen station and price, regulation, standard, prospect and education for hydrogen safety and system. It has an appendix on related organization with hydrogen and fuel cell.

  5. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  6. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  7. Hail hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.

    1996-01-01

    After years of being scorned and maligned, hydrogen is finding favor in environmental and process applications. There is enormous demand for the industrial gas from petroleum refiners, who need in creasing amounts of hydrogen to remove sulfur and other contaminants from crude oil. In pulp and paper mills, hydrogen is turning up as hydrogen peroxide, displacing bleaching agents based on chlorine. Now, new technologies for making hydrogen have the industry abuzz. With better capabilities of being generated onsite at higher purity levels, recycled and reused, hydrogen is being prepped for a range of applications, from waste reduction to purification of Nylon 6 and hydrogenation of specialty chemicals. The paper discusses the strong market demand for hydrogen, easier routes being developed for hydrogen production, and the use of hydrogen in the future

  8. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  9. Hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2008-01-01

    The USA Administration would like to consider the US power generating industry as a basis ensuring both the full-scale production of hydrogen and the widespread use of the hydrogen related technological processes into the economy [ru

  10. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  11. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe2+ (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu2+(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-01-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H 2 O 2 in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H 2 O 2 can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  12. Hydrogen safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA experience with hydrogen began in the 1950s when the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) research on rocket fuels was inherited by the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Initial emphasis on the use of hydrogen as a fuel for high-altitude probes, satellites, and aircraft limited the available data on hydrogen hazards to small quantities of hydrogen. NASA began to use hydrogen as the principal liquid propellant for launch vehicles and quickly determined the need for hydrogen safety documentation to support design and operational requirements. The resulting NASA approach to hydrogen safety requires a joint effort by design and safety engineering to address hydrogen hazards and develop procedures for safe operation of equipment and facilities. NASA also determined the need for rigorous training and certification programs for personnel involved with hydrogen use. NASA's current use of hydrogen is mainly for large heavy-lift vehicle propulsion, which necessitates storage of large quantities for fueling space shots and for testing. Future use will involve new applications such as thermal imaging

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  14. Hydrogen millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Benard, P.

    2000-05-01

    The 10th Canadian Hydrogen Conference was held at the Hilton Hotel in Quebec City from May 28 to May 31, 2000. The topics discussed included current drivers for the hydrogen economy, the international response to these drivers, new initiatives, sustainable as well as biological and hydrocarbon-derived production of hydrogen, defense applications of fuel cells, hydrogen storage on metal hydrides and carbon nanostructures, stationary power and remote application, micro-fuel cells and portable applications, marketing aspects, fuel cell modeling, materials, safety, fuel cell vehicles and residential applications. (author)

  15. Escherichia coli pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhea, or more severe diseases su...

  16. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  17. Conjugation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Herbert

    1966-01-01

    Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Conjugation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1767–1772. 1966.—The sex factor of Escherichia coli K-12 was introduced into an E. coli B/r strain by circumventing the host-controlled modification and restriction incompatibilities known to exist between these closely related strains. The sexual properties of the constructed F+ B strain and its Hfr derivatives were examined. These studies showed that the E. coli strain B/r F+ and Hfr derivatives are similar to the E. coli strain K-12 F+ and Hfr derivatives. However, the site of sex factor integration was found to be dependent on the host genome. PMID:5327905

  18. Questioning hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag, Roel; Mazza, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen is to be compared to electricity, the only widespread and viable alternative. When hydrogen is used to transmit renewable electricity, only 51% can reach the end user due to losses in electrolysis, hydrogen compression, and the fuel cell. In contrast, conventional electric storage technologies allow between 75% and 85% of the original electricity to be delivered. Even when hydrogen is extracted from gasified coal (with carbon sequestration) or from water cracked in high-temperature nuclear reactors, more of the primary energy reaches the end user if a conventional electric process is used instead. Hydrogen performs no better in mobile applications, where electric vehicles that are far closer to commercialization exceed fuel cell vehicles in efficiency, cost and performance. New, carbon-neutral energy can prevent twice the quantity of GHG's by displacing fossil electricity than it can by powering fuel cell vehicles. The same is true for new, natural gas energy. New energy resources should be used to displace high-GHG electric generation, not to manufacture hydrogen

  19. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  20. Metastable hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose, V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic physical properties of the metastable 2 2 sub(1/2) state of atomic hydrogen. Applications relying on its special properties, including measurement of the Lamb shift, production of spin-polarized protons and the measurement of molecular electric moments, are discussed. (author)

  1. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressouyre, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  2. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kilic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless for human. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common member of a group of pathogenic E. coli strains known variously as enterohaemorrhagic, verocytotoxin-producing, or Shiga-toxin-producing organisms. EHEC bacterium is the major cause of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The reservoir of this pathogen appears to be mainly cattle and other ruminants such as camels. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 387-388

  3. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  4. Thioredoxin from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, A.; Ohlsson, I.; Grankvist, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    A competition radioimmunoassay for Escherichia coli thioredoxin using 125 I-labeled thioredoxin-S 2 and a double antibody technique was developed. The method permits determination of picomole amounts of thioredoxin in crude cell extracts and was used to study the localization of thioredoxin cell fractions. E. coli B was calculated to have approximately 10,000 copies of thioredoxin per cell mainly located in the soluble fraction after separation of the membrane and soluble fractions by gentle lysis and centrifugation. E. coli B tsnC mutants which are defective in the replication of phage T7 DNA in vivo and in vitro were examined for their content of thioredoxin. E. coli B tsnC 7004 contained no detectable level of thioredoxin in cell-free extracts examined under a variety of conditions. The results strongly suggest that tsnC 7004 is a nonsense or deletion mutant. Two other E. coli tsnC mutants, 7007 and 7008, contained detectable levels of thioredoxin in crude extracts as measured by thioredoxin reductase and gave similar immunoprecipitation reactions as the parent strain B/1. By radioimmunoassay incompletely cross-reacting material was present in both strains. These results show that tsnC 7007 and 7008 belong to a type of thioredoxin mutants with missence mutations in the thioredoxin gene affecting the function of thioredoxin as subunit in phage T7 DNA polymerase

  5. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  6. PART I. ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Mahdi Oraibi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli in the air of facilities involved in management and composting of post-slaughter poultry wastes in selected plants of West Western Pomerania region was studied. Measurements were made on four dates in a variety of weather conditions during the year. The study was conducted at 5 objects that differ in the type of waste and the degree of preparation for composting. These were: chemical treatment and preliminary processing plant, liquid wastes reservoir, platform for preparation of materials for composting, storage of biological sediments, and composting facility. Measurement of bacteria count was carried out in accordance with the applicable procedures on selective chromogenic TBX medium. The assays revealed the presence of E. coli at all test objects, but not always on all measurement dates. It has been shown that the presence of E. coli was from 20 to 3047 CFU∙m-3 of air, although the largest quantities were most frequently detected in the air of the building for post-slaughter waste pre-treatment in chemical treatment plant.

  7. Destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; Dufour, L

    1929-01-21

    Oils of high boiling point, e.g. gas oil, lamp oil, schist oil, brown coal tar etc., are converted into motor benzine by heating them at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressure of 5 to 40 kilograms/cm/sup 2/ in the presence of ferrous chloride and gases such as hydrogen, or water gas, the desulfurization of the oils proceeding simultaneously. One kilogram of lamp oil and 100 g. ferrous chloride are heated in an autoclave in the presence of water gas under a pressure of 18 kg/cm/sup 2/ to 380 to 400/sup 0/C. The gaseous products are allowed to escape intermittently and are replaced by fresh water gas. A product distilling between 35 and 270/sup 0/C is obtained.

  8. 76 FR 20542 - Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... beef, Escherichia coli and coliphages were found in chicken, fresh pork, fresh oyster, fresh mushrooms, lettuce, chicken pot pie, biscuit dough, deli loaf, deli roasted turkey, and package roasted chicken... surfaces, and in foods such as ground beef, pork sausage, chicken, oysters, cheese, fresh mushrooms, and...

  9. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The bio-effects of the ethanol extracts from the leaf and stem of Momordica charantia were studied with the view to ascertain the medical usefulness ascribed to the plant by the locals. The plant parts, stem and leaf, revealed remarkable activity against Escherichia coli and Staphlococcus aureus. The leaves ...

  10. Conjugal Pairing in Escherichia Coli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Conjugal Pairing in Escherichia Coli. Joshua Lederberg. Classics Volume 13 Issue 8 August 2008 pp 793-794. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/08/0793-0794 ...

  11. Escherichia coli as a probiotic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, GJ; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; van der Waaij, D; Degener, JE

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oral treatment with a suspension of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli cells (commercially available as: Symbioflor II(R)) on the morphological composition of the gut microflora and on the systemic humoral immune response (the IgG-, IgA- and IgM-isotype) against the bacterial cells in

  12. Hydrogen converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, Angel V.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina developed a process of 99 Mo production from fission, based on irradiation of uranium aluminide targets with thermal neutrons in the RA-3 reactor of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. These targets are afterwards dissolved in an alkaline solution, with the consequent liberation of hydrogen as the main gaseous residue. This work deals with the use of a first model of metallic converter and a later prototype of glass converter at laboratory scale, adjusted to the requirements and conditions of the specific redox process. Oxidized copper wires were used, which were reduced to elementary copper at 400 C degrees and then regenerated by oxidation with hot air. Details of the bed structure and the operation conditions are also provided. The equipment required for the assembling in cells is minimal and, taking into account the operation final temperature and the purge with nitrogen, the procedure is totally safe. Finally, the results are extrapolated for the design of a converter to be used in a hot cell. (author)

  13. Induced resistance to hydrogen peroxide, UV and gamma radiation in bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The catalase activity produced in four bacillus spp.(bacillus cereus, B. laterosporus, B. pumilus and B. subtilis (Escherichia coli was used for comparison) was measured and the sensitivity of these bacteria to hydrogen peroxide was tested. Bacillus spp. had higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide than E. coil. cultures of bacillus spp . When pretreated with sublethal level of hydrogen peroxide, became relatively resistant to the lethal effects of hydrogen than untreated control cultures. These pretreated cells were also resistant to lethality mediated by UV light and gamma radiation. The obtained results suggest that bacillus spp. Possess inducible defense mechanism (s) against the deleterious effects of oxidants and /or ionizing radiation

  14. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation on non-sporing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, C.E.; Waites, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A kill of 99.99% was obtained in cell suspensions of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis by incubation with hydrogen peroxide 1.0%(w/v) for 75 and 180 min respectively. The same kill was produced by 30s irradiation with ultraviolet (u.v.) light in the presence of hydrogen peroxide 1.0% (w/v). This simultaneous treatment with u.v. and hydrogen peroxide produced a synergistic kill at least 30-fold greater than that produced by irradiation of cell suspensions of Esch. coli with or without subsequent incubation with hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  15. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu{sup 2+}(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival; Avaliacao da genotoxicidade induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio na presenca dos quelantes de ions Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipiridil) e de ions Cu{sup 2+} (neocuproina), em Escherichia coli: envolvimento de mecanismos de reparo de DNA na sobrevivencia bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-07-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  16. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasypin, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

  17. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  18. Hydrogen fuel. Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darkrim-Lamari, F.; Malbrunot, P.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very energetic fuel which can be used in combustion to generate heat and mechanical energy or which can be used to generate electricity and heat through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen. This article deals with the energy conversion, the availability and safety problems linked with the use of hydrogen, and with the socio-economical consequences of a generalized use of hydrogen: 1 - hydrogen energy conversion: hydrogen engines, aerospace applications, fuel cells (principle, different types, domains of application); 2 - hydrogen energy availability: transport and storage (gas pipelines, liquid hydrogen, adsorbed and absorbed hydrogen in solid materials), service stations; 3 - hazards and safety: flammability, explosibility, storage and transport safety, standards and regulations; 4 - hydrogen economy; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  20. Hydrogen in metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, TJ

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available .J. Cartera,*, L.A. Cornishb aAdvanced Engineering & Testing Services, MATTEK, CSIR, Private Bag X28, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa bSchool of Process and Materials Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, P.O. WITS 2050, South Africa... are contrasted, and an unusual case study of hydrogen embrittlement of an alloy steel is presented. 7 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Keywords: Hydrogen; Hydrogen-assisted cracking; Hydrogen damage; Hydrogen embrittlement 1. Introduction Hydrogen suC128...

  1. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  2. Dynamics of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is mobile and can easily move through the material). Hydrogen diffuses ... The determination of the relationship of light-enhanced hydrogen motion to ... term is negligible, and using the thermodynamic relation given below f(c) = kBT .... device-applications problematic but the normal state can be recovered by a thermal an-.

  3. Handbook of hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sherif, SA; Stefanakos, EK; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    ""This book provides an excellent overview of the hydrogen economy and a thorough and comprehensive presentation of hydrogen production and storage methods.""-Scott E. Grasman, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

  4. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  5. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  6. Nuclear electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstaple, A.G.; Petrella, A.J.

    1982-05-01

    An extensive study of hydrogen supply has recently been carried out by Ontario Hydro which indicates that electrolytic hydrogen produced from nuclear electricity could offer the lowest cost option for any future large scale hydrogen supply in the Province of Ontario, Canada. This paper provides a synopsis of the Ontario Hydro study, a brief overview of the economic factors supporting the study conclusion and discussion of a number of issues concerning the supply of electrolytic hydrogen by electric power utilities

  7. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  8. Hydrogen-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzl, H.; Springer, T.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the alloys of metal crystals with hydrogen. The system niobium-hydrogen and its properties are especially dealt with: diffusion and heat of solution of hydrogen in the host crystal, phase diagram, coherent and incoherent phase separation, application of metal-hydrogen systems in technology. Furthermore, examples from research work in IFF (Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung) of the Nuclear Research Plant, Juelich, in the field of metal-H systems are given in summary form. (GSC) [de

  9. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  10. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in Daycare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Stensvold, Christen R.; Struve, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier...... and answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and exposures. Exposures included foreign travel, consumption of antibiotics, and contact with a diseased animal. In the capital area of Denmark, a total of 179 children aged 0-6 years were followed in a cohort study, in the period between 2009...

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  12. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  13. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  14. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  15. Hydrogen energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

  16. PATHOGENIC POTENTIALS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...

  17. Hydrogen energy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the outstanding role of hydrogen in energy processes, where it is the most functional element due to its unique peculiarities that are highlighted and emphasized in the book. The first half of the book covers the great natural hydrogen processes in biology, chemistry, and physics, showing that hydrogen is a trend that can unite all natural sciences. The second half of the book is devoted to the technological hydrogen processes that are under research and development with the aim to create the infrastructure for hydrogen energetics. The book describes the main features of hydrogen that make it inalienable player in processes such as fusion, photosynthesis, and metabolism. It also covers the methods of hydrogen production and storage, highlighting at the same time the exclusive importance of nanotechnologies in those processes.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes experimental work conducted previously at Rocky Flats to determine decomposition reaction-rate constants for hydrogen peroxide solutions. Data from this report were used to calculate decomposition half-life times for hydrogen peroxide in solutions containing several decomposition catalysts. The information developed from this survey indicates that hydrogen peroxide will undergo both homogeneous and heterogeneous decomposition. The rate of decomposition is affected by temperature and the presence of catalytic agents. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by alkalies, strong acids, platinum group and transition metals, and dissolved salts of transition metals. Depending upon conditions, the consequence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition can range from slow evolution of oxygen gas to a vapor, phase detonation of hydrogen peroxide vapors

  19. Hydrogen and its challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The future of hydrogen as a universal fuel is in jeopardy unless we are able to produce it through an environment-friendly way and at a competitive cost. Today almost all the hydrogen used in the world is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. This process releases 8 tonnes of CO 2 per tonne of hydrogen produced. Other means of producing hydrogen are the hydrolysis, the very high temperature hydrolysis, and the direct chemical dissociation of water, these processes are greener than steam reforming but less efficient. About one hundred buses in the world operate on fuel cells fed by hydrogen, but it appears that the first industrial use of hydrogen at great scale will be for the local generation of electricity. Globally the annual budget for research concerning hydrogen is 4.4 milliard (10 9 ) euros worldwide. (A.C.)

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for identification of Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii and Escherichia fergusonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Garcia-Toledo, L; Fasulo, D; Gladney, L M; Strockbine, N

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii, and Escherichia fergusonii are closely related bacteria that can cause illness in humans, such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections and diarrhea. Current identification strategies for these three species vary in complexity and typically rely on the use of multiple phenotypic and genetic tests. To facilitate their rapid identification, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting conserved, species-specific genes. We used the Daydreamer™ (Pattern Genomics, USA) software platform to concurrently analyze whole genome sequence assemblies (WGS) from 150 Enterobacteriaceae genomes (107 E. coli, 5 Shigella spp., 21 E. albertii, 12 E. fergusonii and 5 other species) and design primers for the following species-specific regions: a 212bp region of the cyclic di-GMP regulator gene (cdgR, AW869_22935 from genome K-12 MG1655, CP014225) for E. coli/Shigella; a 393bp region of the DNA-binding transcriptional activator of cysteine biosynthesis gene (EAKF1_ch4033 from genome KF1, CP007025) for E. albertii; and a 575bp region of the palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase (EFER_0790 from genome ATCC 35469, CU928158) for E. fergusonii. We incorporated the species-specific primers into a conventional multiplex PCR assay and assessed its performance with a collection of 97 Enterobacteriaceae strains. The assay was 100% sensitive and specific for detecting the expected species and offers a quick and accurate strategy for identifying E. coli, E. albertii, and E. fergusonii in either a single reaction or by in silico PCR with sequence assemblies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hydrogen - From hydrogen to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    More than a century ago, Jules Verne wrote in 'The Mysterious Island' that water would one day be employed as fuel: 'Hydrogen and oxygen, which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light'. Today, the 'water motor' is not entirely the dream of a writer. Fiction is about to become fact thanks to hydrogen, which can be produced from water and when burned in air itself produces water. Hydrogen is now at the heart of international research. So why do we have such great expectations of hydrogen? 'Hydrogen as an energy system is now a major challenge, both scientifically and from an environmental and economic point of view'. Dominated as it is by fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), our current energy system has left a dual threat hovering over our environment, exposing the planet to the exhaustion of its natural reserves and contributing to the greenhouse effect. If we want sustainable development for future generations, it is becoming necessary to diversify our methods of producing energy. Hydrogen is not, of course, a source of energy, because first it has to be produced. But it has the twofold advantage of being both inexhaustible and non-polluting. So in the future, it should have a very important role to play. (author)

  2. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  3. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  4. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIntyre, I.; Tchouvelev, A.V.; Hay, D.R.; Wong, J.; Grant, J.; Benard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  5. High density hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The interest in the properties of very dense hydrogen is prompted by its abundance in Saturn and Jupiter and its importance in laser fusion studies. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the metallic form of hydrogen may be a superconductor at relatively high temperatures and/or exist in a metastable phase at ambient pressure. For ten years or more, laboratories have been developing the techniques to study hydrogen in the megabar region (1 megabar = 100 GPa). Three major approaches to study dense hydrogen experimentally have been used, static presses, shockwave compression, and magnetic compression. Static tchniques have crossed the megabar threshold in stiff materials but have not yet been convincingly successful in very compressible hydrogen. Single and double shockwave techniques have improved the precision of the pressure, volume, temperature Equation of State (EOS) of molecular hydrogen (deuterium) up to near 1 Mbar. Multiple shockwave and magnetic techniques have compressed hydrogen to several megabars and densities in the range of the metallic phase. The net result is that hydrogen becomes conducting at a pressure between 2 and 4 megabars. Hence, the possibility of making a significant amount of hydrogen into a metal in a static press remains a formidable challenge. The success of such experiments will hopefully answer the questions about hydrogen's metallic vs. conducting molecular phase, superconductivity, and metastability. 4 figures, 15 references

  6. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  7. Hydrogen energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    For the Energy and Material consumption Scenarios (EMS), by which emission reduction of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases can be calculated, calculations are executed by means of the MARKAL model (MARket ALlocation, a process-oriented dynamic linear programming model to minimize the costs of the energy system) for the Netherlands energy economy in the period 2000-2040, using a variable CO 2 emission limit. The results of these calculations are published in a separate report (ECN-C--92-066). The use of hydrogen can play an important part in the above-mentioned period. An overview of several options to produce or use hydrogen is given and added to the MARKAL model. In this report techno-economical data and estimates were compiled for several H 2 -application options, which subsequently also are added to the MARKAL model. After a brief chapter on hydrogen and the impact on the reduction of CO 2 emission attention is paid to stationary and mobile applications. The stationary options concern the mixing of natural gas with 10% hydrogen, a 100% substitution of natural gas by hydrogen, the use of a direct steam generator (combustion of hydrogen by means of pure oxygen, followed by steam injection to produce steam), and the use of fuel cells. The mobile options concern the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector. In brief, attention is paid to a hydrogen passenger car with an Otto engine, and a hydrogen passenger car with a fuel cell, a hybrid (metal)-hydride car, a hydrogen truck, a truck with a methanol fuel cell, a hydrogen bus, an inland canal boat with a hydrogen fuel cell, and finally a hydrogen airplane. 2 figs., 15 tabs., 1 app., 26 refs

  8. Hydrogen gains further momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    As first industrial production projects should become a reality in the next few years, hydrogen as a source of energy will find important applications with mobility, which momentum is rapid and irresistible. Next steps will be the (large capacity) storage of hydrogen associated to power-to-gas systems and the generalization of renewable energies. This document presents 5 articles, which themes are: Description and explanation of the process of hydrogen production; Presentation of the H2V project for the construction, in Normandy, of the first operational industrial hydrogen production plant using electric power 100 pc generated by renewable energies; The conversion of electric power from renewable energies through hydrogen storage and fuel cells for buildings applications (Sylfen project); The development of a reversible fuel cell at Mines-Paris Tech University, that will be adapted to the storage of renewable electric power; Hydrogen as a lever for the development of zero-emission vehicles, from trucks to cars and bicycles

  9. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling......This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  10. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation The NREL technology validation team works on validating hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; hydrogen fueling infrastructure; hydrogen system components; and fuel cell use in early market applications such as

  11. Photoreactivating enzyme from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapka, R.M.; Fuselier, C.O.

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) has been purified in large amounts from an E.coli strain lysogenic for a defective lambda bacteriophage carrying the phr gene. The resulting enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.2 and an ionic strength optimum of 0.18. It consisted of an apoprotein and cofactor, both of which were necessary for catalytic activity. The apoprotein had a monomer molecular weight of 35,200 and showed stable aggregates under denaturing conditions. The amino acid analysis of the E.coli enzyme was very similar to that of the photoreactivating enzyme from orchid seedlings (Cattelya aurantiaca). Both had arginine at the amino terminus. The cofactor, like the holoenzyme, showed absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and emission properties indicative of an adenine moiety. Although the isolated enzyme had an action spectrum which peaked at about 360 nm, neither the cofactor, apoenzyme nor holoenzyme showed any detectable absorption between 300 and 400 nm. (author)

  12. Genomics of Escherichia and Shigella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Nicole T.

    The laboratory workhorse Escherichia coli K-12 is among the most intensively studied living organisms on earth, and this single strain serves as the model system behind much of our understanding of prokaryotic molecular biology. Dense genome sequencing and recent insightful comparative analyses are making the species E. coli, as a whole, an emerging system for studying prokaryotic population genetics and the relationship between system-scale, or genome-scale, molecular evolution and complex traits like host range and pathogenic potential. Genomic perspective has revealed a coherent but dynamic species united by intraspecific gene flow via homologous lateral or horizontal transfer and differentiated by content flux mediated by acquisition of DNA segments from interspecies transfers.

