WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrogen fuel storage

  1. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  2. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  3. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  4. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  5. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  6. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  7. Electricity Storage and the Hydrogen-Chlorine Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugolo, Jason Steven

    Electricity storage is an essential component of the transforming energy marketplace. Its absence at any significant scale requires that electricity producers sit ready to respond to every flick of a switch, constantly adjusting power production to meet demand. The dispatchable electricity production technologies that currently enable this type of market are growing unpopular because of their carbon emissions. Popular methods to move away from fossil fuels are wind and solar power. These sources also happen to be the least dispatchable. Electricity storage can solve that problem. By overproducing during sunlight to store energy for evening use, or storing during windy periods for delivery in future calm ones, electricity storage has the potential to allow intermittent renewable sources to constitute a large portion of our electricity mix. I investigate the variability of wind in Chapter 2, and show that the variability is not significantly reduced by geographically distributing power production over the entire country of the Netherlands. In Chapter 3, I calculate the required characteristics of a linear-response, constant activity storage technology to map wind and solar production scenarios onto several different supply scenarios for a range of specified system efficiencies. I show that solid electrode batteries have two orders of magnitude too little energy per unit power to be well suited for renewable balancing and emphasize the value of the modular separation between the power and energy components of regenerative fuel cell technologies. In Chapter 4 I introduce the regenerative hydrogen-chlorine fuel cell (rHCFC), which is a specific technology that shows promise for the above applications. In collaboration with Sustainable Innovations, we have made and tested 6 different rHCFCs. In order to understand the relative importance of the different inefficiencies in the rHCFC, Chapter 5 introduces a complex temperature and concentration dependent model of the r

  8. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  9. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  10. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  11. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  12. Calculation of axial hydrogen redistribution on the spent fuels during interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    One of the phenomena that will affect fuel integrity during a spent fuel dry storage is a hydrogen axial migration in cladding. If there is a hydrogen pickup in cladding in reactor operation, hydrogen will move from hotter to colder cladding region in the axial direction under fuel temperature gradient during dry storage. Then hydrogen beyond solubility limit in colder region will be precipitated as hydride, and consequently hydride embrittlement may take place in the cladding. In this study, hydrogen redistribution experiments were carried out to obtain the data related to hydrogen axial migration by using actually twenty years dry (air) stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods of which burn-ups were 31 and 58 MWd/kg HM. From the hydrogen redistribution experiments, the heat of transport of hydrogen of zircaloy-4 cladding from twenty years dry stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods were from 10.1 to 18.6 kcal/mol and they were significantly larger than that of unirradiated zircaloy-4 cladding. This means that hydrogen in irradiated cladding can move easier than that in unirradiated cladding. In the hydrogen redistribution experiments, hydrogen diffusion coefficients and solubility limit were also obtained. There are few differences in the diffusion coefficients and solubility limits between the irradiated cladding and unirradiated cladding. The hydrogen redistribution in the cladding after dry storage for forty years was evaluated by one-dimensional diffusion calculation using the measured values. The maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the irradiated cladding and various spent fuel temperature profiles reported were used in the calculation. The axial hydrogen migration was not significant after dry storage for forty years in helium atmosphere and the maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the unirradiated cladding gave conservative evaluation for hydrogen redistribution

  13. An investigation of hydrogen storage methods for fuel cell operation with man-portable equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, D [Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Haslar (United Kingdom); Jones, P [Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Haslar (United Kingdom); Packer, K [Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Haslar (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    Air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are being considered as a power source for man-portable equipment, such as army radios. In addition to the weight and volume of the fuel cell itself, the device producing hydrogen with which to fuel the cell is also of crucial importance. This paper describes a number of hydrogen storage methods and discusses their applicability to man-portable equipment. (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world.

  15. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  16. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  17. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  18. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  19. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  20. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  1. Hydrogen storage by organic chemical hydrides and hydrogen supply to fuel cells with superheated liquid-film-type catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoshima, S.; Shono, A.; Sato, K.; Saito, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Organic chemical hydrides, consisting of decalin / naphthalene and tetralin / naphthalene pairs, have been proposed as the storage medium of hydrogen for operating fuel cells in mobile and static modes. The target values in the DOE Hydrogen Plan, U.S., on storage ( 6.5 wt%, 62.0 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are met with decalin ( 7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ). In addition, existing gas stations and tank lorries are available for storage and supply of hydrogen by utilizing the decalin / naphthalene pair, suggesting that decalin is suitable for operating fuel-cell vehicles. Tetralin dehydrogenation proceeds quite rapidly, assuring a predominant power density, though its storage densities ( 3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are relatively low. Efficient hydrogen supply from decalin or tetralin by heating at 210-280 o C was attained only with the carbon-supported nano-size metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions, where coke formation over the catalyst surface was prevented. The catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film states gave high reaction rates and conversions, minimizing the evaporation loss under boiling conditions and exergy loss in hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  2. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  3. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  5. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  6. Hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride: from laboratory tests to fuel cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rango, P.; Marty, P.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-02-01

    The paper reviews the state of the art of hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride, emphasizing the role of thermal management, whose effectiveness depends on the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride, but also depends of other limiting factors such as wall contact resistance and convective exchanges with the heat transfer fluid. For daily cycles, the use of phase change material to store the heat of reaction appears to be the most effective solution. The integration with fuel cells (1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell) highlights the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which is related to the thermodynamic properties of MgH2. This allows for "self-adaptive" systems that do not require control of the hydrogen flow rate at the inlet of the fuel cell.

  7. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  8. New and future developments in catalysis batteries, hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Suib, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of seven books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes. Batteries and fuel cells are considered to be environmentally friendly devices for storage and production of electricity, and they are gaining considerable attention. The preparation of the feed for fuel cells (fuel) as well as the catalysts and the various conversion processes taking place in these devices are covered in this volume, together with the catalytic processes for hydrogen generation and storage. An economic analysis of the various processes is also part of this volume and enables an informed choice of the most suitable process. Offers in-depth coverage of all ca...

  9. Hydrogen fuel. Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darkrim-Lamari, F.; Malbrunot, P.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very energetic fuel which can be used in combustion to generate heat and mechanical energy or which can be used to generate electricity and heat through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen. This article deals with the energy conversion, the availability and safety problems linked with the use of hydrogen, and with the socio-economical consequences of a generalized use of hydrogen: 1 - hydrogen energy conversion: hydrogen engines, aerospace applications, fuel cells (principle, different types, domains of application); 2 - hydrogen energy availability: transport and storage (gas pipelines, liquid hydrogen, adsorbed and absorbed hydrogen in solid materials), service stations; 3 - hazards and safety: flammability, explosibility, storage and transport safety, standards and regulations; 4 - hydrogen economy; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  10. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  12. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  13. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials. Fuel cells, battery, hydrogen storage and nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Boillat, Pierre; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Mannes, David

    2015-10-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  14. The performance of a grid-tied microgrid with hydrogen storage and a hydrogen fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linfeng; Xiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two microgrids with different structure are simulated. • Their performance are comprehensively evaluated and compared. • The one with DES and a FC stack has high environmental and quality indexes. - Abstract: In a heat-power system, the use of distributed energy generation and storage not only improves system’s efficiency and reliability but also reduce the emission. This paper is focused on the comprehensive performance evaluation of a grid-tied microgrid, which consists of a PV system, a hydrogen fuel cell stack, a PEM electrolyzer, and a hydrogen tank. Electricity and heat are generated in this system, to meet the local electric and heat demands. The surplus electricity can be stored as hydrogen, which is supplied to the fuel cell stack to generate heat and power as needed. The performance of the microgrid is comprehensively evaluated and is compared with another microgrid without a fuel cell stack. As a result, the emission and the service quality in the first system are higher than those in the second one. But they both have the same overall performance

  15. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  16. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  17. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  18. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  19. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  20. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H 2 storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH) 3 ) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH 4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11 B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH) 4 . When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11 B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB 3 H 8 , can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB 3 H 8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH) 3 and releases >8 eq of H 2 . By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B 3 O 3 (OH) 5 2− , B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 2− , B 3 O 3 (OH) 4 − , B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 − and B(OH) 3 , can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB 3 H 8 can provide a 40% increase in H 2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate

  1. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  2. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. F. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal, chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA, and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  3. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS) Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rui F M; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, Cesar A C; Ribeiro, Jorge H F

    2012-02-06

    Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi 3.6 Co 0.85 Al 0.3 Mn 0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  4. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  5. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  6. Studies of Modified Hydrogen Storage Intermetallic Compounds Used as Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. M. Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of substituting Pt/C with the hydrogen storage alloy MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 as the anode active material of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system has been analyzed. The electrochemical properties indicate that a much more electrochemically active anode is obtained by impregnating the active material loaded anode in a Nafion proton conducting polymer. Such performance improvement might result from the increase of three-phase boundary sites or length in the gas diffusion electrode where the electrochemical reaction occurs. The experimental data revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA shows better results when the anode active material, MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3, is treated with a hot alkaline KBH4 solution, and then chemically coated with 3 wt.% Pd. The MEA with the aforesaid modification presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption, and has been studied by molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry.

  7. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  8. Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    Today various materials for fuel cell applications are urgently needed, including potential electrodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells. Identification of appropriate storage concepts are also urgently needed in order to initiate necessary steps for implementation of such technologies in daily life. Recent progress in nuclear analyses and observation/imaging techniques can significantly contribute to a successful achievement of ongoing research challenges. Primary importance is given to areas of characterization and in-situ testing of materials and/or components of hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems. Dedicated attention is addressed to issues related to hydrogen storage concepts, such as metal hydrides and other systems (e.g. fullerene structures) as well as their stability and the changes induced by hydrogen sorption process. In total 14 papers report on various scientific and research issues related to hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. Based on presented results, it can be concluded that nuclear- based techniques, specifically those involving neutrons, X rays and particle beams, play very important roles in ongoing research activities among many IAEA Member States. A short overview of individual reports is summarized below. The presented papers give an overview of typical applications of such techniques and their experimental setups based either on X ray or neutron sources, which can be used effectively to study specific properties of materials for hydrogen storage as well as microstructural features and hydrogen interaction with solid matter. The papers presented by Canadian, Dutch, Italian and Norwegian groups, report on research results related to application of thermal neutron scattering and neutron diffraction in studies of hydrogen containing materials, particularly in situ characterization as a means to study metal hydrides' structure and their modification upon hydrogen sorption. The investigation on solid state hydrogen storage

  9. Regenerative Hydrogen-oxygen Fuel Cell-electrolyzer Systems for Orbital Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells have found application in space since Gemini. Over the years technology advances have been factored into the mainstream hardware programs. Performance levels and service lives have been gradually improving. More recently, the storage application for fuel cell-electrolyzer combinations are receiving considerable emphasis. The regenerative system application described here is part of a NASA Fuel Cell Program which was developed to advance the fuel cell and electrolyzer technology required to satisfy the identified power generation and energy storage need of the Agency for space transportation and orbital applications to the year 2000.

  10. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  11. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  12. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  13. Hydrogen storage in graphitic nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    McCaldin, Simon Roger

    2007-01-01

    There is huge need to develop an alternative to hydrocarbons fuel, which does not produce CO2 or contribute to global warming - 'the hydrogen economy' is such an alternative, however the storage of hydrogen is the key technical barrier that must be overcome. The potential of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) to be used as materials to allow the solid-state storage of hydrogen has thus been investigated. This has been conducted with a view to further developing the understanding of the mechanism(s) ...

  14. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    promising option. Effective hydrogen storage methods must be used as sources of available hydrogen. One possibility is to use hydrogen stored in a solid chemical compound such as magnesium hydride. The kinetics of hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of magnesium hydride with 2 wt% acetic acid was examined. The hydrogen produced was supplied to a fuel cell and the amount of hydrogen consumed by the fuel cell was determined. Carbon nanotubes also can play a role in energy sources and as components in fuel cells. VUV photo-oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) paper was grafted with polyacrylic acid and analyzed using XPS.

  15. Hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications: Challenges, opportunities and prospects for metal-organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available and release, and cycle life of the materials. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as hydrogen storage materials and significant progress has been made in this regard. The challenges, opportunities...

  16. NRCan's hydrogen storage R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scepanovic, V.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has been working in partnership with industry, other government departments and academia to expedite the development of hydrogen technologies. NRCan's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R and D Program covers all aspects of hydrogen technologies: production, storage, utilization and codes and standards. Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of fuel cell power systems in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. NRCan's storage program has been focused on developing storage materials and technologies for a range of applications with the emphasis on transportation. An overview of most recent hydrogen storage projects including pressurized hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and storage in hydrides and carbon-based materials will be given. (author)

  17. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  18. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications-Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address.

  19. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  20. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-01-07

    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions.

  1. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  2. Kicking the habit[Hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N.; Lawton, G.; Pearce, F.

    2000-11-25

    This article focuses on the use of clean non-polluting hydrogen fuel as opposed to the use of fossil fuels which ties western nations to the Middle East. Details are given of Iceland's plans to use hydrogen fuelled buses, cars, trucks and trawlers, car manufacturers' options of using internal combustion engines burning hydrogen and hydrogen fuel cells, and the production of hydrogen using electrolysis of water and steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The 'Green Dream' of pollution-free hydrogen production, the use of solar energy for renewable hydrogen production in California, and problems associated with hydrogen storage are discussed.

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  4. Modeling the performance of hydrogen-oxygen unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Moro, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an electrolyzer in charge mode and a separate fuel cell in discharge mode. Instead, a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is a single device performing both energy conversions, achieving a higher compactness and power-to-weight ratio. This paper presents a performance model of a URFC based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte and working on hydrogen and oxygen, which can provide high energy and power densities (>0.7 W cm-2). It provides voltage, power, and efficiency at varying load conditions as functions of the controlling physical quantities: temperature, pressure, concentration, and humidification. The model constitutes a tool for designing the interface and control sub-system as well as for exploring optimized cell/stack designs and operational conditions. To date, only a few of such analyses have been carried out and more research is needed in order to explore the true potential of URFCs.

  5. Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A. R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in mobile and stationary applications. A relevant role of the fuel cell powered vehicles on the market of the transportation systems will be achieved only if the research and development of on-board vehicular hydrogen storage are able to allow a driving range of at least 500 km. The on-board hydrogen storage systems are more challenging due to the space, weight and cost limitations. This range of autonomy between refueling requires materials able to store at least 6.5% weight hydrogen, available at moderate pressures, at the working temperature of the fuel cells and with acceptable cycling stability. The intensive research on the hydrogen storage in alloys and intermetallic of the LaNi 5 , FeTi or Laves phase type compounds, which started more than three decades ago did not resulted in materials of more than about 3% H storage capacities. The 7.5% H content of the Mg hydride is still of attracting interest but though the absorption has been achieved at lower temperatures by ball milling magnesium with various amounts of nickel, the desorption can not be attained at 1 bar H 2 below 280 deg. C and the kinetics of the process is too slow. In the last decade, the attention is focused on another class of compounds, the complex hydrides of aluminum with alkali metals (alanates), due to their high hydrogen content. It was found that doping with Ti-based catalysts improve the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation conditions of NaAlH 4 . Later on, it was shown that ball milling with solid state catalysts greatly improve the hydrogen desorption kinetics of NaAlH 4 , and this also helps to the rehydriding process. The hydrogen desorption from NaAlH 4 occurs in three steps, it shows a reversible storage capacity of 5.5% H and this led to further research work for a better knowledge of its application relating properties. In this work, ball milling experiments on Na

  6. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  7. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation The NREL technology validation team works on validating hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; hydrogen fueling infrastructure; hydrogen system components; and fuel cell use in early market applications such as

  8. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  9. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  11. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  12. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  13. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  14. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, M.A.; Hoberecht, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life

  16. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  17. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  18. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  19. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Eyler; Michel Junker; Emanuelle Breysse Carraboeuf; Laurent Allidieres; David Guichardot; Fabien Roy; Isabelle Verdier; Edward Mc Rae; Moulay Rachid Babaa; Gilles Flamant; David Luxembourg; Daniel Laplaze; Patrick Achard; Sandrine Berthon-Fabry; David Langohr; Laurent Fulcheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a French project related to hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. This 3 years project, co-funded by the ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and the Energy Management), aimed to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nano-materials. Four different carbon materials were synthesized and characterized in the frame of present project: - Carbon Nano-tubes; - Carbon Nano-fibres; - Carbon Aerogel; - Carbon Black. All materials tested in the frame of this project present a hydrogen uptake of less than 1 wt% (-20 C to 20 C). A state of the art of hydrogen storage systems has been done in order to determine the research trends and the maturity of the different technologies. The choice and design of hydrogen storage systems regarding fuel cell specifications has also been studied. (authors)

  20. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  1. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  2. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  3. Optimal stochastic coordinated scheduling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.

  4. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  7. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  8. South African hydrogen infrastructure (HySA infrastructure) for fuel cells and energy storage: Overview of a projects portfolio

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bessarabov, D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides brief introduction to the National South African Program, branded HySA (Hydrogen South Africa) as well as discusses potential business cases for deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in South Africa. This paper also...

  9. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR) [de

  10. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...

  11. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  13. Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-06-16

    PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.

  14. Hydrogen storage - are we making progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.; Milliken, J.; Satyapal, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The efficient storage of hydrogen in compact, lightweight systems that allow greater than 300-mile range has been identified as one of the major technical challenges facing the practical commercialization of fuel cell power systems for light-duty vehicles. Following the hydrogen vision announced by President Bush in his 2003 State of the Union address, the U.S. Department of Energy issued a Grand Challenge, soliciting ideas from universities, national laboratories, and industry. DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, an aggressive and innovative research program focused on materials R and D, will be launched in Fiscal Year 2005. An intensive effort is also underway in the private sector, both in the U.S. and abroad, to meet the challenging on-board hydrogen storage requirements. A historical perspective of hydrogen storage research and development will be provided and the current DOE technical targets for hydrogen storage systems will be discussed. The state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage will be summarized and recent progress assessed. Finally future research directions and areas of technical emphasis will be described. (author)

  15. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    "Energiewende", which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  16. Hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, M. G.; Santana, C. C.; Santos, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Reversible reactions between hydrogen and such materials as iron/titanium and magnesium/ nickel alloy may provide a means for storing hydrogen fuel. A demonstration model of an iron/titanium hydride storage bed is described. Hydrogen from the hydride storage bed powers a converted gasoline electric generator.

  17. Hydrogen Storage using Physisorption : Modified Carbon Nanofibers and Related Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Marije Gessien

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes our research on adsorbent systems for hydrogen storage for small scale, mobile application. Hydrogen storage is a key element in the change-over from the less efficient and polluting internal combustion engine to the pollution-free operating hydrogen fuel cell. In general,

  18. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanostruc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Choi, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.; Leonhardt, A.; Fink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the literature on hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures. Furthermore, the hydrogen storage of graphite, graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The samples were ball milled

  19. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  20. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  1. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  2. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  3. Synthetic nanocomposite MgH2/5 wt. % TiMn2 powders for solid-hydrogen storage tank integrated with PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif; Shaban, Ehab; Aldakheel, Fahad; Alkandary, Abdullah; Behbehani, Montaha; Al-Saidi, M

    2017-10-16

    Storing hydrogen gas into cylinders under high pressure of 350 bar is not safe and still needs many intensive studies dedic ated for tank's manufacturing. Liquid hydrogen faces also severe practical difficulties due to its very low density, leading to larger fuel tanks three times larger than traditional gasoline tank. Moreover, converting hydrogen gas into liquid phase is not an economic process since it consumes high energy needed to cool down the gas temperature to -252.8 °C. One practical solution is storing hydrogen gas in metal lattice such as Mg powder and its nanocomposites in the form of MgH 2 . There are two major issues should be solved first. One related to MgH 2 in which its inherent poor hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics and high thermal stability must be improved. Secondly, related to providing a safe tank. Here we have succeeded to prepare a new binary system of MgH 2 /5 wt. % TiMn 2 nanocomposite powder that show excellent hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior at relatively low temperature (250 °C) with long cycle-life-time (1400 h). Moreover, a simple hydrogen storage tank filled with our synthetic nanocomposite powders was designed and tested in electrical charging a battery of a cell phone device at 180 °C through a commercial fuel cell.

