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Sample records for hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate system

  1. Distribution of micro-amounts of europium in the two-phase water–HCl–nitrobenzene–N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-diphenyl-2,6-di-picolinamide–hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUEL MAKRLÍK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of micro-amounts of europium by a nitrobenzene solution of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H+B- in the presence of N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-diphenyl-2,6-dipicolinamide (MePhDPA, L was investigated. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL+, HL+2, HL3+2 and HL3+3 are extracted into the organic phase. The values of the extraction and stability constants of the species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined.

  2. Synergistic extraction of europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate and dodecaethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Vaňura, Petr; Selucký, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of microamounts of europium and americium by a nitrobenzene solution of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H+B-) in the presence of dodecaethylene glycol (DDEG, L) has been investigated. The equilibrium data have been explained assuming that the species HL+, H2L2+, ML3+ and MH-1L2+ (M3+ = Eu3+, Am3+; L = DDEG) are extracted into the organic phase. The values of extraction and stability constants of the complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water have been determined. It was found that in this nitrobenzene medium, the stability constant of the EuL3+ complex is comparable with that of AmL3+.

  3. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  4. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  5. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  6. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  8. Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquid hydrogen is used extensively by NASA to support cryogenic rocket testing. In addition, there are many commercial applications in which delivery and use of...

  9. Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility and helium gas that is...

  10. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  11. INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  12. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  15. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  16. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  17. Hydrogen Fire Detection System Features Sharp Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, C. S.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen fire detection system discovers fires by detecting the flickering ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OH molecule, a short-lived intermediate combustion product found in hydrogen-air flames. In a space application, the system discriminates against false signals from sunlight and rocket engine exhaust plume radiation.

  18. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal

    2010-01-01

    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.

    1996-08-13

    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  20. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  1. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  2. Chemical utilization of hydrogen from fluctuating energy sources – Catalytic transfer hydrogenation from charged Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier systems

    OpenAIRE

    Geburtig, Denise; Preuster, Patrick; Bösmann, Andreas; Müller, Karsten; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive way for storing and distributing hydrogen from electrolysis using excess energies from solar or wind power plants. In this contribution, an alternative, high-value utilization of such hydrogen is proposed namely its use in steady-state chemical hydrogenation processes. We here demonstrate that the hydrogen-rich form of the LOHC system dibenzyltoluene/perhydro-dibenzyltoluene can be directly applied as sole source of hydrog...

  3. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  4. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-12-27

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  5. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  6. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  7. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  8. Composite material systems for hydrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangborn, R. N.; Queeney, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The task of managing hydrogen entry into elevated temperature structural materials employed in turbomachinery is a critical engineering area for propulsion systems employing hydrogen or decomposable hydrocarbons as fuel. Extant structural materials, such as the Inconel series, are embrittled by the ingress of hydrogen in service, leading to a loss of endurance and general deterioration of load-bearing dependability. Although the development of hydrogen-insensitive material systems is an obvious engineering option, to date insensitive systems cannot meet the time-temperature-loading service extremes encountered. A short-term approach that is both feasible and technologically sound is the development and employment of hydrogen barrier coatings. The present project is concerned with developing, analyzing, and physically testing laminate composite hydrogen barrier systems, employing Inconel 718 as the structural material to be protected. Barrier systems will include all metallic, metallic-to-ceramic, and, eventually, metallic/ceramic composites as the lamellae. Since space propulsion implies repetitive engine firings without earth-based inspection and repair, coating durability will be closely examined, and testing regimes will include repetitive thermal cycling to simulate damage accumulation. The target accomplishments include: generation of actual hydrogen permeation data for metallic, ceramic-metallic, and hybrid metallic/ceramic composition barrier systems, practically none of which is currently extant; definition of physical damage modes imported to barrier systems due to thermal cycling, both transient temperature profiles and steady-state thermal mismatch stress states being examined as sources of damage; and computational models that incorporate general laminate schemes as described above, including manufacturing realities such as porosity, and whatever defects are introduced through service and characterized during the experimental programs.