  13. Photoreactivating enzyme from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snapka, R M; Fuselier, C O [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1977-05-01

    Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) has been purified in large amounts from an E.coli strain lysogenic for a defective lambda bacteriophage carrying the phr gene. The resulting enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.2 and an ionic strength optimum of 0.18. It consisted of an apoprotein and cofactor, both of which were necessary for catalytic activity. The apoprotein had a monomer molecular weight of 35,200 and showed stable aggregates under denaturing conditions. The amino acid analysis of the E.coli enzyme was very similar to that of the photoreactivating enzyme from orchid seedlings (Cattelya aurantiaca). Both had arginine at the amino terminus. The cofactor, like the holoenzyme, showed absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and emission properties indicative of an adenine moiety. Although the isolated enzyme had an action spectrum which peaked at about 360 nm, neither the cofactor, apoenzyme nor holoenzyme showed any detectable absorption between 300 and 400 nm.

  14. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  15. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  16. Hydrogen meter prooftesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Mettler, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Two diffusion type hydrogen meters have been tested on the Prototype Applications Loop (PAL). The ANL designed unit was used to monitor hydrogen in sodium during FFTF startup and over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations resulting from chemical additions to the sodium and cover gas. A commercially available meter was added and its performance compared with the ANL unit. Details of the test work are described

  17. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  19. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  20. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  1. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  2. Purification of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, U.

    1978-01-01

    A process is described for purifying a hydrogen sulfide gas stream containing carbon dioxide, comprising (a) passing the gas stream through a bed of solid hydrated lime to form calcium hydrosulfide and calcium carbonate and (b) regenerating hydrogen sulfide from said calcium hydrosulfide by reacting the calcium hydrosulfide with additional carbon dioxide. The process is especially applicable for use in a heavy water recovery process wherein deuterium is concentrated from a feed water containing carbon dioxide by absorption and stripping using hydrogen sulfide as a circulating medium, and the hydrogen sulfide absorbs a small quantity of carbon dioxide along with deuterium in each circulation

  3. New hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the overall hydrogen system. There are separate sections for production, distribution, transport, storage; and applications of hydrogen. The most important methods for hydrogen production are steam reformation of natural gas and electrolysis of water. Of the renewable energy options, production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from wind turbines or by gasification of biomass were found to be the most economic for Finland. Direct use of this electricity or the production of liquid fuels from biomass will be competing alternatives. When hydrogen is produced in the solar belt or where there is cheap hydropower it must be transported over long distances. The overall energy consumed for the transport is from 25 to 40 % of the initial available energy. Hydrogen storage can be divided into stationary and mobile types. The most economic, stationary, large scale hydrogen storage for both long and short periods is underground storage. When suitable sites are not available, then pressure vessels are the best for short period and liquid H 2 for long period. Vehicle storage of hydrogen is by either metal hydrides or liquid H 2 . Hydrogen is a very versatile energy carrier. It can be used to produce heat directly in catalytic burners without flame, to produce electricity in fuel cells with high efficiency for use in vehicles or for peak power shaving, as a fuel component with conventional fuels to reduce emissions, as a way to store energy and as a chemical reagent in reactions

  4. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  5. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  6. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  7. Atomic hydrogen reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massip de Turville, C.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods are discussed of generating heat in an atomic hydrogen reactor which involve; the production of atomic hydrogen by an electrical discharge, the capture of nascent neutrons from atomic hydrogen in a number of surrounding steel alloy tubes having a high manganese content to produce 56 Mn, the irradiation of atomic hydrogen by the high energy antineutrinos from the beta decay of 56 Mn to yield nascent neutrons, and the removal of the heat generated by the capture of nascent neutrons by 55 Mn and the beta decay of 56 Mn. (U.K.)

  8. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  9. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindin, S. G.; Roberts, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst

  10. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  11. (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... the most common serious bacterial infections in infants ... UTI is a common cause of morbidity .... of ESBL and non-ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. ... in hospital and community acquired infections.

  12. Characterization of Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, pneumonia, soft-tissue infection, and ... Keywords: Drug resistance, Escherichia coli, Extraintestinal infections, Polymerase chain reaction, .... gynecology, 12 from orthopedics and 5 from pediatrics units.

  13. escherichia coli serotypes confirmed in experimental mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    VARIATIONS IN VIRULENCE OF THREE (3) ESCHERICHIA COLI. SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN ... ows are susceptible to E. coli infection because. E. coli exist in the .... Coli infections in mice: A laboratory animal model for research in.

  14. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  16. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  17. Dark hydrogen fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The production of hydrogen is a ubiquitous, natural phenomenon under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. A wide variety of bacteria, in swamps, sewage, hot springs, the rumen of cattle etc. is able to convert organic matter to hydrogen, CO2 and metabolites like acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and alanine.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  19. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  20. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  1. Hydrogen from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is generally regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The development of a process for hydrogen production from biomass complies with the policy of the Dutch government to obtain more renewable energy from biomass. This report describes the progress of the BWP II project, phase 2 of

  2. Measures for removing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Koehling, A.; Langer, G.; Poeschel, E.

    1984-01-01

    Basis for the investigation is a 1300-MW-PWR. The evolution of hydrogen was studied in design-basis and three hypothetical accident scenarios, the loss-of-coolant accident, the failure of emergency cooling system and core meltdown. It was shown that in the case of release rates of 4m 3 H 2 /h, the known post-accident hydrogen removal systems can be used and at medium rates up to 80 m 3 H 2 /h recombines of nuclear and non-nuclear industries are suitable under certain conditions. In the case of larger release rates it appears useful to apply a small recombiner of the type of the post-accident hydrogen removal system combined with an other hydrogen countermeasures. Recommendations are being made for the installation of an accident-proof hydrogen measuring system. (DG) [de

  3. Liquid hydrogen properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. I.; Han, K. Y.; Park, J.H.

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the input data, whose characteristic is thermodynamic and transport, in the form of equation for the thermo-hydraulic calculations using hydrogen as a working substance. The considered data in this report are particularly focused on the properties of para-hydrogen and of equilibrium-hydrogen around the working temperature range of the HANARO-CNS. The discussed properties of hydrogen are, in turn, the pressure of saturated vapors, the density, the heat of vaporization, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and heat capacity. Several equations to fit the above-mentioned experimental data allow calculating the various properties of liquid hydrogen with high accuracy at all considered temperatures

  4. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  5. Hydrogen production methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.

    1982-07-01

    Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of water is the only industrial process not dependent on fossil resources for large-scale hydrogen production and is likely to remain so for the next two or three decades. While many new processes, including those utilizing sunlight directly or indirectly, are presently not considered to be commercially viable for large-scale hydrogen production, research and development effort is needed to enhance our understanding of the nature of these processes. Water vapour electrolysis is compared with thermochemical processes: the former has the potential for displacing all other processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water

  6. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen molecules and hydrogen-related defects in crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, N.; Sasaki, S.; Murakami, K.; Ishioka, K.; Nakamura, K. G.; Kitajima, M.; Fujimura, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Haneda, H.

    1997-09-01

    We have found that hydrogen exists in molecular form in crystalline silicon treated with hydrogen atoms in the downstream of a hydrogen plasma. The vibrational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 4158 cm-1 for silicon samples hydrogenated between 180 and 500 °C. The assignment of the Raman line is confirmed by its isotope shift to 2990 cm-1 for silicon treated with deuterium atoms. The Raman intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 400 °C. The vibrational Raman line of the hydrogen molecules is broad and asymmetric. It consists of at least two components, possibly arising from hydrogen molecules in different occupation sites in crystalline silicon. The rotational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 590 cm-1. The Raman band of Si-H stretching is observed for hydrogenation temperatures between 100 and 500 °C and the intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 250 °C.

  8. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  9. The hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  10. The hydrogen highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A. [Fuel Cells Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  11. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  12. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  13. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaele Vellone

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO 2 , The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  14. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  15. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  16. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...... that the particles do not disintegrate is explained by a sintering process at the working temperatures. Exposure to air does not impair the sorption ability; on the contrary, it appears that surface oxidation plays an important role in the reaction. Some handling problems, e.g. the reaction of the hydride with water...

  17. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  18. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  19. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  20. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  1. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  2. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  3. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  4. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  5. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krassen, Henning

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  6. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  7. Hydrogen by water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis (aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide) is shortly presented with theoretical aspects (thermodynamics and kinetics), and components of the electrolytic cell (structural materials, cathodes, anodes, diaphragms), and examples of industrial processes. (A.B.). 4 figs

  8. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concepts transferred from the gaseous state. Separation of a ... molecular mass to that calculated by colligative methods. It is important in ... namics is vital in the design and optimization of the materials for hydrogen ... vehicular applications.

  9. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  10. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  11. Canadian hydrogen strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, M.; Scepanovic, V.; Dube, J.; Hammerli, M.; Taylor, J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In May of 2004, industry and government embarked on a process to create a strategic plan for development of the 'hydrogen economy' in Canada. The process was undertaken to determine how the development and commercialization of hydrogen technologies could be accelerated to yield a 'visible' reduction in greenhouse gases within the timeframe of Kyoto, while establishing a direction that addresses the necessity of far greater reductions in the future. Starting with a meeting of twenty seven experts drawn from the hydrogen technology, energy and transportation industries and government, a vision and mission for the planning process was developed. Two months later a second meeting was held with a broader group of stakeholders to develop hydrogen transition strategies that could achieve the mission, and from identifying the barriers and enablers for these strategies, an action plan was created. This paper reviews the results from this consultation process and discusses next steps. (author)

  12. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, G.W.; Davis, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500 0 C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150 0 C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  13. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  14. Hydrogen environment embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Exposure of many metals to gaseous hydrogen causes losses in elongation, reduction of area, and fracture toughness, and causes increases in slow crack growth rate or fatigue life compared with values obtained in air or vacuum. Hydrogen pressure, temperature, and purity significantly influence deleterious effects. The strength and structural characteristics of the metal influence the degradation of its properties by hydrogen. Several theories have been proposed to explain the loss of properties in hydrogen, but none has gained wide acceptance. The embrittlement mechanism and the role of diffusion are, therefore, open questions and need more quantitative experimental data both to test the proposed theories and to allow the development of realistic preventive measures. (U.S.)

  15. Hydrogen perspectives in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furutani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen energy is considered to present a potential effective options for achieving the greenhouse gas minimization. The MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) of Japanese Government is promoting the WE-NET (World Energy Network System) Project which envisions (1) construction of a global energy network for effective supply, transportation, storage and utilization of renewable energy using hydrogen as an energy carrier as a long-term options of sustainable energy economy, and (2) promotion of market entry of hydrogen energy in near and/or mid future even before construction of a WE-NET system. In this paper, I would like to report how far the hydrogen energy technology development addressed under Phase I has progressed, and describe the outline of the Phase II Plan. (author)

  16. Hydrogen permeability through metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.A.; Tsvetkov, I.V.; Marenkov, E.D.; Yarko, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of hydrogen permeability through one-layer and multi-layer membranes are considered. The effect of surface roughness, crystal defects, cracks and pores is described. Mathematical description of the processes is given [ru

  17. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  18. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  19. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  20. Nuclear power and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robert.

    1982-06-01

    Ontario has been using CANDU reactors to produce electricity since 1962. The province does not have an electricity shortage, but it does have a shortage of liquid fuels. The government of Ontario is encouraging research into the production of hydrogen using electricity generated by a dedicated nuclear plant, and the safe and economical use of hydrogen both in the production of synthetic petroleum fuels and as a fuel in its own right

  1. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  2. A Rechargeable Hydrogen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christudas Dargily, Neethu; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Devendrachari, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Gautam, Manu; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-04-27

    We utilize proton-coupled electron transfer in hydrogen storage molecules to unlock a rechargeable battery chemistry based on the cleanest chemical energy carrier molecule, hydrogen. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical analyses evidence the participation of protons during charge-discharge chemistry and extended cycling. In an era of anthropogenic global climate change and paramount pollution, a battery concept based on a virtually nonpolluting energy carrier molecule demonstrates distinct progress in the sustainable energy landscape.

  3. Hydrogen recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  4. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, Jay P.; Kramer, Robert; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Ramachandran, P.V.; Varma, Arvind; Zheng, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  5. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  6. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  7. Diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, V.V.; Ryabchikov, L.N.

    1966-01-01

    In this work the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in yttrium were determined from the rate at which the hydrogen was released from yttrium samples under a vacuum at temperatures of 450 to 850 0 C and from the quantity of hydrogen retained by yttrium at hydrogen pressures below 5 x 10 - 4 mm Hg in the same temperature range

  8. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  9. Hydrogen and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study examines the influence that the market demand for hydrogen might have on the development of world nuclear capacity over the next few decades. In a nuclear economy, hydrogen appears to be the preferred energy carrier over electricity for most purposes, due to its ready substitution and usage for all energy needs, as well as its low transmission costs. The economic factors upon which any transition to hydrogen fuelling will be largely based are seen to be strongly dependent on the form of future energy demand, the energy resource base, and on the status of technology. Accordingly, the world energy economy is examined to identify the factors which might affect the future demand price structure for energy, and a survey of current estimates of world energy resources, particularly oil, gas, nuclear, and solar, is presented. Current and projected technologies for production and utilization of hydrogen are reviewed, together with rudimentary cost estimates. The relative economics are seen to favour production of hydrogen from fossil fuels far into the foreseeable future, and a clear case emerges for high temperature nuclear reactors in such process heat applications. An expanding industrial market for hydrogen, and near term uses in steelmaking and aircraft fuelling are foreseen, which would justify an important development effort towards nuclear penetration of that market. (author)

  10. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  11. Metallic hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.J.; Hawke, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical studies predict that molecular hydrogen can be converted to the metallic phase at very high density and pressure. These conditions were achieved by subjecting liquid hydrogen to isentropic compression in a magnetic-flux compression device. Hydrogen became electrically conducting at a density of about 1.06 g/cm 3 and a calculated pressure of about 2 Mbar. In the experimental device, a cylindrical liner, on implosion by high explosive, compresses a magnetic flux which in turn isentropically compresses a hydrogen sample; coaxial conical anvils prevent escape of the sample during compression. One anvil contains a coaxial cable that uses alumina ceramic as an insulator; this probe allows continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity of the hydrogen. A flash x-ray radiograph exposed during the experiment records the location of the sample-tube boundaries and permits calculation of the sample density. The theoretical underpinnings of the metallic transition of hydrogen are briefly summarized, and the experimental apparatus and technique, analytical methods, and results are described. 9 figures

  12. Hydrogen isotope technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen pumping speeds on panels of molecular sieve types 5A and Na-Y were compared for a variety of sieve (and chevron) temperatures between 10 and 30 K. Although pumping speeds declined with time, probably because of the slow diffusion of hydrogen from the surface of the sieve crystals into the internal regions, the different sieve materials and operating conditions could be compared using time-averaged pump speeds. The (average) pumping speeds declined with increasing temperature. Under some conditions, the Na-Y sieve performed much better than the 5A sieve. Studies of the effect of small concentrations (approx. 4%) of hydrogen on helium pumping indicate that compound cryopumps in fusion reactors will not have to provide complete screening of hydrogen from helium panels. The concentrations of hydrogen did not lower effective helium pumping speeds or shorten the helium operating period between instabilities. Studies of tritium recovery from blankets of liquid lithium focused on design and construction of a flowing-lithium test system and on ultimate removal of tritium from yttrium sorbents. At 505 0 C, tritium release from yttrium behaves as a diffusion-controlled process, but the release rates are very low. Apparently, higher temperatures will be required for effective sorbent regeneration. An innovative technique for separating hydrogen isotopes by using bipolar electrolysis with permeable electrodes was analyzed to determine its potential usefulness in multistage separation

  13. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  14. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  15. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  16. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  17. Hydrogen, energy of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleau, Th.

    2007-01-01

    A cheap, non-polluting energy with no greenhouse gas emissions and unlimited resources? This is towards this fantastic future that this book brings us, analyzing the complex but promising question of hydrogen. The scientific and technical aspects of production, transport, storage and distribution raised by hydrogen are thoroughly reviewed. Content: I) Energy, which solutions?: 1 - hydrogen, a future; 2 - hydrogen, a foreseeable solution?; II) Hydrogen, an energy vector: 3 - characteristics of hydrogen (physical data, quality and drawbacks); 4 - hydrogen production (from fossil fuels, from water, from biomass, bio-hydrogen generation); 5 - transport, storage and distribution of hydrogen; 6 - hydrogen cost (production, storage, transport and distribution costs); III) Fuel cells and ITER, utopias?: 7 - molecular hydrogen uses (thermal engines and fuel cells); 8 - hydrogen and fusion (hydrogen isotopes, thermonuclear reaction, ITER project, fusion and wastes); IV) Hydrogen acceptability: 9 - risk acceptability; 10 - standards and regulations; 11 - national, European and international policies about hydrogen; 12 - big demonstration projects in France and in the rest of the world; conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. Future hydrogen markets for large-scale hydrogen production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of delivered hydrogen includes production, storage, and distribution. For equal production costs, large users (>10 6 m 3 /day) will favor high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies to avoid collection costs for hydrogen from widely distributed sources. Potential hydrogen markets were examined to identify and characterize those markets that will favor large-scale hydrogen production technologies. The two high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies are nuclear energy and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. The potential markets for these technologies are: (1) production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet) including liquid fuels with no net greenhouse gas emissions and (2) peak electricity production. The development of high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies requires an understanding of the markets to (1) define hydrogen production requirements (purity, pressure, volumes, need for co-product oxygen, etc.); (2) define and develop technologies to use the hydrogen, and (3) create the industrial partnerships to commercialize such technologies. (author)

  19. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1996-09-01

    Interstellar hydrogen can penetrate through the heliopause, enter the heliosphere, and may become ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. A fluid model is introduced to study the flow of interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere. The flow is governed by moment equations obtained from integration of the Boltzmann equation over the velocity space. Under the assumption that the flow is steady axisymmetric and the pressure is isotropic, we develop a method of solution for this fluid model. This model and the method of solution can be used to study the flow of neutral hydrogen with various forms of ionization rate β and boundary conditions for the flow on the upwind side. We study the solution of a special case in which the ionization rate β is inversely proportional to R2 and the interstellar hydrogen flow is uniform at infinity on the upwind side. We solve the moment equations directly for the normalized density NH/NN∞, bulk velocity VH/VN∞, and temperature TH/TN∞ of interstellar hydrogen as functions of r/λ and z/λ, where λ is the ionization scale length. The solution is compared with the kinetic theory solution of Lallement et al. The fluid solution is much less time-consuming than the kinetic theory solutions. Since the ionization rate for production of pickup protons is directly proportional to the local density of neutral hydrogen, the high-resolution solution of interstellar neutral hydrogen obtained here will be used to study the global distribution of pickup protons.

  20. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). This new date..., that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  2. Hydrogen concentration control utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, S.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen in a fluid mixture is controlled to a desired concentration by flowing the fluid through one chamber of a diffusion cell separated into two chambers by a hydrogen permeable membrane. A gradient of hydrogen partial pressure is maintained across the membrane to cause diffusion of hydrogen through the membrane to maintain the concentration of hydrogen in the fluid mixture at the predetermined level. The invention has particular utility for the purpose of injecting into and/or separating hydrogen from the reactor coolant of a nuclear reactor system

  3. Hydrogen molecules and hydrogen-related defects in crystalline silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Fukata, N.; Sasak, S.; Murakami, K.; Ishioka, K.; Nakamura, K. G.; Kitajima, M.; Fujimura, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Haneda, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have found that hydrogen exists in molecular form in crystalline silicon treated with hydrogen atoms in the downstream of a hydrogen plasma. The vibrational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 4158cm-1 for silicon samples hydrogenated between 180 and 500 °C. The assignment of the Raman line is confirmed by its isotope shift to 2990cm-1 for silicon treated with deuterium atoms. The Raman intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 400 °C. The vibrational Raman line of the hydro...