  4. Hydrogen storage enhanced in Li-doped carbon replica of zeolites: a possible route to achieve fuel cell demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Thomas; Bichara, Christophe; Gubbins, Keith E; Pellenq, Roland J-M

    2009-05-07

    We first report the atomistic grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the synthesis of two realistic ordered microporous carbon replica in two siliceous forms of faujasite zeolite (cubic Y-FAU and hexagonal EMT). Atomistic simulations of hydrogen adsorption isotherms in these two carbon structures and their Li-doped composites were carried out to determine their storage capacities at 77 and 298 K. We found that these new forms of carbon solids and their Li-doped versions show very attractive hydrogen storage capacities at 77 and 298 K, respectively. However, for a filling pressure of 300 bars and at room temperature, bare carbons do not show advantageous performances compared to a classical gas cylinder despite of their crystalline micropore network. In comparison, Li-doped nanostructures provide reversible gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities twice larger (3.75 wt % and 33.7 kg/m(3)). The extreme lattice stiffness of their skeleton will prevent them from collapsing under large external applied pressure, an interesting skill compared to bundle of carbon nanotubes, and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These new ordered composites are thus very promising materials for hydrogen storage issues by contrast with MOFs.

  5. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  6. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  7. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  8. 2016 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-09

    The 2016 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2016 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; market transformation; and Small Business Innovation Research projects.

  9. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will lie the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio[l]. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to be the most promising [2]. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and

  11. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will be the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to lie the most promising. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and higher

  12. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  13. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  14. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  15. Properties of thermoplastic polymers used for hydrogen storage under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousse, F.; Mazabraud, P.; Icard, B.; Mosdale, R.; Serre-Combe, P.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development of industrial applications of fuel cells of type PEMFC ( Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Developing an effective system of storage remains major. Ameliorations concerning the storage density of energy, the cost and facilities and the storage must be considered especially for the mobile applications. Among different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seem the most promising way. The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the simplest technical solution, the most advanced and the most economic solution. However, the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  16. Probabilistic multiobjective operation management of MicroGrids with hydrogen storage and polymer exchange fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, T.; Golestaneh, F. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper models and solves the operation management problem of MicroGrids (MGs) including cost and emissions minimization under uncertain environment. The proposed model emphasizes on fuel cells (FCs) as a prime mover of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. An electro-chemical model of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is used and linked to the daily operating cost and emissions of the MGs. A reformer is considered to produce hydrogen for PEMFCs. Moreover, in high thermal load intervals, in order to make the MG more efficient, a part of produced hydrogen is stored in a hydrogen tank. The stored hydrogen can be reused by PEMFCs to generate electricity or be sold to other hydrogen consumers. A probabilistic optimization algorithm is devised which consists of 2m + 1 point estimate method to handle the uncertainty in input random variables (IRVs) and a multi-objective Self-adaptive Bee Swarm Optimization (SBSO) algorithm to minimize the cost and emissions simultaneously. Several techniques are proposed in the SBSO algorithm to make it a powerful black-box optimization tool. The efficiency of the proposed approach is verified on a typical grid-connected MG with several distributed energy sources. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  18. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  19. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  20. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One Li

  1. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  2. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  3. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  4. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  5. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  6. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  7. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  8. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  9. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  10. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications : production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study...

  11. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel elements comprising a multiplicity of elongated hollow containers of uniform cross-section, preferably square,some of said containers having laterally extending continuous flanges extending between adjacent containers and defining continuous elongated chambers therebetween for the reception of neutron absorbing panels. 18 claims, 7 figures

  12. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  13. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...... that the particles do not disintegrate is explained by a sintering process at the working temperatures. Exposure to air does not impair the sorption ability; on the contrary, it appears that surface oxidation plays an important role in the reaction. Some handling problems, e.g. the reaction of the hydride with water...

  14. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  15. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  16. Spark Discharge Generated Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest obstacles to the large scale application of hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles is the absence of hydrogen storage methods suitable for application on-board of these vehicles. Metal hydrides are materials in which hydrogen is reversibly absorbed by one or more metals or

  17. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concepts transferred from the gaseous state. Separation of a ... molecular mass to that calculated by colligative methods. It is important in ... namics is vital in the design and optimization of the materials for hydrogen ... vehicular applications.

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  19. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  20. Towards a hydrogen-driven society? Calculations and neutron scattering on potential hydrogen storage materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmel, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable development, the resources of the earth need to be maintained and carbon dioxide emission should be avoided. In particular, we need to find an alternative for the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. Since long, hydrogen has been recognised as the fuel of the future because it exhausts only water when used in fuel cells and hardly any pollutants when used in conventional internal combustion engines. However, the storage of hydrogen onboard vehicles is a major concern. Hydrogen is ...

  1. Hydrogen: the great debate. 'Power to Gas - how to cope with the challenge of electricity storage?; Hydrogen in energy transition: which challenges to be faced?; Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow; Electrolytic hydrogen, a solution for energy transition?; Development of high power electrolysis systems: need and approach; Hydrogen as energy vector, Potential and stakes: a perspective; The Toyota Fuel Cell System: a new era for the automotive industry; Three key factors: production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance; Hydrogen, benevolent fairy or tempting demon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Boucly, Philippe; Beeker, Etienne; Mauberger, Pascal; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Brisse, Annabelle; Gautier, Ludmila; Hercberg, Sylvain; De Volder, Marc; Gruson, Jean-Francois; Marion, Pierre; Grellier, Sebastien; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Mansilla, Christine; Le Net, Elisabeth; Le Duigou, Alain; Maire, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of contributions which address various issues related to the development of the use of hydrogen as an energy source. More precisely, these contributions discuss how to face the challenge of electricity storage by using the Power-to-Gas technology, the challenges to be faced regarding the role of hydrogen in energy transition, the essential current role of hydrogen and its indispensable role for tomorrow, the possible role of electrolytic hydrogen as a solution for energy transition, the need of and the approach to a development of high power electrolysis systems, the potential and stakes of hydrogen as an energy vector, the Toyota fuel cell system as a sign for new era for automotive industry, the three main factors (production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance) for the use of hydrogen in energy transition, and the role of hydrogen perceived either as a benevolent fairy or a tempting demon

  2. Hydrogen the fuel for 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-Conventional Energy Sources, such as solar and hydrogen energy will remain available for infinite period. One of the reasons of great worry for all of us is reducing sources of conventional energies. The rate of fossil fuel consumption is higher than the rate of the fossil fuel production by the nature. The results will be the scarcity of automobile fuel in the world which will create lot of problems in transport sector. The other aspect is pollution added by these sources in our environment which increases with more use of these sources, resulting in the poor quality of life on this planet. There is constant search of alternate fuel to solve energy shortage which can provide us energy without pollution. Hence most frequently discussed source is hydrogen which when burnt in air produces a clean form of energy. In the last one decade hydrogen has attracted worldwide interest as a secondary energy carrier. This has generated comprehensive investigations on the technology involved and how to solve the problems of production, storage and transportation of hydrogen. The interest in hydrogen as energy of the future is due to it being a clean energy, most abundant element in the universe, the lightest fuel, richest in energy per unit mass and unlike electricity, it can be easily stored. Hydrogen gas is now considered to be the most promising fuel of the future. In future it will be used in various applications, e.g. it can generate Electricity, useful in cooking food, fuel for automobiles, hydrogen powered industries, Jet Planes, Hydrogen Village and for all our domestic energy requirements. Hydrogen as a fuel has already found applications in experimental cars and all the major car companies are in competition to build a commercial car and most probably they may market hydrogen fuel automobiles in near future but at a higher cost compared to gasoline cars but it is expected that with time the cost of hydrogen run cars will decrease with time. Long lasting, light and

  3. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  4. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  5. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  7. Hydrogen: it's now. Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow. Power-to-Gas or how to meet the challenge of electricity storage. To develop hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen production modes and scope of application of the IED directive - Interview. Regulatory evolutions needed for an easier deployment of hydrogen energy technologies for a clean mobility. Support of the Community's policy to hydrogen and to fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauberger, Pascal; Boucly, Philippe; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Ferrari, Fabio; Boivin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Published by the French Association for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (AFHYPAC), this document first outlines how hydrogen can reduce our dependence on fossil energies, how it supports the development of electric mobility to reduce CO 2 emissions by transports, how it enables a massive storage of energy as a support to renewable energies deployment and integration, and how hydrogen can be a competitiveness driver. Then two contributions address technical solutions, the first one being Power-to-Gas as a solution to energy storage (integration of renewable energies, a mean for massive storage of electricity, economic conditions making the first deployments feasible, huge social and economical benefits, necessity of creation of an adapted legal and economic framework), and the second one being the development of hydrogen-powered mobility (a major societal concern for air quality, strategies of car manufacturers in the world, necessity of a favourable framework, the situation of recharging infrastructures). Two contributions address the legal framework regarding hydrogen production modes and the scope of application of the European IED directive on industrial emissions, and the needed regulatory evolutions for an easier deployment of Hydrogen-energy technologies for a clean mobility. A last article comments the evolution of the support of European policies to hydrogen and fuel cells through R and d programs, presents the main support program (FCH JU) and its results, other European financing and support policy, and discusses perspectives, notably for possible financing mechanisms

  8. The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunita Satyapal; Carole Read; Grace Ordaz; John Petrovic; George Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is being considered by many countries as a potential energy carrier for vehicular applications. In the United States, hydrogen-powered vehicles must possess a driving range of greater than 300 miles in order to meet customer requirements and compete effectively with other technologies. For the overall vehicular fleet, this requires that a range of 5-13 kg of hydrogen be stored on-board. The storage of such quantities of hydrogen within vehicular weight, volume, and system cost constraints is a major scientific and technological challenge. The targets for on-board hydrogen storage were established in the U.S. through the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnership, a partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and major energy companies. In order to achieve these long-term targets, the Department of Energy established a National Hydrogen Storage Project to develop the areas of metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, carbon-based and high-surface-area sorbent materials, and new hydrogen storage materials and concepts. The current status of vehicular hydrogen storage is reviewed and hydrogen storage research associated with the National Hydrogen Storage Project is discussed. (authors)

  9. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  10. Hydrogen storage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A summary of the hydride development efforts for the current program year (FY98) are presented here. The Mg-Al-Zn alloy system was studied at low Zn levels (2--4 wt%) and midrange Al contents (40--60 wt%). Higher plateau pressures were found with Al and Zn alloying in Mg and, furthermore, it was found that the hydrogen desorption kinetics were significantly improved with small additions of Zn. Results are also shown here for a detailed study of the low temperature properties of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and a comparison made between conventional melt cast alloy and the vapor process material.

  11. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jeffrey R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The design and characterization of new materials for hydrogen storage is an important area of research, as the ability to store hydrogen at lower pressures and higher temperatures than currently feasible would lower operating costs for small hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. In particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent promising materials for use in storing hydrogen in this capacity. MOFs are highly porous, three-dimensional crystalline solids that are formed via linkages between metal ions (e.g., iron, nickel, and zinc) and organic molecules. MOFs can store hydrogen via strong adsorptive interactions between the gas molecules and the pores of the framework, providing a high surface area for gas adsorption and thus the opportunity to store hydrogen at significantly lower pressures than with current technologies. By lowering the energy required for hydrogen storage, these materials hold promise in rendering hydrogen a more viable fuel for motor vehicles, which is a highly desirable outcome given the clean nature of hydrogen fuel cells (water is the only byproduct of combustion) and the current state of global climate change resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. The work presented in this report is the result of collaborative efforts between researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and General Motors Corporation (GM) to discover novel MOFs promising for H2 storage and characterize their properties. Described herein are several new framework systems with improved gravimetric and volumetric capacity to strongly bind H2 at temperatures relevant for vehicle storage. These materials were rigorously characterized using neutron diffraction, to determine the precise binding locations of hydrogen within the frameworks, and high-pressure H2 adsorption measurements, to provide a comprehensive picture of H2 adsorption at all relevant pressures. A

  13. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  14. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  15. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  16. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  17. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  18. Hydrogen in CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Manzer, A.M.; Surette, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unirradiated and irradiated CANDU fuel cladding was tested to compare the role of stress-corrosion cracking and of hydrogen in the development of fuel defects. The results of the tests are compared with information on fuel performance in-reactor. The role of hydriding (deuteriding) from the coolant and from the fuel element inside is discussed, and the control of 'hydrogen gas' content in the element is confirmed as essential for defect-free fuel performance. Finally, implications for fuel element design are discussed. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Conditions for Hydrogen Induced Degradation of Zirconium Alloys during Fuel Operation and Storage. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2011-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication reports on the work carried out in 2011–2015 in the coordinated research project (CRP) on the evaluation of conditions for hydrogen induced degradation of zirconium alloys during fuel operation and storage. The CRP was carried out to evaluate the threshold condition for delayed hydride cracking (KIH) in pressurized water reactors and zircaloy-4 and E635M fuel claddings, with application to in-pile operation and spent fuel storage. The project consisted of adding hydrogen to samples of cladding and measuring K IH by one of four methods. The CRP was the third in the series, of which the results of the first two were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1410 and IAEA-TECDOC-1649, in 2004 and 2010, respectively. This publication includes all of the research work performed in the framework of the CRP, including details of the experimental procedures that led to a set of data for tested materials. The research was conducted by representatives from 13 laboratories from all over the world. In addition to the basic goal to transfer the technology of the testing techniques from experienced laboratories to those unfamiliar with the methods, the CRP was set up to develop experimental procedures to produce consistent sets of data, both within a single laboratory and among different laboratories. The material condition and temperature history were prescribed, and laboratories chose one or two of four methods of loading that were recommended in an attempt to develop standard sets of experimental protocols so that consistent results could be obtained. Experimental discrepancies were minimized through careful attention to details of microstructure, temperature history and stress state in the samples, with the main variation being the mode of loading

  20. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  1. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  2. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  3. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  4. Economical Aspects of Sodium Borohydride for Hydrogen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ture, I. Engin; Tabakoglu, F. Oznur; Kurtulus, Gulbahar

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the cause to global warming. Turkey has an important location with respect to hydrogen energy applications. Moreover, Turkey has 72.2% of the world's total boron reserves. Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) which can be produced from borax has high hydrogen storage capacity. Hence, it is important for Turkey to lead studies about sodium borohydride to make it one of the most feasible hydrogen storage methods. In this paper an approximate process cost analysis of a NaBH 4 -H 2 system is given, starting with NaBH 4 production till recycling of it. It is found that, the usage of NaBH 4 as hydrogen storage material is relatively an expensive method but after improving reactions and by-product removal in the system and reducing the energy and reactant costs, sodium borohydride is one of the best candidates among hydrogen storage technologies. (authors)

  5. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  6. Progress in hydrogen fueled busses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Tyler, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Thor/ISE fuel cell bus has been in demonstration and revenue service during 2002-2003 at sites including SunLine Transit, Chula Vista Transit, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority, and AC Transit in Oakland. By taking advantage of ISE's advanced hybrid-electric drive technology, this 30-foot bus operates with a much smaller fuel cell than those used in other buses of this class. Further, stress on the fuel cell is diminished. Based on the exceptional performance of this prototype bus, the transit agencies listed above have concluded that hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses are attractive. Two types of hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses will be described: - fuel cell powered, and - HICE (Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) This progress report will include: 1. Experience with the Thor/ISE fuel cell bus, including results from revenue service at two transit locations, 2. Design and fabrication status of the advanced fuel cell buses being built for AC Transit and SunLine Transit, 3. Design and fabrication status of the prototype HHICE (Hybrid electric Hydrogen fueled Internal Combustion Engine) bus that uses a Ford hydrogen burning engine, mated to a generator, rather than a fuel cell. Other than the engine, the drive train in the HHICE bus is nearly identical to that of a fuel cell hybrid-electric bus. Canadian participation in the HHICE bus is extensive, it is a New Flyer platform and will be winter tested in Winnipeg. (author)

  7. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  8. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  9. Nanoconfined Alkali-metal borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has been identified as a promising energy carrier. Its combustion is not associated with pollution when generated from renewable energy sources like solar and wind. The large-scale use of hydrogen for intermittent energy storage and as a fuel for cars can contribute to the realization of a

  10. Energy conversion, storage and balancing. Great potential of hydrogen and fuel cells; Energikonvertering, lagring og balancering. Stort potentiale i brint og braendselsceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This document is the Danish strategy for hydrogen technology research, development and demonstration. Work on a new strategy was launched in early 2012 by the Partnership for hydrogen and fuel cells. The new national strategy complements the Partnership's former national strategy ''Hydrogen Technologies - strategy for research, development and demonstration in Denmark'' from June 2005. The former strategy describes the challenges and costs by the technological development of hydrogen and fuel cells until 2016 - and is valid until 2016. The Partnership's strategy anno 2012 describes the energy technology challenges for hydrogen technology development until 2016 - and in some years thereafter. The strategy provides an updated status of hydrogen and fuel cells, describes the area's future potential, and specifies future needs for technological development. The strategy's main focus is to define how electrolysis, hydrogen and fuel cells can help to meet Denmark's future energy policy objectives. In the strategy the term ''hydrogen technologies'' overall means: Electrolysis and fuel cells as conversion technologies, and hydrogen and hydrogen-containing fuels, such as methanol, as energy carriers. (LN)

  11. 76 FR 4338 - Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Hydrogen Storage Workshops AGENCY: Fuel Cell Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and... the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the Hydrogen Storage team of the EERE... hydrogen storage in the Washington, DC metro area. DATES: The workshops will be held on Monday, February 14...

  12. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  13. Optimal energy management of the smart parking lot under demand response program in the presence of the electrolyser and fuel cell as hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannati, Jamil; Nazarpour, Daryoosh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management of IPL is considered in the presence of wind turbine and PV system. • The optimal charge and discharge powers of EVs, dispatch power of LDG are determined. • Charging/discharging decisions of electrolyser and fuel cell are determined. • Demand response program is used to manage the peak load to reduce the operation cost. • Global optimal is guaranteed in proposed model by mixed-integer linear programming. - Abstract: Nowadays, utilization of distributed generation sources and electric vehicles (EVs) are increased to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, intelligent parking lots (IPL) are increased in response to the increase in the number of EVs. Therefore, optimal operation of distributed generation sources and IPL in the power market without technical scheduling will follow some economic problems for the owner of IPL and some technical problems for the operator of distribution network. Therefore, in this paper, an optimal energy management has been proposed for an IPL which includes renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic system) and local dispatchable generators (micro-turbines). Also, determination of optimal charge and discharge powers of hydrogen storage system (HSS) containing electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cell has been considered in the proposed model. Furthermore, the time-of-use rates of demand response program are proposed to flatten the load curve to reduce the operation cost of IPL. The objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of upstream grid and local dispatchable generators as well as charging and discharging cost of IPL subject to the technical and physical constraints under demand response program in the presence of HSS. The proposed model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming and solved using GAMS optimization software under CPLEX solver. Four case studies are investigated to validate the proposed model to show the positive

  14. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  15. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  16. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  17. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  18. The storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Jonville, P.

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells [fr

  19. Storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R; Jonville, P

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells.

  20. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  1. Developing business opportunities for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.

    2001-01-01

    A quick review of the history of Dynetek Industries Limited was provided. During the period 1991-1995, it began research and development efforts in the field of advanced lightweight fuel storage systems and the DyneCell R Fuel Storage Systems was introduced on the market. In 1997, it began supplying Ballard Power Systems with hydrogen fuel tanks. Trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange started in September 2000, and in 2001 Dynetek incorporated a 100 per cent European subsidiary, Dynetek Europe GmbH. The advantages of the product are numerous: lightest cylinder on the market with a metallic liner, highest storage capacity of all lightweight designs, non-permeable, one piece, seamless aluminium liner, and true fast-fill capabilities to name but a few. Dynetek's vision of market development was introduced. It involves a California demonstration project for the period 2001-2003 which should lead to transit vehicles in 2005-2008. Fleet vehicles are expected to follow suit during the same period, and the consumer market should be ripe in 2010-2015. Some of the challenges facing the industry were discussed and Dynetek's role in meeting them was examined. figs

  2. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  3. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  4. High density fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zezza, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    High storage density for spent nuclear fuel assemblies in a pool achieved by positioning fuel storage cells of high thermal neutron absorption materials in an upright configuration in a rack. The rack holds the cells at required pitch. Each cell carries an internal fuel assembly support, and most cells are vertically movable in the rack so that they rest on the pool bottom. Pool water circulation through the cells and around the fuel assemblies is permitted by circulation openings at the top and bottom of the cells above and below the fuel assemblies

  5. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C.

  6. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C

  7. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  8. Magnesium mechanical alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Konstanchuk, I.; Stepanov, A.; Boldyrev, V.

    1985-01-01

    Metal hybrides are currently being used to store and handle hydrogen and its isotopes. They are also being tested in hydrogen compressors and in heat energy, refrigerators and in hydrogen and thermal storage devices. Metal hydrides have been proposed as one of the possible media for hydrogen storage to overcome the limitations of other techniques in regard to safety hydrogen weight and volume ration. The suitability of metal hybrides as a hydrogen storage media depends on a number of factors such as storage capacity, reactivity with hydrogen at various pressures and temperatures, and the cost of base materials. Magnesium based alloys are promising materials for storing hydrogen. They are generally made by argon melting and no attention has been payed to other fabrication techniques such as mechanical alloying or powder technique

  9. Hydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The manual documents the first training course developed on the use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The manual contains eleven modules covering hydrogen properties, use and safety; fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine desi...