  9. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  10. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  11. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche

    1998-08-01

    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  12. Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-08

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the guidance of Drs. Michael Seibert (retired, Fellow Emeritus) and Maria Ghirardi (Fellow), led 15 years of research addressing the issue of algal H2 photoproduction. This project resulted in greatly increased rates and yields of algal hydrogen production; increased understanding of the H2 metabolism in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; expanded our knowledge of other physiological aspects relevant to sustained algal photosynthetic H2 production; led to the genetic identification, cloning and manipulation of algal hydrogenase genes; and contributed to a broader, fundamental understanding of the technical and scientific challenges to improving the conversion efficiencies in order to reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office’s targets. Some of the tangible results are: (i) 64 publications and 6 patents, (ii) international visibility to NREL, (iii) reinvigoration of national and international biohydrogen research, and (iv) research progress that helped stimulate new funding from other DOE and non-DOE programs, including the AFOSR and the DOE Office of Science.

  13. A novel liquid organic hydrogen carrier system based on catalytic peptide formation and hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Fogler, Eran; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Iron, Mark A; Milstein, David

    2015-04-17

    Hydrogen is an efficient green fuel, but its low energy density when stored under high pressure or cryogenically, and safety issues, presents significant disadvantages; hence finding efficient and safe hydrogen carriers is a major challenge. Of special interest are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs), which can be readily loaded and unloaded with considerable amounts of hydrogen. However, disadvantages include high hydrogen pressure requirements, high reaction temperatures for both hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, which require different catalysts, and high LOHC cost. Here we present a readily reversible LOHC system based on catalytic peptide formation and hydrogenation, using an inexpensive, safe and abundant organic compound with high potential capacity to store and release hydrogen, applying the same catalyst for loading and unloading hydrogen under relatively mild conditions. Mechanistic insight of the catalytic reaction is provided. We believe that these findings may lead to the development of an inexpensive, safe and clean liquid hydrogen carrier system.

  14. Artificial photosynthetic systems for production of hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2015-04-01

    The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has caused unacceptable environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, which may lead to disastrous climatic consequences. Because fossil fuels are the products of long-term photosynthesis, it is highly desirable to develop artificial photosynthetic systems for the production of renewable and clean energy such as hydrogen. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of artificial photosynthetic systems for photocatalytic production of hydrogen with hydrogenases and their functional mimics including hybrids of natural and artificial components. Because it is highly desired to convert gaseous H2 to an easily storable form, recent progress on storage of hydrogen as liquid or solid form has also been described in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  16. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  17. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets......Hydrogen system, as a new energy carrier, could deliver clean and efficient energy services in a wide range of applications. This paper presents an economic dispatch-based mathematical model that facilitates investigations on the techno-economic feasibility of hydrogen systems in the context...

  18. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  19. FY17 Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Journal Publication Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-08

    NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center published 39 journal articles in fiscal year 2017 highlighting recent research in advanced vehicle technology, alternative fuels, and hydrogen systems.

  20. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide generation and detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, M W

    1983-07-01

    A test system has been devised for generation and measurement of hydrogen sulfide/air mixtures. Such a system has numerous applications, including toxicology studies, detector badge and tube evaluation, sorbent capacity measurements, and respirator cartridge or canister breakthrough testing. The system in this study utilizes an HNU photoionization analyzer for detection of H2S concentrations of 1.0 ppm to 26.0 ppm. Generation techniques for these low concentration levels, and also for much higher H2S concentrations, have been described. Special consideration has been given to H2S permeation of transfer tubing, and to the effects of water vapor interference upon the analyzer.

  2. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations is developing a technology for efficient separation and compression of hydrogen gas. The electrochemical hydrogen separator and compressor...