  4. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century

  5. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  6. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  7. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. David Swank

    2007-01-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant's absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500 C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed

  8. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Possibilities of hydrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.; Koehling, A.; Nikodem, H.

    1982-12-01

    In the event of hypothetical severe accidents in light-water reactors, considerable amounts of hydrogen may be produced and released into the containment. Combustion of the hydrogen may jeopardize the integrity of the containment. The study reported here aimed to identify methods to mitigate the hydrogen problem. These methods should either prevent hydrogen combustion, or limit its effects. The following methods have been investigated: pre-inerting; chemical oxygen absorption; removal of oxygen by combustion; post-inerting with N 2 , CO 2 , or halon; aqueous foam; water fog; deliberate ignition; containment purging; and containment venting. The present state of the art in both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities, has been identified. The assessment of the methods was based on accident scenarios assuming significant release of hydrogen and the spectrum of requirements derived from these scenarios was used to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods, assuming their application in a pressurized-water reactor of German design. (orig.) [de

  10. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Clean Energy Research Institute

    2008-09-30

    In the 1960s, air pollution in cities became an important issue hurting the health of people. The author became interested in environmental issues in general and air pollution in particular. He started studying possible vehicle fuels, with a view of determining the fuel which would cause little or no pollution. He particularly studied methanol, ethanol, ammonia and hydrogen as well as the gasohols (i.e., the mixtures of gasoline and methanol and/or ethanol). His investigation of fuels for transportation lasted five years (1967-1972). The result was that hydrogen is the cleanest fuel, and it is also the most efficient one. It would not produce CO (carbon monoxide), CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide), SO{sub x}, hydrocarbons, soot and particulates. If hydrogen was burned in oxygen, it would not produce NO{sub x} either. If it burned in air, there would then be some NO{sub x} produced. Since the author has always believed that engineers and scientists should strive to find solutions to the problems facing humankind and the world, he established the Clean Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the University of Miami in 1973. The mission of the Institute was to find a solution or solutions to the energy problem, so the world economy can function properly and provide humankind with high living standards. To find clean forms of energy was also the mission of the Institute, so that they would not produce pollution and damage the health of flora, fauna and humans, as well as the environment of the planet Earth as a whole. CERI looked at all of the possible primary energy sources, including solar, wind, currents, waves, tides, geothermal, nuclear breeders and thermonuclear. Although they are much cleaner and would last much longer than fossil fuels, these sources were not practical for use. They were not storable or transportable by themselves, except nuclear. They could not be used as a fuel for transportation by themselves, except nuclear for marine transportation. In order to solve

  11. Perturbation of formate pathway for hydrogen production by expressions of formate hydrogen lyase and its transcriptional activator in wild Enterobacter aerogenes and its mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Lai, Qiheng; Xing, Xin-Hui [Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-06-15

    To examine perturbation effects of formate pathway on hydrogen productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea), formate dehydrogenase FDH-H gene (fdhF) and formate hydrogen lyase activator protein FHLA gene (fhlA) originated from Escherichia coli, were overexpressed in the wild strain Ea, its hycA-deleted mutant (A) by knockout the formate hydrogen lyase repressor and hybO-deleted mutant (O) by knockout of the uptake hydrogenase, respectively. Overexpression of fdhF and fhlA promoted cell growth and volumetric hydrogen production rates of all the strains, and the hydrogen production per gram cell dry weight (CDW) for Ea, A and O was increased by 38.5%, 21.8% and 5.25%, respectively. The fdhF and fhlA overexpression improved the hydrogen yield per mol glucose of strains Ea and A, but declined that of strain O. The increase of hydrogen yield of the strain Ea with fdhF and fhlA expression was mainly attributed to the increase of formate pathway, while for the mutant A, the improved hydrogen yield with fdhF and fhlA expression was mainly due to the increase of NADH pathway. Analysis of the metabolites and ratio of ethanol-to-acetate showed that the cellular redox state balance and energy level were also changed for these strains by fdhF and fhlA expression. These findings demonstrated that the hydrogen production was not only dependent on the hydrogenase genes, but was also affected by the regulation of the whole metabolism. Therefore, fdhF and fhlA expression in different strains of E. aerogenes could exhibit different perturbation effects on the metabolism and the hydrogen productivity. (author)

  12. Hydrogen in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication proposes a rather brief overview of challenges related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector in the fields of transports and of energy storage to valorise renewable energies. Processes (steam reforming of natural gas or bio-gas, alkaline or membrane electrolysis, biological production), installation types (centralised or decentralised), raw materials and/or energy (natural gas, water, bio-gas, electricity, light), and their respective industrial maturity are indicated. The role of hydrogen to de-carbonate different types of transports is described (complementary energy for internal combustion as well as electrical vehicles) as well as its role in the valorisation and integration of renewable energies. The main challenges faced by the hydrogen sector are identified and discussed, and actions undertaken by the ADEME are indicated

  13. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the ... lactam resistance in multidrug resistant E. coli in ESBL and non-ESBL isolates. .... and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, particularly ertapenem (Perez et al.,.

  14. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  15. Optimization of plasmid electrotransformation into Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to improve electroporation, optical density of bacteria, recovery time and electrical parameter (field strength and capacitance) were optimized using the Taguchi statistical method. ANOVA of obtained data indicated that the optimal conditions of electrotransformation of pET-28a (+) plasmid into Escherichia coli ...

  16. Inhibition of Escherichia Coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus. aureus are of great concern to the food industry, especially in foods stored under refrigerated conditions where, unlike most food-borne pathogens are able to multiply. This investigation was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of some spice ...

  17. (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging antibiotic resistance due to extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production limited the use of β-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. This observational study was conducted at the Microbiology department of the Children's Hospital, Lahore Pakistan, from June, 2009 to ...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained from 382 samples.

  19. Characterization of Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli strains mainly fall into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and that virulent extra‑intestinal strains mainly belong to groups B2 and D. Aim: The aim was to determine the association between phylogenetic groups of E. coli causing extraintestinal infections (ExPEC) regarding the site of ...

  20. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, B.A.; Sharif, Firdaus

    1986-01-01

    The authors report a study of the misincorporation step in excision proficient umuC Escherichia coli as revealed by delayed photoreversal and show that it parallels the loss of photoreversibility of mutations induced in isogenic umu + bacteria; in both cases the end-point was mutation to streptomycin resistance. (author)

  1. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  2. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  3. Antibiotic resistance properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated from pregnant women with history of recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) and healthy pregnant women. Methods: A total of 485 high vaginal swab specimens were collected from pregnant women with ...

  4. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  5. Comparison of 61 Sequenced Escherichia coli Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Wassenaar, T. M.; Ussery, David

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution. Sixty-one publically available E. coli and Shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained.

  7. Prevalence of Arcobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, varying level of resistance of Escherichia coli 66(84.6%), Salmonella 6(100%) and Arcobacter 57(100%) to amoxicillin was observed. The susceptibility pattern indicates that the bacterial isolates exhibited a varying level of resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents with maximum resistance to amoxicillin.

  8. Fimbrial adhesins from extraintestinal Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) represent an important subclass of E. coli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human and animal hosts. Fimbriae are key virulence factors of ExPEC strains. These long surface located rod-shaped organelles mediate receptor-specific attachment...

  9. Leaner and meaner genomes in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David

    2006-01-01

    A 'better' Escherichia coli K-12 genome has recently been engineered in which about 15% of the genome has been removed by planned deletions. Comparison with related bacterial genomes that have undergone a natural reduction in size suggests that there is plenty of scope for yet more deletions....

  10. lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... The beta lactamase enzyme producing E. coli, resistant to β-lactam antibiotics, created many problems ... Key words: Escherichia coli, β-lactamase enzymes, TEM-type extended spectrum ... difficulties in treatment using antibiotics that are currently ... and chloramphenicol (30 µg) (Mast Diagnostics Ltd., UK).

  11. ANTIMICIROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    A total of 56 and 24 strains of E. coli and Shigella sp. isolated from children less than five years with diarrhoea attending 3 ... parasitic infections, as well as food intolerance, reaction to ..... Escherichia coil 0157:H7 as a model of entry of a new.

  12. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  13. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  14. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  15. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  16. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  17. Electrocatalysts for hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Losiewicz, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    This special topic volume deals with the development of novel solid state electrocatalysts of a high performance to enhance the rates of the hydrogen or oxygen evolution. It contains a description of various types of metals, alloys and composites which have been obtained using electrodeposition in aqueous solutions that has been identified to be a technologically feasible and economically superior technique for the production of the porous electrodes. The goal was to produce papers that would be useful to both the novice and the expert in hydrogen technologies. This volume is intended to be us

  18. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  19. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  20. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  1. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  2. Hydrogen isotope effect through Pd in hydrogen transport pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    This investigation concerns hydrogen system with hydrogen transport pipes for transportation, purification, isotope separation and storage of hydrogen and its isotopes. A principle of the hydrogen transport pipe (heat pipe having hydrogen transport function) was proposed. It is comprised of the heat pipe and palladium alloy tubes as inlet, outlet, and the separation membrane of hydrogen. The operation was as follows: (1) gas was introduced into the heat pipe through the membrane in the evaporator; (2) the introduced gas was transported toward the condenser by the vapor flow; (3) the transported gas was swept and compressed to the end of the condenser by the vapor pressure; and (4) the compressed gas was exhausted from the heat pipe through the membrane in the condenser. The characteristics of the hydrogen transport pipe were examined for various working conditions. Basic performance concerning transportation, evacuation and compression was experimentally verified. Isotopic dihydrogen gases (H 2 and D 2 ) were used as feed gas for examining the intrinsic performance of the isotope separation by the hydrogen transport pipe. A simulated experiment for hydrogen isotope separation was carried out using a hydrogen-helium gas mixture. The hydrogen transport pipe has a potential for isotope separation and purification of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium in fusion reactor technology. (author)

  3. Hot Hydrogen Heat Source Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a  hot hydrogen heat source that would produce  a high temperature hydrogen flow which would be comparable to that produced...

  4. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  5. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Buffleben, George M [Tracy, CA

    2008-09-09

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  6. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.

    1986-09-01

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  7. Hydrogen inventory in gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazayev, S.N.; Prokofiev, Yu.G.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations of hydrogen inventory in gallium (99.9%) were carried out after saturation both from molecular phase and from glow discharge plasma at room temperature, 370 and 520 K. Saturation took place during 3000 s under hydrogen pressure of 20 Pa, and ion flux was about 1x10 15 ions/cm 2 s with an energy about 400 eV during discharge. Hydrogen concentration in Ga at room temperature and that for 370 K by the saturation from gaseous phase was (2-3)x10 14 cm -3 Pa -1/2 . Hydrogen concentration at temperature 520 K increased by five times. Inventory at room temperature for irradiation from discharge was 7x10 16 cm -3 at the dose about 3x10 18 ions/cm 2 . It was more than inventory at temperature 520 K by four times and more than maximum inventory from gaseous phase at 520 K by a factor of 10. Inventory increased when temperature decreased. Diffusion coefficient D=0.003 exp(-2300/RT) cm 2 /s, was estimated from temperature dependence. ((orig.))

  8. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  9. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  10. Oils; destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1928-03-01

    Coals, oil-shales, or other carbonaceous solids are dissolved in or extracted by solvents at temperatures over 200/sup 0/C, and under pressure, preferably over 30 atmospheres, in presence of halogens, hydrogen halides, or compounds setting free the halogen or halide under the conditions.

  11. Low Trans Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although hydrogenation has been the technology of choice for fat formulation for many years recent concerns over the health and nutrition of trans fatty acids have had a profound effect on the edible oil industry. Since Jan. 1, 2006, TFA has been required on nutrition labels along with saturated an...

  12. Destructive hydrogenation. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-07-15

    Liquid or readily liquefiable products are obtained from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales or other bituminous substances by subjecting the said initial materials to destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzine is substantially avoided, and then subjecting the treated material to extraction by solvents. By hydrogenating under mild conditions the heavy oils which prevent the asphaltic substances from being precipitated are preserved, and the separation of the liquid products from the solid residue is facilitated. Solid paraffins and high boiling point constituents suitable for the production of lubricating oils may be removed before or after the extraction process. The extraction is preferably carried out under pressure with solvents which do not precipitate asphaltic substances. Brown coal containing 11 per cent ash is passed at 450/sup 0/C, and 200 atmospheres pressure in counter current to hydrogen; 40 per cent of the coal is converted into liquid products which are condensed out of the hydrogen stream; the pasty residue, on extraction with benzene, yields 45 per cent of high molecular weight products suitable for the production of lubricating oil.

  13. Interstellar hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the first extensive study of the existence and effects of interstellar hydrogen bonding. The reactions that occur on the surface of the interstellar dust grains are the dominant processes by which interstellar molecules are formed. Water molecules constitute about 70% of the interstellar ice. These water molecules serve as the platform for hydrogen bonding. High level quantum chemical simulations for the hydrogen bond interaction between 20 interstellar molecules (known and possible) and water are carried out using different ab-intio methods. It is evident that if the formation of these species is mainly governed by the ice phase reactions, there is a direct correlation between the binding energies of these complexes and the gas phase abundances of these interstellar molecules. Interstellar hydrogen bonding may cause lower gas abundance of the complex organic molecules (COMs) at the low temperature. From these results, ketenes whose less stable isomers that are more strongly bonded to the surface of the interstellar dust grains have been observed are proposed as suitable candidates for astronomical observations.

  14. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  15. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  16. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  17. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  18. Hydrogen and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, N J.D.

    1976-03-01

    There is much debate about the form and availability of energy supplies in the future. It is assumed that nuclear fuel is the only source of controlled energy. Energy inputs from the sun, the wind, the waves, the tides, and other sources not available in the form of fuels are not excluded. In this situation it has been argued that because the cost of transporting energy as a liquid or gaseous fuel is lower than the cost of transmitting energy as electricity it would be more effective to transmit and distribute energy from nuclear fuel in the form of a chemical fuel such as hydrogen. This argument has been critized by Hampson et al., (EAPA 1: 2200) who calculate that the reduced costs of transmission only outweigh the costs of production over distances so large that there appears no realistic application. These calculations neglect the time variation of electricity supply which is fundamental to the planning of an electricity supply system; they also do not appear to do justice to the relationship between the costs of hydrogen and electricity production in an integrated system. These points are included in the analysis presented here by means of the observation that hydrogen generated by nuclear plants with high capital cost and low running cost will be burned by the supply system itself in low-capital-cost plants, suitable for chemical fuels, in order to meet peak demands on the system. This establishes a relationship between the long-run marginal costs of electricity at various times of the day and the long-run marginal cost of hydrogen. These costs are then used to show that, in certain favorable, but common, circumstances, electrolytic hydrogen is the lower-cost source of energy. (from Introduction)

  19. Hydrogen from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago, one frequently heard the view that LNG would cap the price of natural gas in North America at around 5 or 6 US$/GJ just as soon as sufficient terminal capacity could be installed. Recent experience with international LNG prices suggests that this is unlikely. While oil and gas prices have proven almost impossible to predict it seems likely that the price of gas will in future broadly track its energy equivalent in oil. Consequently, planning for natural gas at 10 $/GJ would seem prudent. Using steam-methane reforming, this produces hydrogen at 1500 $/t. If CO 2 has to be sequestered, adding another 500 $/t H 2 is a likely additional cost. So is water electrolysis now competitive? Electrolysis would deliver hydrogen at 2000$/t if electricity costs 3.7 US cents/kWh. This is lower than the Alberta Pool average supply price but very close to AECL's estimated cost for power from a new reactor. However, electricity prices in deregulated markets vary hugely and there would be large leverage on the hydrogen price in delivering a mix of electricity (when the Pool price is high) and hydrogen (when it is low). The key to that possibility - as well as other issues of interruptibility - is low-cost cavern storage, similar to that used for natural gas. One long-standing example for hydrogen storage exists in the UK. The nuclear-electrolysis route offers long-term price stability. It also has co-product possibilities if a use can be found for oxygen (equivalent to about 300 $/t H 2 ) and to produce heavy water (provided the scale is at least 100 MW)

  20. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted quickly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, all of which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life on our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, and little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century. (author)

  1. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. [Clean Energy Research Inst., Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted quickly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, all of which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life on our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, and little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century. (author)

  2. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  3. Estimation of hydrogen production in genetically modified E. coli fermentations using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Colunga, Luis Manuel; De Leon Rodriguez, Antonio [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a secc, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Garcia, Raul Gonzalez [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an active research area due to the importance of this gas as an energy carrier and the advantages of using biological systems to produce it. A cheap and practical on-line hydrogen determination is desired in those processes. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to estimate the hydrogen production in fermentative processes. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) of one hidden layer with 12 nodes was selected. The BPNN training was done using the conjugated gradient algorithm and on-line measurements of dissolved CO{sub 2}, pH and oxidation-reduction potential during the fermentations of cheese whey by Escherichia coli {delta}hycA {delta}lacI (WDHL) strain with or without pH control. The correlation coefficient between the hydrogen production determined by gas chromatography and the hydrogen production estimated by the BPNN was 0.955. Results showed that the BPNN successfully estimated the hydrogen production using only on-line parameters in genetically modified E. coli fermentations either with or without pH control. This approach could be used for other hydrogen production systems. (author)

  4. Relation between Hydrogen Evolution and Hydrodesulfurization Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel; Moses, Poul Georg; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relation between hydrogen evolution and hydrodesulfurization catalysis was found by density functional theory calculations. The hydrogen evolution reaction and the hydrogenation reaction in hydrodesulfurization share hydrogen as a surface intermediate and, thus, have a common elementary step...

  5. Hydrogen energy system in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweig, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Results of experiences on the use of hydrogen as a clean burning fuel in California and results of the South Coast Air Quality Management district tests using hydrogen as a clean burning environmentally safe fuel are given. The results of Solar Hydrogen Projects in California and recent medical data documentation of human lung damage of patients living in air polluted urban areas are summarized

  6. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  7. Hydrogen Special. Facts, developments, opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisschemoeller, M.; Van de Kerkhof, M.; Stam, T.; Cuppen, E.; Bakker, S.; Florisson, O.; Mallant, R.; Ros, J.; Naghelhout, D.; De Witte, N.; Van Delft, J.; Huurman, J.; Susebeek, J.; De Wit, H.; Hogenhuis, C.; Maatman, D.; Vaessen, M.; Vergragt, P.J.; Bout, P.; Molag, M.; Hemmes, K.; Taanman, M.; Dame, E.; Van Soest, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    In a large number of short articles several aspects of hydrogen are discussed: (dis)advantages; production; transport; distribution; storage; use in fuel cells, vehicles and houses; market; financing of the hydrogen-based economy; hydrogen transition and developing countries; education and training; developments in the USA and the European Union [nl

  8. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN MOLYBDENUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd El Keriem, M.S.; van der Werf, D.P.; Pleiter, F

    1993-01-01

    Vacancy-hydrogen interaction in molybdenum was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. The complex InV2 turned out to trap up to two hydrogen atoms: trapping of a single hydrogen atom gives rise to a decrease of the quadrupole

  9. New efficient hydrogen process production from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunel, Jean Michel [Unite URMITE, UMR 6236 CNRS, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille 05 (France)

    2010-04-15

    While the source of hydrogen constitutes a significant scientific challenge, addressing issues of hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery is equally important. None of the current hydrogen storage options, liquefied or high pressure H{sub 2} gas, metal hydrides, etc.. satisfy criteria of size, costs, kinetics, and safety for use in transportation. In this context, we have discovered a methodology for the production of hydrogen on demand, in high yield, under kinetic control, from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives and methanol as co-reagent under mild conditions catalyzed by a cheap ammonium fluoride salt. Finally, the silicon by-products can be efficiently recycle leading to an environmentally friendly source of energy. (author)

  10. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindin, S.G.; Roberts, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for exchanging isotopes (particularly tritium) between water and gaseous hydrogen. Isotope depleted gaseous hydrogen and water containing a hydrogen isotope are introduced into the vapour phase in a first reaction area. The steam and gaseous hydrogen are brought into contact with a supported metal catalyst in this area in a parallel flow at a temperature range of around 225 and 300 0 C. An effluent flow comprising a mixture of isotope enriched gaseous hydrogen and depleted steam is evacuated from this area and the steam condensed into liquid water [fr

  11. Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbolla, M.G.; Rosen, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22 Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter

  12. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu{sup 2+}(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival; Avaliacao da genotoxicidade induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio na presenca dos quelantes de ions Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipiridil) e de ions Cu{sup 2+} (neocuproina), em Escherichia coli: envolvimento de mecanismos de reparo de DNA na sobrevivencia bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-07-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  13. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    1999-01-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs

  14. Hydrogen production by several cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dhruv; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1992-11-01

    Twenty species belonging to eleven genera of nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria were screened for production of hydrogen. Only one species each of Nostoc and Anabaena showed light-and nitrogenase-dependent aerobic hydrogen production. The highest rate of aerobic hydrogen production was recorded in Anabaena sp. strain CA. When incubated anaerobically under 99% Ar + 1% CO[sub 2], all the tested strains produced hydrogen. Nickel supplementation completely abolished hydrogen production both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, except in Anabaena sp. strain CA, where only the rate of production was decreased. Species of Plectonema, Oscillatoria and Spirulina showed methyl viologen-dependent (hydrogenase-dependent) hydrogen production. Other physiological activities were also studied with a view to selecting a suitable organism for large-scale production of hydrogen. (author)

  15. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  16. Pionic hydrogen and friends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotta, D., E-mail: d.gotta@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and JHCP (Germany); Amaro, F. D. [Coimbra University, Department of Physics (Portugal); Anagnostopoulos, D. F. [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Greece); Bühler, P. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Gorke, H. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and JHCP (Germany); Covita, D. S. [Coimbra University, Department of Physics (Portugal); Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Hennebach, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and JHCP (Germany); Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Indelicato, P. [LKB, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS (France); Jensen, T. S. [Ringkjøbing Gymnasium (Denmark); Bigot, E.-O. Le [LKB, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS (France); Markushin, V. E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) (Switzerland); Marton, J. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Nekipelov, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and JHCP (Germany); Pomerantsev, V. N.; Popov, V. P. [Skobeltsyn Institut of Nuclear Physics, Lomonossov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Santos, J. M. F. dos [Coimbra University, Department of Physics (Portugal); and others

    2015-08-15

    Pion-nucleon scattering lengths are directly related to the ground-state level shift and broadening in pionic hydrogen as well as to the pionic deuterium level shift. The level broadening in deuterium measures the strength of pion threshold-production in proton-proton reactions. However, collisional processes during the atomic de-excitation cascade considerably complicate the analysis of X-ray line shapes in order to extract the hadronic broadening. Therefore, additionally the purely electromagnetic twin system muonic hydrogen was studied. Results of these experiments performed at PSI by using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer are discussed in the context with a new analysis approach for the hadronic broadening.