  10. HySA infrastructure center of competence: A strategic collaboration platform for renewable hydrogen production and storage for fuel cell telecom applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bessarabov, D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Science and Technology of South Africa developed the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies (HFCT) Research, Development and Innovation Strategy. The National Strategy was branded Hydrogen South Africa (HySA). HySA has been...

  11. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  12. Study of the storage of hydrogen in carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Cossement, D.; Tessier, A.; Belanger, M.; Bose, T.K.; Dodelet, J-P.; Dellero, T.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development in industrial applications of fuel cells (CAP) of type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). An effective system of storage would be a major step in the large scale utilization of this energy source. Process improvements concerning the storage density of energy, the cost, and facilities and the reliability of the storage must be sought in particular for the mobile applications. Among the different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seems the most promising way.The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the technical solution simplest, more advanced and more economic. However the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  13. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  14. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  15. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  16. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  18. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...

  19. Modulated synthesis of Cr-MOF (MIL 101) for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Segakweng, T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available as a fuel into fuel cell technologies is only possible when safe and effective hydrogen storage systems become available. Complete usage of hydrogen is only possible if proper and effective storage systems with fast kinetics becomes available. Porous...

  20. Nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen as a transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very attractive transportation fuel in three important ways: it is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine, it produces no greenhouse gases, and it is potentially available anywhere there is water and a clean source of power. The prospect of a clean, widely available transportation fuel has motivated much of the research on hydrogen fuels. This paper is a state-of-the art review of the production, storage, performance, environmental impacts, safety, and cost of nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen for highway vehicles

  1. Spent fuel element storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Hideo; Yamashita, Rikuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To always keep water level of a spent fuel cask pit equal with water level of spent fuel storage pool by means of syphon principle. Constitution: The pool water of a spent fuel storage pool is airtightly communicated through a pipe with the pool water of a spent fuel cask, and a gate is provided between the pool and the cask. Since cask is conveyed into the cask pit as the gate close while conveying, the pool water level is raised an amount corresponding to the volume of the cask, and water flow through scattering pipe and the communication pipe to the storage pool. When the fuel is conveyed out of the cask, the water level is lowered in the amount corresponding to the volume in the cask pit, and the water in the pool flow through the communication pipe to the cask pit. (Sekiya, K.)

  2. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  3. Chemical-clathrate hybrid hydrogen storage: storage in both guest and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Timothy A; Kim, Yongkwan; Andrews, Gary S; Ferrell, Jack R; Koh, Carolyn A; Herring, Andrew M; Sloan, E Dendy

    2008-11-12

    Hydrogen storage from two independent sources of the same material represents a novel approach to the hydrogen storage problem, yielding storage capacities greater than either of the individual constituents. Here we report a novel hydrogen storage scheme in which recoverable hydrogen is stored molecularly within clathrate cavities as well as chemically in the clathrate host material. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm the formation of beta-hydroquinone (beta-HQ) clathrate with molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen within the beta-HQ clathrate vibrates at considerably lower frequency than hydrogen in the free gaseous phase and rotates nondegenerately with splitting comparable to the rotational constant. Compared with water-based clathrate hydrate phases, the beta-HQ+H2 clathrate shows remarkable stability over a range of p-T conditions. Subsequent to clathrate decomposition, the host HQ was used to directly power a PEM fuel cell. With one H2 molecule per cavity, 0.61 wt % hydrogen may be stored in the beta-HQ clathrate cavities. When this amount is combined with complete dehydrogenation of the host hydroxyl hydrogens, the maximum hydrogen storage capacity increases nearly 300% to 2.43 wt %.

  4. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  5. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  6. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  7. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.

    2015-02-01

    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  8. Metal ammine complexes for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Johannessen, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The hopes of using hydrogen as an energy carrier are severely dampened by the fact that there is still no safe, high-density method available for storing hydrogen. We investigate the possibility of using metal ammine complexes as a solid form of hydrogen storage. Using Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2 as the example......, we show that it can store 9.1% hydrogen by weight in the form of ammonia. The storage is completely reversible, and by combining it with an ammonia decomposition catalyst, hydrogen can be delivered at temperatures below 620 K....

  9. Towards a framework for evaluation of renewable energy storage projects: A study case of hydrogen and fuel cells in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Enevoldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    worldwide, and market potentials are projected as immense. RES is complicated, and projects persistently fail to present operational scale of operations except for a few “classical” storage technologies: Variants of lead-acid batteries and pumped hydro-power reservoirs. Most RES projects are relying...... trajectories as done today. The papers findings contribute to improved assessment of RES technologies by emphasizing risk reduction and operational viability....

  10. Spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Naoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.)

  11. Storage, generation, and use of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Rolfe, Jonathan L.; Larsen, Christopher A.; Konduri, Ravi K.

    2006-05-30

    A composition comprising a carrier liquid; a dispersant; and a chemical hydride. The composition can be used in a hydrogen generator to generate hydrogen for use, e.g., as a fuel. A regenerator recovers elemental metal from byproducts of the hydrogen generation process.

  12. Novel hydrogen storage materials: A review of lightweight complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, Pragya; Jain, Ankur

    2010-01-01

    The world is facing energy shortage and has become increasingly depending on new methods to store and convert energy for new, environmentally friendly methods of transportation and electrical energy generation as well as for portable electronics. Mobility - the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. Non-renewable fossil fuels are projected to decline sharply after 20-30 years. CO 2 emission from burning such fuels is the main cause for global warming. Currently whole world is seeking international commitment to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 60% by 2050. Hydrogen which can be produced with little or no harmful emissions has been projected as a long term solution for a secure energy future. Increasing application of hydrogen energy is the only way forward to meet the objectives of Department of Energy (DOE), USA, i.e. reducing green house gases, increasing energy security and strengthening the developing countries economy. Any transition from a carbon-based/fossil fuel energy system to a hydrogen based economy involves overcoming significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers before ultimate implementation of hydrogen as the clean energy source of the future. Lot of research is going on in the world to find commercially viable solutions for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization, but hydrogen storage is very challenging, as application part of hydrogen energy totally depend on this. During early nineties and now also hydrogen storage as gas, liquid and metal hydride has been undertaken to solve the problem of hydrogen storage and transportation for the utilization as hydrogen energy, but none of these roots could became commercially viable along with the safety aspects for gas and liquid. With the result many new novel materials appeared involving different principles resulting in a fairly complex situation with no correlation between any two materials. In the present

  13. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  14. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  15. Study of Hydrogen As An Aircraft Fuel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciaravino, J

    2003-01-01

    .... The biggest obstacle to using hydrogen is its very low density, a property that even combined with hydrogen's high heat of combustion still results in very large fuel tanks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2...

  16. Application of fuel cell and electrolyzer as hydrogen energy storage system in energy management of electricity energy retailer in the presence of the renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity retailer determines selling price to consumers in the smart grids. • Real-time pricing is determined in comparison with fixed and time-of-use pricing. • Hydrogen storage systems and plug-in electric vehicles are used for energy sources. • Optimal charging and discharging power of electrolyser and fuel cell is determined. • Optimal charging and discharging power of plug-in electric vehicles is determined. - Abstract: The plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems containing electrolyzer, stored hydrogen tanks and fuel cell as energy storage systems can bring various flexibilities to the energy management problem. In this paper, selling price determination and energy management problem of an electricity retailer in the smart grid under uncertainties have been proposed. Multiple energy procurement sources containing pool market, bilateral contracts, distributed generation units, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic system and wind turbine), plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems are considered. The scenario-based stochastic method is used for uncertainty modeling of pool market prices, consumer demand, temperature, irradiation and wind speed. In the proposed model, the selling price is determined and compared by the retailer in the smart grid in three cases containing fixed pricing, time-of-use pricing and real-time pricing. It is shown that the selling price determination based on real-time pricing and flexibilities of plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems leads to higher expected profit. The proposed model is formulated as mixed-integer linear programming that can be solved under General Algebraic Modeling System. To validate the proposed model, three types of selling price determination under four case studies are utilized and the results are compared.

  17. Towards a greener world : hydrogen and fuel cells 2004 conference and trade show. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Fuel Cells Canada and the Canadian Hydrogen Association hosted the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2004 Conference and Tradeshow in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on September 25-28, 2004. Industry leaders from around the world showcased the latest developments in fuel cell and hydrogen technology, and shared research breakthroughs. The conference focussed on many aspects of hydrogen and fuel cell technology, specifically: hydrogen technology progress, including storage, infrastructure and production; fuel cells, including quality, cost and applications; economics and policy, including government and industry strategies; fuel cell demonstrations, including transportation, micro-fuel cells, and portable power; and, impact on climate change, including health and the Kyoto Accord

  18. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, E M; Elmessiry, A M [National center of nuclear safety and radiation control atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.M.; Elmessiry, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  1. Hydrogen, fuel of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, B.

    2008-01-01

    The European project HyWays has drawn out the road map of hydrogen energy development in Europe. The impact of this new energy vector on the security of energy supplies, on the abatement of greenhouse gases and on the economy should be important in the future. This article summarizes the main conclusions of the HyWays study: CO 2 emissions, hydrogen production mix, oil saving abatement, economic analysis, contribution of hydrogen to the development of renewable energies, hydrogen uses, development of regional demand and of users' centers, transport and distribution. The proposals of the HyWays consortium are as follows: implementing a strong public/private European partnership to reach the goals, favoring market penetration, developing training, tax exemption on hydrogen in the initial phase for a partial compensation of the cost difference, inciting public fleets to purchase hydrogen-fueled vehicles, using synergies with other technologies (vehicles with internal combustion engines, hybrid vehicles, biofuels of second generation..), harmonizing hydrogen national regulations at the European scale. (J.S.)

  2. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  3. Hydrogen storage materials at INCDTIM Cluj - Napoca. Achievements and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A.R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Introducing hydrogen fuel to the transportation area poses key challenges for research on hydrogen storage materials. As one of the most promising alternative fuels for transport, hydrogen offers the long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and can be based on renewable energy sources. The Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission fosters research for safe methods for storing hydrogen, for use in fuel cells or modified combustion engines in cars and other road vehicles. Hydrogen storage materials focused, in the last 30 years, the attention of the research programs in the many countries. Due to the fast development of the fuel cell technologies, the subject is much more stringent now. For mobile applications to fuel cell powered vehicles, on-board storage materials with hydrogen absorption/desorption capacities of at least 6.5%H are needed. For an efficient storage system the goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of H 2 gas (1 kg of gas has a volume of 11 m 3 at ambient temperature and pressure). To reach the high volumetric and gravimetric density suitable for mobile applications, basically six reversible storage methods are known today according to A. Zuettel: 1) high-pressure gas cylinders, 2) liquid in cryogenic tanks, 3) physisorbed on a solid surface e.g. carbon-nanotubes 4) metal hydrides of the metals or intermetallic compounds. 5) complex hydrides of light elements such as alanates and boranates, 6) storage via chemical reactions. Recently, the storage as hydrogen hydrates at 50 bar using promoters has been reported by F. Peetom. The paper discusses the feasibility of each of these storing alternatives. The authors presents their experience and results of the work in the field of metal hydrides and application obtained since 1975. All classes of hydrogen absorbing intermetallic compounds were studied: LaNi 5 , FeTi, Ti

  4. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  5. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  6. Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Puszkiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed.

  7. Hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Filiou, C.; Peteves, S.D.; Veyret, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The EU aims at establishing a sustainable energy supply, able to provide affordable and clean energy without increasing green house gas emissions. Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key energy system solutions for the 21. century, enabling clean and efficient production of power and heat from a broad range of primary energy sources. To be effective, there is a crucial need for well-coordinated research, development and deployment at European Level. The particular segment of hydrogen storage is one key element of the full hydrogen chain and it must meet a number of challenges before it is introduced into the global energy system. Regarding its energy characteristics, the gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is about three times higher than gasoline, but its energy content per volume is about a quarter. Therefore, the most significant problem for hydrogen (in particular for on-board vehicles) is to store sufficient -amounts of hydrogen. The volumetric energy density of hydrogen can be increased by compression or liquefaction which are both the most mature technologies. Still the energy required for both compression and liquefaction is one element to be properly assessed in considering the different pathways in particular for distribution. As far as on-board vehicle storage is concerned all possible options (compressed, liquid, metal hydrides and porous structures) have their own advantages and disadvantages with respect to weight, volume, energy efficiency, refuelling times, cost and safety aspects. To address these problems, long-term commitments to scientific excellence in research, coupled with co-ordination between the many different stakeholders, is required. In the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage, no single technology satisfies all of the criteria required by manufacturers and end-users, and a large number of obstacles have to be overcome. The current hydrogen storage technologies and their associated limitations/needs for improvement

  8. Energy conversion, storage and transportation by means of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlmeier, G; Mateos, P; Bolcich, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Data concerning the present consumption of energy indicate that the industrialized countries (representing 25% of the world's population) consume almost 75% of the world's energy production, while the need for energy aimed at maintaining the growth of non-industrialized countries increases day after day. Since estimations indicate that the fossil reverses will exhaust within frightening terms, the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels and, fundamentally, from renewable sources constitute a response to future energy demand. The production of hydrogen from water is performed by four different methods: direct thermal, thermochemical, electrolysis and photolysis. Finally, different ways of storaging and using hydrogen are proposed. (Author)

  9. Metal–organic frameworks for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has received increasing attention worldwide because they possess versatile structures, high surface areas, large free volumes, ultrahigh porosities, and tunable pore...

  10. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  11. Multi-component hydrogen storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Syed A.; Lewis, Gregory J.; Sachtler, J.W. Adriaan; Low, John J.; Lesch, David A.; Dosek, Paul M.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Siegel, Donald J.; Sudik, Andrea C.; Yang, Jun

    2010-09-07

    A reversible hydrogen storage composition having an empirical formula of: Li.sub.(x+z)N.sub.xMg.sub.yB.sub.zH.sub.w where 0.4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8; 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.6; 0hydrogen storage compared to binary systems such as MgH.sub.2--LiNH.sub.2.

  12. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  13. Applied hydrogen storage research and development: A perspective from the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Malley, Kathleen; Ordaz, Grace; Adams, Jesse; Randolph, Katie; Ahn, Channing C.; Stetson, Ned T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of U.S. DOE-supported hydrogen storage technology development efforts. • Physical and materials-based strategy for developing hydrogen storage systems. • Materials requirements for automotive storage systems. • Key R&D developments. - Abstract: To enable the wide-spread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technology Office, maintains a comprehensive portfolio of R&D activities to develop advanced hydrogen storage technologies. The primary focus of the Hydrogen Storage Program is development of technologies to meet the challenging onboard storage requirements for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to meet vehicle performance that consumers have come to expect. Performance targets have also been established for materials handling equipment (e.g., forklifts) and low-power, portable fuel cell applications. With the imminent release of commercial FCEVs by automobile manufacturers in regional markets, a dual strategy is being pursued to (a) lower the cost and improve performance of high-pressure compressed hydrogen storage systems while (b) continuing efforts on advanced storage technologies that have potential to surpass the performance of ambient compressed hydrogen storage

  14. Applied hydrogen storage research and development: A perspective from the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA 22033 (United States); Ordaz, Grace; Adams, Jesse; Randolph, Katie [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Ahn, Channing C. [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stetson, Ned T., E-mail: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Overview of U.S. DOE-supported hydrogen storage technology development efforts. • Physical and materials-based strategy for developing hydrogen storage systems. • Materials requirements for automotive storage systems. • Key R&D developments. - Abstract: To enable the wide-spread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technology Office, maintains a comprehensive portfolio of R&D activities to develop advanced hydrogen storage technologies. The primary focus of the Hydrogen Storage Program is development of technologies to meet the challenging onboard storage requirements for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to meet vehicle performance that consumers have come to expect. Performance targets have also been established for materials handling equipment (e.g., forklifts) and low-power, portable fuel cell applications. With the imminent release of commercial FCEVs by automobile manufacturers in regional markets, a dual strategy is being pursued to (a) lower the cost and improve performance of high-pressure compressed hydrogen storage systems while (b) continuing efforts on advanced storage technologies that have potential to surpass the performance of ambient compressed hydrogen storage.

  15. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the 5th International workshop on hydrogen and fuel cells WICaC 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - WICaC 2010 aims to bring the most recent advances on fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. The conference will address the trends on hydrogen production, distribution, delivery, storage and infrastructure as well as fuel cell research, development, demonstration and commercialization. Some of the issues addressed at WICaC 2010 are: the official Brazilian hydrogen and fuel cell programs and its participation in the international programs and partnerships such as the IPHE (The International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy); the integration of renewable energy sources with hydrogen and fuel cell systems; the challenges to deploy the commercialization and use of fuel cells and hydrogen; distributed generation of energy; fuel cell uses in portable devices and in vehicles; life-cycle assessment of fuel cells and hydrogen technologies; environmental aspects; energy efficiency.

  17. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  19. Hydrogen storage by polylithiated molecules and nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Er, S.; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study polylithiated molecules as building blocks for hydrogen storage materials, using first-principles calculations. CLi4 and OLi2 bind 12 and 10 hydrogen molecules, respectively, with an average binding energy of 0.10 and 0.13 eV, leading to gravimetric densities of 37.8 and 40.3 wt % of H2.

  20. Hydrogen Village : creating hydrogen and fuel cell communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a collaborative public-private partnership administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. This end user-driven, market development program accelerates the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell (FC) technologies throughout the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The program targets 3 specific aspects of market development, notably deployment of near market technologies in community based stationary and mobile applications; development of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure; and societal factors involving corporate policy and public education. This presentation focused on lessons learned through outreach programs and the deployment of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) heat and power generation; indoor and outdoor fuel cell back up power systems; fuel cell-powered forklifts, delivery vehicles, and utility vehicles; hydrogen internal combustion engine powered shuttle buses, sedans, parade float; hydrogen production/refueling stations in the downtown core; and temporary fuel cell power systems

  1. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  3. Methyllithium-Doped Naphthyl-Containing Conjugated Microporous Polymer with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Li, Gang; Shang, Jin; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen storage is a primary challenge for using hydrogen as a fuel. With ideal hydrogen storage kinetics, the weak binding strength of hydrogen to sorbents is the key barrier to obtain decent hydrogen storage performance. Here, we reported the rational synthesis of a methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer with exceptional binding strength of hydrogen to the polymer guided by theoretical simulations. Meanwhile, the experimental results showed that isosteric heat can reach up to 8.4 kJ mol(-1) and the methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer exhibited an enhanced hydrogen storage performance with 150 % enhancement compared with its counterpart naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer. These results indicate that this strategy provides a direction for design and synthesis of new materials that meet the US Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen storage target. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Criticality impacts on LWR fuel storage efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the criticality impacts throughout storage of fuel onsite including new fuel storage, spent fuel storage, consolidation, and dry storage. The general principles for criticality safety are also be discussed. There is first an introduction which explains today's situation for criticality safety concerns. This is followed by a discussion of criticality safety Regulatory Guides, safety limits and fundamental principles. Design objectives for criticality safety in the 1990's include higher burnups, longer cycles, and higher enrichments which impact the criticality safety design. Criticality safety for new fuel storage, spent fuel storage, fuel consolidation, and dry storage are followed by conclusions. Today's situation is one in which the US does not reprocess, and does not have an operating MRS facility or repository. High density fuel storage rack designs of the 1980s, are filling up. Dry cask storage systems for spent fuel storage are being utilized. Enrichments continue to increase PWR fuel assemblies with enrichments of 4.5 to 5.0 weight percent U-235 and BWR fuel assemblies with enrichments of 3.25 to 3.5 weight percent U-235 are common. Criticality concerns affect the capacity and the economics of light water reactor (LWR) fuel storage arrays by dictating the spacing of fuel assemblies in a storage system, or the use of poisons or exotic materials in the storage system design

  5. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  6. Treatment and storage of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Back, S. W.; Kang, H. S.; Eom, K. Y.; Lee, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Storage of gaseous hydrogen isotopes in a cylinder is a well-established technology. However, Immobilization in the solid form is preferred for long-term storage of radioactive isotope gas because of the concern for leakage of the gas. The experimental thermodynamic p-c-T data show that Ti and U soak up hydrogen isotope gas at a temperature of a few hundred .deg. C and modest pressures. It was found that more hydrogen is dissolved in the metal than deuterium at constant pressure. Thus, the lighter isotope tends to be enriched in the solid phase

  7. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compounds maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  8. A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Steinbugler, Margaret M.; Kreutz, Thomas G.