  3. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  4. Optimization of a solar hydrogen storage system: Exergetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.; Isorna, F.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. S. Juan-Matalascanas, km.34, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    From production to end-users, the choice of suitable hydrogen delivery and storage systems will be essential to assure the adequate introduction and development of these facilities. This article describes the main options for hydrogen storage when produced from renewable energy, and explains different criteria to be considered in the design and building-up of stationary hydrogen storage systems, with special attention to exergy issues. An example of exergy analysis is done using data from the solar hydrogen storage facility of the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). As expected, the main conclusions of this analysis show the advantage of low pressure hydrogen in comparison with other available methods to store hydrogen. Another interesting option, from the exergy efficiency point of view, is the storage of hydrogen in metal hydride systems. The last option, and the most inefficient, is the high pressure hydrogen storage. (author)

  5. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  6. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  7. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  8. Research Issues for Development of Hydrogen Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi

    It is generally considered that use of hydrogen in energy system is attractive because it produces no matters to cause air pollution or water pollution. Following this recognition, research to develop a car with low temperature fuel cell or hydrogen engine is extensively performed. The future energy system where hydrogen is used as the key material is shown in the figure below. To realize this system we must develop 1) the reasonable way to produce electricity or heat by using hydrogen as fuel, 2) the infrastructure to supply hydrogen to whole society, 3) energy sources and methods to produce huge amount of cheap hydrogen with minimum impact on nature, 4) together with assurance of resources to construct the system and 5) establishment of understanding about the basic behavior of hydrogen in various materials.

  9. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options

  10. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and many others often rely on delivery of cryogenic hydrogen to meet their facility needs. NASA's Stennis Space Center is one of the largest users of hydrogen,...

  11. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  12. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  13. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  14. Operation of metal hydride hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen compression using solar thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruki Endo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a newly constructed bench-scale hydrogen energy system with renewable energy, ‘Pure Hydrogen Energy System’, the present study demonstrates the operations of a metal hydride (MH tank for hydrogen compression as implemented through the use solar thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is used to generate hot water as a heat source of the MH tank. Thus, 70 kg of LaNi5, one of the most typical alloys used for hydrogen storage, was placed in the MH tank. We present low and high hydrogen flow rate operations. Then, the operations under winter conditions are discussed along with numerical simulations conducted from the thermal point of view. Results show that a large amount of heat (>100 MJ is generated and the MH hydrogen compression is available.

  15. Renewable energy systems based on hydrogen for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbossou, K.; Chahine, R.; Hamelin, J.; Laurencelle, F.; Anouar, A.; St-Arnaud, J.-M.; Bose, T. K.

    An integrated renewable energy (RE) system for powering remote communication stations and based on hydrogen is described. The system is based on the production of hydrogen by electrolysis whereby the electricity is generated by a 10 kW wind turbine (WT) and 1 kW photovoltaic (PV) array. When available, the excess power from the RE sources is used to produce and store hydrogen. When not enough energy is produced from the RE sources, the electricity is then regenerated from the stored hydrogen via a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. Overview results on the performances of the WT, PV, and fuel cells system are presented.

  16. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  17. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  18. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  19. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  20. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  1. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar-Hydrogen Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinsheng; Guan, Xuehua

    The system of solar thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid generation for hydrogen production is designed in this paper. The mathematical model of the hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is carried out. And the logic control system is designed. The current of the various sub-systems and the energy of the hydrogen storage tank are simulated and analyzed, this paper proves the solar hybrid system can be reliable and effective.

  2. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  3. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  4. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang H [Idaho Falls, ID; Kim, Eung S [Ammon, ID; Sherman, Steven R [Augusta, GA

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  5. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  6. A manual of recommended practices for hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, W.; Leach, S. [W. Hoagland and Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging hydrogen energy systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to hydrogen commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of hydrogen energy systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future hydrogen demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of hydrogen demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for hydrogen procedures, case studies of experience at existing hydrogen demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of hydrogen equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Energy Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.