  17. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  18. Hydrogenation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedwell, A J; Clark, E D; Miebach, F W

    1935-09-28

    A process for the distillation, cracking, and hydrogenation of shale or other carbonaceous material consists in first distilling the material to produce hydrocarbon oils. Steam is introduced and is passed downwardly with hydrocarbon vapors from the upper portion of the retort where the temperature is maintained between 400/sup 0/C and 450/sup 0/C over the spent carbonaceous materials. The material is drawn off at the bottom of the retort which is maintained at a temperature ranging from 600/sup 0/C to 800/sup 0/C whereby the hydrocarbon vapors are cracked in the pressure of nascent hydrogen obtained by the action of the introduced steam on the spent material. The cracked gases and undecomposed steam are passed through a catalyst tower containing iron-magnesium oxides resulting in the formation of light volatile oils.

  19. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable is described. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  20. Hydrogenating oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-31

    A safety fuel boiling within the limits 130/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C, is obtained by treating hydrocarbon mixtures boiling below 260/sup 0/C, and for the most part above 130/sup 0/C according to the process described in the parent Specification. A fraction boiling from 140/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/ C, which has been distilled off from the liquefaction product obtained by the destructive hydrogenation of coal soaked with ferrous sulphate, is passed at 485/sup 0/C under a partial pressure of 1.5 atmos. and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atmos. over a catalyst consisting of nickel and tungsten sulphides. The gasification is only 2 to 5 percent and from the reaction product a fraction of the same boiling range as the initial material is distilled off with a yield of 85 percent and an octane number of 97.

  1. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  2. Antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, C.J.

    1989-07-01

    Experimental studies of antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms have recently made great progress following the commissioning of the low energy antiproton facility (LEAR) at CERN in 1983. At the same time our understanding of the atomic cascade has increased considerably through measurements of the X-ray spectra. The life history of the p-bar-p atom is considered in some detail, from the initial capture of the antiproton when stopping in hydrogen, through the atomic cascade with the emission of X-rays, to the final antiproton annihilation and production of mesons. The experiments carried out at LEAR are described and the results compared with atomic cascade calculations and predictions of strong interaction effects. (author)

  3. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  4. MAHRES: Spanish hydrogen geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, R.; Guerrero, F.M.; Carazo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common to hear about the hydrogen potential as an energetic vector or the renewable character of fuel cells; thus, the conjunction between both of them as a way to produce electricity, decreasing pollutant emission, is often discussed. However, that renewable character is only guaranteed in the case that the hydrogen used comes from some renewable energy source. Because of that, and due to the Spanish great potential related to natural usable resources like water, sun, wind or biomass, for instance, it seems attractive to make a meticulous study (supported by the statistical Multicriteria Decision Making Method) in order to quantify that potential and place it in defined geographical areas. Moreover, the growth of the electricity demand is always significant, and in this way the energy consumption in Spain is estimated to grow up to 3'4 % above the average during the next ten years. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that the contribution of the oil production will not be enough in the future. The study being carried out will try to elaborate 'The Spanish Renewable Hydrogen Map', that would contemplate, not only the current situation but also predictable scenarios and their implementation. (author)

  5. Hydrogen and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Hancox, W.T.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The current world-wide emphasis on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions provides an opportunity to revisit how energy is produced and used, consistent with the need for human and economic growth. Both the scale of the problem and the efforts needed for its resolution are extremely large. We argue that GHG reduction strategies must include a greater penetration of electricity into areas, such as transportation, that have been the almost exclusive domain of fossil fuels. An opportunity for electricity to displace fossil fuel use is through electrolytic production of hydrogen. Nuclear power is the only large-scale commercially proven non-carbon electricity generation source, and it must play a key role. As a non-carbon power source, it can also provide the high-capacity base needed to stabilize electricity grids so that they can accommodate other non-carbon sources, namely low-capacity factor renewables such as wind and solar. Electricity can be used directly to power standalone hydrogen production facilities. In the special case of CANDU reactors, the hydrogen streams can be preprocessed to recover the trace concentrations of deuterium that can be re-oxidized to heavy water. World-wide experience shows that nuclear power can achieve high standards of public safety, environmental protection and commercially competitive economics, and must . be an integral part of future energy systems. (author)

  6. Hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report briefly describes the results of the single projects promoted by the German Council of Research (DFG). The subjects deal with diffusion, effusion, permeation and solubility of hydrogen in metals. They are interesting for many disciplines: metallurgy, physical metallurgy, metal physics, materials testing, welding engineering, chemistry, nuclear physics and solid-state physics. The research projects deal with the following interrelated subjects: solubility of H 2 in steel and effects on embrittlement, influence of H 2 on the fatigue strength of steel as well as the effect of H 2 on welded joints. The studies in solid-state research can be divided into methodological and physico-chemical studies. The methodological studies mainly comprise investigations on the analytical determination of H 2 by means of nuclear-physical reactions (e.g. the 15 N method) and the application of the Moessbauer spectroscopy. Physico-chemical problems are mainly dealt with in studies on interfacial reactions in connection with the absorption of hydrogen and on the diffusion of H 2 in different alloy systems. The properties of materials used for hydrogen storage were the subject of several research projects. 20 contributions were separately recorded for the data bank 'Energy'. (MM) [de

  7. Hydrogen energy stations: along the roadside to the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.W.; Rifkin, J.; O'Connor, T.; Swisher, J.; Lipman, T.; Rambach, G.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen has become more than an international topic of discussion within government and among industry. With the public announcements from the European Union and American governments and an Executive Order from the Governor of California, hydrogen has become a ''paradigm change'' targeted toward changing decades of economic and societal behaviours. The public demand for clean and green energy as well as being ''independent'' or not located in political or societal conflict areas, has become paramount. The key issues are the commitment of governments through public policies along with corporations. Above all, secondly, the advancement of hydrogen is regional as it depends upon infrastructure and fuel resources. Hence, the hydrogen economy, to which the hydrogen highway is the main component, will be regional and creative. New jobs, businesses and opportunities are already emerging. And finally, the costs for the hydrogen economy are critical. The debate as to hydrogen being 5 years away from being commercial and available in the marketplace versus needing more research and development contradicts the historical development and deployment of any new technology be it bio-science, flat panel displays, computers or mobile phones. The market drivers are government regulations and standards soon thereafter matched by market forces and mass production. Hydrogen is no different. What this paper does is describes is how the hydrogen highway is the backbone to the hydrogen economy by becoming, with the next five years, both regional and commercial through supplying stationary power to communities. Soon thereafter, within five to ten years, these same hydrogen stations will be serving hundreds and then thousands of hydrogen fuel powered vehicles. Hydrogen is the fuel for distributed energy generation and hence positively impacts the future of public and private power generators. The paradigm has already changed. (author)

  8. The effects of exogenous catalase on broad-spectrum near-UV (300-400nm) treated Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammartano, L.J.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Catalase incorporated into plating medium protects against inactivation and mutagenesis by broad-spectrum near-ultraviolet wavelength (300-400nm) (NUV) radiation in strains of Escherichia coli. Plating medium containing catalase does not provide protection against inactivation by wavelengths in the FUV region. Catalase added to the cell suspension during or added immediately after NUV exposure also protects against inactivation. The protection provided by catalase suggests a possible role for hydrogen peroxide in the processes of inactivation and mutagenesis by broad-spectrum NUV. (author)

  9. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2 production involves consumption of 2H(+, hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5 that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6. Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2 to 2H(+. Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3 decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2 did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2 production and consumption was tested using a H(2-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2 production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2 consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2 production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2 production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic growing

  10. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ken; Riggins, Daniel P; Eldahan, Khalid C; Kitko, Ryan D; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2010-04-12

    Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5) that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6). Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2) to 2H(+). Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3) decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2) did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2) production and consumption was tested using a H(2)-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2) production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2) consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2) production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2) production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. Anaerobic growing cultures of E. coli generate H(2) via Hyd-3 at low external pH, and

  11. BIG hydrogen: hydrogen technology in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The BIG Hydrogen workshop was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on February 13, 2006. About 60 representatives of industry, academia and government attended this one-day technical meeting on hydrogen production for the oil and gas industry. The following themes were identified from the presentations and discussion: the need to find a BIG hydrogen replacement for Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) because of uncertainty regarding cost and availability of natural gas, although given the maturity of SMR process (reliability, known capital cost) how high will H2 prices have to rise?; need for a national strategy to link the near-term and the longer-term hydrogen production requirements, which can take hydrogen from chemical feedstock to energy carrier; and in the near-term Canada should get involved in demonstrations and build expertise in large hydrogen systems including production and carbon capture and sequestration

  12. Hydrogen Village : creating hydrogen and fuel cell communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a collaborative public-private partnership administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. This end user-driven, market development program accelerates the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell (FC) technologies throughout the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The program targets 3 specific aspects of market development, notably deployment of near market technologies in community based stationary and mobile applications; development of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure; and societal factors involving corporate policy and public education. This presentation focused on lessons learned through outreach programs and the deployment of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) heat and power generation; indoor and outdoor fuel cell back up power systems; fuel cell-powered forklifts, delivery vehicles, and utility vehicles; hydrogen internal combustion engine powered shuttle buses, sedans, parade float; hydrogen production/refueling stations in the downtown core; and temporary fuel cell power systems

  13. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  14. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  15. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  16. Hydrogen application dynamics and networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E. [Air Liquide Large Industries, Champigny-sur-Marne (France)

    2010-12-30

    The Chemical Industry consumes large volumes of hydrogen as raw material for the manufacture of numerous products (e.g. polyamides and polyurethanes account for 60% of hydrogen demand). The hydrogen demand was in the recent past and will continue to be driven by the polyurethane family. China will host about 60% of new hydrogen needs over the period 2010-2015 becoming the first hydrogen market next year and reaching 25% of market share by 2015 (vs. only 4% in 2001). Air Liquide supplies large volumes of Hydrogen (and other Industrial Gases) to customers by on-site plants and through pipeline networks which offer significant benefits such as higher safety, reliability and flexibility of supply. Thanks to its long term strategy and heavy investment in large units and pipeline networks, Air Liquide is the Industrial Gas leader in most of the world class Petrochemical basins (Rotterdam, Antwerp, US Gulf Coast, Yosu, Caojing,..) (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  18. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  19. Hydrogen arcjet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankovic, John M.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1960's, a substantial research effort was centered on the development of arcjets for space propulsion applications. The majority of the work was at the 30 kW power level with some work at 1-2 kW. At the end of the research effort, the hydrogen arcjet had demonstrated over 700 hours of life in a continuous endurance test at 30 kW, at a specific impulse over 1000 s, and at an efficiency of 0.41. Another high power design demonstrated 500 h life with an efficiency of over 0.50 at the same specific impulse and power levels. At lower power levels, a life of 150 hours was demonstrated at 2 kW with an efficiency of 0.31 and a specific impulse of 935 s. Lack of a space power source hindered arcjet acceptance and research ceased. Over three decades after the first research began, renewed interest exists for hydrogen arcjets. The new approach includes concurrent development of the power processing technology with the arcjet thruster. Performance data were recently obtained over a power range of 0.3-30 kW. The 2 kW performance has been repeated; however, the present high power performance is lower than that obtained in the 1960's at 30 kW, and lifetimes of present thrusters have not yet been demonstrated. Laboratory power processing units have been developed and operated with hydrogen arcjets for the 0.1 kW to 5 kW power range. A 10 kW power processing unit is under development and has been operated at design power into a resistive load.

  20. The Hawaii hydrogen plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.; Antal, M.J. Jr.; Kinoshita, C.M.; Neill, D.R.; Phillips, V.D.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Koehler, R.L.; Huang, N.

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii is the most energy-vulnerable state in the Union. Over the last 16 years the State has undertaken programs to reduce its energy needs and to provide alternatives to current usage tapping its abundant renewable energy resources. This paper describes the long-range research and development plans in Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii with special attention to the contributions of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Current activities in production, storage, and utilization are detailed, and projections through the year 2000 are offered

  1. Hydrogen storage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A summary of the hydride development efforts for the current program year (FY98) are presented here. The Mg-Al-Zn alloy system was studied at low Zn levels (2--4 wt%) and midrange Al contents (40--60 wt%). Higher plateau pressures were found with Al and Zn alloying in Mg and, furthermore, it was found that the hydrogen desorption kinetics were significantly improved with small additions of Zn. Results are also shown here for a detailed study of the low temperature properties of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and a comparison made between conventional melt cast alloy and the vapor process material.

  2. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment...... catalysts based on this. Suited for upper-level high school and first-year university students, this exercise involves using a basic two-cell electrochemical setup to test multiple electrode materials as catalysts at one applied potential, and then constructing a volcano curve with the resulting currents...

  3. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  4. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  5. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  6. Translational coupling in Escherichia coli of a heterologous Bacillus subtilis-Escherichia coli gene fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghloul, T I; Doi, R H

    1986-01-01

    The efficient expression in Escherichia coli of the Tn9-derived chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28) gene fused distal to the promoter and N terminus of the Bacillus subtilis aprA gene was dependent on the initiation of translation from the ribosome-binding site in the aprA gene.

  7. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  8. Sulfur metabolism in Escherichia coli and related bacteria: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekowska, A; Kung, H F; Danchin, A

    2000-04-01

    Living organisms are composed of macromolecules made of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. Much work has been devoted to the metabolism of the first five elements, but much remains to be understood about sulfur metabolism. We review here the situation in Escherichia coli and related bacteria, where more than one hundred genes involved in sulfur metabolism have already been discovered in this organism. Examination of the genome suggests that many more will be found, especially genes involved in regulation, scavenging of sulfur containing molecules and synthesis of coenzymes or prosthetic groups. Furthermore, the involvement of methionine as the universal start of proteins as well as that of its derivative S-adenosylmethionine in a vast variety of cell processes argue in favour of a major importance of sulfur metabolism in all organisms.

  9. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  10. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  11. Future outlook of hydrogen market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozmen, S.; Leprince, P.

    1976-01-01

    Up to now, hydrogen has been produced from hydrocarbons for chemical uses. In the future, it will have to find a new market for itself which will depend on the development of nuclear power plants. Through the use of electric or thermal energy available during off-peak hours, water decomposition by electrolytic or thermal methods (redox cycle) could produce hydrogen, a storable and transportable gas. In addition to hydrogen consumption for chemical uses (methanol and ammonia manufacturing, petroleum fraction processing, metallurgy, etc.) plans are being drawn up to use hydrogen as a vehicle for energy [fr

  12. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  13. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielkopf, J.

    1991-01-01

    Low energy collisions involving neutral excited states of hydrogen are being studied with vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. Atomic hydrogen is generated by focusing an energetic pulse of ArF, KrF, or YAG laser light into a cell of molecular hydrogen, where a plasma is created near the focal point. The H 2 molecules in and near this region are dissociated, and the cooling atomic hydrogen gas is examined with laser and dispersive optical spectroscopy. In related experiments, we are also investigating neutral H + O and H + metal - atom collisions in these laser-generated plasmas

  15. Global status of hydrogen research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Browning, D.J.

    2001-07-01

    This report surveys the global status of hydrogen research and identifies technological barriers to the implementation of a global hydrogen economy. It is concluded that there will be a 30 year transition phase to the full implementation of the hydrogen economy. In this period, hydrogen will be largely produced by the reformation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane. It will be necessary to ensure that any carbonaceous oxides (and other unwanted species) formed as by-products will be trapped and not released into the atmosphere. Following the transition phase, hydrogen should be largely produced from renewable energy sources using some form of water cracking, largely electrolysis. Target performances and costs are identified for key technologies. The status of hydrogen research in the UK is reviews and it is concluded that the UK does not have a strategy for the adoption of the hydrogen economy, nor does it have a coherent and co-ordinated research and development strategy addressing barriers to the hydrogen economy. Despite this fact, because of the long transition phase, it is still possible for the UK to formulate a coherent strategy and make a significant contribution to the global implementation of the hydrogen economy, as there are still unresolved technology issues. The report concludes with a number of recommendations. (Author)

  16. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: foe or innocent bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remain one the most important pathogens infecting children and they are one of the main causes of persistent diarrhea worldwide. Historically, typical EPEC (tEPEC), defined as those isolates with the attaching and effacement (A/E) genotype (eae+), which possess bfpA+ and lack the stx- genes are found strongly associated with diarrheal cases. However, occurrence of atypical EPEC (aEPEC; eae+ bfpA- stx-) in diarrheal and asymptomatic hosts has made investigators question the role of these pathogens in human disease. Current epidemiological data is helping answering the question whether EPEC is mainly a foe or an innocent bystander during infection. PMID:25726041

  17. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...... this incredibly big molecule and separate the two daughter chromosomes and how it makes sure that the daughter cells receives one copy each. The fully extended chromosome is two orders of magnitude larger than the cell in which it is contained. Hence the chromosome is heavily compacted in the cell...

  18. Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates inhibit uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Atassi , Fabrice; Brassart , Dominique; Grob , Philipp; Graf , Federico; Servin , Alain ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus jensenii KS119.1 and KS121.1, and Lactobacillus gasserii KS120.1 and KS124.3 strains isolated from the vaginal microflora of healthy women, against uropathogenic, diffusely adhering Afa/Dr Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains IH11128 and 7372 involved in recurrent cystitis. We observed that some of the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of E. coli IH11128 and 7372....

  19. 99mTechnetium labelled Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.; Resende, B.M.; Nunan, E.A.; Simal, C.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. 99m Tc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of 99m Tc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with 99m Tc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation

  20. Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme: purification and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapka, R.M.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Researchers have purified large quantities of Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme to apparent homogeneity and have studied its physical and chemical properties. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 36,800 and a S/sub 20,w/ 0 of 3.72 S. Amino acid analysis revealed an apparent absence of tryptophan, a low content of aromatic residues, and the presence of no unusual amino acids. The N terminus is arginine. The purified enzyme contained up to 13% carbohydrate by weight. The carbohydrate was composed of mannose, galactose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme is also associated with RNA containing uracil, adenine, guanine, and cytosine with no unusual bases detected

  1. Multiplex Genome Editing in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2018-01-01

    Lambda Red recombineering is an easy and efficient method for generating genetic modifications in Escherichia coli. For gene deletions, lambda Red recombineering is combined with the use of selectable markers, which are removed through the action of, e.g., flippase (Flp) recombinase. This PCR......-based engineering method has also been applied to a number of other bacteria. In this chapter, we describe a recently developed one plasmid-based method as well as the use of a strain with genomically integrated recombineering genes, which significantly speeds up the engineering of strains with multiple genomic...

  2. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra...

  3. Solar Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Sutin, N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turner, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This panel addressed different methods for the photoassisted dissociation of water into its component parts, hydrogen and oxygen. Systems considered include PV-electrolysis, photoelectrochemical cells, and transition-metal based microheterogeneous and homogeneous systems. While none of the systems for water splitting appear economically viable at the present time, the panel identified areas of basic research that could increase the overall efficiency and decrease the costs. Common to all the areas considered was the underlying belief that the water-to-hydrogen half reaction is reasonably well characterized, while the four-electron oxidation of water-to-oxygen is less well understood and represents a significant energy loss. For electrolysis, research in electrocatalysis to reduce overvoltage losses was identified as a key area for increased efficiency. Non-noble metal catalysts and less expensive components would reduce capital costs. While potentially offering higher efficiencies and lower costs, photoelectrochemical-based direct conversion systems undergo corrosion reactions and often have poor energetics for the water reaction. Research is needed to understand the factors that control the interfacial energetics and the photoinduced corrosion. Multi-photon devices were identified as promising systems for high efficiency conversion.