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in electric vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., gasoline, diesel, or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, we present modeling results comparing three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: (a) compressed gas hydrogen storage, (b) onboard steam reforming of methanol, (c) onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. We have developed a fuel cell vehicle model, including detailed models of onboard fuel processors. This allows us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various vehicle parameters, fuel storage choices and driving cycles. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and gasoline, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. The delivered fuel cost, total lifecycle cost of transportation, and capital cost of infrastructure development are estimated for each alternative. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, possible fuel strategies leading to the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are discussed.

  9. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen to deliver energy for cars, portable devices and buildings is seen as one of the key steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa’s national hydrogen strategy, HySA, aims to develop and guide innovation along the value...

  10. The impact of carbon materials on the hydrogen storage properties of light metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelhelm, P.A.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The safe and efficient storage of hydrogen is still one of the remaining challenges towards fuel cell powered cars. Metal hydrides are a promising class of materials as they allow the storage of large amounts of hydrogen in a small volume at room temperature and low pressures. However, usually the

  11. Storage device of reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns storage of spent fuels and provides a storage device capable of securing container-cells in shielding water by remote handling and moving and securing the container-cells easily. Namely, a horizontal support plate has a plurality of openings formed in a lattice like form and is disposed in a pit filled with water. The container-cell has a rectangular cross section, and is inserted and disposed vertically in the openings. Securing members are put between the container-cells above the horizontal support plate, and constituted so as to be expandable from above by remote handling. The securing member is preferably comprised of a vertical screw member and an expandable urging member. Since securing members for securing the container-cells for incorporating reactor fuels are disposed to the horizontal support plate controllable from above by the remote handling, fuel storage device can be disposed without entering into a radiation atmosphere. The container-cells can be settled and exchanged easily after starting of the use of a fuel pit. (I.S.)

  12. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  13. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  14. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  15. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  16. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  17. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  18. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

  19. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and Department of Energy (DOE) estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented for the next 20 years, through the year 2007. The eventual needs for additional spent fuel storage capacity are estimated. These estimates are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1987 and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to DOE through the 1988 RW-859 data survey and by DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 12 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  20. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  1. Positron annihilation study of hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Yasuharu; Araki, Hideki; Sakaki, Kouji

    2003-01-01

    Some AB 5 and AB 2 hydrogen storage alloys have been characterized by using positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It has been shown that they contain no constitutional vacancies and that deviations from the stoichiometric compositions are all compensated by antistructure atoms. Positron lifetimes in fully-annealed LaNi 5-x Al x and MmNi 5-x Al x alloys show good correlation with their hydrogen desorption pressures. On the other hand, surprising amounts of vacancies together with dislocations have been found to be generated during the first hydrogen absorption process of LaNi 5 and ZrMn 2 . These lattice defects play important role in hydrogen absorption-desorption processes of hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  2. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  3. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  4. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  5. Spent fuel storage requirements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and utility estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented through the year 2005. The ultimate needs for additional storage capacity are estimated. These estimtes are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December, 1986, and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA) through the 1987 RW-859 data survey. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  7. High density fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the safe and compact storage of nuclear fuel assemblies in an array of discrete open-ended neutron absorbing shields for which the theoretical minimum safe separation distance and cell pitch are known. Open-ended stainless steel end fittings are welded to each end of each shield and the end fittings are welded to each other in side-by-side relation, thereby reducing the cell pitch tolerance due to fabrication uncertainties. In addition, a multiplicity of ridges on the sides of each shield having a height equal to one half the theoretical minimum safe separation distance further reduce shield bowing tolerances. The net tolerance reduction permits a significant increase in the number of fuel assemblies that can be safely contained in a storage area of fixed size

  8. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  9. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.; Carlson, R.W.

    1979-09-01

    The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft 2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft 2 . Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft 2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

  10. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  11. Solid Aluminum Borohydrides for Prospective Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Safin, Damir A; Tumanov, Nikolay A; Morelle, Fabrice; Moulai, Adel; Černý, Radovan; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2017-12-08

    Metal borohydrides are intensively researched as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. Aluminum is a cheap, light, and abundant element and Al 3+ can serve as a template for reversible dehydrogenation. However, Al(BH 4 ) 3 , containing 16.9 wt % of hydrogen, has a low boiling point, is explosive on air and has poor storage stability. A new family of mixed-cation borohydrides M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], which are all solid under ambient conditions, show diverse thermal decomposition behaviors: Al(BH 4 ) 3 is released for M=Li + or Na + , whereas heavier derivatives evolve hydrogen and diborane. NH 4 [Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], containing both protic and hydridic hydrogen, has the lowest decomposition temperature of 35 °C and yields Al(BH 4 ) 3 ⋅NHBH and hydrogen. The decomposition temperatures, correlated with the cations' ionic potential, show that M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ] species are in the most practical stability window. This family of solids, with convenient and versatile properties, puts aluminum borohydride chemistry in the mainstream of hydrogen storage research, for example, for the development of reactive hydride composites with increased hydrogen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Simultaneous purification and storage of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Weber, R.; Carlson, E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Specially coated magnesium particles have been shown to selectively absorb hydrogen from a hydrogen-rich gas stream such as reformate. These coated magnesium particles can store the absorbed hydrogen as required and subsequently deliver pure hydrogen, just as uncoated magnesium particles can. These coated magnesium particles could be used in a device that accepts a steady stream of reformate, as from a methane reformer, stores the selectively absorbed hydrogen indefinitely, and delivers purified hydrogen on demand. Unfortunately, this coating (magnesium nitride) has been shown to degrade over a period of several weeks, so that the magnesium within evidences progressively lower storage capacity. The authors are investigating two other coatings, one of which might be applicable to hydridable metals other than magnesium, to replace magnesium nitride.

  13. Hydrogen storage in Mg: a most promising material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, A.; Lal, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last one decade hydrogen has attracted worldwide interest as an energy carrier. This has generated comprehensive investigations on the technology involved and how to solve the problems of production, storage and applications of hydrogen. The interest in hydrogen as energy of the future is due to it being a clean energy, most abundant element in the universe, the lightest fuel and richest in energy per unit mass. Hydrogen as a fuel can be used to cook food, drive cars, jet planes, run factories and for all our domestic energy requirements. It can provide cheap electricity. In short, hydrogen shows the solution and also allows the progressive and non-traumatic transition of today's energy sources, towards feasible safe reliable and complete sustainable energy chains. The present article deals with the hydrogen storage in metal hydrides with particular interest in Mg as it has potential to become one of the most promising storage materials. Many metals combine chemically with Hydrogen to form a class of compounds known as Hydrides. These hydrides can discharge hydrogen as and when needed by raising their temperature or pressure. An optimum hydrogen-storage material is required to have various properties viz. high hydrogen capacity per unit mass and unit volume which determines the amount of available energy, low dissociation temperature, moderate dissociation pressure, low heat of formation in order to minimize the energy necessary for hydrogen release, low heat dissipation during the exothermic hydride formation, reversibility, limited energy loss during charge and discharge of hydrogen, fast kinetics, high stability against O 2 and moisture for long cycle life, cyclibility, low cost of recycling and charging infrastructures and high safety. So far most of the hydrogen storage alloys such as LaNi 5 , TiFe, TiMn 2 , have hydrogen storage capacities, not more than 2 wt% which is not satisfactory for practical application as per DOE Goal. A group of Mg based

  14. Analysis of hydrogen content and distribution in hydrogen storage alloys using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Satake, Yuichi; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Small amounts of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys, such as Mg 2 Ni, were detected using neutron radiography (NRG). Hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogenated solid solution were determined by this technique. Furthermore, we were able to obtain NRG images for an initial stage of hydrogen absorption in the hydrogen storage alloys. NRG would be a new measurement method to clarify the behavior of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  15. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  16. Storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Moore, J.T.; Cooney, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a rack for storing nuclear fuel assemblies. The rack including a base, an array of side-by-side fuel-storage locations, each location being a hollow body of rectangular transverse cross section formed of metallic sheet means which is readily bent, each body having a volume therein dimensioned to receive a fuel assembly. The bodies being mounted on the base with each body secured to bodies adjacent each body along welded joints, each joint joining directly the respective contiguous corners of each body and of bodies adjacent to each body and being formed by a series of separate welds spaced longitudinally between the tops and bottoms of the secured bodies along each joint. The spacings of the separate welds being such that the response of the rack when it is subjected to the anticipated seismic acceleration of the rack, characteristic of the geographical regions where the rack is installed, is minimized

  17. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA; Linehan, John C [Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Zheng, Feng [Richland, WA

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  18. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  19. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  20. Nanoengineered Carbon Scaffolds for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hudson, J. L.; Fan, H.; Booker, R.; Simpson, L. J.; O' Neill, K. J.; Parilla, P. A.; Heben, M. J.; Pasquali, M.; Kittrell, C.; Tour, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers were engineered to become a scaffold for the storage of hydrogen. Carbon nanotube fibers were swollen in oleum (fuming sulfuric acid), and organic spacer groups were covalently linked between the nanotubes using diazonium functionalization chemistry to provide 3-dimensional (3-D) frameworks for the adsorption of hydrogen molecules. These 3-D nanoengineered fibers physisorb twice as much hydrogen per unit surface area as do typical macroporous carbon materials. These fiber-based systems can have high density, and combined with the outstanding thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes, this points a way toward solving the volumetric and heat-transfer constraints that limit some other hydrogen-storage supports.

  1. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  2. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, Mike [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Purewal, Justin [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Xu, Chunchuan [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Yang, Jun [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Blaser, Rachel [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Sudik, Andrea [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Siegel, Don [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ming, Yang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Dong' an [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chi, Hang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gaab, Manuela [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Arnold, Lena [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Muller, Ulrich [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  3. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.; Tan, C.D.; Hidalgo, R.; Baker, R.T.K.; Rodriguez, N.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-08-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNF) are a type of material that is produced by the decomposition of carbon containing gases over metal catalyst particles at temperatures around 600 C. These molecularly engineered structures consist of graphene sheets perfectly arranged in a parallel, perpendicular or at angle orientation with respect to the fiber axis. The most important feature of the material is that only edges are exposed. Such an arrangement imparts the material with unique properties for gas adsorption because the evenly separated layers constitute the most ordered set of nanopores that can accommodate an adsorbate in the most efficient manner. In addition, the non-rigid pore walls can also expand so as to accommodate hydrogen in a multilayer conformation. Of the many varieties of structures that can be produced the authors have discovered that when gram quantities of a selected number of GNF are exposed to hydrogen at pressures of {approximately} 2,000 psi, they are capable of adsorbing and storing up to 40 wt% of hydrogen. It is believed that a strong interaction is established between hydrogen and the delocalized p-electrons present in the graphite layers and therefore a new type of chemistry is occurring within these confined structures.

  4. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  5. Tritiated hydrogen gas storage systems for a fusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, W.; Hircq, B.; Peyrat, M.; Leger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that USSI INGENIERIE has carried out a study financed by European Communities Commission concerning the NET/ITER project, on tritium Fuel Management and Storage systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. A processing block diagram for hydrogen isotopes represents all interfaces and possible links between these systems and tritiated gas mixtures flowing through the Fusion plant. Large quantities of hydrogen isotopes (up to several thousand moles of protium, deuterium and tritium) in gaseous form associated with torus fuelling and exhaust pellet injection, and neutral beam injection, must be stored and managed in such a plant

  6. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  7. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M A [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  8. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  9. Method and system for hydrogen evolution and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Hay, P. Jeffrey; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Cameron, Thomas M.

    2012-12-11

    A method and system for storing and evolving hydrogen (H.sub.2) employ chemical compounds that can be hydrogenated to store hydrogen and dehydrogenated to evolve hydrogen. A catalyst lowers the energy required for storing and evolving hydrogen. The method and system can provide hydrogen for devices that consume hydrogen as fuel.

  10. Micro hydrogen for portable power : generating opportunities for hydrogen and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A new fuel cell technology for portable applications was reviewed. Success for the fuel cell industry will be achieved primarily by supplanting lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cells for portable applications have clear advantages to batteries in addition to their known environmental benefits. Micro hydrogen {sup TM} is the integrated combination of hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen storage and delivery, fluidic interconnects and power conditioning electronics required for creating high energy density portable power sources. The small size, low heat production, environmental sustainability and refueling flexibility of the systems provides enormous economic opportunities for the use of micro hydrogen in cell phone technology, personal digital assistants and other electronic gadgets. Details of a trial to test and evaluate micro hydrogen fuel cell powered bike lights were presented. Further programs are planned for external demonstrations of high-beam search and rescue lighting, flashlights for security personnel and portable hydrogen power sources that will be used by multiple organizations throughout British Columbia. It was concluded that fuel cell technology must match the lithium-ion battery's performance by providing fast recharge, high energy density, and adaptability. Issues concerning refueling and portable and disposable cartridges for micro hydrogen systems were also discussed. 8 figs.

  11. Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Aly Mahmoud El Osery.

    1980-01-01

    Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author)

  12. Degradation of EBR-II driver fuel during wet storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization data are reported for sodium bonded EBR-II reactor fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the 1981--1982 timeframe. Ten stainless steel storage containers, which had leaked water during storage due to improper sealing, were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage basin at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide sludge filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas sampling determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium 137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a concentrated caustic solution of NaOH

  13. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  14. Hydrogen storage via polyhydride complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M.; Zidan, R.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH{sub 4} is catalyzed in toluene slurries of the NaAlH{sub 4} containing the pincer complex, IrH{sub 4} {l_brace}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}PBu{sup t}{sub 2}){sub 2}{r_brace}. The rates of the pincer complex catalyzed dehydrogenation are about five times greater those previously found for NaAlH{sub 4} that was doped with titanium through a wet chemistry method. Homogenization of NaAlH{sub 4} with 2 mole % Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} under an atmosphere of argon produces a novel titanium containing material. TPD measurements show that the dehydrogenation of this material occurs about 30 C lower than that previously found for wet titanium doped NaAlH{sub 4}. In further contrast to wet doped NaAlH{sub 4}, the dehydrogenation kinetics and hydrogen capacity of the novel material are undiminished over several dehydriding/hydriding cycles. Rehydrogenation of the titanium doped material occurs readily at 170 C under 150 atm of hydrogen. TPD measurements show that about 80% of the original hydrogen content (4.2 wt%) can be restored under these conditions.

  15. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  16. Hydrogen and fuel cells. Towards a sustainable energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.P.; Kuznetsov, V.L.; David, W.I.F.; Brandon, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge - some would argue, the major challenge facing our planet today - relates to the problem of anthropogenic-driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs [King, D.A., 2004. Environment - climate change science: adapt, mitigate, or ignore? Science 303, 176-177]. Hydrogen and fuel cells are now widely regarded as one of the key energy solutions for the 21st century. These technologies will contribute significantly to a reduction in environmental impact, enhanced energy security (and diversity) and creation of new energy industries. Hydrogen and fuel cells can be utilised in transportation, distributed heat and power generation, and energy storage systems. However, the transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socioeconomic barriers to the implementation of hydrogen and fuel cells as clean energy technologies of the future. This paper aims to capture, in brief, the current status, key scientific and technical challenges and projection of hydrogen and fuel cells within a sustainable energy vision of the future. We offer no comments here on energy policy and strategy. Rather, we identify challenges facing hydrogen and fuel cell technologies that must be overcome before these technologies can make a significant contribution to cleaner and more efficient energy production processes. (author)

  17. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  18. Design of a hydrogen fueling station for Vancouver, BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikeos, J.; Haas, J.; Maddaloni, J.; Owen, T.; Smolak, T.; Songprakorp, R.; Sodouri, P.; St Germain, L.; Tura, A.; Rowe, A.

    2004-01-01

    A public hydrogen refueling station has been designed to service a minimum daily capacity of 50 light-duty hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, each requiring 3 kg of compressed gaseous hydrogen at 5000 psi. A peak hourly fueling rate of 20 kg, or slightly less than 7 cars, can be accommodated. The station is designed around bulk liquid hydrogen storage, and energy efficient liquid compression. On-site storage with centralized production allows for great flexibility in the design and the simple fueling process results in fewer potential failure modes. High customer demand can easily be accommodated due to a four minute filling time, made possible by a low temperature hydrogen filling system. The overall well to wheel pathway of this fueling process generates up to 95% less CO 2 and requires up to 42% less energy than gasoline. The proposed design requires a low capital investment, and uses components easily available from a proven supplier base. An economic analysis shows that the delivered hydrogen cost is between $0.11/mile and $0.18/mile, based on a ten year discounted cash flow analysis. (author)

  19. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  20. Casette for storage of spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a design of a casette for spent fuel storage in a fuelstorage pool. The new design, based on flexible spacers, allows the fuel assemblies to be packed more compact and the fuel storage pool used in a more economic way

  1. Hydrogen - the fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiesner, R.; Prosnan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Experts see hydrogen as the best possible long-term solution of the transport problem. Hydrogen as the fuel of the future should increase the competition amongst fuel suppliers and at the same time decrease the dependence of developed countries on oil import. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources - biomass, water, wind or solar energy. Hydrogen can be used as power source of mobile phones, computers, printers, television sets or even whole buildings. Hydrogen can be used as fuel for traditional combustion engines of cars but the system of mixing with air would have to be adjusted. For instance car producers like BMW or Hyundai have already started tests with hydrogen engines. These would then be much 'cleaner' then the traditional engines using diesel, petrol or natural gas. But rather then using hydrogen in traditional engines the experts consider fuel cells more perspective. According to company Shell Hydrogen first transformers would produce hydrogen using natural gas or other traditional fuels but this should decrease the volume of green-house-gasses by about 50 percent. In the opinion of company Shell the use of fuel cells would represent the most effective way of using minerals. Shell currently operates hydrogen filling stations on Island and in Tokyo, recently has opened a new one in Luxembourg and by the end of this month another one should open in Amsterdam. These plans are connected to a project of city busses run in cooperation of European Union and car producer Daimler Chrysler. (Authors)

  2. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  3. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  4. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  5. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage - New perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten B.; Jepsen, Lars H.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, hydrogen has been considered as a possible energy carrier for the storage of renewable energy. The main focus has been on addressing the ultimate challenge: developing an environmentally friendly successor for gasoline. This very ambitious goal has not yet been fully reached...

  6. Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Quintel, A.; Duesberg, G.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Downes, P.; Hulman, M.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this

  7. Increasing hydrogen storage capacity using tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Haag, Joanna C; Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Warntjes, Ashleigh A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-10-21

    Hydrogen hydrates with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a promoter molecule are investigated to probe critical unresolved observations regarding cage occupancy and storage capacity. We adopted a new preparation method, mixing solid powdered THF with ice and pressurizing with hydrogen at 70 MPa and 255 +/- 2 K (these formation conditions are insufficient to form pure hydrogen hydrates). All results from Raman microprobe spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas volumetric analysis show a strong dependence of hydrogen storage capacity on THF composition. Contrary to numerous recent reports that claim it is impossible to store H(2) in large cages with promoters, this work shows that, below a THF mole fraction of 0.01, H(2) molecules can occupy the large cages of the THF+H(2) structure II hydrate. As a result, by manipulating the promoter THF content, the hydrogen storage capacity was increased to approximately 3.4 wt % in the THF+H(2) hydrate system. This study shows the tuning effect may be used and developed for future science and practical applications.

  8. Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yue; Hill, James M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage.