  7. Standard-D hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, D.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-24

    This document details the results of the field Acceptance Testing of the Standard-D Hydrogen Monitoring System on the waste tank exhaust stacks in 241-AW and 241-AN tank farm. The monitors will be used to measure hydrogen and ammonia from the exhaust stacks.

  8. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Sensors and Systems. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Sensor systems research was focused on hydrogen leak detection and smart sensors with adaptive feedback control for fuel cells. The goal was to integrate multifunction smart sensors, low-power high-efficiency wireless circuits, energy harvesting devices, and power management circuits in one module. Activities were focused on testing and demonstrating sensors in a realistic environment while also bringing them closer to production and commercial viability for eventual use in the actual operating environment.

  9. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System (IRHUS) business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This business plan is for a proposed legal entity named IRHUS, Inc. which is to be formed as a subsidiary of Energy Partners, L.C. (EP) of West Palm Beach, Florida. EP is a research and development company specializing in hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and systems. A fuel cell is an engine with no moving parts that takes in hydrogen and produces electricity. The purpose of IRHUS, Inc. is to develop and manufacture a self-sufficient energy system based on the fuel cell and other new technology that produces hydrogen and electricity. The product is called the Integrated renewable Hydrogen utility System (IRHUS). IRHUS, Inc. plans to start limited production of the IRHUS in 2002. The IRHUS is a unique product with an innovative concept in that it provides continuous electrical power in places with no electrical infrastructure, i.e., in remote and island locations. The IRHUS is a zero emissions, self-sufficient, hydrogen fuel generation system that produces electricity on a continuous basis by combining any renewable power source with hydrogen technology. Current plans are to produce a 10 kilowatt IRHUS MP (medium power). Future plans are to design and manufacture IRHUS models to provide power for a variety of power ranges for identified attractive market segments. The technological components of the IRHUS include an electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage subsystems, fuel cell system, and power control system. The IRHUS product is to be integrated with a variety of renewable energy technologies. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  11. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  12. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G

    2006-04-27

    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  13. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  14. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system field acceptance testprocedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E) installed on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas are constructed as intended by the design.

  15. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark

    2011-06-30

    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production

  16. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  17. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  18. Thermophysicochemical Reaction of ZrCo-Hydrogen-Helium System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwangjin; Kang, Hee-Seok; Yun, Sei-Hun; Chung, Hongsuk

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear fusion energy, which is clean and infinite, has been studied for more than half a century. Efforts are in progress worldwide for the demonstration and validation of nuclear fusion energy. Korea has been developing hydrogen isotope storage and delivery system (SDS) technologies including a basic scientific study on a hydrogen storage medium. An SDS bed, which is a key component of the SDS, is used for storing hydrogen isotopes in a metal hydride form and supplying them to a tokamak. Thermophysicochemical properties of the ZrCo-H2-He system are investigated for the practical utilization of a hydriding alloy system. The hydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx is composed as ZrCo absorbing hydrogen, is exothermic. The dehydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx decomposes into ZrCo and hydrogen, is endothermic. The heat generated through the hydriding reaction interrupts the hydriding progress. The heat loss by a dehydriding reaction impedes the dehydriding progress. The tritium decay product, helium-3, covers the ZrCo and keeps the hydrogen from contact with ZrCo in the SDS bed. In this study, we designed and fabricated a ZrCo bed and its performance test rig. The helium blanketing effect on a ZrCo hydrogen reaction with 0 % to 20 % helium content in a gaseous phase and a helium blanket removal method were studied experimentally. In addition, the volumetric flow rates and temperature at the beginning of a ZrCo hydrogen reaction in a hydrogen or helium atmosphere, and the cooling of the SDS bed by radiation only and by both radiation and natural convection related to the reuse cycle, were obtained.