  4. Hydrogen and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 43 PJ, which makes up 23% of the total priMary resources used in the country. On the world scale this latter figure was 17.6% in 2003. On the 1st October of 2005 in Latvia 808.6 thous. of cars, 119.9 thous. of lorries, 10,7 thous. of buses and 27.1 thous. of motorcycles were registred. The annual growth in the number of light motor cars in the last years was 5.5% on the average. In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 335 thous. tons of petrol and 542 thous. tons of diesel fuel, which makes up 87.4% of the total resources used (in terms of the combustion heat). In the period of 2002-2005 the annual growth of energy resources consumed by transport was 4.87% on the average. According to forecasts, in 2015 the transports of our country will spend 1.64 times more energy resources as compared with 2005. If the transport of 2015 uses hydrogen, then for Latvia 270 thous. tons of this product will be needed. To obtain 270 thous. tons of hydrogen from water using the up-to-date equipment for electrolysis a considerable amount of electric energy is required. Such amount can be produced by generating stations of the total capacity of 1680 MWe(net). This figure is close to that for the total installed capacity of electric energy production already existing in Latvia. (Author)

  5. Hydrogen energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovic, T.; Pilhar, R.; Witt, B.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of different energy systems from the economic point of view has to be based on data showing all relevant costs incurred and benefits drawn by the society from the use of such energy systems, i.e. internal costs and benefits visible to the energy consumer as prices paid for power supplied, as well as external costs and benefits. External costs or benefits of energy systems cover among other items employment or wage standard effects, energy-induced environmental impacts, public expenditure for pollution abatement and mitigation of risks and effects of accidents, and the user costs connected with the exploitation of reserves, which are not rated high enough to really reflect and demonstrate the factor of depletion of non-renewable energy sources, as e.g. fossil reserves. Damage to the natural and social environment induced by anthropogenous air pollutants up to about 90% counts among external costs of energy conversion and utilisation. Such damage is considered to be the main factor of external energy costs, while the external benefits of energy systems currently are rated to be relatively unsignificant. This means that an internalisation of external costs would drive up current prices of non-renewable energy sources, which in turn would boost up the economics of renewable energy sources, and the hydrogen produced with their energy. Other advantages attributed to most of the renewable energy sources and to hydrogen energy systems are better environmental compatibility, and no user costs. (orig.) [de

  6. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  7. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...

  8. Muonium/muonic hydrogen formation in atomic hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The muonium/muonic hydrogen atom formation in ± –H collisions is investigated, using a two-state approximation in a time dependent formalism. It is found that muonium cross-section results are similar to the cross-section results obtained for positronium formation in + –H collision. Muonic hydrogen atom formation ...

  9. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  10. Hydrogen vacancies facilitate hydrogen transport kinetics in sodium hydride nanocrystallites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Eijt, S.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory, of the vacancy-mediated hydrogen migration energy in bulk NaH and near the NaH(001) surface. The estimated rate of the vacancy mediated hydrogen transport, obtained within a hopping diffusion model, is consistent with the reaction

  11. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  12. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A hundred and four indigenous chicken rectal swabs were analysed, of which 67.3% were contaminated with Escherichia coli and 12.5% with Salmonella typhimurium. Seventy Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance phenotypes to one, two or more antibiotics. The most common antimicrobial resistance pattern ...

  13. Gene encoding virulence markers among Escherichia coli isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River water sources and diarrhoeic stools of residents in the Venda Region, Limpopo Province of South Africa were analysed for the prevalence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the presence of virulence genes among the isolates. A control group of 100 nondiarrhoeic stool samples was included. Escherichia coli was ...

  14. Chromatin architecture and gene expression in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli.......Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli....

  15. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  16. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  17. Hydrogen embrittlement due to hydrogen-inclusion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.Y.; Li, J.C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Plastic flow around inclusions creates elastic misfit which attracts hydrogen towards the regions of positive dilatation. Upon decohesion of the inclusion-matrix interface, the excess hydrogen escapes into the void and can produce sufficient pressure to cause void growth by plastic deformation. This mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement can be used to understand the increase of ductility with temperature, the decrease of ductility with hydrogen content, and the increase of ductility with the ultimate strength of the matrix. An examination of the effect of the shape of spheroid inclusion reveals that rods are more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than disks. The size of the inclusion is unimportant while the volume fraction of inclusions plays the usual role

  18. The study of hydrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasufuku, Katsumi; Fukuhara, Masashi; Izaki, Takashi; Nakase, Takeshi

    1979-01-01

    Two methods of hydrogen removal from the helium coolant for high temperature helium gas-cooled nuclear reactor plants were investigated; the one is the process absorbing hydrogen with titanium sponges and the other is the water removal with zeolite, after hydrogen is converted to water utilizing copper oxide (CuO). The special feature of these two hydrogen removal methods is to treat the very low hydrogen concentration in helium about 0.06 mm Hg (2 Vpm, 41 ata). As for the titanium sponge method, a preliminary experimental facility was constructed to test the temperature dependences of the quantity of equilibrium absorption of hydrogen and the diffusion velocity inside titanium sponge by the batch type constant volume process. The temperature of titanium sponge was 800 deg C, the vacuum was from 2 to 3 x 10 -7 mm Hg and hydrogen partial pressure was from 1.0 to 10 -4 mm Hg in the experiment. The measured hydrogen absorption rate and the diffusion velocity data are presented, and the experimental conditions were evaluated. After the preliminary experiment, a mini-loop was constructed to confirm the temperature and velocity dependences of overall capacity factor, and the overall capacity factor and the regenerating characteristics of titanium sponge were tested. These experimental data are shown, and were evaluated. Concerning the hydrogen removal method utilizing CuO, the experiment was carried out under the following test conditions: the temperature from 400 to 265 deg C, the linear velocity from 50.3 to 16.7 cm/sec and the hydrogen concentration from 12.0 to 1.93 mm/Hg. The hydrogen removal rate and capacity were obtained in this experiment, and the data are presented and explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Antibacterial, Prooxidative and Genotoxic Activities of Gallic Acid and its Copper and Iron Complexes against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATHAN M. BARCELO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gallic acid and its complexes with aluminum and iron were investigated for their antibacterial, pro-oxidative, and genotoxic properties at alkaline pH. At 4.0μmol/mL, gallic acid displayed bacteriostatic property while aluminum-gallic acid and iron-gallic acid complexes showed bactericidal property against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A higher antibacterial activity was observed in the turbidimetric assay compared to the well-diffusion assay. The metal complexes of gallic acid also generated a higher concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide compared to gallic acid alone at > 0.50µmol/mL. Using the SOS response of the DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli PQ37, the metal complexes of gallic acid resulted to a significantly higher SOS Induction Factors (ρ<0.01 at ≥0.25μmol/mL. In addition, gallic acid and its metal complexes decrease the cell surface hydrophobicity of E. coli ATCC 25922 in a dose-dependent manner. The present study suggests that the antibacterial property of gallic acid and its metal complexes against Escherichia coli was caused by its pro-oxidative and genotoxic properties. Since metals are involved in the synthesis of the metal complexes of gallic acid, further tests should be conducted to determine their stability and effects to human health.

  20. Analysis of hydrogen content and distribution in hydrogen storage alloys using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Satake, Yuichi; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Small amounts of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys, such as Mg 2 Ni, were detected using neutron radiography (NRG). Hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogenated solid solution were determined by this technique. Furthermore, we were able to obtain NRG images for an initial stage of hydrogen absorption in the hydrogen storage alloys. NRG would be a new measurement method to clarify the behavior of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  1. Measurement of dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen gas transfer in a hydrogen-producing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizas, I.; Bagley, D.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a simple method to measure dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the laboratory using standard equipment and a series of hydrogen gas transfer tests. The method was validated by measuring hydrogen gas transfer parameters for an anaerobic reactor system that was purged with 10 per cent carbon dioxide and 90 per cent nitrogen using a coarse bubble diffuser stone. Liquid samples from the reactor were injected into vials and hydrogen was allowed to partition between the liquid and gaseous phases. The concentration of dissolved hydrogen was determined by comparing the headspace injections onto a gas chromatograph and a standard curve. The detection limit was 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol/L of dissolved hydrogen. The gas transfer rate for hydrogen in basal medium and anaerobic digester sludge was used to validate the method. Results were compared with gas transfer models. In addition to monitoring dissolved hydrogen in reactor systems, this method can help improve hydrogen production potential. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  2. Escherichia coli clearance after splenic autotransplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.G.; Petroianu, A.; Oliveira, M.B.N.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Portela, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Splenic autotransplantation seems to be the only alternative for preservation of splenic tissue, after total splenectomy. The present study was carried out to analyze Escherichia coli depuration by mononuclear phagocyte system organs after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation. Methods: We utilized an experimental model including young and adult Wistar rats, of both sexes, submitted to total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation. The evaluation method was intravenous inoculation of a suspension of Escherichia coli labeled with technetium-99m. We analyzed bacteria uptake by mononuclear phagocyte system organs and bacteria remnant in the bloodstream. Results: There was no difference between young and adult animals in bacteria uptake by mononuclear phagocyte system organs. In the comparison of groups, it was found out that the mean percent uptake by spleen and liver of animals in the control group was higher than that observed for animals with splenic implants. However, bacteria uptake in the lung was higher in the splenic implant group than in the control group. Although spleen bacteria uptake in the control group animals has been higher than that of animals in the splenic implant group, the remnant bacteria in the bloodstream was similar. Animals submitted to isolated total splenectomy showed higher bacteria remnant in the bloodstream than animals of the control group or the group submitted to total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation. Conclusion: Our results indicate that autogenous splenic implant is efficacious in bacteria depuration in rats, by means of their macrophages phagocytosis. In addition, it does not modify bacteria removal function of liver and lung

  3. Hydrogen in portable devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garche, J. [ZSW - Electrochemical Energy storage and energy Conversion Division, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Stimmer, U. [Technische Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Friedrich, A.K. [ZAE Bayern (Germany); Fiedenhans' l, R. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Res. Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    Fuel cells were originally intended for use in power plants and vehicles. More recently, developers realised the possibility for building much smaller units and for lower prices per kilowatt than their larger relatives. This has led to a strong interest in developing small fuel cells. Small fuel cells could replace batteries in portable electronic equipment and internal combustion engines in portable generators. The upper limit for portable generators is about 5kW, mainly because of the weight of the fuel cell. The main applications for low-power fuel cells are mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptop and notebook computers, cameras, medical equipment, military applications and other portable electronic devices. In comparison to batteries, fuel cells can supply much more power per unit volume or weight, though they have lower output voltages and are slower to respond to transients. Fuel cell types that are suitable for portable applications include: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) using pure hydrogen, PEMFCs using hydrogen-rich gases from hydrocarbon or alcohol reforming, direct methanol fuel cells and, high-temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) using hydrocarbons directly. Fuel cells for portable devices is becoming a niche, high-value market area which has good opportunities for a fast introduction of fuel cell technology and for the first consumer products in the electronic market can be expected within the coming year and is believed to grow rapidly thereafter. Danish industry is involved in the development of SOFC, PEMFC and DMFC fuel cells and the industry has in particular a strong position in system components and complete systems. An important area for Danish industry is system integration, where fuel cells and hydrogen technologies are implemented in electrical powered products. This is an area that is particular suited for small and medium sized enterprises and for

  4. Hydrogen in portable devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garche, J.; Stimmer, U.; Friedrich, A.K.; Fiedenhans'l, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells were originally intended for use in power plants and vehicles. More recently, developers realised the possibility for building much smaller units and for lower prices per kilowatt than their larger relatives. This has led to a strong interest in developing small fuel cells. Small fuel cells could replace batteries in portable electronic equipment and internal combustion engines in portable generators. The upper limit for portable generators is about 5kW, mainly because of the weight of the fuel cell. The main applications for low-power fuel cells are mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptop and notebook computers, cameras, medical equipment, military applications and other portable electronic devices. In comparison to batteries, fuel cells can supply much more power per unit volume or weight, though they have lower output voltages and are slower to respond to transients. Fuel cell types that are suitable for portable applications include: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) using pure hydrogen, PEMFCs using hydrogen-rich gases from hydrocarbon or alcohol reforming, direct methanol fuel cells and, high-temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) using hydrocarbons directly. Fuel cells for portable devices is becoming a niche, high-value market area which has good opportunities for a fast introduction of fuel cell technology and for the first consumer products in the electronic market can be expected within the coming year and is believed to grow rapidly thereafter. Danish industry is involved in the development of SOFC, PEMFC and DMFC fuel cells and the industry has in particular a strong position in system components and complete systems. An important area for Danish industry is system integration, where fuel cells and hydrogen technologies are implemented in electrical powered products. This is an area that is particular suited for small and medium sized enterprises and for

  5. Solar and Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirgan, F.; Beyhan, S.; Oezenler, S.

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the only sustainable and environmentally friendly energy is the solar energy and hydrogen energy, which can meet the increasing energy demand in the future. Solar Energy may be used either for solar thermal or for solar electricity conversion. Solar thermal collectors represent a wide-spread type of system for the conversion of solar energy. Radiation, convection and conduction are strongly coupled energy transport mechanisms in solar collector systems. The economic viability of lower temperature applications of solar energy may be improved by increasing the quantity of usable energy delivered per unit area of collector. This can be achieved by the use of selective black coatings which have a high degree of solar absorption, maintaining high energy input to the solar system while simultaneously suppressing the emission of thermal infrared radiation. Photovoltaic solar cells and modules are produced for: (1) large scale power generation, most commonly when modules are incorporated as part of a building (building integrated photovoltaic s) but also in centralised power stations, (2) supplying power to villages and towns in developing countries that are not connected to the supply grid, e.g. for lighting and water pumping systems, (3) supplying power in remote locations, e.g. for communications or weather monitoring equipment, (4) supplying power for satellites and space vehicles, (5) supplying power for consumer products, e.g. calculators, clocks, toys and night lights. In hydrogen energy systems, Proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells are promising candidates for applications ranging from portable power sources (battery replacement applications) to power sources for future electric vehicles because of their safety, elimination of fuel processor system, thus, simple device fabrication and low cost. Although major steps forward have been achieved in terms of PEMFC design since the onset of research in this area, further

  6. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research

  7. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  8. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  9. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  10. Experiments with cold hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonas, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous investigations of atomic processes in Waseous phase on the surface with participation of ''cold'' hydrogen atoms, made during the last years, are considered. The term ''cold atom'' means the range of relative collision energies E<10 MeV (respectively 'ultracold ' atoms at E< or approximately 1 MeV) which corresponds to the range of temperatures in tens (units) of K degrees. Three main ranges of investigations where extensive experimental programs are realized are considered: study of collisional processes with hydrogen atom participation, hydrogen atoms being of astrophysical interest; study of elastic atom-molecular scattering at superlow energies and studies on the problem of condensed hydrogen. Hydrogen atoms production is realized at dissociation in non-electrode high-frequency or superhigh-frequency discharge. A method of hydrogen quantum generator and of its modifications appeared to be rather an effective means to study collisional changes of spin state of hydrogen atoms. First important results on storage and stabilization of the gas of polarized hydrogen atoms are received

  11. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN TUNGSTEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSENS, [No Value; ELKERIEM, MSA; PLEITER, F

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen-vacancy interaction in tungsten was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. Hydrogen trapping at an In-111-vacancy cluster manifests itself as a change of the local electric field gradient, which gives rise to an observable

  12. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanostruc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Choi, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.; Leonhardt, A.; Fink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the literature on hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures. Furthermore, the hydrogen storage of graphite, graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The samples were ball milled

  13. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  14. Competition and the hydrogen market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of competition in the hydrogen market. The major drivers for the hydrogen-based economy are industrial growth, environmental and health benefits from improved air quality and reduced greenhouse gases as well as diversification of energy supply and security

  15. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  16. Hydrogen - A new green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnu, Franck

    2013-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the role hydrogen might have as energy in the energy transition policy, a review of different areas of research related to the hydrogen sector, and presentations of some remarkable innovations in different specific fields. Hydrogen might be an asset in energy transition because production modes (like electrolysis) result in an almost carbon-free or at least low-carbon hydrogen production. Challenges and perspectives are evoked: energy storage for intermittent energies (the MYRTE platform), the use of a hydrogen-natural mix (GRHYD program), the development of fuel cells for transport applications, and co-generation (Japan is the leader). Different French research organisations are working on different aspects and areas: the H2E program by Air Liquide, fuel cell technologies by GDF Suez, power electrolyzers and cells by Areva. Some aspects and research areas are more specifically detailed: high temperature electrolysis (higher efficiencies, synthesis of methane from hydrogen), fuel cells (using less platinum, and using ceramics for high temperatures), the perspective of solid storage solutions (hydrogen bottles in composite materials, development of 'hydrogen sponges', search for new hydrides). Innovations concern a project car, storage and production (Greenergy Box), the McPhy Energy storage system, an electric bicycle with fuel cell, easy to transport storage means by Air Liquide and Composites Aquitaine, development of energy autonomy, fuel cells for cars, electrolyzers using the Proton Exchange Membrane or PEM technology

  17. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen to deliver energy for cars, portable devices and buildings is seen as one of the key steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa’s national hydrogen strategy, HySA, aims to develop and guide innovation along the value...

  18. Hydrogen manufacturing using plasma reformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Hochgreb, S.; O`Brien, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Manufacturing of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is needed for a variety of applications. These applications include fuel cells used in stationary electric power production and in vehicular propulsion. Hydrogen can also be used for various combustion engine systems. There is a wide range of requirements on the capacity of the hydrogen manufacturing system, the purity of the hydrogen fuel, and capability for rapid response. The overall objectives of a hydrogen manufacturing facility are to operate with high availability at the lowest possible cost and to have minimal adverse environmental impact. Plasma technology has potential to significantly alleviate shortcomings of conventional means of manufacturing hydrogen. These shortcomings include cost and deterioration of catalysts; limitations on hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons; limitations on rapid response; and size and weight requirements. In addition, use of plasma technology could provide for a greater variety of operating modes; in particular the possibility of virtual elimination of CO{sub 2} production by pyrolytic operation. This mode of hydrogen production may be of increasing importance due to recent additional evidence of global warming.

  19. Study of Hydrogen As An Aircraft Fuel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciaravino, J

    2003-01-01

    .... The biggest obstacle to using hydrogen is its very low density, a property that even combined with hydrogen's high heat of combustion still results in very large fuel tanks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2...

  20. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  1. The hydrogen mine introduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betournay, M.C.; Howell, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    In an effort to address air quality concerns in underground mines, the mining industry is considering the use fuel cells instead of diesel to power mine production vehicles. The immediate issues and opportunities associated with fuel cells use include a reduction in harmful greenhouse gas emissions; reduction in ventilation operating costs; reduction in energy consumption; improved health benefits; automation; and high productivity. The objective of the hydrogen mine introduction initiative (HMII) is to develop and test the range of fundamental and needed operational technology, specifications and best practices for underground hydrogen power applications. Although proof of concept studies have shown high potential for fuel cell use, safety considerations must be addressed, including hydrogen behaviour in confined conditions. This presentation highlighted the issues to meet operational requirements, notably hydrogen production; delivery and storage; mine regulations; and hydrogen behaviour underground. tabs., figs.

  2. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  3. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  4. Behaviour of hydrogen in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Y.C.; Tang, C.H.; Chuang, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polycrystalline niobium was charged electrolytically with hydrogen at room temperature. The behaviour of hydrogen in niobium has been investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, and ion microprobe analysis. It is shown that, when the hydrogen content in niobium is low, hydride tends to form at the grain boundary. As the hydrogen content is increased, precipitation of hydrides with domain structure takes place in the grain. The habit plane of the hydride formed in the vicinity of the grain boundary has been determined by Laue X-ray back reflection technique to be (130)c and (111)c. The structure of the hydride formed on the surface of niobium after 6 h hydrogen charging at room temperature (c.d. 0.2 A/cm 2 ) has been established to be identical to that of NbHsub(0.89). (orig.) [de

  5. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  7. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  8. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  9. Liquid hydrogen: back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, S.A. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Florida, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Liquid hydrogen is primarily used as a rocket fuel and is predestined for supersonic and hypersonic space vehicles to a large extent because it has the lowest boiling point density and the highest specific thrust of any known fuel. Its favorable characteristics include its high heating value per unit mass, its wide ignition range in hydrogen/oxygen or air mixtures, as well as its large flame speed and cooling capacity due to its high specific heat which permits very effective engine cooling and cooling the critical parts of the outer skin. Liquid hydrogen has some other important uses such as in high-energy nuclear physics and bubble chambers. The transport of hydrogen is vastly more economical when it is in liquid form even though cryogenic refrigeration and special Dewar vessels are required. Although liquid hydrogen can provide a lot of advantages, its uses are restricted in part because liquefying hydrogen by existing conventional methods consumes a large amount of energy (around 30% of its heating value). Liquefying 1 kg of hydrogen in a medium-size plant requires 10 to 13 kWh of electric energy. In addition, boil-off losses associated with the storage, transportation, and handling of liquid hydrogen can consume up to 40% of its available combustion energy. It is therefore important to search for ways that can improve the efficiency of the liquefiers and diminish the boil-off losses. This lecture gives an overview of the main issues associated with the production, storage, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Some discussion of promising ways of hydrogen liquefaction will also be presented. (author)

  10. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  11. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  12. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  13. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  14. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  15. Kicking the habit[Hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N.; Lawton, G.; Pearce, F.

    2000-11-25

    This article focuses on the use of clean non-polluting hydrogen fuel as opposed to the use of fossil fuels which ties western nations to the Middle East. Details are given of Iceland's plans to use hydrogen fuelled buses, cars, trucks and trawlers, car manufacturers' options of using internal combustion engines burning hydrogen and hydrogen fuel cells, and the production of hydrogen using electrolysis of water and steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The 'Green Dream' of pollution-free hydrogen production, the use of solar energy for renewable hydrogen production in California, and problems associated with hydrogen storage are discussed.