  9. Hydrogen storage property of nanoporous carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Liu Nianping; Ouyang Ling; Zhou Bin; Wu Guangming; Ni Xingyuan; Zhang Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Carbon aerogels were prepared from resorcinol and formaldehyde via sol-gel process, high temperature carbonization and atmospheric pressure drying technology with solvent replacement. By changing the resorcinol-sodium carbonate molar ratio and the mass fraction of the reactants,resorcinol and formaldehyde, the pore structure of carbon aerogels can be controlled and the palladium-doped carbon aerogels were prepared.By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, it is confirmed that the Pd exists in the skeleton structure of carbon aerogels as a form of nano simple substance pellet. The specific surface area is successfully raised by 2 times, and palladium-doped carbon aerogels with a specific surface area of 1 273 m 2 /g have been obtained by carrying out the activation process as the post-processing to the doped carbon aerogels. The hydrogen adsorption results show that the saturated hydrogen storage mass fraction of the carbon aerogels with the specific surface area of 3 212 m 2 /g is 3% in the condition of 92 K, 3.5 MPa, and 0.84% in the condition of 303 K, 3.2 MPa. In addition, the hydrogen adsorption test of palladium-doped carbon aerogels at room temperature (303 K) shows that the total hydrogen storage capacity of doped carbon aerogels is declined due to the relative small specific surface, but the hydrogen storage of unit specific surface area is enhanced. (authors)

  10. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  11. Hydrogen storage properties of metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, energy needs are mainly covered by fossil energies leading to pollutant emissions mostly responsible for global warming. Among the different possible solutions for greenhouse effect reduction, hydrogen has been proposed for energy transportation. Indeed, H 2 can be seen as a clean and efficient energy carrier. However, beside the difficulties related to hydrogen production, efficient high capacity storage means are still to be developed. Many metals and alloys are able to store large amounts of hydrogen. This latter solution is of interest in terms of safety, global yield and long term storage. However, to be suitable for applications, such compounds must present high capacity, good reversibility, fast reactivity and sustainability. In this paper, we will review the structural and thermodynamic properties of metallic hydrides. (authors)

  12. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  13. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  14. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  15. Storage method for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In the present invention, spent fuel assemblies are arranged at a dense pitch in a storage rack by suppressing the reactivity of the assemblies, to increase storage capacity for the spent fuel assemblies. That is, neutron absorbers are filled in the cladding tube of an absorbing rod, and the diameter thereof is substantially equal with that of a fuel rod. A great amount of the absorbing rods are arranged at the outer circumference of the fuel assembly. Then, they are fixed integrally to the fuel assembly and stored in a storage rack. In this case, the storage rack may be constituted only with angle materials which are inexpensive and installed simply. With such a constitution, in the fuel assembly having absorbing rods wound therearound, neutrons are absorbed by absorbing rods and the reactivity is lowered. Accordingly, the assembly arrangement pitch in the storage rack can be made dense. As a result, the storage capacity for the assemblies is increased. (I.S.)

  16. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Cazorla Amoros; D Lozano Castello; F Suarez Garcia; M Jorda Beneytoa; A Linares Solano

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ). [1] A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous carbons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  17. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Lozano-Castello, D.; Suarez-Garcia, F.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Linares-Solano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ) [1]. A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous cartons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  18. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  19. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, N [National Nuclear Corporation, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Ealing, C [GEC Energy Systems Ltd, Whetstone, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1985-07-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility.

  20. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Ealing, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility

  1. Hydrogen fuel : well-to-pump pathways for 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mintz, M.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.

    2002-07-01

    The authors discussed the topic of hydrogen fuels, and began the presentation by stating that the carbon intensity of world primary energy has been falling and hydrogen intensity has been rising. The declines in carbon can be explained by efficiency gains and fuel switches. There are several alternatives to gasoline fuel for vehicles, such as hydrogen, compressed natural gas, compressed natural gas/hydrogen. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere represent a growing concern. The authors discussed four hydrogen pathways that have been modeled. They indicated that both natural gas pathways required additional natural gas transmission and storage. To better illustrate the hydrogen pathway, a conceptual representation of hydrogen pipeline loop supporting local hydrogen delivery was displayed. Some hydrogen distribution assumptions for centralized hydrogen production were examined. A cost modeling procedure was described, with the following topics: defining paths, determining tank-in fuel requirement, size pathway components, estimating component costs, and calculating pathway costs. The results indicated that the natural gas-based pathways were sensitive to feedstock cost, while coal and nuclear were not. Some of the conclusions that were arrived at were: (1) on a well-to-pump basis, with current technologies, the unit cost of hydrogen is expected to be 2 to 3 time that of gasoline, (2) the mpge of hydrogen-fueled vehicles must be more than double gasoline, and (3) hydrogen transport and production are the largest components of all pathways. For the future, the focus has to be on transition, including total and unit costs through study time frame, penetration of hydrogen blends, and niche markets. One must compare apples to apples, i e cost of infrastructure components over time, and learning curves. Pathways and scenarios must be re-examined, to include issues such as truck, rail marine market penetration; and hydrogen carrier pathways. Disruptive

  2. Combined Solid State and High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Jensen, Torben René

    Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia.......Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia....

  3. Redox Flow Batteries, Hydrogen and Distributed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Véronique; Peljo, Pekka; Toghill, Kathryn E; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Social, economic, and political pressures are causing a shift in the global energy mix, with a preference toward renewable energy sources. In order to realize widespread implementation of these resources, large-scale storage of renewable energy is needed. Among the proposed energy storage technologies, redox flow batteries offer many unique advantages. The primary limitation of these systems, however, is their limited energy density which necessitates very large installations. In order to enhance the energy storage capacity of these systems, we have developed a unique dual-circuit architecture which enables two levels of energy storage; first in the conventional electrolyte, and then through the formation of hydrogen. Moreover, we have begun a pilot-scale demonstration project to investigate the scalability and technical readiness of this approach. This combination of conventional energy storage and hydrogen production is well aligned with the current trajectory of modern energy and mobility infrastructure. The combination of these two means of energy storage enables the possibility of an energy economy dominated by renewable resources.

  4. POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN BUILDUP IN HANFORD SEALED AIR FILLED NUCLEAR STORAGE VESSELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEY BE

    2008-01-01

    This calculation is performed in accordance with HNF-PRO-8259, PHMC Calculation Preparation and Issue and addresses the question as to whether a flammable mixture of hydrogen gas can accumulate in a Hanford sealed nuclear storage vessel where the only source of hydrogen is the moisture in the air that initially filled the vessel Of specific concern is nuclear fuel inside IDENT 69-Gs, placed in Core Component Containers (CCCs) located inside Interim Storage Vaults (ISVs) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) The CCCs are to be removed from the ISVs and placed inside a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) for transport and interim storage. The repackaging procedures mandated that no plastics were permitted, all labels and tape were to be removed and the pins to be clean and inspected Loading of the fuel into the CCC/ISV package was permitted only if it was not raining or snowing. This was to preclude the introduction of any water The purpose was to minimize the presence of any hydrogenous material inside the storage vessels. The scope of NFPA 69, 'Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems', precludes its applicability for this case. The reactor fuel pins are helium bonded. The non-fuel pins, such as the pellet stacks, are also helium bonded. The fuel pellets were sintered at temperatures that preclude any residual hydrogenous material. Hydrogen gas can be formed from neutron and gamma radiolysis of water vapor. The radiolysis reaction is quite complex involving several intermediate radicals, and competing recombination reactions. Hydrogen gas can also be formed through corrosion. This analysis takes a simplistic approach and assumes that all water vapor present in the storage vessel is decomposed into hydrogen gas. Although the analysis is needed to specifically address HUFP storage of nuclear fuel, it is equally applicable to any sealed fuel storage vessel under the assumptions listed

  5. The hydrogen village: building hydrogen and fuel cell opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation addressed the progress the Hydrogen Village Program has made in its first 24 months of existence and will provide an understanding of the development of new markets for emerging Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies based on first hand, real world experience. The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is an End User driven, Market Development Program designed to accelerate the sustainable commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies through awareness, education and early deployments throughout the greater Toronto area (GTA). The program is a collaborative public-private partnership of some 35 companies from a broad cross section of industry administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. The intent of the H2V is to develop markets for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies that benefit the local and global community. The following aspects of market development are specifically targeted: 1) Deployments: of near market technologies in all aspects of community life (stationary and mobile). All applications must be placed within the community and contact peoples in their day-to-day activity. End user involvement is critical to ensure that the applications chosen have a commercial justification and contribute to the complementary growth of the market. 2) Development: of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure. The infrastructure will develop following the principles of conservation and sustainability. 3) Human and societal factors: - Public and Corporate policy, public education, Codes/ Standards/ Regulations - Opportunity for real world implementation and feedback on developing codes and standards - Build awareness among regulatory groups, public, and the media. The GTA Hydrogen Village is already well under way with strategically located projects covering a wide range of hydrogen and fuel cell applications including: Residential heat and power generation using solid oxide

  6. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  7. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  9. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  10. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  11. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  12. Scientific basis for storage criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-clad fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Lam, P.S.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Murphy, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    An engineered system for dry storage of aluminum-clad foreign and domestic research reactor spent fuel owned by the US Department of Energy is being considered to store the fuel up to a nominal period of 40 years prior to ultimate disposition. Scientifically-based criteria for environmental limits to drying and storing the fuels for this system are being developed to avoid excessive degradation in sealed and non-sealed (open to air) dry storage systems. These limits are based on consideration of degradation modes that can cause loss of net section of the cladding, embrittlement of the cladding, distortion of the fuel, or release of fuel and fission products from the fuel/clad system. Potential degradation mechanisms include corrosion mechanisms from exposure to air and/or sources of humidity, hydrogen blistering of the aluminum cladding, distortion of the fuel due to creep, and interdiffusion of the fuel and fission products with the cladding. The aluminum-clad research reactor fuels are predominantly highly-enriched aluminum uranium alloy fuel which is clad with aluminum alloys similar to 1100, 5052, and 6061 aluminum. In the absence of corrodant species, degradation due to creep and diffusion mechanisms limit the maximum fuel storage temperature to 200 C. The results of laboratory scale corrosion tests indicate that this fuel could be stored under air up to 200 C at low relative humidity levels (< 20%) to limit corrosion of the cladding and fuel (exposed to the storage environment through assumed pre-existing pits in the cladding). Excessive degradation of fuels with uranium metal up to 200 C can be avoided if the fuel is sufficiently dried and contained in a sealed system; open storage can be achieved if the temperature is controlled to avoid excessive corrosion even in dry air

  13. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  15. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  16. Functional nanometers for hydrogen storage produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czujko, T. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]|[Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies; Varin, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering; Wronski, Z.S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation; Zaranski, Z. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to switch to cleaner alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen, as environmental concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuel increase. Specifically, there is a need for efficient on-board hydrogen storage technologies for vehicular applications. This paper discussed three different methods of hydrogen desorption temperature reduction and desorption kinetics of nanostructured hydrides. The first method was based on substantial hydride particle size refinement. The second method utilized catalytic effects of nanometric n-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), n-yttrium oxide powder (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and n-nickel (Ni) additives. The third method was based on a composite of nanohydride mixtures. The composite approach was applied to the magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) plus sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH{sub 4}) and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}) systems. The paper presented the effects of nanostructuring and nanocatalytic additives on Mg hydride desorption properties as well as a composite behaviour of nanostructured complex hydrides. It was concluded that milling of commercial MgH{sub 2} with the nano-oxide additives had a limited effect on improving the hydrogen storage properties. The addition of specialty Inco nanometric Ni reduced the hydrogen desorption temperature considerably. 28 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  17. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  18. Fuel performance of DOE fuels in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In April of 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) decided to end the fuel reprocessing mission at ICPP. Fuel performance in storage received increased emphasis as the fuel now needs to be stored until final dispositioning is defined and implemented. Fuels are stored in four main areas: an original underwater storage facility, a modern underwater storage facility, and two dry fuel storage facilities. As a result of the reactor research mission of the DOE and predecessor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission, many types of nuclear fuel have been developed, used, and assigned to storage at the ICPP. Fuel clad with stainless steel, zirconium, aluminum, and graphite are represented. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels, resulting in 55 different fuel types in storage. Also included in the fuel storage inventory is canned scrap material

  19. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho

    2013-01-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe

  20. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe.

  1. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs

  2. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  3. Development of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinji Oshima; Osamu Kato; Takeshi Kataoka; Yoshihiro Kobori; Michiaki Adachi [Hydrogen and New Energy Research Laboratory Nippon Oil Corporation 8, Chidoricho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, 231-0815 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    To achieve hydrogen storage of more than 5 mass%, we are focusing on porous materials that consist of light elements. At WHEC 15, we reported that KOH-activated bamboo charcoal showed 0.79 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K. After examining various carbon materials, we found that carbonized and KOH-activated polyacrylonitrile fibers showed 1.0 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K. When the pressure was raised to 35 MPa, this material showed 1.5 mass% hydrogen uptake at 303 K. Besides porous carbon, other materials, such as coordination polymers, were examined. Since these materials contain elements other than carbon, different adsorption phenomena may be expected. Although the values of their hydrogen uptakes are still lower than those of carbon materials, a coordination polymer which showed 0.38 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K was revealed to give an adsorption density of 47 kg/m{sup 3} at 0.1 MPa and 77 K, the highest value reported for a coordination polymer. (authors)

  4. Bulk-scaffolded hydrogen storage and releasing materials and methods for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; Li, Xiaohong S [Richland, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA

    2011-06-21

    Compositions are disclosed for storing and releasing hydrogen and methods for preparing and using same. These hydrogen storage and releasing materials exhibit fast release rates at low release temperatures without unwanted side reactions, thus preserving desired levels of purity and enabling applications in combustion and fuel cell applications.

  5. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations NREL's technology validation team analyzes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) operating in a real-world setting to include commercial FCEVs for the first time. Current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations build on the

  6. Design of hydrogen fueling station for Vancouver BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tura, A.; Dikeos, J.; St Germain, L.; Smolak, T.; Owen, T.; Hass, J.; Songprakorp, R.; Sodouri, P.; Maddaloni, J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A public hydrogen refueling station has been designed to service a minimum daily capacity of 50 light-duty hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, each requiring 3 kg of compressed gaseous hydrogen at 5000 psi. The station can accommodate a peak hourly fueling rate of 20 kg, or slightly less than 7 cars. The station is designed around liquid hydrogen, and energy efficient liquid compression. On-site storage with centralized production allows for great flexibility in the design and the simple fueling process results in fewer potential failure modes. High customer demand can easily be accommodated due to a four minute filling time, made possible by a low temperature hydrogen filling system. The overall well to wheel pathway of this fueling process generates up to 95% less CO2 and requires up to 42% less energy than gasoline. The proposed design requires a low capital investment, and uses components easily available from a proven supplier base. An economic analysis shows that the delivered hydrogen cost is between $0.11/mile and $0.18/mile, based on a ten year discounted cash flow analysis. This design was the grand prize winner in the NHA/DOE sponsored 2004 University Design Contest. (author)

  7. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  8. Modified Borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Au

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing de-hydriding temperature and generating de-hydriding-re-hydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature. (authors)

  9. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  10. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  11. Hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles decorated halloysite clay nanotubes as a potential hydrogen storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthu, R. Naresh, E-mail: rnaresh7708@gmail.com; Rajashabala, S. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindigul-624622 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca 14850, New York (United States)

    2016-05-23

    The light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite for the carbon free hydrogen fuel cell technology. In this work, the hydrogen storage performance of acid treated halloysite clay nanotubes (A-HNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles decorated acid treated halloysite nanoclay composite (A-HNT-h-BN) are demonstrated, where facile ultrasonic technique is adopted for the synthesis of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. Hydrogen storage studies were carried out using Sieverts-like hydrogenation setup. The A-HNTs and A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, EDX, CHNS-elemental analysis and TGA. The A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite shows superior storage capacity of 2.19 wt% at 50 °C compared to the A-HNTs (0.58 wt%). A 100% desorption of stored hydrogen is noted in the temperature range of 138–175 °C. The average binding energy of hydrogen was found to be 0.34 eV for the prepared A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. The excellent storage capability of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite towards hydrogen at ambient temperature may find bright perspective in hydrogen fuel cell technology in near future.

  12. Hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles decorated halloysite clay nanotubes as a potential hydrogen storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2016-01-01

    The light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite for the carbon free hydrogen fuel cell technology. In this work, the hydrogen storage performance of acid treated halloysite clay nanotubes (A-HNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles decorated acid treated halloysite nanoclay composite (A-HNT-h-BN) are demonstrated, where facile ultrasonic technique is adopted for the synthesis of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. Hydrogen storage studies were carried out using Sieverts-like hydrogenation setup. The A-HNTs and A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, EDX, CHNS-elemental analysis and TGA. The A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite shows superior storage capacity of 2.19 wt% at 50 °C compared to the A-HNTs (0.58 wt%). A 100% desorption of stored hydrogen is noted in the temperature range of 138–175 °C. The average binding energy of hydrogen was found to be 0.34 eV for the prepared A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. The excellent storage capability of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite towards hydrogen at ambient temperature may find bright perspective in hydrogen fuel cell technology in near future.

  13. Hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles decorated halloysite clay nanotubes as a potential hydrogen storage medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2016-05-01

    The light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite for the carbon free hydrogen fuel cell technology. In this work, the hydrogen storage performance of acid treated halloysite clay nanotubes (A-HNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles decorated acid treated halloysite nanoclay composite (A-HNT-h-BN) are demonstrated, where facile ultrasonic technique is adopted for the synthesis of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. Hydrogen storage studies were carried out using Sieverts-like hydrogenation setup. The A-HNTs and A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, EDX, CHNS-elemental analysis and TGA. The A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite shows superior storage capacity of 2.19 wt% at 50 °C compared to the A-HNTs (0.58 wt%). A 100% desorption of stored hydrogen is noted in the temperature range of 138-175 °C. The average binding energy of hydrogen was found to be 0.34 eV for the prepared A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. The excellent storage capability of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite towards hydrogen at ambient temperature may find bright perspective in hydrogen fuel cell technology in near future.

  14. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.G.; Elliott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  15. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kittrell, Carter [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  16. Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H2) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H2 storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H2 tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H2 by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H2 per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H2 at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H2 molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank

  17. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  18. A central spent fuel storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Hagberth, R.

    1978-01-01

    A planned central spent fuel storage facility in Sweden is described. The nuclear power program and quantities of spent fuel generated in Sweden is discussed. A general description of the facility is given with emphasis on the lay-out of the buildings, transport casks and fuel handling. Finally a possible design of a Swedish transportation system is discussed. (author)

  19. Complex metal hydrides for hydrogen, thermal and electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... how complex metal hydrides may act in an integrated setup with a fuel cell. This review focuses on the unique properties of light element complex metal hydrides mainly based on boron, nitrogen and aluminum, e.g., metal borohydrides and metal alanates. Our hope is that this review can provide new...