  19. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  20. A new high strength alloy for hydrogen fueled propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpherson, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high-strength alloy (1241 MPa ultimate and 1103 MPa yield, with little or no degradation in hydrogen) for application in advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Various compositions of the Fe-Ni-Co-Cr system with elemental additions of Cb, Ti and Al are discussed. After processing, notched tensile specimens were tested in 34.5-MPa hydrogen at room temperature, as the main screening test. The H2/air notch tensile ratio was used as the selection/rejection criterion. The most promising alloys are discussed.

  1. Analysis of hydrogen operation in the Danish Traffic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The main report of a study of the utilisation of hydrogen in the Danish energy and traffic system.The report contains an overview and assessment of the potential hydrogen technologies as well as analyses of the energy and environmental effects of different applications in the Danish transport sec...... sector (passenger car, bus, van, truck). The report concludes that hydrogen along with electric and hybrid propulsion can be a very interesting element in a strategy for sustainable transport, but only if based mainly on renewable energy....

  2. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  3. Engineering analysis of potential photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen-production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M. E.

    1982-06-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are capable of generating hydrogen from organics in effluents from food processing, pulp and paper, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Hydrogen evolution takes place under light in the absence of air. The rate of hydrogen production is expected to range between 300 to 600 scf of hydrogen per 1000 galloons of waste stream treated per hour. This hydrogen production system has been demonstrated at a bench-scale level and is ready for engineering development. A conceptual design for a PSB hydrogen production system is described. The system is expected to be sited adjacent to a waste stream source which will be pretreated by fermentation and pH adjustment, innoculated with bacteria, and then passed into the reactor. The reactor effluent can either be discharged into a rapid infiltration system, an irrigation ditch, and/or recycled back into the reactor. Several potential reactor designs have been developed, analyzed, and costed. A large covered pond appears to be the most economical design approach.

  4. The Benchmark of Gutzwiller Density Functional Theory in Hydrogen Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2011-01-13

    We propose an approximate form of the exchange-correlation energy functional for the Gutzwiller density functional theory. It satisfies certain physical constraints in both weak and strong electron correlation limits. We benchmark the Gutzwiller density functional approximation in the hydrogen systems, where the static correlation error is shown to be negligible. The good transferability is demonstrated by applications to the hydrogen molecule and some crystal structures. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2012

  5. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  6. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  7. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  8. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.

    1943-02-19

    A transcript is presented of a speech on the history of the development of hydrogenation of coal and tar. Apparently the talk had been accompanied by the showing of photographic slides, but none of the pictures were included with the report. In giving the history, Dr. Pier mentioned the dependence of much of the development of hydrogenation upon previous development in the related areas of ammonia and methanol syntheses, but he also pointed out several ways in which equipment appropriate for hydrogenation differed considerably from that used for ammonia and methanol. Dr. Pier discussed the difficulties encountered with residue processing, design of the reaction ovens, manufacture of ovens and preheaters, heating of reaction mixtures, development of steels, and development of compressor pumps. He described in some detail his own involvement in the development of the process. In addition, he discussed the development of methods of testing gasolines and other fuels. Also he listed some important byproducts of hydrogenation, such as phenols and polycyclic aromatics, and he discussed the formation of iso-octane fuel from the butanes arising from hydrogenation. In connection with several kinds of equipment used in hydrogenation (whose pictures were being shown), Dr. Pier gave some of the design and operating data.

  10. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  11. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  12. Standard-C hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1994-09-02

    The primary function of the standard-C hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank atmosphere which may also contain (but not be limited to) unknown quantities of air, nitrous oxide, ammonia, water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other gaseous constituents. The SHMS will consist of hydrogen specific monitors, a grab sampler to collect samples for laboratory analysis, a gas chromatograph, and the gas sample collection system necessary to support the operation of the instrumentation. This system will be located in a cabinet placed at the tank of interest. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that the SHMS is constructed as intended by design.