  16. Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: leandromachadovet@yahoo.com.br The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient

  17. The hydrogen village: building hydrogen and fuel cell opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation addressed the progress the Hydrogen Village Program has made in its first 24 months of existence and will provide an understanding of the development of new markets for emerging Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies based on first hand, real world experience. The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is an End User driven, Market Development Program designed to accelerate the sustainable commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies through awareness, education and early deployments throughout the greater Toronto area (GTA). The program is a collaborative public-private partnership of some 35 companies from a broad cross section of industry administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. The intent of the H2V is to develop markets for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies that benefit the local and global community. The following aspects of market development are specifically targeted: 1) Deployments: of near market technologies in all aspects of community life (stationary and mobile). All applications must be placed within the community and contact peoples in their day-to-day activity. End user involvement is critical to ensure that the applications chosen have a commercial justification and contribute to the complementary growth of the market. 2) Development: of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure. The infrastructure will develop following the principles of conservation and sustainability. 3) Human and societal factors: - Public and Corporate policy, public education, Codes/ Standards/ Regulations - Opportunity for real world implementation and feedback on developing codes and standards - Build awareness among regulatory groups, public, and the media. The GTA Hydrogen Village is already well under way with strategically located projects covering a wide range of hydrogen and fuel cell applications including: Residential heat and power generation using solid oxide

  18. Integrated waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The BC Hydrogen Highway's, Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project (IWHUP) is a multi-faceted, synergistic collaboration that will capture waste hydrogen and promote its use through the demonstration of 'Hydrogen Economy' enabling technologies developed by Canadian companies. IWHUP involves capturing and purifying a small portion of the 600 kg/hr of by-product hydrogen vented to the atmosphere at the ERCO's electrochemical sodium chlorate plant in North Vancouver, BC. The captured hydrogen will then be compressed so it is suitable for transportation on roadways and can be used as a fuel in transportation and stationary fuel cell demonstrations. In summary, IWHUP invests in the following; Facilities to produce up to 20kg/hr of 99.999% pure 6250psig hydrogen using QuestAir's leading edge Pressure Swing Absorption technology; Ultra high-pressure transportable hydrogen storage systems developed by Dynetek Industries, Powertech Labs and Sacre-Davey Engineering; A Mobile Hydrogen Fuelling Station to create Instant Hydrogen Infrastructure for light-duty vehicles; Natural gas and hydrogen (H-CNG) blending and compression facilities by Clean Energy for fueling heavy-duty vehicles; Ten hydrogen, internal combustion engine (H-ICE), powered light duty pick-up vehicles and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program with BC Hydro, GVRD and the District of North Vancouver; The demonstration of Westport's H-CNG technology for heavy-duty vehicles in conjunction with local transit properties and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program; The demonstration of stationary fuel cell systems that will provide clean power for reducing peak-load power demands (peak shaving), grid independence and water heating; A comprehensive communications and outreach program designed to educate stakeholders, the public, regulatory bodies and emergency response teams in the local community, Supported by industry

  19. Dependence of hydrogen-induced lattice defects and hydrogen embrittlement of cold-drawn pearlitic steels on hydrogen trap state, temperature, strain rate and hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshida, Tomoki; Takai, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the hydrogen state, temperature, strain rate and hydrogen content on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility and hydrogen-induced lattice defects were evaluated for cold-drawn pearlitic steel that absorbed hydrogen in two trapping states. Firstly, tensile tests were carried out under various conditions to evaluate hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. The results showed that peak 2 hydrogen, desorbed at temperatures above 200 °C as determined by thermal desorption analysis (TDA), had no significant effect on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. In contrast, hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased in the presence of peak 1 hydrogen, desorbed from room temperature to 200 °C as determined by TDA, at temperatures higher than −30 °C, at lower strain rates and with higher hydrogen content. Next, the same effects on hydrogen-induced lattice defects were also evaluated by TDA using hydrogen as a probe. Peak 2 hydrogen showed no significant effect on either hydrogen-induced lattice defects or hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. It was found that hydrogen-induced lattice defects formed under the conditions where hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased. This relationship indicates that hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility was higher under the conditions where the formation of hydrogen-induced lattice defects tended to be enhanced. Since hydrogen-induced lattice defects formed by the interaction between hydrogen and strain were annihilated by annealing at a temperature of 200 °C, they were presumably vacancies or vacancy clusters. One of the common atomic-level changes that occur in cold-drawn pearlitic steel showing higher hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility is the formation of vacancies and vacancy clusters

  20. Identification and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Mihaela Rotar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli in animal and non-animal foods, and mainly the incidence of the serotype O157: H7 producing verotoxin. The presence of common Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in various foods (of animal and non animal origin was performed in Transylvania area. We analyzed a total of one hundred forty-one samples of minced meat, one hundred twenty-six samples of meat , twenty six samples of meat products, five samples of alcoholic beverages, three samples of seafood, one hundred samples of cheese from pasteurized milk, seventeen samples of butter, four samples of vegetables and one sample of milk powder, using the standard cultural method and Vidas Eco method for E. coli O157: H7 strains. E. coli was identified in 50 samples of minced meat, 55 samples of meat prepared, 4 samples of meat products, 2 samples of alcoholic beverages, 25 samples of cheese from pasteurized milk, 6 samples of butter and 1 sample of vegetables. In this study were not been identified any foods contaminated with the E. coli O157: H7 serotype. The results of this reasearch have demostrated that E. coli wich represents a hygienic indicator of recent food contamination, can be destroyed with heat treatment and hygienic handling of foods. Our country over the years has been among the few countries where the incidence of the E. coli O157: H7 serotype has been minimal.

  1. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  2. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sesha S [Tampa, FL; Niemann, Michael U [Venice, FL; Goswami, D Yogi [Tampa, FL; Stefanakos, Elias K [Tampa, FL

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  3. Hydrogen production by nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Leanne M.; Chapin, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    A major shift in the way the world obtains energy is on the horizon. For a new energy carrier to enter the market, several objectives must be met. New energy carriers must meet increasing production needs, reduce global pollution emissions, be distributed for availability worldwide, be produced and used safely, and be economically sustainable during all phases of the carrier lifecycle. Many believe that hydrogen will overtake electricity as the preferred energy carrier. Hydrogen can be burned cleanly and may be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. Its use could drastically reduce global CO 2 emissions. However, as an energy carrier, hydrogen is produced with input energy from other sources. Conventional hydrogen production methods are costly and most produce carbon dioxide, therefore, negating many of the benefits of using hydrogen. With growing concerns about global pollution, alternatives to fossil-based hydrogen production are being developed around the world. Nuclear energy offers unique benefits for near-term and economically viable production of hydrogen. Three candidate technologies, all nuclear-based, are examined. These include: advanced electrolysis of water, steam reforming of methane, and the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The underlying technology of each process, advantages and disadvantages, current status, and production cost estimates are given. (author)

  4. Hydrogen, fuel of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, B.

    2008-01-01

    The European project HyWays has drawn out the road map of hydrogen energy development in Europe. The impact of this new energy vector on the security of energy supplies, on the abatement of greenhouse gases and on the economy should be important in the future. This article summarizes the main conclusions of the HyWays study: CO 2 emissions, hydrogen production mix, oil saving abatement, economic analysis, contribution of hydrogen to the development of renewable energies, hydrogen uses, development of regional demand and of users' centers, transport and distribution. The proposals of the HyWays consortium are as follows: implementing a strong public/private European partnership to reach the goals, favoring market penetration, developing training, tax exemption on hydrogen in the initial phase for a partial compensation of the cost difference, inciting public fleets to purchase hydrogen-fueled vehicles, using synergies with other technologies (vehicles with internal combustion engines, hybrid vehicles, biofuels of second generation..), harmonizing hydrogen national regulations at the European scale. (J.S.)

  5. Extensive analysis of hydrogen costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, D M; Martin, D; Garcia-Alegre, M C; Guinea, D [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Arganda, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Automatica Industrial; Agila, W E [Acciona Infraestructuras, Alcobendas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. I+D+i

    2010-07-01

    Cost is a key issue in the spreading of any technology. In this work, the cost of hydrogen is analyzed and determined, for hydrogen obtained by electrolysis. Different contributing partial costs are taken into account to calculate the hydrogen final cost, such as energy and electrolyzers taxes. Energy cost data is taken from official URLs, while electrolyzer costs are obtained from commercial companies. The analysis is accomplished under different hypothesis, and for different countries: Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Spain and the Canadian region of Ontario. Finally, the obtained costs are compared to those of the most used fossil fuels, both in the automotive industry (gasoline and diesel) and in the residential sector (butane, coal, town gas and wood), and the possibilities of hydrogen competing against fuels are discussed. According to this work, in the automotive industry, even neglecting subsidies, hydrogen can compete with fossil fuels. Hydrogen can also compete with gaseous domestic fuels. Electrolyzer prices were found to have the highest influence on hydrogen prices. (orig.)

  6. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of [U- 14 C]glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order

  7. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Danevčič

    Full Text Available Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria.

  8. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA......-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation...... of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree...

  9. FTIR nanobiosensors for Escherichia coli detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mura

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and GA (glutaraldehyde were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples.

  10. Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob

    The circular chromosome of Escherichia coli is replicated by two replisomes assembled at the unique origin and moving in the opposite direction until they meet in the less well defined terminus. The key protein in initiation of replication, DnaA, facilitates the unwinding of double-stranded DNA...... to single-stranded DNA in oriC. Although DnaA is able to bind both ADP and ATP, DnaA is only active in initiation when bound to ATP. Although initiation of replication, and the regulation of this, is thoroughly investigated it is still not fully understood. The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate...... the regulation of initiation, the effect on the cell when regulation fails, and if regulation was interlinked to chromosomal organization. This thesis uncovers that there exists a subtle balance between chromosome replication and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inflicted DNA damage. Thus, failure in regulation...

  11. Escherichia coli pyomyositis in an immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Schwan, William R; Agger, William A

    2011-08-01

    Pyomyositis due to Escherichia coli (E. coil) is rarely reported in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancy. We present a case report of a 34-year-old man who developed E. coli pyomyositis as a complication of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right hip suggested myofascial infection of the gluteal muscles, and a needle muscle aspiration grew E. coli phylogenetic group B2. The patient responded to intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by prolonged oral levofloxacin. Pyomyositis should be suspected in all immunocompromised patients complaining of muscle pain and may exhibit signs of localized muscle infection. Appropriate antibiotic therapy targeting fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli should be considered for initial empiric therapy of pyomyositis in immunocompromised patients.

  12. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...... and to estimate the transcription time for the rRNA operon under different conditions. In steady states of growth with growth rates ranging from 0.75 to 2.3 doublings/h, as well as during the transition after a shift-down, the transcription time of the rRNA operon was constant. The rate of synthesis of r......RNA correlated during this transition – in contrast to the rate of accumulation (M. T. Hansen et al., J. Bacteriol. 122: 585-591, 1975) – with the ppGpp pool in the same way as has been observed during partial amino acid starvation....

  13. Repair replication in permeabilized Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masker, W.E.; Simon, T.J.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    We have examined the modes of DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli strains made permeable to nucleoside triphosphates by treatment with toluene. In this quasi in vitro system, polymerase-I-deficient mutants exhibit a nonconservative mode of synthesis with properties expected for the resynthesis step of excision-repair. This uv-stimulated DNA synthesis can be performed by either DNA polymerase II or III and it also requires the uvrA gene product. It requires the four deoxynucleoside triphosphates; but, in contrast to the semiconservative mode, the ATP requirement can be partially satisfied by other nucleoside triphosphates. The ATP-dependent recBC nuclease is not involved. The observed uv-stimulated mode of DNA synthesis may be part of an alternate excision-repair mechanism which supplements or complements DNA-polymerase-I-dependent repair in vivo

  14. Expression of maize prolamins in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Szu-zhen; Esen, Asim

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA expression library of developing corn (Zea manys L.) endosperm using plasmid pUC8 as vector and Escherichia coli strain DH1 as host. The expression library was screened with non-radioactive immunological probes to detect the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein. When anti-gamma-zein antibody was used as the probe, 23 colonies gave positive reactions. The lengths of cDNA inserts of the 23 colonies were found to be 250-900 base pairs. When anti-alpha zein antibody was used, however, fewer colonies gave positive reactions. The library was also screened by colony-hybridization with 32 P-labeled DNA probes. Based on immunological and hybridization screening of the library and other evidence, we conclude that alpha-zein was either toxic to E. coli cells or rapidly degraded whereas gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed. (author)

  15. Progressive segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2006-01-01

    We have followed the fate of 14 different loci around the Escherichia coli chromosome in living cells at slow growth rate using a highly efficient labelling system and automated measurements. Loci are segregated as they are replicated, but with a marked delay. Most markers segregate in a smooth...... temporal progression from origin to terminus. Thus, the overall pattern is one of continuous segregation during replication and is not consistent with recently published models invoking extensive sister chromosome cohesion followed by simultaneous segregation of the bulk of the chromosome. The terminus......, and a region immediately clockwise from the origin, are exceptions to the overall pattern and are subjected to a more extensive delay prior to segregation. The origin region and nearby loci are replicated and segregated from the cell centre, later markers from the various positions where they lie...

  16. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra......-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance...

  17. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P; Dimmic, Matt

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome......, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals...... that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence...

  18. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms, often composed of multiple species and genetically distinct strains, develop under complex influences of cell-cell interactions. Although detailed knowledge about the mechanisms underlying formation of single-species laboratory biofilms has emerged, little is known about...... the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...

  19. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  20. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  1. Hydrogen Generation From Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Cohen; Stephen Porter; Oscar Chow; David Henderson

    2009-03-06

    Small-scale (100-500 kg H2/day) electrolysis is an important step in increasing the use of hydrogen as fuel. Until there is a large population of hydrogen fueled vehicles, the smaller production systems will be the most cost-effective. Performing conceptual designs and analyses in this size range enables identification of issues and/or opportunities for improvement in approach on the path to 1500 kg H2/day and larger systems. The objectives of this program are to establish the possible pathways to cost effective larger Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems and to identify areas where future research and development efforts have the opportunity for the greatest impact in terms of capital cost reduction and efficiency improvements. System design and analysis was conducted to determine the overall electrolysis system component architecture and develop a life cycle cost estimate. A design trade study identified subsystem components and configurations based on the trade-offs between system efficiency, cost and lifetime. Laboratory testing of components was conducted to optimize performance and decrease cost, and this data was used as input to modeling of system performance and cost. PEM electrolysis has historically been burdened by high capital costs and lower efficiency than required for large-scale hydrogen production. This was known going into the program and solutions to these issues were the focus of the work. The program provided insights to significant cost reduction and efficiency improvement opportunities for PEM electrolysis. The work performed revealed many improvement ideas that when utilized together can make significant progress towards the technical and cost targets of the DOE program. The cell stack capital cost requires reduction to approximately 25% of today’s technology. The pathway to achieve this is through part count reduction, use of thinner membranes, and catalyst loading reduction. Large-scale power supplies are available

  2. Ten questions on hydrogen Jean Dhers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The author proposes explanations and comments on the use of hydrogen in energy production. He discusses whether hydrogen can be a new energy technology within the context of a sustainable development, whether hydrogen is actually an energy vector, what would be the benefits of using hydrogen in energy applications, why it took so much time to be interested in hydrogen, when the hydrogen vector will be needed, whether we can economically produce hydrogen to meet energy needs (particularly in transports), whether hydrogen is the best suited energy vector for ground transports in the future, how to retail hydrogen for ground transports, what are the difficulties to store hydrogen for ground transport applications, and how research programs on hydrogen are linked together

  3. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  4. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  5. Hydrogen influence on metals behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes are used in order to investigate the influence of natural oxides and trapping on the permeability of low alloys steels, and martensitic, ferritic, austenitic stainless steels. The permeability of superficial oxides is investigated by reducing and reoxidising the upstream and downstream surfaces (gas ingoing and outgoing faces). The simultaneous or successive use of hydrogen and deuterium enables a direct demonstration of trapping during permeation measurements and a study of the interactions between the diffusing gas and hydrogen absorbed during steel making and processing [fr

  6. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  7. Hydrogen permeation through metallic foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, M.I.B.; Rodrigues, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The process of electrolytic permeation of hydrogen through metallic foils is studied. A double electrolytic cell, in glass, in which the two compartments of reaction are separated by a metallic foil to be studied, was built. As direct result, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the metal is obtained. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the palladium and, in austenitic stainless steels 304 and 304 L, used in the Angra-1 reactor, were obtained. Samples of stainless steels with and without welding, were used. (Author) [pt

  8. Hydrogen storage in graphitic nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    McCaldin, Simon Roger

    2007-01-01

    There is huge need to develop an alternative to hydrocarbons fuel, which does not produce CO2 or contribute to global warming - 'the hydrogen economy' is such an alternative, however the storage of hydrogen is the key technical barrier that must be overcome. The potential of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) to be used as materials to allow the solid-state storage of hydrogen has thus been investigated. This has been conducted with a view to further developing the understanding of the mechanism(s) ...

  9. Solid hydrogen-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, L.W.

    1976-03-01

    A review of the need of refuelling fusion reactors and of the possible refuelling methods, in particular injection of pellets of solid hydrogen isotopes, is given. The interaction between hydrogen pellets and a fusion plasma is investigated and a theoretical model is given. From this it is seen that the necessary injected speed is above 10 4 m/sec. Experiments in which hydrogen pellets are interacting with a rotating test plasma (puffatron plasma) is described. The experimental results partly verify the basic ideas of the theoretical model. (Auth.)

  10. Fusion Energy for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.; Salzano, F.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.; Fogelson, S.; Isaacs, H.; Kouts, H.; Kushner, M.; Lazareth, O.; Majeski, S.; Makowitz, H.; Sheehan, T. V.

    1978-09-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  11. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, M.; Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.

    1961-01-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [fr

  12. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  13. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  14. Hydrogen production by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Lee, M. J.; Jin, J. H.; Park, K. B.; Cho, Y. H.; Jeong, H. S.; Chung, H. H.; Jeong, Y. S.; Ahn, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 production. A nanosize TiO 2 (nTiO 2 ) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the production of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) showed the most efficient H2 production and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes

  15. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  16. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    century and most chemists appear to think of 'chemi- cal bond' as ..... These complexes, in their global min- ima, have ... taneously act as hydrogen bond donor and acceptor displaying ... also has a local minimum, which is linear and similar to.

  17. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  18. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  19. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    organization and has potential applications in the field of magnetism ... The concepts of crystal engineering ... 4. However, the utilization of hydrogen bond supramolecular syn- ... sembling the coordination networks by designing the ligands ...

  20. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  1. Hydrogen bonding in tight environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The single-molecule force spectroscopy of a prototypical class of hydrogen-bonded complexes is computationally investigated. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The force-extension (F-L) isotherms...... of the host-guest complexes are simulated using classical molecular dynamics and the MM3 force field, for which a refined set of hydrogen bond parameters was developed from MP2 ab initio computations. The F-L curves exhibit peaks that signal conformational changes during elongation, the most prominent...... of which is in the 60-180 pN range and corresponds to the force required to break the hydrogen bonds. These peaks in the F-L curves are shown to be sensitive to relatively small changes in the chemical structure of the host molecule. Thermodynamic insights into the supramolecular assembly were obtained...

  2. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  3. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  4. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  5. A nuclear based hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Tamm, G.; Kunze, J.

    2005-01-01

    Exhausting demands are being imposed upon the world's ability to extract and deliver oil to the nations demanding fluid fossil fuels. This paper analyzes these issues and concludes that there must be no delay in beginning the development of the 'hydrogen economy' using nuclear energy as the primary energy source to provide both the fluid fuel and electrical power required in the 21st century. Nuclear energy is the only proven technology that is abundant and available worldwide to provide the primary energy needed to produce adequate hydrogen fluid fuel supplies to replace oil. Most importantly, this energy transition can be accomplished in an economical and technically proven manner while lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, a similar application of using wind and solar to produce hydrogen instead of electricity for the grid can pave the way for the much larger production scales of nuclear plants producing both electricity and hydrogen. (authors)

  6. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, C.E.