  20. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  1. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  2. Economics of spent LWR fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    A low cost option for spent fuel inventories would be to ship excess fuel from the overburdened reactor to another reactor in the utility's system that has available space. The only cost would be for cask leasing and shipping. Three other alternatives all require considerable capital expenditures: reracking, new at-reactor (AR) storage facilities, and away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facilities. Fuel storage requirements will be met best by transfer of fuel or by re-racking existing reactor basins whenever these options are available. These alternatives represent not only the lowest cost storage options but also the most timely. Fuel can be shipped to other storage pools for about $10/kg depending on the distance, while costs for reracking range from $18 to 25/kg depending on the approach. These alternatives are recognized to face environmental and regulatory obstacles. However, such obstacles should be less severe than similar issues that would be encountered with AR or AFR basin storage. When storage requirements cannot be met by the first two options, the next least costly alternative for most utilities will be use of a Federal AFR. Storage cost of about $137/kg at an AFR are less costly than charges of up to $350/kg that could be incurred by the use of AR basins. AR basins are practical only when a utility requires storage capacity to accommodate annual additions of 100 MT or more of spent fuel. The large reactor complexes discharging this much feul are not currently those that require relief from fuel storage problems. A recent development in Germany may offer an AR alternative of dry storage in transportation/storage casks at a cost of $200/kg; however, this method has not yet been accepted and licensed for use in the US

  3. Demonstration of Hydrogen Energy Network and Fuel Cells in Residential Homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirohisa Aki; Tetsuhiko Maeda; Itaru Tamura; Akeshi Kegasa; Yoshiro Ishikawa; Ichiro Sugimoto; Itaru Ishii

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed the setting up of an energy interchange system by establishing energy networks of electricity, hot water, and hydrogen in residential homes. In such networks, some homes are equipped with fuel cell stacks, fuel processors, hydrogen storage devices, and large storage tanks for hot water. The energy network enables the flexible operation of the fuel cell stacks and fuel processors. A demonstration project has been planned in existing residential homes to evaluate the proposal. The demonstration will be presented in a small apartment building. The building will be renovated and will be equipped with a hydrogen production facility, a hydrogen interchange pipe, and fuel cell stacks with a heat recovery device. The energy flow process from hydrogen production to consumption in the homes will be demonstrated. This paper presents the proposed energy interchange system and demonstration project. (authors)

  4. Management and storage of spent fuel from CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, F.

    1996-01-01

    CEA research reactors and their interim spent fuel storage facilities are described. Long-term solutions for spent fuel storage problems, involving wet storage at PEGASE or dry storage at CASCAD, are outlined in some detail. (author)

  5. Spent fuel storage practices and perspectives for WWER fuel in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the general issues and options in spent fuel management and storage are reviewed. Quantities of spent fuel world-wide and spent fuel amounts in storage as well as spent fuel capacities are presented. Selected examples of typical spent fuel storage facilities are discussed. The storage technologies applied for WWER fuel is presented. Description of other relevant storage technologies is included

  6. Hydrogen Storage using Metal Hydrides in a Stationary Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, Maxime; Chaudourne, Serge; Perret, Christian; Latroche, Michel; Percheron-Guegan, Annick; Marty Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a hydrogen production and storage unit to supply a 40 kW stationary fuel cell, a metal hydride storage tank was chosen according to its reliability and high energetic efficiency. The study of AB5 compounds led to the development of a composition adapted to the project needs. The absorption/desorption pressures of the hydride at 75 C (2 / 1.85 bar) are the most adapted to the specifications. The reversible storage capacity (0.95 %wt) has been optimized to our work conditions and chemical kinetics is fast. The design of the Combined Heat and Power CHP system requires 5 kg hydrogen storage but in a first phase, only a 0.1 kg prototype has been realised and tested. Rectangular design has been chosen to obtain good compactness with an integrated plate fin type heat exchanger designed to reach high absorption/desorption rates. In this paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the Metal Hydride tank (MH tank) during absorption/desorption cycles are given. (authors)

  7. Design and integration of a hydrogen storage on metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a hydrogen storage system using metal hydrides for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. Hydride storage technology has been chosen due to project specifications: high volumetric capacity, low pressures (≤ 3.5 bar) and low temperatures (≤ 75 C: fuel cell temperature). During absorption, heat from hydride generation is dissipated by fluid circulation. An integrated plate-fin type heat exchanger has been designed to obtain good compactness and to reach high absorption/desorption rates. At first, the storage system has been tested in accordance with project specifications (absorption 3.5 bar, desorption 1.5 bar). Then, the hydrogen charge/discharge times have been decreased to reach system limits. System design has been used to simulate thermal and mass comportment of the storage tank. The model is based on the software Fluent. We take in consideration heat and mass transfers in the porous media during absorption/desorption. The hydride thermal and mass behaviour has been integrated in the software. The heat and mass transfers experimentally obtained have been compared to results calculated by the model. The influence of experimental and numerical parameters on the model behaviour has also been explored. (author) [fr

  8. Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shunji; Shionaga, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

  9. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  10. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  11. Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence Metal Hydride Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-05-31

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) was established in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles. The overall objective of the HSECoE is to develop complete, integrated system concepts that utilize reversible metal hydrides, adsorbents, and chemical hydrogen storage materials through the use of advanced engineering concepts and designs that can simultaneously meet or exceed all the DOE targets. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during Phase 1 of the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE, which lasted 30 months from February 2009 to August 2011. A complete list of all the HSECoE partners can be found later in this report but for the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE work the major contributing organizations to this effort were the United Technology Research Center (UTRC), General Motors (GM), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Specific individuals from these and other institutions that supported this effort and the writing of this report are included in the list of contributors and in the acknowledgement sections of this report. The efforts of the HSECoE are organized into three phases each approximately 2 years in duration. In Phase I, comprehensive system engineering analyses and assessments were made of the three classes of storage media that included development of system level transport and thermal models of alternative conceptual storage configurations to permit detailed comparisons against the DOE performance targets for light-duty vehicles. Phase 1 tasks also included identification and technical justifications for candidate storage media and configurations that should be capable of reaching or exceeding the DOE targets. Phase 2 involved bench-level testing and

  12. The National Center For Hydrogen And Fuel Cells. Jump-starting the hydrogen economy through research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Mihai; Carcadea, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The research, design and implementation of hydrogen-based economy must consider each of the segments of the hydrogen energy system - production, supply, storage, conversion. The National Center for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells has the experience, expertise, facilities and instrumentation necessary to have a key role in developing any aspect of hydrogen-based economy, aiming to integrate technologies for producing and using hydrogen as an 'energy vector'. This paper presents a simulation of the applied 'learning curve' concept, NCHFC being the key element of R and D in the field in comparing the costs involved. It also presents the short and medium term research program of NCHFC, the main research and development directions being specified. (authors)

  13. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    Many challenges have still to be overcome in order to establish a solid ground for significant market penetration of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles. The development of an effective solution for on-board hydrogen storage is one of the main technical tasks that need to be tackled. The present thesis...... deals with the development of a simulation tool to design and compare different vehicular storage options with respect to targets based upon storage and fueling efficiencies. The set targets represent performance improvements with regard to the state-of-the-art technology and are separately defined...... volume. Heat transfer augmentation techniques (e.g. encapsulation) are found to be the reward strategy to achieve the same stored mass and fueling time of the standard technology, while enabling ambient temperature fueling and save the energy cooling demand (4.2 MJ per fueling) at the refueling station....

  14. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen fuel injection - the bridge to fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' For over a century, industry has embraced a wide variety of applications for hydrogen. Since the mid-1970's, the focus of the bulk of hydrogen research has been in the area of fuel cells. Unfortunately, there is limited awareness of more immediate applications for hydrogen as a catalyst designed to improve the performance of existing hydro-carbon fuelled internal combustion engines. Canadian Hydrogen Energy Company manufactures a patented Hydrogen Fuel Injection System (HFI) that produces hydrogen and oxygen from distilled water and injects them, in measured amounts, into the air intake system on any heavy-duty diesel or gasoline application including trucks, buses, stationary generators, etc. In use on over 30 fleets, research is supported by over 40 million miles of field data. The hydrogen acts as a catalyst to promote more complete combustion, with remarkable results. Dramatically reduce emissions, particularly Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter. Increase horsepower and torque. Improved fuel efficiency (a minimum 10% improvement is guaranteed). Reduced oil degradation The HFI system offers the first large-scale application of the use of hydrogen and an excellent bridge to the fuel-cell technologies of the future. (author)

  16. Hydrogen like energy and materials for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The researches on the production, storage and the use of hydrogen like fuel or energy carrying are carried out in several laboratories around the world. In the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), from the year of 1993 they are carried out researches about the synthesis of electro-catalysts materials than can serve in the hydrogen production starting from the electrolysis of the water, or in fuel cells, as well as of semiconductor materials for the photo-electrolysis of the water. Recently, in collaboration with other Departments of the ININ, the hydrogen production has been approached starting from fruit and vegetable wastes, with the purpose of evaluating the possibility that this residuals can be utilized for the energy obtaining and that they are not only garbage that causes problems of environmental pollution, generate toxic gases and pollute the soil with the organic acids that take place during their fermentation. (Author)

  17. Economics of spent LWR fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.J.; O'Neill, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    A power reactor operator, confronted with rising spent fuel inventories that would soon exceed his storage capacity, has to decide what to do with this fuel if he wants to continue reactor operations. A low cost option would be to ship excess fuel from the overburdened reactor to another reactor in the utility's system that has available space. The only cost would be for cask leasing and shipping. Three other alternatives all require considerable capital expenditures: reracking, new at-reactor (AR) basins for storage, and away-from-reactor (AFR) basins for storage. Economic considerations for each of the alternatives are compared

  18. Storage arrangement for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Said invention is intended for providing an arrangement of spent fuel assembly storage inside which the space is efficiently used without accumulating a critical mass. The storage is provided for long fuel assemblies having along their longitudinal axis an active part containing the fuel and an inactive part empty of fuel. Said storage arrangement comprises a framework constituting some long-shaped cells designed so as each of them can receive a fuel assembly. Means of axial positioning of said assembly in a cell make it possible to support the fuel assemblies inside the framework according to a spacing ratio, along the cell axis, such as the active part of an assembly is adjacent to the inactive part of the adjacent assemblies [fr

  19. Composite high-pressure vessels for hydrogen storage in mobile application. Pt. 1 / Light weight composite cylinders for compressed hydrogen. Pt. 2 - custom made hydrogen storage tanks and vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, C. [MCS Cylinder Systems GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Recent developments on fuel cell technology demonstrated the feasibility of propelling vehicles by converting fuel directly into electricity. Fuel cells conveniently use either compressed (CGH{sub 2}) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or methanol as the fuel source from a tank. Mobile storage of these fuelling will become an urgent need as this technology will come into series production expected for 2010. Due to the requirements on mobile hydrogen storage and the energy losses in the hydrogen-to-application-chain, a light-weight and energetic qualities and minimise ist bulky nature. Mobile storage of hydrogen can be realised either at high pressure values (> 20 MPa) or at deep temperatures (<-253 C). CGH{sub 2}: In the last few years, the introduction of natural gas driven vehicles has seen the development of compact mobile pressurised gas tanks in principle, this storage technique is also applicable for the compressed storage of hydrogen at filling pressures of > 20 MPa. LH{sub 2} : Storing hydrogen or natural gases in general in the liquid phase is accomplished either by applying a overpressure or keeping it below the phase transition temperature at ambient pressure in super insulated devices. (orig.)

  20. Energy conversion using hydrogen PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Patularu, L.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.; Mirica, D.; Varlam, M.; Carcadea, E.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (naphthalene, natural gas, methanol, coal, biomass), solar cells power, etc. It can be burned or chemically reacted having a high yield of energy conversion and is a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system consisting in a catalytic methane reforming plant for hydrogen production and three synthesis gas purification units in order to get pure hydrogen with a CO level lower than 10 ppm that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stock. (authors)

  1. Thermogravimetric research of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleperis, J; Grinberga, L; Ergle, M; Chikvaidze, G; Klavins, J

    2007-01-01

    During thermogravimetric research of metal hydrides we noticed mass growth of samples above 200 deg. C even in an argon atmosphere. Further heating is leading to the growth of weight up to 2-7 weight% till 500 0 C. Second run of the same sample without taking out of DTA instrument gave only small mass changes, indicating that noticed mass increase during first run is permanent. Microscope and elemental analyses were made to determine the reason of mass growth. XRD inspection revealed the formation of new phase with bunsenite NiO structure with deformed cubic structure. The new phase is no more active to hydrogen sorption/desorption. Our results demonstrated that the usage of hydrogen storage alloys AB 5 must be taken with care - it is important not to exceed some critical temperature were irreversible structural, compositional and morphological changes will occur

  2. Compact fuel storage rack for fuel pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parras, F.; Louvat, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    ETS LEMER and FRAMATOME propose a new compact storage rack. This rack permits a considerable increase of the storage capacity of cooling pools. A short description of the structure and the components is presented, to propose racks that are: . Inalterable, . Compact, . Insensitive to earthquakes. Installation in pools already in operation is simplified by their light structure and the bearing device [fr

  3. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  4. ACRR fuel storage racks criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodette, D.E.; Naegeli, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the criticality safety analysis for a new fuel storage rack to support modification of the Annular Core Research Reactor for production of molybdenum-99 at Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area V facilities. Criticality calculations with the MCNP code investigated various contingencies for the criticality control parameters. Important contingencies included mix of fuel element types stored, water density due to air bubbles or water level for the over-moderated racks, interaction with existing fuel storage racks and fuel storage holsters in the fuel storage pool, neutron absorption of planned rack design and materials, and criticality changes due to manufacturing tolerances or damage. Some limitations or restrictions on use of the new fuel storage rack for storage operations were developed through the criticality analysis and are required to meet the double contingency requirements of criticality safety. As shown in the analysis, this system will remain subcritical under all credible upset conditions. Administrative controls are necessary for loading, moving, and handling the storage rack as well as for control of operations around it. 21 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage

  6. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  7. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.

  8. Hydrogen utilization efficiency in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metkemeyer, R; Achard, P; Rouveyre, L; Picot, D [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre D' energrtique, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work carried out within the framework of the FEVER project (Fuel cell Electric Vehicle for Efficiency and Range), an European project coordinated by Renault, joining Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ansaldo, De Nora, Air Liquide and Volvo. For the FEVER project, where an electrical air compressor is used for oxidant supply, there is no need for hydrogen spill over, meaning that the hydrogen stoichiometry has to be as close to one as possible. To determine the optimum hydrogen utilization efficiency for a 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) fed with pure hydrogen, a 4 kW prototype fuel cell was tested with and without a hydrogen recirculator at the test facility of Ecole des Mines de Paris. Nitrogen cross over from the cathodic compartment to the anodic compartment limits the hydrogen utilization of the fuel cell without recirculator to 97.4 % whereas 100% is feasible when a recirculator is used. 5 refs.

  9. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  10. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1991--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 50 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1990 are derived from the 1991 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  11. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1990--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.; Bierschbach, M.

    1990-11-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 51 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1989 are derived from the 1990 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 15 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  13. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.

  14. Hydrogen Storage Performance in Pd/Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A

    2016-10-05

    We have developed a Pd-graphene nanocomposite for hydrogen storage. The spherically shaped Pd nanoparticles of 5-45 nm in size are homogeneously distributed over the graphene matrix. This new hydrogen storage system has favorable features like desirable hydrogen storage capacity, ambient conditions of hydrogen uptake, and low temperature of hydrogen release. At a hydrogen charging pressure of 50 bar, the material could yield a gravimetric density of 6.7 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. As we increased the applied pressure to 60 bar, the hydrogen uptake capacity reached 8.67 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite and 7.16 wt % in the 5% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. This system allows storage of hydrogen in amounts that exceed the capacity of the gravimetric target announced by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  16. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  17. Dry well storage of spent LWBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Fielding, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, 50 dry wells were constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to temporarily store the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel. Over 400 dry wells of the same design are projected to be constructed in the next 5 yr at the ICPP to store unreprocessible fuels until a permanent repository becomes available. This summary describes the LWBR fuel storage dry wells and the enhancements made over the Peach Bottom fuel and Fermi blanket dry wells that have been in use for up to 4 yr. Dry well storage at the ICPP has historically been found to be a safe and efficient method of temporary fuel storage. The LWBR dry wells should be more reliable than the original dry wells and provide data not previously available

  18. Hydrogen fueling stations in Japan hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, K.; Tomuro, J.; Sato, H.; Maruyama, S.

    2004-01-01

    A new national demonstration project of fuel cell vehicles, which is called Japan Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC Project), has started in FY2002 on a four-year plan. In this new project, ten hydrogen fueling stations have been constructed in Tokyo and Kanagawa area in FY2002-2003. The ten stations adopt the following different types of fuel and fueling methods: LPG reforming, methanol reforming, naphtha reforming, desulfurized-gasoline reforming, kerosene reforming, natural gas reforming, water electrolysis, liquid hydrogen, by-product hydrogen, and commercially available cylinder hydrogen. Approximately fifty fuel cell passenger cars and a fuel cell bus are running on public roads using these stations. In addition, two hydrogen stations will be constructed in FY2004 in Aichi prefecture where The 2005 World Exposition (EXPO 2005) will be held. The stations will service eight fuel cell buses used as pick-up buses for visitors. We, Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA), are commissioned to construct and operate a total of twelve stations by Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI). We are executing to demonstrate or identify the energy-saving effect, reduction of the environmental footprint, and issues for facilitating the acceptance of hydrogen stations on the basis of the data obtained from the operation of the stations. (author)

  19. Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanev, Dimitre; Pupkevich, Victor; Penev, Kalin; Glibin, Vassili; Gohil, Jay; Vajihinejad, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is currently one of the most significant problems associated with mass-scale usage of renewable (i.e. wind and solar) power sources. The use of hydrogen as an energy storage medium is very promising, but is hampered by the lack of commercially available hydrogen-to-electricity (H2e) converters. Here we are presenting the first commercially viable, biologically based technology for H2e conversion named the BioGenerator. It is a microbial fuel cell based on electron consumption resulting from the respiration of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. The results obtained during the scale-up study of the BioGenerator showed a maximum specific current of 1.35 A/cm 2 , maximum power density of 1800 W/m 2 and stable electricity generation over a period spanning longer than four years. The largest unit studied so far has a volume of 600 L and a power output of 0.3 kW. - Highlights: • A commercially viable biological convertor of H 2 to electricity (BioGenerator) is proposed. • It has a short-term commercial potential and its economic analysis is quite promising. • The BioGenerator is the first commercially viable bio-technology for energy storage. • It is a power generation technology of which has a negative CO 2 emission.

  20. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  1. Corrosion in ICPP fuel storage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant currently stores irradiated nuclear fuel in fuel storage basins. Historically, fuel has been stored for over 30 years. During the 1970's, an algae problem occurred which required higher levels of chemical treatment of the basin water to maintain visibility for fuel storage operations. This treatment led to higher levels of chlorides than seen previously which cause increased corrosion of aluminum and carbon steel, but has had little effect on the stainless steel in the basin. Corrosion measurements of select aluminum fuel storage cans, aluminum fuel storage buckets, and operational support equipment have been completed. Aluminum has exhibited good general corrosion rates, but has shown accelerated preferential attack in the form of pitting. Hot dipped zinc coated carbon steel, which has been in the basin for approximately 40 years, has shown a general corrosion rate of 4 mpy, and there is evidence of large shallow pits on the surface. A welded Type 304 stainless steel corrosion coupon has shown no attack after 13 years exposure. Galvanic couples between carbon steel welded to Type 304 stainless steel occur in fuel storage yokes exposed to the basin water. These welded couples have shown galvanic attack as well as hot weld cracking and intergranular cracking. The intergranular stress corrosion cracking is attributed to crevices formed during fabrication which allowed chlorides to concentrate

  2. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  3. A review on on-board challenges of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Wasikur

    2017-06-01

    The attempt of the review is to realize on-board hydrogen storage technologies concerning magnesium based solid-state matrix to allow fuel cell devices to facilitate sufficient storage capacity, cost, safety and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. Hydrogen, a potential and clean fuel, can be applied in the state-of-the-art technology of `zero emission' vehicles. Hydrogen economy infrastructure both for stationary and mobile purposes is complicated due to its critical physico-chemical properties and materials play crucial roles in every stage of hydrogen production to utilization in fuel cells in achieving high conversion efficiency, safety and robustness of the technologies involved. Moreover, traditional hydrogen storage facilities are rather complicated due to its anomalous properties such as highly porous solids and polymers have intrinsic microporosity, which is the foremost favorable characteristics of fast kinetics and reversibility, but the major drawback is the low storage capacity. In contrast, metal hydrides and complex hydrides have high hydrogen storage capacity but thermodynamically unfavorable. Therefore, hydrogen storage is a real challenge to realize `hydrogen economy' that will solve the critical issues of humanity such as energy depletion, greenhouse emission, air pollution and ultimately climate change. Magnesium based materials, particularly magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity as well as environmentally benign properties to work the grand challenge out.

  4. Hydrogen transmission/storage with a metal hydride/organic slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.; McClaine, A. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has developed a new approach for the production, transmission, and storage of hydrogen. In this approach, a chemical hydride slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. The slurry protects the hydride from unanticipated contact with moisture in the air and makes the hydride pumpable. At the point of storage and use, a chemical hydride/water reaction is used to produce high-purity hydrogen. An essential feature of this approach is the recovery and recycle of the spent hydride at centralized processing plants, resulting in an overall low cost for hydrogen. This approach has two clear benefits: it greatly improves energy transmission and storage characteristics of hydrogen as a fuel, and it produces the hydrogen carrier efficiently and economically from a low cost carbon source. The preliminary economic analysis of the process indicates that hydrogen can be produced for $3.85 per million Btu based on a carbon cost of $1.42 per million Btu and a plant sized to serve a million cars per day. This compares to current costs of approximately $9.00 per million Btu to produce hydrogen from $3.00 per million Btu natural gas, and $25 per million Btu to produce hydrogen by electrolysis from $0.05 per Kwh electricity. The present standard for production of hydrogen from renewable energy is photovoltaic-electrolysis at $100 to $150 per million Btu.

  5. Hydrogen can be used as a perfect fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, E.

    2005-01-01

    At present, hydrogen is one of the new and clean energy production sources. Hydrogen is the perfect partner for electricity, and together they create an integrated energy system based on distributed power generation and use. Hydrogen and electricity are interchangeable using a fuel cell (to convert hydrogen to electricity) or an electrolyzer (for converting electricity to hydrogen). A regenerative fuel cell works either way, converting hydrogen to electricity and vice versa. Hydrogen and electricity are both energy carriers because, unlike naturally occurring hydrocarbon fuels, they must both be produced using a primary energy source. In this study, it will be discussed whether hydrogen is perfect fuel or not

  6. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  7. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Foradini, F.; Hart, D.