  13. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  14. Hydrogen photoproduction by use of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Nagata, Toshi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-02-01

    Hydrogen can be important clean fuel for future. Among different technologies for hydrogen production, oxygenic natural and artificial photosyntheses using direct photochemistry in synthetic complexes have a great potential to produce hydrogen, since both use clean and cheap sources: water and solar energy. Artificial photosynthesis is one way to produce hydrogen from water using sunlight by employing biomimetic complexes. However, splitting of water into protons and oxygen is energetically demanding and chemically difficult. In oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms such as algae and cyanobacteria, water is split into electrons and protons, which during primary photosynthetic process are redirected by photosynthetic electron transport chain, and ferredoxin, to the hydrogen-producing enzymes hydrogenase or nitrogenase. By these enzymes, e- and H+ recombine and form gaseous hydrogen. Biohydrogen activity of hydrogenase can be very high but it is extremely sensitive to photosynthetic O2. In contrast, nitrogenase is insensitive to O2, but has lower activity. At the moment, the efficiency of biohydrogen production is low. However, theoretical expectations suggest that the rates of photon conversion efficiency for H2 bioproduction can be high enough (>10%). Our review examines the main pathways of H2 photoproduction by using of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic photosynthetic systems.

  15. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  16. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  17. Modeling a PV-FC-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javadpoor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical grid expansion onto remote areas is often not cost-effective and/or technologically feasible. Thus, isolated electrical systems are preferred in such cases. This paper focuses on a hybrid photovoltaic (PV-hydrogen/fuel cell (FC system which basic components include a PV, a FC, alkaline water electrolysis and a hydrogen gas tank. To increase the response rate, supercapacitors or small batteries are usually employed in such systems. This study focuses on the dynamics of the system. In the suggested structure, the PV is used as the main source of power. The FC is connected to the load in parallel with the PV by a transducer in order to inject the differential power while reducing power generation in relation to power consumption. An electrolyzer is used to convert the surplus power to hydrogen. This study studies a conventional hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen/fuel cell system to evaluate different loading behaviors. Software modeling is done for the suggested hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  18. Measurements of capillary system degradation. [liquid hydrogen propellant retention capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R. P.; Butz, J. R.; Maytum, C. D.; Fester, D. A.; Young, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of vibration, flow transients, and warm gas pressurization on capillary acquisition system performance were evaluated. The degradation observed under wide band random and high frequency sinusoidal vibration was of a substantially different nature from that obtained under low frequency sinusoidal vibration. With the former, ingestion of small gas bubbles into the liquid region was correlated by a hydrostatic model, while the capillary stability was destroyed and liquid was lost from the liquid region with the latter. No degradation was observed as a result of flow transients in a flight-type multichannel screen device, but it was observed in a transparent laboratory device. Liquid hydrogen outflow tests were conducted with a multilayer dual-screen-liner system with both helium and hydrogen pressurant gases. The tendency towards dryout of the device with hydrogen pressurant was found to increase with increasing pressurant temperature and length of prepressurization period. Dryout did not occur with helium pressurant.

  19. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  20. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen

  1. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bakić Vukman V.; Pezo Milada L.; Jovanović Marina P.; Turanjanin Valentina M.; Vučićević Biljana S.

    2012-01-01

    The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized usin...

  2. Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup

    2011-01-01

    The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…

  3. Hydrogen-methane fuel control systems for turbojet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J. S.; Bennett, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Design, development, and test of a fuel conditioning and control system utilizing liquid methane (natural gas) and liquid hydrogen fuels for operation of a J85 jet engine were performed. The experimental program evaluated the stability and response of an engine fuel control employing liquid pumping of cryogenic fuels, gasification of the fuels at supercritical pressure, and gaseous metering and control. Acceptably stable and responsive control of the engine was demonstrated throughout the sea level power range for liquid gas fuel and up to 88 percent engine speed using liquid hydrogen fuel.