    1979-11-01

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  7. DNA polymerase catalysis in the absence of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, Olga; Chan, Chikio; DeLucia, Angela M.; Helquist, Sandra A.; Kool, Eric T.; Grindley, Nigel D. F.; Joyce, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first pre-steady-state kinetic studies of DNA replication in the absence of hydrogen bonds. We have used nonpolar nucleotide analogues that mimic the shape of a Watson-Crick base pair in order to investigate the kinetic consequences of a lack of hydrogen bonds in the polymerase reaction catalyzed by the Klenow fragment of DNA Polymerase I from Escherichia coli. With a thymine isostere lacking hydrogen bonding ability in the nascent pair, the efficiency (kpol/Kd) of the polymerase reaction is decreased by 30-fold, affecting ground state (Kd) and transition state (kpol) approximately equally. When both thymine and adenine analogues in the nascent pair lack hydrogen bonding ability, the efficiency of the polymerase reaction is decreased by about 1000-fold, with most the decrease attributable to the transition state. Reactions using nonpolar analogues at the primer terminal base pair demonstrated the requirement for a hydrogen bond between the polymerase and the minor groove of the primer-terminal base. The R668A mutation of Klenow fragment abolished this requirement, identifying R668 as the probable hydrogen bond donor. Detailed examination of the kinetic data suggested that Klenow fragment has an extremely low tolerance of even minor deviations of the analogue base pairs from ideal Watson-Crick geometry. Consistent with this idea, some analogue pairings were better tolerated by Klenow fragment mutants having more spacious active sites. By contrast, the Y-family polymerase Dbh was much less sensitive to changes in base pair dimensions, and more dependent on hydrogen bonding between base-paired partners. PMID:16411765

  8. Functional analysis of a novel hydrogen peroxide resistance gene in Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serata, Masaki; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Iino, Tohru

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for tolerance to oxygen and reactive oxygen species, and these mechanisms differ among species. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota grows well under aerobic conditions, indicating that the various systems involved in oxidative stress resistance function in this strain. To elucidate the mechanism of oxidative stress resistance in L. casei strain Shirota, we examined the transcriptome response to oxygen or hydrogen peroxide exposure. We then focused on an uncharacterized gene that was found to be up-regulated by both oxygen and hydrogen peroxide stress; we named the gene hprA1 (hydrogen peroxide resistance gene). This gene is widely distributed among lactobacilli. We investigated the involvement of this gene in oxidative stress resistance, as well as the mechanism of tolerance to hydrogen peroxide. Growth of L. casei MS105, an hprA1-disrupted mutant, was not affected by oxygen stress, whereas the survival rate of MS105 after hydrogen peroxide treatment was markedly reduced compared to that of the wild-type. However, the activity of MS105 in eliminating hydrogen peroxide was similar to that of the wild-type. We cloned hprA1 from L. caseiShirota and purified recombinant HprA1 protein from Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the recombinant HprA1 protein bound to iron and prevented the formation of a hydroxyl radical in vitro. Thus, HprA1 protein probably contributes to hydrogen peroxide tolerance in L. casei strain Shirota by binding to iron in the cells and preventing the formation of a hydroxyl radical.

  9. What is a hydrogen bond?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is a hydrogen bond? Precise definition of a hydrogen bond is still elusive!1. Several criteria are listed usually for X-H•••Y, X and Y initially thought to be F, O and N only1. Structural: The X-Y bond length is less than the sum of their van der Waals radii. X-H•••Y is ...

  10. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  12. Reactivity of hydrogen contained in Raney nickel for ethylene hydrogenation studied by means of a tritium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatani, Daisaku; Takeuchi, Toyosaburo.

    1979-01-01

    Reactivity of hydrogen contained in Raney nickel with ethylene was studied by using a tritium tracer. Hydrogen in Raney nickel was previously labeled with tritium and distinguished from hydrogen introduced during the hydrogenation reaction. The reactivity of the contained hydrogen was determined by measurement of the radioactivity of ethane produced in the hydrogenation. Ethylene reacted with hydrogen in Raney nickel for no supply of hydrogen during the hydrogenation. However, when ethylene was hydrogenated by both hydrogen in Raney nickel and introduced hydrogen, over 99% of the ethylene reacted with the introduced hydrogen and hardly reacted with the contained hydrogen. (author)

  13. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  14. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  15. Hydrogen atom model for nucleon and pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiquni, A.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion on Dion as double charge particle, covering that on semi classical model, proton Dionium model consequence, symmetry group in hydrogen, hydrogen atom dynamic group, and discussion on relativistic dynamic group, covering relativistic equation for hydrogen, operator extension of SO(4, 2), application of SO(4,2)O SO(4,2), and hydrogen complete equation, are given. (author)

  16. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  17. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  18. Hydrogen induced plastic deformation of stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadgil, V.J.; Keim, Enrico G.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen can influence the behaviour of materials significantly. The effects of hydrogen are specially pronounced in high fugacities of hydrogen which can occur at the surface of steels in contact with certain aqueous environments. In this investigation the effect of high fugacity hydrogen on the

  19. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  20. IEA HIA Task 37 - Hydrogen Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank

    The work plan and objectives of this task are designed to support the acceleration of safe implementation of hydrogen infrastructure through coordinated international collaborations and hydrogen safety knowledge dissemination.......The work plan and objectives of this task are designed to support the acceleration of safe implementation of hydrogen infrastructure through coordinated international collaborations and hydrogen safety knowledge dissemination....

  1. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  2. Microalgal hydrogen production - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Lindblad, Peter; Madamwar, Datta; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H 2 to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H 2 from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H 2 production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial view of Hydrogen Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois Jackow

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Gases Companies have been mastering Hydrogen production, distribution, safe handling and applications for several decades for a wide range of gas applications. This unique industrial background positioned these companies to play a key role in the emerging Hydrogen Energy market, which can rely, at early stage of development, on already existing infrastructure, logistics and technical know-how. Nevertheless, it is important to acknowledge that Hydrogen Energy raised specific challenges which are not totally addressed by industrial gas activities. The main difference is obviously in the final customer profile, which differs significantly from the qualified professional our industry is used to serve. A non professional end-user, operating with Hydrogen at home or on board of his family car, has to be served with intrinsically safe and user-friendly solutions that exceed by far the industrial specifications already in place. Another significant challenge is that we will need breakthroughs both in terms of products and infrastructure, with development time frame that may require several decades. The aim of this presentation is to review how a company like Air Liquide, worldwide leader already operating more than 200 large hydrogen production sites, is approaching this new Hydrogen Energy market, all along the complete supply chain from production to end-users. Our contributions to the analysis, understanding and deployment of this new Energy market, will be illustrated by the presentation of Air Liquide internal development's as well as our participation in several national and European projects. (author)

  4. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  5. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  6. HNEI wind-hydrogen program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, D.; Holst, B.; Yu, C.; Huang, N.; Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on wind powered hydrogen production which is promising for Hawaii because Hawaii's wind energy potential exceeds the state's current electrical energy requirements by more than twenty-fold. Wind energy costs are now approaching $0.06 to $0.08/kWh, and the U.S. Department of Energy has set a goal of $0.04/kWh. These conditions make wind power a good source for electrolytic production of hydrogen. HNEI's wind-hydrogen program, at the HNEI-Kahua Wind Energy Storage Test facility on the island of Hawaii, is developing energy storage and power electronic systems for intermittent wind and solar devices to provide firm power to the utility or to a stand-alone hybrid system. In mid 1990, the first wind-hydrogen production/storage/ generation system is scheduled for installation. HNEI's wind- hydrogen program will provide research, development, demonstration, and education on the great potential and benefits of hydrogen

  7. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Olsen, Katharina E P; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents a heterogeneous group of E. coli strains. The pathogenicity and clinical relevance of these bacteria are still controversial. In this review, we describe the clinical significance of EAEC regarding patterns of infection in humans, transmission...

  8. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  9. lactamases genes among0 Escherichia coli from patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -lactamases (ESBLs) that mediate resistance to b-lactam drugs among Escherichia coli and other uropathogens have been reported worldwide. However, there is little information on the detection of ESBLs genes in E. coli from patients with ...

  10. The Prevalence of Enterhaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EHEC), the pathogenicity of other strains of Escherichia coli and other organisms in children presenting with and without diarrhoea in the hospital. Subjects and Methods: A total of 247 stool samples collected from children aged 1 month to 7 ...

  11. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    PMQR) genes and the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) types in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sixty-one ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates were studied. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed ...

  12. GLYCOSYLATED YGHJ POLYPEPTIDES FROM ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (ETEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to glycosylated YghJ polypeptides from or derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that are immunogenic. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions or vaccines comprising the polypeptides and their application in immunization, vaccination...

  13. Effect of composition on diffusible hydrogen content and hydrogen assisted cracking of steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, S.K.; Ramasubbu, V.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Parvathavarthini, N.

    2008-01-01

    Study of hydrogen assisted cracking and measurement of diffusible hydrogen content in different Cr-Mo steel welds showed that for identical conditions, susceptibility to cracking increased and diffusible hydrogen content decreased with increase in alloy content. Hydrogen permeation studies showed that hydrogen diffusivity decreases and solubility increases with increase in alloy content. Thus decrease in diffusible hydrogen content with increase in alloying is attributed to increase in apparent solubility and decrease in apparent diffusivity of hydrogen with increase in alloy content. Analysis of the results indicates that variation of diffusible hydrogen content and apparent diffusivity of hydrogen with alloy content can be represented as a function of alloy composition. (author)

  14. Modification of hydrogen determinator for total hydrogen analysis in irradiated zircaloy cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwnag Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen determinator was modified and installed in the glove box to analyse total hydrogen content in irradiated zircaloy tube. The analysis method of hydrogen is Inert Gas Fusion(IGF)-Thermal Conductivity Detection(TCD). The hydrogen recoveries of no tin method using Ti and Zr matrix standards, respectively, were available within 3 μg of hydrogen. Also the smaller size of sample showed the better hydrogen recovery. It was found that the hydrogen standard of Ti matrix is available to hydrogen analysis in zircaloy sample. The mean radioactivity of irradiated zircaloy sample was 10 mR/hr and hydrogen concentration was 130 ppm

  15. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  16. Unusual hydrogen bonding in L-cysteine hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, V S; Ghazaryan, V V; Boldyreva, E V; Petrosyan, A M

    2015-08-01

    L-Cysteine hydrogen fluoride, or bis(L-cysteinium) difluoride-L-cysteine-hydrogen fluoride (1/1/1), 2C3H8NO2S(+)·2F(-)·C3H7NO2S·HF or L-Cys(+)(L-Cys···L-Cys(+))F(-)(F(-)...H-F), provides the first example of a structure with cations of the 'triglycine sulfate' type, i.e. A(+)(A···A(+)) (where A and A(+) are the zwitterionic and cationic states of an amino acid, respectively), without a doubly charged counter-ion. The salt crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the space group P2(1). The dimeric (L-Cys···L-Cys(+)) cation and the dimeric (F(-)···H-F) anion are formed via strong O-H···O or F-H···F hydrogen bonds, respectively, with very short O···O [2.4438 (19) Å] and F···F distances [2.2676 (17) Å]. The F···F distance is significantly shorter than in solid hydrogen fluoride. Additionally, there is another very short hydrogen bond, of O-H···F type, formed by a L-cysteinium cation and a fluoride ion. The corresponding O···F distance of 2.3412 (19) Å seems to be the shortest among O-H···F and F-H···O hydrogen bonds known to date. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction study was complemented by IR spectroscopy. Of special interest was the spectral region of vibrations related to the above-mentioned hydrogen bonds.

  17. Texaco, carbide form hydrogen plant venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Texaco Inc. and Union Carbide Industrial Gases Inc. (UCIG) have formed a joint venture to develop and operate hydrogen plants. The venture, named HydroGEN Supply Co., is owned by Texaco Hydrogen Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Texaco, and UCIG Hydrogen Services Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of UCIG. Plants built by HydroGEN will combine Texaco's HyTEX technology for hydrogen production with UCIG's position in cryogenic and advanced air separation technology. Texaco the U.S. demand for hydrogen is expected to increase sharply during the next decade, while refinery hydrogen supply is expected to drop. The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require U.S. refiners to lower aromatics in gasoline, resulting in less hydrogen recovered by refiners from catalytic reforming units. Meanwhile, requirements to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel will require more hydrogen capacity

  18. Hydrogen retention properties of lithium film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Koh; Yamauchi, Yuji; Hirohata, Yuko; Hino, Tomoaki; Mori, Kintaro

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen retention properties of Li films and lithium oxide-lithium hydroxide (Li 2 O-LiOH) mixed films were investigated by two methods, hydrogen ion irradiation and hydrogen glow discharge. In a case of the hydrogen ion irradiation, thermal desorption spectrum of hydrogen retained in Li 2 O-LiOH film had two desorption peaks at around 470 K and 570 K. The ratio between retained hydrogen and Li atom was about 0.7. In a case of the hydrogen glow discharge, the hydrogen was also gettered in Li film during the discharge. The ratio of H/Li was almost 0.9. Most of gettered hydrogen desorbed by a baking with a temperature of 370 K. On the contrary, when the Li film exposed to the atmosphere was irradiated by the hydrogen plasma, the desorption of H 2 O was observed in addition to the adsorption of H 2 . (author)

  19. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  20. Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, H.

    1984-01-01

    The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.) [de

  1. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  2. 2010 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments in FY2009 for the DOE Hydrogen Program, including the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program and hydrogen-related work in the Offices of Science; Fossil Energy; and Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology. It includes reports on all of the research projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program between October 2009 and September 2010.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide kinetics in water radiolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Sundin, Sara; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2018-04-01

    The kinetics of the formation and reaction of hydrogen peroxide in the long time γ- radiolysis of water is examined using a combination of experiment with model calculations. Escape yields of hydrogen peroxide on the microsecond time scale are easily measured with added radical scavengers even with substantial amounts of initial added hydrogen peroxide. The γ-radiolysis of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions without added radical scavengers reach a steady state limiting concentration of hydrogen peroxide with increasing dose, and that limit is directly proportional to the initial concentration of added hydrogen peroxide. The dose necessary to reach that limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration is also proportional to the initial concentration, but dose rate has a very small effect. The addition of molecular hydrogen to aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide leads to a decrease in the high dose limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration that is linear with the initial hydrogen concentration, but the amount of decrease is not stoichiometric. Proton irradiations of solutions with added hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen are more difficult to predict because of the decreased yields of radicals; however, with a substantial increase in dose rate there is a sufficient decrease in radical yields that hydrogen addition has little effect on hydrogen peroxide decay.

  4. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  5. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short

  6. Identifying New Small Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Caitlin E; Kelly, John P; Burke, Brittany N; Lein, Christina D; Oufiero, Christopher E; Sanchez, Joseph F; Wimmers, Larry E; Hearn, David J; Abuikhdair, Fatimeh J; Barnhart, Kathryn R; Duley, Michelle L; Ernst, Sarah E G; Kenerson, Briana A; Serafin, Aubrey J; Hemm, Matthew R

    2018-04-12

    The number of small proteins (SPs) encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and small protein identification challenging. One method of small protein identification involves adding an epitope tag to the 3' end of a short open reading frame (sORF) on the chromosome, with synthesis confirmed by immunoblot assays. In this study, this strategy was used to identify new E. coli small proteins, tagging 80 sORFs in the E. coli genome, and assayed for protein synthesis. The selected sORFs represent diverse sequence characteristics, including degrees of sORF conservation, predicted transmembrane domains, sORF direction with respect to flanking genes, ribosome binding site (RBS) prediction, and ribosome profiling results. Of 80 sORFs, 36 resulted in encoded synthesized proteins-a 45% success rate. Modeling of detected versus non-detected small proteins analysis showed predictions based on RBS prediction, transcription data, and ribosome profiling had statistically-significant correlation with protein synthesis; however, there was no correlation between current sORF annotation and protein synthesis. These results suggest substantial numbers of small proteins remain undiscovered in E. coli, and existing bioinformatics techniques must continue to improve to facilitate identification. © 2018 The Authors. Proteomics Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Towson University.

  7. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple loci affecting photoreactivation in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Hausrath, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Sutherland et al. mapped a phr gene in Escherichia coli at 17 min and found that induction of an E. coli stain lysogenic for a lambda phage carrying this gene increased photoreactivating enzyme levels 2,000-fold. Recently, Smith and Youngs and Sancar and Rupert located a phr gene at 15.9 min. We have therefore investigated the properties of photoreactivating enzyme and cellular photoreactivation in cells containing deletions of the gene at 17 min. Cells with this deletion photoreactivated ultraviolet-induced killing at a rate 20% of normal; they also contained approximately 20% of the normal photoreactivating enzyme level. The residual enzyme in these cells was characterized to determine whether the reduced cellular photoreactivation rate and photoreactivating enzyme levels resulted from reduced numbers of normal enzymes or from an altered enzyme. Photoreactivating enzymes from strains carrying a deletion of the region at 17 min has an apparent K/sub m/ about two- to threefold higher than normal enzyme and showed markedly increased heat lability. The gene at 17 min thus contains information determining the function of the E. coli photoreactivating enzyme rather than the quantity of the enzyme. It is proposed that the gene at 17 min be termed phrA and that located at 15.9 min be termed phrB

  9. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  10. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tiamulin resistance mutations in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böck, A; Turnowsky, F; Högenauer, G

    1982-01-01

    Forty "two-step" and 13 "three-step" tiamulin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli PR11 were isolated and tested for alteration of ribosomal proteins. Mutants with altered ribosomal proteins S10, S19, L3, and L4 were detected. The S19, L3, and L4 mutants were studied in detail. The L3 and L4 mutations did not segregate from the resistance character in transductional crosses and therefore seem to be responsible for the resistance. Extracts of these mutants also exhibited an increased in vitro resistance to tiamulin in the polyuridylic acid and phage R17 RNA-dependent polypeptide synthesis systems, and it was demonstrated that this was a property of the 50S subunit. In the case of the S19 mutant, genetic analysis showed segregation between resistance and the S19 alteration and therefore indicated that mutation of a protein other than S19 was responsible for the resistance phenotype. The isolated ribosomes of the S19, L3, and L4 mutants bound radioactive tiamulin with a considerably reduced strength when compared with those of wild-type cells. The association constants were lower by factors ranging from approximately 20 to 200. When heated in the presence of ammonium chloride, these ribosomes partially regained their avidity for tiamulin. Images PMID:7050084

  12. Photoinactivation of mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30-45 J cm-2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.

  13. Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Niki, Hironori; Kato, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome (PEC) database (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/pec/) is designed to allow E. coli researchers to efficiently access information from functional genomics studies. The database contains two principal types of data: gene essentiality and a large collection of E. coli genetic research resources. The essentiality data are based on data compilation from published single-gene essentiality studies and on cell growth studies of large-deletion mutants. Using the circular and linear viewers for both whole genomes and the minimal genome, users can not only gain an overview of the genome structure but also retrieve information on contigs, gene products, mutants, deletions, and so forth. In particular, genome-wide exhaustive mutants are an essential resource for studying E. coli gene functions. Although the genomic database was constructed independently from the genetic resources database, users may seamlessly access both types of data. In addition to these data, the PEC database also provides a summary of homologous genes of other bacterial genomes and of protein structure information, with a comprehensive interface. The PEC is thus a convenient and useful platform for contemporary E. coli researchers.

  14. Coupled hydrogen moderator optimization with ortho/para hydrogen ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Teshigawara, Makoto; Watanabe, Noboru; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2004-01-01

    Neutronic performance of a coupled hydrogen moderator was studied as a function of para hydrogen concentration, moderator thickness and height, premoderator thickness, etc. for the J-PARC spallation neutron source. It was found that a thick (140 mm) moderator with 100% para-hydrogen was optimal to provide a high time- and energy-integrated neutron intensity below 15 meV and high pulse-peak intensities at lower energies. Distribution of the cold neutrons on a moderator viewed surface was studied and found to exhibit an intensity-enhanced region at the fringe part near the premoderator. This rather peculiar distribution suggested that the moderator and the viewed surface must be designed so as to take the full advantage of the brighter region near the premoderator

  15. Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

    1993-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10(sup -6) torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non

  16. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·C2HO4−·H2O, was synthesized by a reaction of 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and oxalic acid in water solution. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 15.60 (6° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. In the crystal, each amidinium unit is bound to three acetate anions and one water molecule by six distinct N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The ion pairs of the asymmetric unit are joined by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds into ionic dimers in which the carbonyl O atom of the semi-oxalate anion acts as a bifurcated acceptor, thus generating an R12(6 motif. These subunits are then joined through the remaining N—H...O hydrogen bonds to adjacent semi-oxalate anions into linear tetrameric chains running approximately along the b axis. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The water molecule plays an important role in the cohesion and the stability of the crystal structure being involved in three hydrogen bonds connecting two semi-oxalate anions as donor and a benzamidinium cation as acceptor.