    2002-01-01

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Energy...Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel

  9. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  10. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  11. Hydrogen storage in Chabazite zeolite frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Laura; Zecchina, Adriano; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Carlo; Lillerud, Karl P; Olsbye, Unni; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-09-07

    We have recently highlighted that H-SSZ-13, a highly siliceous zeolite (Si/Al = 11.6) with a chabazitic framework, is the most efficient zeolitic material for hydrogen storage [A. Zecchina, S. Bordiga, J. G. Vitillo, G. Ricchiardi, C. Lamberti, G. Spoto, M. Bjørgen and K. P. Lillerud, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 6361]. The aim of this new study is thus to clarify both the role played by the acidic strength and by the density of the polarizing centers hosted in the same framework topology in the increase of the adsorptive capabilities of the chabazitic materials towards H2. To achieve this goal, the volumetric experiments of H2 uptake (performed at 77 K) and the transmission IR experiment of H2 adsorption at 15 K have been performed on H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34 (the isostructural silico-aluminophosphate material with the same Brønsted site density) and H-CHA (the standard chabazite zeolite: Si/Al = 2.1) materials. We have found that a H2 uptake improvement has been obtained by increasing the acidic strength of the Brønsted sites (moving from H-SAPO-34 to H-SSZ-13). Conversely, the important increase of the Brønsted sites density (moving from H-SSZ-13 to H-CHA) has played a negative role. This unexpected behavior has been explained as follows. The additional Brønsted sites are in mutual interaction via H-bonds inside the small cages of the chabazitic framework and for most of them the energetic cost needed to displace the adjacent OH ligand is higher than the adsorption enthalpy of the OH...H2 adduct. From our work it can be concluded that proton exchanged chabazitic frameworks represent, among zeolites, the most efficient materials for hydrogen storage. We have shown that a proper balance between available space (volume accessible to hydrogen), high contact surface, and specific interaction with strong and isolated polarizing centers are the necessary characteristics requested to design better materials for molecular H2 storage.

  12. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M. [ISE Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mass transit buses are ideal candidates for hydrogen implementation due to their capability of carrying 30 to 60 kg of hydrogen. ISE Corporation is a supplier of hydrogen fueled buses, including the first hybrid electric fuel cell bus which was commercialized in 2002, the hybrid electric fuel cell bus, and the hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (HHICE) bus which was commercialized in 2004. The configuration of a HHICE bus was illustrated with reference to its engine, control system, energy storage, generator, drive motor, inverter and accessories. Although these vehicles are expensive, the cost is amortized over a large base of hours used and passengers carried. The buses are operated primarily in urban areas where quiet and clean operation is needed the most. ISE has established a joint venture with Thor industries to develop a series of fuel cell buses equipped with a 60 kW PEM fuel cell. A schematic illustrating the energy flow in HHICE bus was also presented. It was shown that regenerative braking recovers the energy of motion. When using regenerative braking, most of the braking energy is saved in the battery. ISE drive systems convert 30 per cent or more of the bus energy to electrical energy to be used in later acceleration. Reduced fuel consumption also reduces the vehicle emissions. Testing of HHICE buses in both summer and winter operating conditions have shown that the range needs to be improved along with engine component reliability and durability. Fuel supply is also a major issue. A comparison with a fuel cell hybrid system was also presented. In the United States, more than 100,000 miles have been logged for the use of hydrogen hybrid buses, fuel cell buses and HHICE buses. The HHICE bus offers low capital cost, familiar technologies, but some NOx. CAT absorber technology offers the possibility of near zero emission capability. The fuel cell bus was found to be more fuel efficient, and can travel nearly twice as far per unit energy as

  13. Spent fuel storage requirements 1989--2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the US to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 32 years, through the year 2020. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1988 are derived from the 1989 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 14 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  14. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results

  16. Transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Lenail, B.

    1987-01-01

    From a safety standpoint, spent fuel is clearly not ideal for permanent disposal and reprocessing is the best method of preparing wastes for long-term storage in a repository. Furthermore, the future may demonstrate that some fission products recovered in reprocessing have economic applications. Many countries have in fact reached the point at which the recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent fuel is economical in LWR's. Even in countries where this is not yet evident, (i.e., the United States), the French example shows that the day will come when spent fuel will be retrieved for reprocessing and recycle. It is highly questionable whether spent fuel will ever be considered and treated as waste in the same sense as fission products and processed as such, i.e., packaged in a waste form for permanent disposal. Even when recycled fuel material can no longer be reused in LWR's because of poor reactivity, it will be usable in FBR's. Based on the considerable experience gained by SGN and Cogema, this paper has provided practical discussion and illustrations of spent fuel transport and storage of a very important step in the nuclear fuel management process. The best of spent fuel storage depends on technical, economic and policy considerations. Each design has a role to play and we hope that the above discussion will help clarify certain issues

  17. Development of concrete cask storage technology for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Toshiari; Shirai, Koji; Takeda, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    Need of spent fuel storage in Japan is estimated as 10,000 to 25,000 t by 2050 depending on reprocessing. Concrete cask storage is expected due to its economy and risk hedge for procurement. The CRIEPI executed verification tests using full-scale concrete casks. Heat removal performances in normal and accidental conditions were verified and analytical method for the normal condition was established. Shielding performance focus on radiation streaming through the air outlet was tested and confirmed to meet the design requirements. Structural integrity was verified in terms of fracture toughness of stainless steel canister for the cask of accidental drop tests. Cracking of cylindrical concrete container due to thermal stress was confirmed to maintain its integrity. Seismic tests of concrete cask without tie-down using scale and full-scale model casks were carried out to confirm that the casks do not tip-over and the spent fuel assembly keeps its integrity under severe earthquake conditions. Long-term integrity of concrete cask for 40 to 60 years is required. It was confirmed using a real concrete cask storing real spent fuel for 15 years. Stress corrosion cracking is serious issue for concrete cask storage in the salty air environment. The material factor was improved by using highly corrosion resistant stainless steel. The environmental factor was mitigated by the development of salt reduction technology. Estimate of surface salt concentration as a function of time became possible. Monitoring technology to detect accidental loss of containment of the canister by the stress corrosion cracking was developed. Spent fuel integrity during storage was evaluated in terms of hydrogen movement using spent fuel claddings stored for 20 years. The effect of hydrogen on the integrity of the cladding was found negligible. With these results, information necessary for real service of concrete cask was almost prepared. Remaining subject is to develop more economical and rational

  18. An Opportunity for Hydrogen Fueled Supersonic Airliners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Forbes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a new look at the prospects for developing supersonic civil airliners, considering global demographics, climate change issues, fuel prices and technological advances. Dramatic changes have occurred in the demographics, economics, and market intensity of the Eastern Hemisphere since the 1990s. Carbon reduction imperatives provide a major incentive to invest in developing hydrogen-fueled airliners. The “point-to-point” air route architecture has proved viable with long range mid-size airliners. With a cruise Mach number of 1.4, a large number of destinations become viable for overland supersonic flight. A conceptual design process is used to estimate cost per seat mile for a range of hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuel costs. An argument based on the ideal shape for minimal wave drag, estimates the drag penalty from using hydrogen. Viable aircraft geometries are shown to exist, that match the theoretical ideal shape, showing that the drag estimate is achievable. Conservative design arguments and market estimates suggest that hydrogen-fueled airliners can achieve seat-mile costs low enough to open a large worldwide market and justify a viable fleet size.

  19. Synthesis of Ni/Graphene Nanocomposite for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-06-22

    We have designed a Ni-graphene composite for hydrogen storage with Ni nanoparticles of 10 nm in size, uniformly dispersed over a graphene substrate. This system exhibits attractive features like high gravimetric density, ambient conditions, and low activation temperature for hydrogen release. When charged at room temperature and an atmospheric hydrogen pressure of 1 bar, it could yield a hydrogen capacity of 0.14 wt %. When hydrogen pressure increased to 60 bar, the sorbent had a hydrogen gravimetric density of 1.18 wt %. The hydrogen release could occur at an operating temperature below 150 °C and completes at 250 °C.

  20. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  1. Conception of modular hydrogen storage systems for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, V.; Miotti, P.; Manzoni, G.; Ozebec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen, till now the most prominent candidate as a future sustainable energy carrier, yields a gravimetric energy density three times as high as liquid hydrocarbon. Furthermore it is proven to be the most environmentally friendly fuel. Unfortunately, a few components regarding storage and tank solutions have not yet reached a technology level required for broad use. Thus, we intend to propose solutions and device concepts for both devices everyday use and space applications. This contribution assesses both state of the art of storage materials and existing technologies of power generation systems for application in portable devices. The aim of this work is to define the characteristics of a modular system, being suitable for a wide range of different devices, operating on advanced metal hydrides as the active hydrogen supply component. The concept has been studied and modelled with respect to volumes, mass and power requirements of different devices. The smallest system developed is intended to run, for example, a mobile phone. Minor tuning and straightforward scale up of this power supply module should make it suitable for general applicability in any portable device. (author)

  2. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  3. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering

  4. Ageing of Mg-Ni-H hydrogen storage alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, OCT (2012), s. 14257-14264 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA106/09/0814; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Magnesium alloys * Hydrogen desorption * Hydrogen storage * Hydrogen-storage materials * Ageing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  5. Issues affecting the acceptance of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, I.; Hart, D.; Vorst, R. van der

    2004-01-01

    While the topic of hydrogen as an alternative vehicle fuel is gaining increasing attention internationally, one significant aspect of its introduction has been given less attention than others: the public acceptance of such a new technology and fuel. After reviewing the existing literature on acceptance, risk perception and customer satisfaction, this paper describes the development of a model that illustrates important aspects in influencing a person's attitude towards a new product. 'Values', 'wants' and 'perception' are the three components found to influence acceptance, they themselves are affected by 'social background' and 'experience'. Suggestions are then given on how to use marketing methods, education projects and product exposure in order to maximise the likelihood of a successful introduction of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. (author)

  6. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  7. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  8. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  9. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  10. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  11. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  12. Hydrogen & fuel cells: advances in transportation and power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hordeski, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    ... race, it became more of an economics issue since as long as petroleum was available and cheap there was no need to develop a hydrogen technology. Now, we see much more investment in fuel cell technology, hydrogen fueled vehicles and even hydrogen fuel stations. The technology is being pushed by economics as oil prices continue to rise with dwind...

  13. 77 FR 50488 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of...). SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting (Webinar) of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory... Avenue, Washington, DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel...

  14. U.S. Clean Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick [Westside Industrial Retention & Expansion Network, Cleveland, OH (United States); Holody, Diane [Westside Industrial Retention & Expansion Network, Cleveland, OH (United States); James, Brian [Strategic Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Wheeler, Douglas [DJW Technology, Dublin, OH (United States); Hart, David [E4tech, London (United Kingdom); Lehner, Franz [E4tech, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    The objectives of this project are a 1) Global Competitiveness Analysis of hydrogen and fuel cell systems and components manufactured including 700 bar compressed hydrogen storage system in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and other key areas to be identified to determine the global cost leaders, the best current manufacturing processes, the key factors determining competitiveness, and the potential means of cost reductions; and an 2) Analysis to assess the status of global hydrogen and fuel cell markets. The analysis of units, megawatts by country and by application will focus on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems (automotive and stationary).

  15. Role of membranes and membrane reactors in the hydrogen supply of fuel cells for transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julbe, A.; Guizard, Ch. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMII, Lab. des Materiaux et des Procedes Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5635, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-07-01

    Production, storage and supply of high-purity hydrogen as a clean and efficient fuel is central to fuel cells technology, in particular in vehicle traction. Actually, technologies for handling liquefied or gaseous hydrogen in transports are not available so that a number of alternative fuels are considered with the aim of in-situ generation of hydrogen through catalytic processes. The integrated concept of membrane reactors (MRs) can greatly benefit to these technologies. Particular emphasis is put on inorganic membranes and their role in MRs performance for H{sub 2} production.

  16. Leak testing fuel stored in the ICPP fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.L.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    Irradiated fuel to be processed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant is stored under water at the CPP-603 Fuel Storage Facility. Leakage of radionuclides through breaks in the cladding of some of the stored fuels contaminates the water with radionuclides resulting in radiation exposure to personnel during fuel handling operations and contamination of the shipping casks. A leak test vessel was fabricated to test individual fuel assemblies which were suspected to be leaking. The test equipment and procedures are described. Test results demonstrated that a leaking fuel element could be identified by this method; of the eleven fuel assemblies tested, six were estimated to be releasing greater than 0.5 Ci total radionuclides/day to the basin water

  17. Innovative hydrogen storage in hollow glass-microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keding, M.; Schmid, G.; Tajmar, M. [Austrian Research Centers, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen storage technologies are becoming increasingly important for a number of future applications. The Austrian Research Centers (ARC) are developing a unique hydrogen storage system that combines the advantages of both hollow glass microsphere and chemical compound hydrogen storage, but eliminates their respective drawbacks. Water is utilized as a functional liquid to carry the hollow glass microspheres that are loaded with up to 700 bar of hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is then injected together with the glass microspheres into a reaction chamber where the water reacts catalytically with the NaBH{sub 4} producing hydrogen and heat. The heat is then utilized to release the hydrogen from the hollow glass microspheres providing a double hydrogen generation process without any external energy or heat during storage or gas release. The paper described this hydrogen storage system with particular reference to microspheres, the coating process, the experimental facility and NaBH{sub 4} test results. It was concluded that hydrogen storage and production on demand is possible with microspheres and sodium borohydride solution. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  19. Spent LWR fuel-storage costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded use of existing storage basins is clearly the most economic solution to the spent fuel storage problem. The use of high-density racks followed by fuel disassembly and rod storage is an order of magnitude cheaper than building new facilities adjacent to the reactor. The choice of a new storage facility is not as obvious; however, if the timing of expenditures and risk allowance are to be considered, then modular concepts such as silos, drywells, and storage casks may cost less than water basins and air-cooled vaults. A comparison of the costs of the various storage techniques without allowances for timing or risk is shown. The impact of allowances for discounting and early resumption of reprocessing is also shown. Economics is not the only issue to be considered in selecting a storage facility. The licensing, environmental impact, timing, and social responses must also be considered. Each utility must assess all of these issues for their particular reactors before the best storage solution can be selected

  20. Novel optimization technique of isolated microgrid with hydrogen energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshr, Eman Hassan; Abdelghany, Hazem; Eteiba, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), Photovoltaic (PV) arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results. The Pros and cons of the two optimization techniques are compared and evaluated. An isolated microgrid is modelled using MATLAB software package, dispatch of active/reactive power, optimal load flow analysis with slack bus selection are carried out to be able to minimize fuel cost and line losses under realistic constraints. The performance of the system is studied and analyzed during both summer and winter conditions and three case studies are presented for each condition. The modified IEEE 15 bus system is used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  1. Novel optimization technique of isolated microgrid with hydrogen energy storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Hassan Beshr

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs, Diesel Generator (DG, a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG, Photovoltaic (PV arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results. The Pros and cons of the two optimization techniques are compared and evaluated. An isolated microgrid is modelled using MATLAB software package, dispatch of active/reactive power, optimal load flow analysis with slack bus selection are carried out to be able to minimize fuel cost and line losses under realistic constraints. The performance of the system is studied and analyzed during both summer and winter conditions and three case studies are presented for each condition. The modified IEEE 15 bus system is used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  2. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luigi Bonadio

    2006-01-01

    The next generation of engineers and scientists will face great technical, economic and political challenges to satisfy increasing demands for a secure, reliable and affordable global energy system that maintains and enhances current standards of living. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program aims to bolster the quality and relevance of primary and secondary school teaching in emerging areas of science, technology and environmental/sustainability studies using hydrogen, in its capacity as a versatile energy carrier, as the educational basis for teacher and student learning. Critical advances in specific areas of hydrogen production, distribution, storage and end-use technologies arise when students are engaged to develop and apply a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and practical skills. A comprehensive hydrogen and fuel cell technology teaching module will be developed to complement existing fuels and energy curricula across Australian schools. The pilot program will be delivered via the collaboration of nine trial schools, a broad range of technical and pedagogy experts and representatives of professional bodies and industry. The program features essential and extensive teacher consultation, a professional learning and development course, industry site visits and a dedicated research and evaluation study. This initiative aims to bolster teacher literacy and student participation in the design, construction and operation of various hydrogen and fuel cell devices and extended activities. Students will reflect on and formally present their learning experiences via several dedicated fora including an awards ceremony where outstanding performance of leading schools, teachers and student groups within the cluster will be acknowledged. (authors)

  3. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigi Bonadio [Senior Consultant Luigi Bonadio and Associates (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    The next generation of engineers and scientists will face great technical, economic and political challenges to satisfy increasing demands for a secure, reliable and affordable global energy system that maintains and enhances current standards of living. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program aims to bolster the quality and relevance of primary and secondary school teaching in emerging areas of science, technology and environmental/sustainability studies using hydrogen, in its capacity as a versatile energy carrier, as the educational basis for teacher and student learning. Critical advances in specific areas of hydrogen production, distribution, storage and end-use technologies arise when students are engaged to develop and apply a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and practical skills. A comprehensive hydrogen and fuel cell technology teaching module will be developed to complement existing fuels and energy curricula across Australian schools. The pilot program will be delivered via the collaboration of nine trial schools, a broad range of technical and pedagogy experts and representatives of professional bodies and industry. The program features essential and extensive teacher consultation, a professional learning and development course, industry site visits and a dedicated research and evaluation study. This initiative aims to bolster teacher literacy and student participation in the design, construction and operation of various hydrogen and fuel cell devices and extended activities. Students will reflect on and formally present their learning experiences via several dedicated fora including an awards ceremony where outstanding performance of leading schools, teachers and student groups within the cluster will be acknowledged. (authors)

  4. Operation of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on safety of spent fuel storage. This is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes key activities in the operation of spent fuel storage facilities. Section 3 lists the basic safety considerations for storage facility operation, the fundamental safety objectives being subcriticality, heat removal and radiation protection. Recommendations for organizing the management of a facility are contained in Section 4. Section 5 deals with aspects of training and qualification; Section 6 describes the phases of the commissioning of a spent fuel storage facility. Section 7 describes operational limits and conditions, while Section 8 deals with operating procedures and instructions. Section 9 deals with maintenance, testing, examination and inspection. Section 10 presents recommendations for radiation and environmental protection. Recommendations for the quality assurance (QA) system are presented in Section 11. Section 12 describes the aspects of safeguards and physical protection to be taken into account during operations; Section 13 gives guidance for decommissioning. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  5. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...... the vehicular tank within the frame of a complete refueling system. The two technologies that are integrated in the platform are solid-state hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides and compressed gas systems. In this work the computational platform is used to compare the storage performance of two tank...... to a storage capacity four times larger than a tube-in-tube solution of the same size. The volumetric and gravimetric densities of the shell and tube are 2.46% and 1.25% respectively. The dehydriding ability of this solution is proven to withstand intense discharging conditions....

  6. Taxing fossil fuels under speculative storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumen, Semih; Unalmis, Deren; Unalmis, Ibrahim; Unsal, D. Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Long-term environmental consequences of taxing fossil fuel usage have been extensively studied in the literature. However, these taxes may also impose several short-run macroeconomic policy challenges, the nature of which remains underexplored. This paper investigates the mechanisms through which environmental taxes on fossil fuel usage can affect the main macroeconomic variables in the short-run. We concentrate on a particular mechanism: speculative storage. Formulating and using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model, calibrated for the United States, with an explicit storage facility and nominal rigidities, we show that in designing environmental tax policies it is crucial to account for the fact that fossil fuel prices are subject to speculation. The existence of forward-looking speculators in the model improves the effectiveness of tax policies in reducing fossil fuel usage. Improved policy effectiveness, however, is costly: it drives inflation and interest rates up, while impeding output. Based on this tradeoff, we seek an answer to the question how monetary policy should interact with environmental tax policies in our DSGE model of fossil fuel storage. We show that, in an environment with no speculative storers, monetary policy should respond to output along with CPI inflation in order to minimize the welfare losses brought by taxes. However, when the storage facility is activated, responding to output in the monetary policy rule becomes less desirable.