  4. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz

    2009-07-31

    This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

  5. Analysis of hypothetical geothermal hydrogen systems in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Penev, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Devlin, Peter [U.S. Department of Energy, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Analysis is presented for three theoretical geothermal energy systems on the Big Island of Hawaii. This preliminary study evaluates performance and economics for several strategies for enhancing integration of a geothermal renewable resource into the grid and for producing vehicle fuel by way of hydrogen production and storage. The analysis includes production of hydrogen and ammonia for use as fuels in light duty vehicles, and production of peak power using hydrogen produced off-peak, stored, and later use in a steam turbine to produce electricity during peak demand. Technological performance and costs are assessed for a near-term installation (next 2-3 years) and are compared on an apples-to-apples basis using consistent economic assumptions for two key metrics: (1) the ratio of geothermal energy product costs to comparable commodity prices, and (2) fuel costs per mile. (orig.)

  6. Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling...

  7. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  8. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaselev, O.; Bansal, A.; Kocha, S.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    With an eye towards developing a photoelectrochemical system for hydrogen production using sunlight as the only energy input, two types of systems were studied, both involving multijunction devices. One set of cells consisted of a-Si triple junctions and the other a GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs tandem cell combination. Additional investigations were carried out on semiconductor surface modifications to move semiconductor band edges to more favorable energetic positions.

  9. Pilot-scale hydrogen fermentation system start-up performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Lay, Chyi-How [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Ping-Jei; Chang, Alex C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taichung 40724 (China); Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Cheng, Chin-Hung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402 (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology (China); Chang, Feng-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon [Research Center for Energy and Resources, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A high-rate hydrogen production process able to produce H{sub 2} at a maximum rate of 15 L/L/h was successfully developed by the Feng Chia University (FCU) biohydrogen research team. This highly efficient hydrogen fermentation system includes a 400 L pilot-scale system constructed for determining scale-up operation parameters for commercializing the bioH{sub 2} production technology. The pilot-scale system is composed of a feedstock tank, mixing system, fermentor, gas/liquid separator and automatic control system. The fermentor is fed with sucrose (20 g COD/L) and operated at 35 C. A batch strategy is used for system start-up. The fermentor was first operated in a batch mode for two days and then switched to a continuous-feeding mode (HRT 12 h) for one month. During the continuous operation, pH notably affected H{sub 2} production efficiency and bacterial community. For the first 14-day operation, the H{sub 2} production rate increased from 0.017 to 0.256 L/L/h with a pH variation from 5.0 to 7.0. The DGGE results indicate the presence of two Clostridium species (namely, Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium pasteurianum) in the fermenter. Stable hydrogen production rate was obtained at pH 5.5-6.0 when C. pasteurianum became dominant in the mixed culture. (author)

  10. Metal-hydrogen systems with an exceptionally large and tunable thermodynamic destabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, Peter; Longo, Alessandro; Mooij, L.P.A.; Bras, Wim; Dam, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen is a key element in the energy transition. Hydrogen-metal systems have been studied for various energy-related applications, e.g., for their use in reversible hydrogen storage, catalysis, hydrogen sensing, and rechargeable batteries. These applications depend strongly on the

  11. A novel liquid organic hydrogen carrier system based on catalytic peptide formation and hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Peng; Fogler, Eran; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Iron, Mark A.; Milstein, David

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is an efficient green fuel, but its low energy density when stored under high pressure or cryogenically, and safety issues, presents significant disadvantages; hence finding efficient and safe hydrogen carriers is a major challenge. Of special interest are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs), which can be readily loaded and unloaded with considerable amounts of hydrogen. However, disadvantages include high hydrogen pressure requirements, high reaction temperatures for both hydro...

  12. Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage Options and System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Joan M; Yang, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The development of a hydrogen infrastructure has been identified as a key barrier to implementing hydrogen as for a future transportation fuel. Several recent studies of hydrogen infrastructure have assessed near-term and long-term alternatives for hydrogen supply [1-2]. In this paper, we discuss how advances in material science related to hydrogen storage could change how a future hydrogen infrastructure is designed. Using a simplified engineering/economic model for hydrogen infrastructure d...