  17. Progress in hydrogen fueled busses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Tyler, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Thor/ISE fuel cell bus has been in demonstration and revenue service during 2002-2003 at sites including SunLine Transit, Chula Vista Transit, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority, and AC Transit in Oakland. By taking advantage of ISE's advanced hybrid-electric drive technology, this 30-foot bus operates with a much smaller fuel cell than those used in other buses of this class. Further, stress on the fuel cell is diminished. Based on the exceptional performance of this prototype bus, the transit agencies listed above have concluded that hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses are attractive. Two types of hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses will be described: - fuel cell powered, and - HICE (Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) This progress report will include: 1. Experience with the Thor/ISE fuel cell bus, including results from revenue service at two transit locations, 2. Design and fabrication status of the advanced fuel cell buses being built for AC Transit and SunLine Transit, 3. Design and fabrication status of the prototype HHICE (Hybrid electric Hydrogen fueled Internal Combustion Engine) bus that uses a Ford hydrogen burning engine, mated to a generator, rather than a fuel cell. Other than the engine, the drive train in the HHICE bus is nearly identical to that of a fuel cell hybrid-electric bus. Canadian participation in the HHICE bus is extensive, it is a New Flyer platform and will be winter tested in Winnipeg. (author)

  18. New evidence on the role of catalase in Escherichia coli-mediated biocorrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, S.; Vejar, N.; Gulppi, M.; Azocar, M.; Melo, F.; Monsalve, A.; Pérez-Donoso, J.; Vásquez, C.C.; Pavez, J.; Zagal, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G.E.; Páez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MIC on stainless by catalase deficient Escherichia coli bacteria reveals the enzyme influence. ► The localized damage was greater in the presence of the wild E. coli. ► Catalase assists oxygen generation by disproportionation of H 2 O 2 to H 2 O and O 2 . - Abstract: The role of catalase on the microbiologically influenced corrosion mechanism by Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been examined, employing wild type and catalase-deficient cells. The bacteria were cultured for different times in the presence of AISI 316L stainless steel samples. The morphologies of the metallic surfaces covered by biofilms were studied by optical microscopy. The localized corrosion catalyzed by the bacteria was followed by scanning electron microscopy after immersion in the bacterial culture for different times. Susceptibility to corrosion was further investigated by potentiodynamic measurements. It was found that wild type E. coli is more aggressive than the mutant one, suggesting a role for catalase in increasing the kinetics of the cathodic reaction and, consequently, the global corrosion process. This correlates with oxygen uptake kinetics, as determined by differential pulse voltammetry on a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine, which was higher in the presence of wild type E. coli. When H 2 O 2 was deliberately added to the culture medium, wild type E. coli catalyzed oxygen disproportionation more efficiently than the mutant derivative, thus limiting H 2 O 2 accumulation in the medium and, hence, bacterial poisoning. In fact, the reduced adhesion of mutant cells to the metal substrate is apparently the result of H 2 O 2 accumulation in the culture broth. Thus, the rapid consumption of oxygen and peroxide in the presence of wild type E. coli is associated with the catalysis of H 2 O 2 disproportionation to water and oxygen. On the stainless steel, however, a dual mechanism of oxygen reduction, i.e. through formation of hydrogen peroxide

  19. Synergistic effect of eugenol with Colistin against clinical isolated Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ming Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections have become more challenging to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Combined antibiotics prove to be a relatively effective method to control such resistant strains. This study aim to investigate synergistic activity of eugenol combined with colistin against a collection of clinical isolated Escherichia coli (E.coli strains, and to evaluate potential interaction. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI of the bacteria were determined by disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, respectively. The mcr-1 mRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR. To predict possible interactions between eugenol and MCR-1, molecular docking assay was taken. Results For total fourteen strains including eight colistin-resistant strains, eugenol was determined with MIC values of 4 to 8 μg/mL. Checkerboard dilution test suggested that eugenol exhibited synergistic activity when combined with colistin (FICI ranging from 0.375 to 0.625. Comparison analysis of Real-time PCR showed that synergy could significantly down-regulate expression of mcr-1 gene. A metal ion coordination bond with catalytic zinc atom and a hydrogen bond with crucial amino acid residue Ser284 of MCR-1 were observed after molecular docking, indicating antibacterial activity and direct molecular interactions of eugenol with MCR-1 protein. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that eugenol exhibited synergistic effect with colistin and enhanced its antimicrobial activity. This might further contribute to the antibacterial actions against colistin-resistant E.coli strains. Graphical abstract Synergistic effect of eugenol with colistin against colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates.

  20. Method and system for hydrogen evolution and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Hay, P. Jeffrey; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Cameron, Thomas M.

    2012-12-11

    A method and system for storing and evolving hydrogen (H.sub.2) employ chemical compounds that can be hydrogenated to store hydrogen and dehydrogenated to evolve hydrogen. A catalyst lowers the energy required for storing and evolving hydrogen. The method and system can provide hydrogen for devices that consume hydrogen as fuel.

  1. Hydrogen gas sample environment for TOSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, Mark G; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Goodway, Chris M; Evans, Beth E; Kirichek, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The idea of using hydrogen as a fuel has gained immense popularity over many years. Hydrogen is abundant, can be produced from renewable resources and is not a greenhouse gas. However development of hydrogen based technology is impossible without understanding of physical and chemical processes that involve hydrogen sometime in extreme conditions such as high pressure or low and high temperatures. Neutron spectroscopy allows measurement of a hydrogen atom motion in variety of samples. Here we describe and discuss a sample environment kit developed for hydrogen gas experiment in a broad range of pressure up to 7 kbar and temperatures from 4 K to 473 K. We also describe para-hydrogen rig which produces para-hydrogen gas required for studying the rotational line of molecular hydrogen

  2. Modeling of hydrogen desorption from tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guterl, J., E-mail: jguterl@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Smirnov, R.D. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Nuclear Research National University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Uberuaga, B.; Voter, A.F.; Perez, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 8754 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen retention in metallic plasma-facing components is among key-issues for future fusion devices. For tungsten, which has been chosen as divertor material in ITER, hydrogen desorption parameters experimentally measured for fusion-related conditions show large discrepancies. In this paper, we therefore investigate hydrogen recombination and desorption on tungsten surfaces using molecular dynamics simulations and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to analyze adsorption states, diffusion, hydrogen recombination into molecules, and clustering of hydrogen on tungsten surfaces. The quality of tungsten hydrogen interatomic potential is discussed in the light of MD simulations results, showing that three body interactions in current interatomic potential do not allow to reproduce hydrogen molecular recombination and desorption. Effects of surface hydrogen clustering on hydrogen desorption are analyzed by introducing a kinetic model describing the competition between surface diffusion, clustering and recombination. Different desorption regimes are identified and reproduce some aspects of desorption regimes experimentally observed.

  3. Hydrogen embrittlement of steels: study and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, A.M.; Chene, J.; Coudreuse, L.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of steels is one of the important reason of rupture of pieces in the industry (nuclear, of petroleum..). Indeed, there are a lot of situations which can lead to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement: introduction of hydrogen in the material during the elaboration or during transformation or implementation processes (heat treatments, welding); use of steels when hydrogen or hydrogenated gaseous mixtures are present; hydrogen produced by electrolytic reactions (surface treatments, cathodic protection). The hydrogen embrittlement can appear in different forms which depend of a lot of parameters: material (state, composition, microstructure..); surrounding medium (gas, aqueous medium, temperature..); condition of mechanical solicitation (static, dynamic, cyclic..). The industrial phenomena which appear during cases of hydrogen embrittlement are more particularly described here. Several methods of steels studies are proposed as well as some possible ways for the prevention of hydrogen embrittlement risks. (O.M.)

  4. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  5. Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

  6. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Shobrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.

  7. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  8. Energy: the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocheris, J O.M.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear and solar energy should begin replacing conventional fossil sources as soon as possible because oil, gas and even coal supplies will be depleted within decades. A hydrogen economy would introduce major technical problems but its chief benefits are that it permits energy storage in a post fossil fuel era when electricity is expected to play a major role. It can be converted to electricity, cleanly and efficiently with fuel cells and in liquid form can be burnt as jet fuel. Hydrogen can also be burnt in internal combustion engines although less efficiently in fuel cells. However, although hydrogen is clean and efficient, technical development is still needed to reduce its cost and to cope with safety problems. The book contains a wealth of technical information and is a valuable reference on a topic of growing importance.

  9. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  10. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.

    1997-01-01

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  11. Hydrogen Analyses in the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worapittayaporn, S.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.

    2008-01-01

    In severe accidents with core melting large amounts of hydrogen may be released into the containment. The EPR provides a combustible gas control system to prevent hydrogen combustion modes with the potential to challenge the containment integrity due to excessive pressure and temperature loads. This paper outlines the approach for the verification of the effectiveness and efficiency of this system. Specifically, the justification is a multi-step approach. It involves the deployment of integral codes, lumped parameter containment codes and CFD codes and the use of the sigma criterion, which provides the link to the broad experimental data base for flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The procedure is illustrated with an example. The performed analyses show that hydrogen combustion at any time does not lead to pressure or temperature loads that threaten the containment integrity of the EPR. (authors)

  12. Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A. R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in mobile and stationary applications. A relevant role of the fuel cell powered vehicles on the market of the transportation systems will be achieved only if the research and development of on-board vehicular hydrogen storage are able to allow a driving range of at least 500 km. The on-board hydrogen storage systems are more challenging due to the space, weight and cost limitations. This range of autonomy between refueling requires materials able to store at least 6.5% weight hydrogen, available at moderate pressures, at the working temperature of the fuel cells and with acceptable cycling stability. The intensive research on the hydrogen storage in alloys and intermetallic of the LaNi 5 , FeTi or Laves phase type compounds, which started more than three decades ago did not resulted in materials of more than about 3% H storage capacities. The 7.5% H content of the Mg hydride is still of attracting interest but though the absorption has been achieved at lower temperatures by ball milling magnesium with various amounts of nickel, the desorption can not be attained at 1 bar H 2 below 280 deg. C and the kinetics of the process is too slow. In the last decade, the attention is focused on another class of compounds, the complex hydrides of aluminum with alkali metals (alanates), due to their high hydrogen content. It was found that doping with Ti-based catalysts improve the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation conditions of NaAlH 4 . Later on, it was shown that ball milling with solid state catalysts greatly improve the hydrogen desorption kinetics of NaAlH 4 , and this also helps to the rehydriding process. The hydrogen desorption from NaAlH 4 occurs in three steps, it shows a reversible storage capacity of 5.5% H and this led to further research work for a better knowledge of its application relating properties. In this work, ball milling experiments on Na

  13. Thermomagnetic torque in hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The thermomagnetic torque has been measured in parahydrogen and ortho and normal deuterium for pressures from 0.10 to 2.0 torr and temperatures from 100 to 370 K. Since the torque depends on the precession of the molecular rotational magnetic moment around the field direction, coupling of the molecular nuclear spin to the rotational moment can affect the torque. Evidence of spin coupling effects is found for the torque in both deuterium modifications. In para hydrogen the torque at all temperatures and pressures exhibits behavior expected of a gas of zero nuclear spin molecules. Additionally, earlier data for hydrogen deuteride and for normal hydrogen from 105 to 374 K are evaluated and discussed. The high pressure limiting values of torque peak heights and positions for all these gases are compared with theory

  14. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  15. Electric hydrogen recombiner special tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.

    1975-12-01

    Westinghouse has produced an electric hydrogen recombiner to control hydrogen levels in reactor containments following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The recombiner underwent extensive testing for NRC qualification (see WCAP 7709-L and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4). As a result, WCAP 7709-L and Supplements 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been accepted by the NRC for reference in applications not committed to IEEE-323-1974. Supplement 5 and the next supplement will demonstrate conformance to IEEE-323-1974. This supplement describes additional tests, beyond those necessary to qualify the system, which will be referenced in supplement 6. Each test has demonstrated a considerable margin of safety over required performance. Concurrently, the test results increased the fund of technical information on the electric hydrogen recombiner

  16. Geothermal hydrogen - a vision? Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zittel, W.; Weindorf, W.; Wurster, R.; Bussmann, W.

    2001-07-01

    With the progresses in geothermal electricity production by means of the hot-dry-rock (HDR) method electricity might be produced at cost of between 0.07 - 0.09 ECU/kWh, depending on systems sizes of between 5 - 20 MW{sub e}. The electricity can be used to produce hydrogen from electrolysis and water. This method of electricity production offers high availability with operating hour of between 7,600 - 8,000 hours per year. The 40 GWh electricity production per year from one 5 MW{sub e} geothermal plant are sufficient to produce enough hydrogen for the operation of an average fueling station with about 400 refuelings per day at cost of about 20 - 30 percent higher than today's gasoline (including taxes). In this contribution some details of the analysis are presented as well as a general discussion of geothermal hydrogen production as a future energy vector. (orig.)

  17. STUDY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lupascu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground water, after its treatment by hydrogen peroxide, proves greater efficiency than in the case of modified carbonic adsorbents. As a result of used treatment, hydrogen sulfide is completely oxidized to sulfates

  18. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-12-27

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  19. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  20. Circular states of atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwak, R.; Holley, J.; Chang, P.P.; Paine, S.; Kleppner, D.; Ducas, T.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the creation of circular states of hydrogen by adiabatic transfer of a Rydberg state in crossed electric and magnetic fields, and also by adiabatic passage in a rotating microwave field. The latter method permits rapid switching between the two circular states of a given n manifold. The two methods are demonstrated experimentally, and results are presented of an analysis of the field ionization properties of the circular states. An application for the circular states is illustrated by millimeter-wave resonance in hydrogen of the n=29→n=30 transition. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Hydrogen in CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Manzer, A.M.; Surette, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unirradiated and irradiated CANDU fuel cladding was tested to compare the role of stress-corrosion cracking and of hydrogen in the development of fuel defects. The results of the tests are compared with information on fuel performance in-reactor. The role of hydriding (deuteriding) from the coolant and from the fuel element inside is discussed, and the control of 'hydrogen gas' content in the element is confirmed as essential for defect-free fuel performance. Finally, implications for fuel element design are discussed. (author)

  2. Zero emission distributed hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaloni, J.; Rowe, A.; Bailey, R.; McDonald, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The need for distributed production facilities has become a critical issue in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen generation using processes that make effective use of what would normally be considered waste streams or process inefficiencies can have more favorable economics than stand-alone technologies. Currently, natural gas is distributed to industrial and residential customers through a network of pipelines. High pressure main lines move gas to the vicinity of consumers where the pressure is reduced for local, low pressure distribution. Often, the practice is to use an isenthalpic expansion which results in a cooling of the gas stream. Some of the natural gas is burned to preheat the fuel so that the temperature after the expansion is near ambient. This results in the destruction of exergy in the high pressure gas stream and produces CO 2 in the process. If, instead, a turbo-expander is used to reduce the stream pressure, work can be recovered using a generator and hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis. This method of hydrogen production is free of green-house gas emissions, makes use of existing gas distribution facilities, and uses exergy that would otherwise be destroyed. Pressure reduction using the work producing process (turbo-expander) is accompanied by a large drop in temperature, on the average of 70 K. The local gas distributor requires the gas temperature to be raised again to near 8 o C to prevent damage to valve assemblies. The required heating power after expansion can be on the order of megawatts (site dependent.) Supplying the heat can be seen as a cost if energy is taken from the system to reheat the fuel; however, the low temperature stream may also be considered an asset if the cooling power can be used for a local process. This analysis is the second stage of a study to examine the technical and economic feasibility of using pressure let-down sites as hydrogen production facilities. This paper describes a proposed

  3. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  4. New hydrogen donors in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilo, Yu.M.; Petukh, A.N.; Litvinov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The electrophysical properties of the n-type conductivity germanium, irradiated through protons, is studied by the volt-farad method. It is shown that the heat treatment of the implanted germanium at the temperature of 200-300 deg C leads to formation of the fast-diffusing second-rate donors. It is established that the diffusion coefficient of the identified donors coincides with the diffusion coefficient of the atomic hydrogen with an account of the capture on the traps. The conclusion is made, that the atomic hydrogen is the second-rate donor center in germanium [ru

  5. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  6. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  7. Antiproton collisions with molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical antiproton and proton cross sections for ionization and excitation of hydrogen molecules as well as energy spectra of the ionized electrons were calculated in the impact-energy range from 8  to  4000  keV. The cross sections were computed with the close-coupling formulation of the sem......Theoretical antiproton and proton cross sections for ionization and excitation of hydrogen molecules as well as energy spectra of the ionized electrons were calculated in the impact-energy range from 8  to  4000  keV. The cross sections were computed with the close-coupling formulation...

  8. A method of hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Teggers, H.; Schulze-Bentrop, R.

    1975-01-01

    This method of producing hydrogen from water in a multistage cycle process works without anorganic salts and requires only gases and liquids. Carbon oxide is catalytically converted into carbon dioxide and water by means of water vapour. The carbon dioxide is then converted into sulphuric acid and carbon oxide using water and sulphur dioxide at high temperatures and pressures, and the sulphuric acid is separated into sulphur dioxide, oxygen and water via the intermediate SO 2 . The SO 2 and CO 2 thus obtained are led back into the appropriate reaction stages, and hydrogen and oxygen are removed from the process as end products. (A schematic flow diagram is given.) (UWI) [de

  9. Hydrogen: energy transition under way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, Pierre-Etienne; Mateo, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Written by a representative of Air Liquide with the help of a free lance journalist, this book proposes an overview of the technological developments for the use of hydrogen as a clean energy with its ability to store primary energy (notably that produced by renewable sources), and its capacity of energy restitution in combination with a fuel cell with many different applications (notably mobility-related applications). The authors outline that these developments are very important in a context of energy transition. They also outline what is left to be done, notably economically and financially, for hydrogen to play its role in the energy revolution which is now under way

  10. Hawaiian hydrogen mass transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.W.; Russell, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint effort between the scientific and business communities; to create, make and have hydrogen fuel become the primary fuel of the future. Hawaii has abundant, unharnessed renewable resources yet imports almost all of its fuel. Initiating hydrogen production and industrial application in conjunction with a prototype pilot project such as this mass transit system would not only accomplish the joining of science and business but give an environmentally safe energy alternative to the state and people of Hawaii and hopefully the world

  11. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  12. Nanotextile membranes for bacteria Escherichia coli capturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Lev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an experimental study dealing with the possibility of nanotextile materials usa­ge for microbiologically contaminated water filtration. The aim of the study is to verify filtration ability of different nanotextile materials and evaluate the possibilities of practical usage. Good detention ability of these materials in the air filtration is the presumption for nanotextile to be used for bacteria filtration from a liquid. High nanotextile porosity with the nanotextile pores dimensions smaller than a bacteria size predicates the possibility of a successful usage of these materials. For the experiment were used materials made from electrospinning nanofibres under the label PA612, PUR1, PUR2 s PUR3 on the supporting unwoven textiles (viscose and PP. As a model simulation of the microbial contamination, bacteria Escherichia coli was chosen. Contaminated water was filtered during the overpressure activity of 105Pa on the input side of the filter from the mentioned material. After three-day incubation on the nutrient medium, cultures found in the samples before and after filtration were compared. In the filtrated water, bacteria E. coli were indicated, which did not verify the theoretical presumptions about an absolut bacteria detention. However, used materials caught at least 94% of bacteria in case of material PUR1 and up to 99,996% in case of material PUR2. These results predict the possibility of producing effective nanotextile filters for microbiologically contaminated water filtration.Recommendation: For the production of materials with better filtrating qualities, experiments need to be done, enabling better understanding of the bacteria detention mechanisms on the nanotextile material, and parameters of the used materials that influence the filtrating abilities need to be verified.

  13. The hydrogen production; La production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, P.; Goldstein, St. [CEA Cadarach, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Lucchese, P. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dir. des Nouvelles Technologies de l' Energie, 92 (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the production modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)

  14. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  15. Ablation of Hydrogen Pellets in Hydrogen and Helium Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L W; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming

    1975-01-01

    Measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. The investigations were carried out because of the possibility of refuelling fusion reactors by the injection of pellets. The ablation rate found is higher than expected on the basis of a theory...

  16. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  17. Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, K. [Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Nuclear generated hydrogen has important potential advantages over other sources that will be considered for a growing hydrogen share in a future world energy economy. Still, there are technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes that need to be addressed through a vigorous research and development effort. Safety issues as well as hydrogen storage and distribution are important areas of research to be undertaken to support a successful hydrogen economy in the future. The hydrogen economy is gaining higher visibility and stronger political support in several parts of the

  18. Hydrogen Production for Refuelling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulteberg, Christian; Aagesen, Diane (Intelligent Energy, Long Beach, CA (United States))

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this work is to support the development of a high-profile demonstration of hydrogen generation technologies in a Swedish context. The overall objective of the demonstration is to deploy a reforming based hydrogen refilling station along the Swedish west coast; intermediate to the Malmoe refuelling station and planned stations in Goeteborg. In this way, the Norwegian hydrogen highway will be extended through the south of Sweden and down into Denmark. The aim of the project's first phase, where this constitutes the final report, was to demonstrate the ability to operate the IE reforming system on the E.On/SGC site-specific fuel. During the project, a preliminary system design has been developed, based on IE's proprietary reformer. The system has been operated at pressure, to ensure a stable operation of the downstream PSA; which has been operated without problems and with the expected hydrogen purity and recovery. The safe operation of the proposed and tested system was first evaluated in a preliminary risk assessment, as well as a full HazOp analysis. A thorough economic modelling has been performed on the viability of owning and operating this kind of hydrogen generation equipment. The evaluation has been performed from an on-site operation of such a unit in a refuelling context. The general conclusion from this modelling is that there are several parameters that influence the potential of an investment in a Hestia hydrogen generator. The sales price of the hydrogen is one of the major drivers of profitability. Another important factor is the throughput of the unit, more important than efficiency and utilization. Varying all of the parameters simultaneously introduce larger variations in the NPV, but 60% of the simulations are in the USD 90 000 to USD 180 000 interval. The chosen intervals for the parameters were: Hydrogen Sales Price (USD 5 - USD 7 per kg); Investment Cost (USD 70 000 - USD 130 000 per unit); Throughput (20 - 30 kg

  19. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  20. The behavior of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Makoto

    1975-01-01

    Explanation is made on the equilibrium diagrams of metal-hydrogen systems and the state of hydrogen in metals. Some metals perform exothermic reaction with hydrogen, and the others endothermic reaction. The former form stable hydrides and solid solutions over a wide range of composition. Hydrogen atoms in fcc and bcc metals are present at the interstitial positions of tetrahedron lattice and octahedron lattice. For example, hydrogen atoms in palladium are present at the intersititial positions of octahedron. When the ratio of the composition of hydrogen and palladium is 1:1, the structure becomes NaCl type. Hydrogen atoms in niobium and vanadium and present interstitially in tetrahedron lattice. Metal hydrides with high hydrogen concentration are becoming important recently as the containers of hydrogen. Hydrogen atoms diffuse in metals quite easily. The activation energy of the diffusion of hydrogen atoms in Nb and V is about 2-3 kcal/g.atom. The diffusion coefficient is about 10 -5 cm 2 /sec in alpha phase at room temperature. The number of jumps of a hydrogen atom between neighboring lattice sites is 10 11 --10 12 times per second. This datum is almost the same as that of liquid metals. Discussion is also made on the electronic state of hydrogen in metals. (Fukutomi, T.)