  7. Fuel cells and hydrogen : implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The generation, storage, transportation, distribution and dispensing of hydrogen has clearly emerged as the central issue in the global move toward a carbon-free fuel future for the mobility industry. The technical, economic and societal issues surrounding the provision of fuels for fuel cells appear to be at least as daunting, if not more, than any other issue. Nonetheless, automakers from all over the world are pressing ahead with their extensive research and development programs and these have showed great promise in addressing the key on-vehicle issues such as durability, cold starting and packaging. More work remains on several key problems and the presentation will elucidate these and endeavor to point the way to solutions as seen from an automotive engineering viewpoint. (author)

  8. Materials behavior in interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Inman, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Interim storage has emerged as the only current spent-fuel management method in the US and is essential in all countries with nuclear reactors. Materials behavior is a key aspect in licensing interim-storage facilities for several decades of spent-fuel storage. This paper reviews materials behavior in wet storage, which is licensed for light-water reactor (LWR) fuel, and dry storage, for which a licensing position for LWR fuel is developing

  9. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolite sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, Felicia; Brad, Sebastian; Lazar, Alin

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption molecular sieves and activated carbon were used for hydrogen isotopes. The adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. The synthetic zeolites have similar properties as natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure and affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures evidenced the efficient behavior of the activated carbon and zeolite sieves for hydrogen isotope temporary storage. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, F.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), operating in a mixture of fuel and oxidant gases, provides several advantages over the conventional SOFC such as simplified cell structure (no sealing required). SC-SOFC allows using a variety of fuels without carbon deposition by selecting appropriate electrode materials and cell operating conditions. The operating conditions of single chamber SOFC was studied using hydrocarbon-air gas mixtures for a cell composed of NiO-YSZ / YSZ / LSCF-Ag. The cell performance and catalytic activity of the anode was measured at various gas flow rates. The results showed that the open-circuit voltage and the power density increased as the gas flow rate increased. Relatively high power densities up to 660 mW/cm 2 were obtained in a SC-SOFC using porous YSZ electrolytes instead of dense electrolytes required for operation of a double chamber SOFC. In addition to propane- or methane-air mixtures as a fuel source, the cells were also tested in a double chamber configuration using hydrogen-air mixtures by controlling the hydrogen/air ratio at the cathode and the anode. Simulation of single chamber conditions in double chamber configurations allows distinguishing and better understanding of the electrode reactions in the presence of mixed gases. Recent research efforts; the effect of hydrogen-air mixtures as a fuel source on the performance of anode and cathode materials in single-chamber and double-chamber SOFC configurations,will be presented. The presentation will address a review on hydrogen production by utilizing of reversible SOFC systems. (author)

  12. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  13. Synthesis of polyetherimide / halloysite nanotubes (PEI/HNTs) based nanocomposite membrane towards hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2018-04-01

    Even though hydrogen is considered as green and clean energy sources of future, the blooming of hydrogen economy mainly relies on the development of safe and efficient hydrogen storage medium. The present work is aimed at the synthesis and characterization of polyetherimide/acid treated halloysite nanotubes (PEI/A-HNTs) nanocomposite membranes for solid state hydrogen storage medium, where phase inversion technique was adopted for the synthesis of nanocomposite membrane. The synthesized PEI/A-HNTs nanocomposite membranes were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDX, CHNS elemental analysis and TGA. Hydrogenation studies were performed using a Sievert's-like hydrogenation setup. The important conclusions arrived from the present work are the PEI/A-HNTs nanocomposite membranes have better performance with a maximum hydrogen storage capacity of 3.6 wt% at 100 °C than pristine PEI. The adsorbed hydrogen possesses the average binding energy of 0.31 eV which lies in the recommended range of US- DOE 2020 targets. Hence it is expected that the PEI/A-HNTs nanocomposite membranes may have bright extent in the scenario of hydrogen fuel cell applications.

  14. Method of storing the fuel storage pot in a fuel storage tank for away-from-reactor-storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Jun-ichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contact of sodium in the away-from-reactor-storage fuel storage tank with sodium in a fuel storage pool having radioactivity ana always retain clean state therein. Method: Sodium is filled in a container body of the away-from-reactor-storage fuel storage tank, and a conduit, a cycling pump, and cooling means are disposed to form a sodium coolant cycling loop. The fuel storage pool is so stored in the container body that the heat of the pool is projected from the liquid surface of the sodium in the container. Therefore, the sodium in the container is isolated from the sodium in the pool containing strong radioactivity to prevent contact of the former sodium from the latter sodium. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Contributions to LWR spent fuel storage and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers included in this document describe the aspects of spent LWR fuel storage and transport-behaviour of spent fuel during storage; use of compact storage packs; safety of storage; design of storage facilities AR and AFR; description of transport casks and transport procedures

  16. Storage racks for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tatsumi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a storage rack which is light in weight, excellent in constructing performance, earthquake proof and allowable for thermal displacement. Constitution: The rack frame is constituted by disposing mounting seat plates at the legs of profiled-steel post members on a rack-mounting plate as a mounting seat by way of mounting liner plates and then weld-joining each of upper, medium and lower beam members and truss members of the profiled-steel posts by the use of connecting plates. Guide plates are laid transversely and joined onto each of the thus formed upper, medium and lower stage frames. Since apertures for mounting guide tubes are opened to each of the guide plates at a predetermined pitch, the storage rack unit is constituted by mounting guide tubes to the apertures. Then, the storage rack is mounted by means of slide keys to the mounting plates where slight amount of sliding or thermal displacement can be absorbed. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  18. Report by the committee assessing fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.W.

    1977-11-01

    Various concepts for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel have been considered. Preliminary design studies and cost estimates have been prepared for the following concepts: two with water cooling - prolonged pool storage at a generating station and pool storage at a central site - , three with air cooling at a central site - ''canister'', ''convection vault'', and ''conduction vault'' - and one underground storage scheme in rock salt. Costs (1972 dollars) were estimated including transportation and a perpetual care fund for maintenance and periodical renewal of the storage facility. Part 2 provides details of the concepts and costing methods. All concepts gave moderate costs providing a contribution of about 0.1 m$/kWh to the total unit energy cost. Advantages and disadvantages of the respective schemes are compared. (author)

  19. Polyaniline as a material for hydrogen storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-07-12

    The main challenge of commercialization of the hydrogen economy is the lack of convenient and safe hydrogen storage materials, which can adsorb and release a significant amount of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Finding and designing suitable cost-effective materials are vital requirements to overcome the drawbacks of investigated materials. Because of its outstanding electronic, thermal, and chemical properties, the electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI) has a high potential in hydrogen storage applications. In this review, the progress in the use of different structures of conducting PANI, its nanocomposites as well as activated porous materials based on PANI as hydrogen storage materials is presented and discussed. The effect of the unique electronic properties based on the π-electron system in the backbone of these materials in view of the hydrogen uptake and the relevant mechanisms are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  1. Subsurface storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.M.; Szulinski, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Company has developed the concept of storing spent fuel in dry caissons. Cooling is passive; safety and safeguard features appear promising. The capacity of a caisson to dissipate heat depends on site-specific soil characteristics and on the diameter of the caisson. It is estimated that approx. 2 kW can be dissipated in the length of one fuel element. Fuel elements can be stacked with little effect on temperature. A spacing of approx. 7.5 m (25 ft) between caissons appears rasonable. Business planning indicates a cost of approx. 0.2 mill/kWh for a 15-yr storage period. 12 figures, 4 tables

  2. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio; Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Sekikawa, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    Containing tubes for containing spent nuclear fuels are arranged vertically in a chamber. Heat releasing fins are disposed horizontal to the outer circumference of the containing tubes for rectifying cooling air and promoting cooling of the containing tubes. Louvers and evaporation sides of heat pipes are disposed at a predetermined distance in the chamber. Cooling air flows from an air introduction port to the inside of the chamber and takes heat from the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating spent nuclear fuels, rising its temperature and flows off to an air exhaustion exit. The direction for the rectification plate of the louver is downward from a horizontal position while facing to the air exhaustion port. Since the evaporation sides of the heat pipes are disposed in the inside of the chamber and the condensation side of the heat pipes is disposed to the outside of the chamber, the thermal energy can be recovered from the containing tubes incorporated with spent nuclear fuels and utilized. (I.N.)

  4. Hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This book consists of seven chapters, which deals with hydrogen energy with discover and using of hydrogen, Korean plan for hydrogen economy and background, manufacturing technique on hydrogen like classification and hydrogen manufacture by water splitting, hydrogen storage technique with need and method, hydrogen using technique like fuel cell, hydrogen engine, international trend on involving hydrogen economy, technical current for infrastructure such as hydrogen station and price, regulation, standard, prospect and education for hydrogen safety and system. It has an appendix on related organization with hydrogen and fuel cell.

  5. Development of fuel and energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development of fuel cell power plants is intended of high-efficiency power generation using such fuels with less air pollution as natural gas, methanol and coal gas. The closest to commercialization is phosphoric acid fuel cells, and the high in efficiency and rich in fuel diversity is molten carbonate fuel cells. The development is intended to cover a wide scope from solid electrolyte fuel cells to solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. For new battery power storage systems, development is focused on discrete battery energy storage technologies of fixed type and mobile type (such as electric vehicles). The ceramic gas turbine technology development is purposed for improving thermal efficiency and reducing pollutants. Small-scale gas turbines for cogeneration will also be developed. Development of superconduction power application technologies is intended to serve for efficient and stable power supply by dealing with capacity increase and increase in power distribution distance due to increase in power demand. In the operations to improve the spread and general promotion systems for electric vehicles, load leveling is expected by utilizing and storing nighttime electric power. Descriptions are given also on economical city systems which utilize wide-area energy. 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Hydrogen storage in Ti-Mn-(FeV) BCC alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.F.; Huot, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the replacement of vanadium by the less expensive (FeV) commercial alloy has been investigated in Ti-Cr-V BCC solid solutions and promising results were reported. In the present work, this approach of using (FeV) alloys is adopted to synthesize alloys of the Ti-Mn-V system. Compared to the V-containing alloys, the alloys containing (FeV) have a smaller hydrogen storage capacity but a larger reversible hydrogen storage capacity, which is caused by the increase of the plateau pressure of desorption. Correlations between the structure and the hydrogen storage properties of the alloys are also discussed.

  7. New developments in dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, C.; Chevalier, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    As shown in various new examples, HABOG facility (Netherlands), CERNAVODA (Candu - Romania), KOZLODUY (WWER - Bulgaria), CHERNOBYL ( RMBK - Ukraine), MAYAK (Spent Fuel from submarine and Icebreakers - Russia), recent studies allow to confirm the flexibility and performances of the CASCAD system proposed by SGN, both in safety and operability, for the dry storage of main kinds of spent fuel. The main features are: A multiple containment barrier system: as required by international regulation, 2 independent barriers are provided (tight canister and storage pit); Passive cooling, while the Fuel Assemblies are stored in an inert atmosphere and under conditions of temperature preventing from degradation of rod cladding; Sub-criticality controlled by adequate arrangements in any conditions; Safe facility meeting ICPR 60 Requirements as well as all applicable regulations (including severe weather conditions and earthquake); Safe handling operations; Retrievability of the spent fuel either during storage period or at the end of planned storage period (100 years); Future Decommissioning of the facility facilitated through design optimisation; Construction and operating cost-effectiveness. (author)

  8. Regional spent fuel storage facility (RSFSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the meetings held on the technology and safety aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities. The questions of technique, economy and key public and political issues will be covered as well as the aspects to be considered for implementation of a regional facility. (author)

  9. Storage container for radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The interim storage cask for spent fuel elements or the glass moulds for high-level radioactive waste are made up of heat-resistant, reinforced concrete with chambers and highgrade steel lining. Cooling systems with natural air circulation are connected with the chambers. (HP) [de

  10. High density aseismic spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    After the reasons of the development of high density aseismic spent fuel racks by FRAMATOME and LEMER, a description is presented, as also the codes, standards and regulations used to design this FRAMATOME storage rack. Tests have been carried out concerning criticality, irradiation of Cadminox, corrosion of the cell, and the seismic behaviour

  11. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-04-18

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a threefold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers.

  12. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  13. Alternative transportation fuels in the USA: government hydrogen vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The linkage between natural gas-based transportation and hydrogen-based transportation strategies, two clean burning gaseous fuels, provides a strong policy rationale for increased government sponsorship of hydrogen vehicle research and demonstration programs. Existing federal and state government hydrogen vehicle projects are discussed in this paper: research at the NREL, alternate-fueled buses, Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii program, New York state alternative transportation fuels program, Colorado program. 9 refs

  14. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  15. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also

  16. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  17. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  18. Spent Fuel Storage Operation - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Experience gained in planning, constructing, licensing, operating, managing and modifying spent fuel storage facilities in some Member States now exceeds 50 years. Continual improvement is only achieved through post-project review and ongoing evaluation of operations and processes. This publication is aimed at collating and sharing lessons learned. Hopefully, the information provided will assist Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel. This publication is expected to complement the ongoing Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III); the scope of which prioritizes facility operational practices in lieu of fuel and structural components behaviour over extended durations. The origins of the current publication stem from a consultants meeting held on 10-12 December 2007 in Vienna, with three participants from the IAEA, Slovenia and USA, where an initial questionnaire on spent fuel storage was formulated (Annex I). The resultant questionnaire was circulated to participants of a technical meeting, Spent Fuel Storage Operations - Lessons Learned. The technical meeting was held in Vienna on 13-16 October 2008, and sixteen participants from ten countries attended. A consultants meeting took place on 18-20 May 2009 in Vienna, with five participants from the IAEA, Slovenia, UK and USA. The participants reviewed the completed questionnaires and produced an initial draft of this publication. A third consultants meeting took place on 9-11 March 2010, which six participants from Canada, Hungary, IAEA, Slovenia and the USA attended. The meeting formulated a second questionnaire (Annex II) as a mechanism for gaining further input for this publication. A final consultants meeting was arranged on 20-22 June 2011 in Vienna. Six participants from Hungary, IAEA, Japan

  19. Combining computation and experiment to accelerate the discovery of new hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald

    2009-03-01

    The potential of emerging technologies such as fuel cells (FCs) and photovoltaics for environmentally-benign power generation has sparked renewed interest in the development of novel materials for high density energy storage. For applications in the transportation sector, the demands placed upon energy storage media are especially stringent, as a potential replacement for fossil-fuel-powered internal combustion engines -- namely, the proton exchange membrane FC -- utilizes hydrogen as a fuel. Although hydrogen has about three times the energy density of gasoline by weight, its volumetric energy density (even at 700 bar) is roughly a factor of six smaller. Consequently, the safe and efficient storage of hydrogen has been identified as one of the key materials-based challenges to realizing a transition to FC vehicles. This talk will present an overview of recent efforts at Ford aimed at developing new materials for reversible, solid state hydrogen storage. A tight coupling between first-principles modeling and experiments has greatly accelerated our efforts, and several examples illustrating the benefits of this approach will be presented.

  20. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  1. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in water pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    Storage of irradiated nuclear fuel in water pools (basins) has been standard practice since nuclear reactors first began operation approximately 34 years ago. Pool storage is the starting point for all other fuel storage candidate processes and is a candidate for extended interim fuel storage until policy questions regarding reprocessing and ultimate disposal have been resolved. This report assesses the current performance of nuclear fuel in pool storage, the range of storage conditions, and the prospects for extending residence times. The assessment is based on visits to five U.S. and Canadian fuel storage sites, representing nine storage pools, and on discussions with operators of an additional 21 storage pools. Spent fuel storage experience from British pools at Winfrith and Windscale and from a German pool at Karlsruhe (WAK) also is summarized

  2. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  3. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  4. Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  5. Electrochemical modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical kinetic model (EKM) is developed, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials under equilibrium conditions. This model is based on first principles of electrochemical reaction kinetics and statistical thermodynamics and describes the complex,

  6. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  7. New Transition metal assisted complex borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesha Srinivasan; Elias Lee Stefanakos; Yogi Goswami

    2006-01-01

    High capacity hydrogen storage systems are indeed essential for the on-board vehicular application that leads to the pollution free environment. Apart from the various hydrogen storage systems explored in the past, complex hydrides involving light weight alkali/alkaline metals exhibits promising hydrogenation/ dehydrogenation characteristics. New transition metal assisted complex borohydrides [Zn(BH 4 ) 2 ] have been successfully synthesized by an inexpensive mechano-chemical process. These complex hydrides possesses gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of ∼8.4 wt.% at around 120 C. We have determined the volumetric hydrogen absorption and desorption of these materials for a number of cycles. Another complex borohydride mixture LiBH 4 /MgH 2 catalyzed with ZnCl 2 has been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-02-28

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. This analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers. This paper will describe the matching of current glass microspheres with the useful application in commercial hydrogen bulk transport and storage.

  9. Status of Away From Reactor spent fuel storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.D.

    1979-07-01

    The Away From Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Program that the US Department of Energy established in 1977 is intended to preclude the shutting down of commercial nuclear power reactors because of lack of storage space for spent fuel. Legislation now being considered by Congress includes plans to provide storage space for commercial spent fuel beginning in 1983. Utilities are being encouraged to provide as much storage space as possible in their existing storage facilities, but projections indicate that a significant amount of AFR storage will be required. The government is evaluating the use of both existing and new storage facilities to solve this forecasted storage problem for commercial spent fuel

  10. Studies and research concerning BNFP: LWR spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report describes potential spent fuel storage expansion programs using the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant--Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model. Three basic storage arrangements are evaluated with cost and schedule estimates being provided for each configuration. A general description of the existing facility is included with emphasis on the technical and equipment requirements which would be necessary to achieve increased spent fuel storage capacity at BNFP-FRSS

  11. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  13. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  14. Chemical storage of hydrogen in few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kumar, Prashant; Maitra, Urmimala; Govindaraj, A.; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Birch reduction of few-layer graphene samples gives rise to hydrogenated samples containing up to 5 wt % of hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp3 C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphenes. They, however, decompose readily on heating to 500 °C or on irradiation with UV or laser radiation releasing all the hydrogen, thereby demonstrating the possible use of few-layer graphene for chemical storage of hydrogen. First-principles calculations throw light on the mechanism of dehydrogenation that appears to involve a significant reconstruction and relaxation of the lattice. PMID:21282617

  15. Problems of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrivoda, G.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 99% of the radioactivity in waste, produced in the process of operating a nuclear power plant, is contained in spent nuclear fuel. Safe handling and storage of the spent nuclear fuel is an important factor of a nuclear plant safety. Today at Ignalina NPP the spent fuel is stored in special water pools, located in the same buildings as the reactors. The volume of the pools is limited, for unit one the pool will be fully loaded in 1998, for unit 2 - in 2000. The further operation of the plant will only be possible if new storage is constructed. In 1994 contract with German company GNB was signed for the supply of 20 containers of the CASTOR type. Containers were delivered in accordance with agreed schedule. In the end of 1995 a new tender for new storage options was announced in order to minimize the storage costs. A proposal from Canadian company AECL now is being considered as one of the most suitable and negotiations to sign the contract started. (author)

  16. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  17. Hydrogen plant module (HPM) and vehicle fueled by same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    The goal / objective of the project was to design and fabricate hydrogen plant module (HPM) that is capable of producing : hydrogen fuel onboard a vehicle and that obviates one or more of the present issues related to compressed hydrogen fuel : stora...

  18. Hydrogen storage properties of Na-Li-Mg-Al-H complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Laube, Bruce L.; Wu Fengjung; Strickler, Jamie R.; Anton, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    Lightweight complex hydrides have attracted attention for their high storage hydrogen capacity. NaAlH 4 has been widely studied as a hydrogen storage material for its favorable reversible operating temperature and pressure range for automotive fuel cell applications. The increased understanding of NaAlH 4 has led to an expanded search for high capacity materials in mixed alkali and akali/alkaline earth alanates. In this study, promising candidates in the Na-Li-Mg-Al-H system were evaluated using a combination of experimental chemistry, atomic modeling, and thermodynamic modeling. New materials were synthesized using solid state and solution based processing methods. Their hydrogen storage properties were measured experimentally, and the test results were compared with theoretical modeling assessments

  19. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro; Nagano, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2000-01-01

    Concerning the spent fuel storage away from reactor, economical comparison was carried out between metal cask and water pool storage technology. The economic index was defined by levelized cost (Unit storage cost) calculated on the assumption that the storage cost is paid at the receipt of the spent fuel at the storage facility. It is found that the cask storage is economical for small and large storage capacity. Unit storage cost of pool storage, however, is getting close to that of cask storage in case of storage capacity of 10,000 ton. Then, the unit storage cost is converted to power generation cost using data of the burn up of the fuel, etc. The cost is obtained as yen 0.09/kWh and yen 0. 15/kWh for cask storage and pool storage, respectively in case of the capacity of 5,000 tonU and the cooling time of 5 years. (author)

  20. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1994-04-20

    New, high-strength, hollow, glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit storage densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The hoop stress at failure of our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which fail at wall stresses of 50,000 psi. For this project, microsphere material and structure will be optimized for storage capacity and charge/discharge kinetics to improve their commercial practicality. Microsphere production scale up will be performed, directed towards large-scale commercial use. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics` indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as hydride beds, cryocarbons and pressurized tube transports. For microspheres made from advanced materials and processes, analysis will also be performed to identify the appropriate applications of the microspheres considering property variables, and different hydrogen infrastructure, end use, production and market scenarios. This report presents some of the recent modelling results for large beds of glass microspheres in hydrogen storage applications. It includes plans for experiments to identify the properties relevant to large-bed hydrogen transport and storage applications, of the best, currently producible, glass microspheres. This work began in March, 1994. Project successes will be manifest in the matching of cur-rent glass microspheres with a useful application in hydrogen bulk transport and storage, and in developing microsphere materials and processes that increase the storage density and reduce the storage energy requirement.