  13. Evaluation of Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Day, K.; Brooker, A.

    2010-05-01

    This poster presentation demonstrates an approach to evaluate trade-offs among hydrogen storage system characteristic across several vehicle configurations and estimates the sensitivity of hydrogen storage system improvements on vehicle viability.

  14. Review on processing of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials towards system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of safe and effective hydrogen storage systems is critical for further implementation of hydrogen in fuel cell technologies. Amongst the various approaches to improve the performance of such systems, porous materials-based adsorptive...

  15. Hydrogen powered fuel cell systems : different designs for variable specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckhaus, P.; Goessling, S.; Notthoff, T.; Souzani, S.; Schoemaker, M.; Heinzel, A. [ZBT GmbH, Duisburg (Germany). Fuel Cells and Systems

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed system designs for hydrogen-powered fuel cell systems in the sub-kilowatt range. Designs were presented for the following 3 different types of applications: (1) supplying electrical power for high efficiency drives of 60 per cent, (2) supplying power for small uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices with high power densities and minimum start-up times in a variety of environmental conditions, and (3) providing the supply of oxygen-reduced breathing air for the high altitude training of athletes. Different control strategies and approaches to system design were discussed. The results of experimental studies conducted to test the fuel cell stack systems were also provided.

  16. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  17. The atomic hydrogen cloud in the saturnian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, W.-L.; Johnson, R. E.; Ip, W.-H.

    2013-09-01

    The importance of Titan's H torus shaped by solar radiation pressure and of hydrogen atoms flowing out of Saturn's atmosphere in forming the broad hydrogen cloud in Saturn's magnetosphere is still debated. Since the Saturnian system also contains a water product torus which originates from the Enceladus plumes, the icy ring particles, and the inner icy satellites, as well as Titan's H2 torus, we have carried out a global investigation of the atomic hydrogen cloud taking into account all sources. We show that the velocity and angle distributions of the hot H ejected from Saturn's atmosphere following electron-impact dissociation of H2 are modified by collisions with the ambient atmospheric H2 and H. This in turn affects the morphology of the escaping hydrogen from Saturn, as does the morphology of the ionospheric electron distribution. Although an exact agreement with the Cassini observations is not obtained, our simulations show that H directly escaping from Titan is the dominant contributor in the outer magnetosphere. Of the total number of H observed by Cassini from 1 to 5RS, ∼5.7×1034, our simulations suggest ∼20% is from dissociation in the Enceladus torus, ∼5-10% is from dissociation of H2 in the atmosphere of the main rings, and ∼50% is from Titan's H torus, implying that ∼20% comes from Saturn atmosphere.

  18. Hydrogen Flame Imaging System Soars to New, Different Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    When Judy and Dave Duncan of Auburn, Calif.-based Duncan Technologies Inc. (DTI) developed their color hydrogen flame imaging system in the early 1990's, their market prospects were limited. 'We talked about commercializing the technology in the hydrogen community, but we also looked at commercialization on a much broader aspect. While there were some hydrogen applications, the market was not large enough to suppport an entire company; also, safety issues were a concern,' said Judy Duncan, owner and CEO of Duncan Technologies. Using the basic technology developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR); DTI conducted market research, identified other applications, formulated a plan for next generation development, and implemented a far-reaching marketing strategy. 'We took that technology; reinvested our own funds and energy into a second-generation design on the overall camera electronics and deployed that basic technology intially in a series of what we call multi-spectral cameras; cameras that could image in both the visible range and the infrared,' explains Duncan. 'The SBIR program allowed us to develop the technology to do a 3CCD camera, which very few compaines in the world do, particularly not small companies. The fact that we designed our own prism and specked the coding as we had for the hydrogen application, we were able to create a custom spectral configuration which could support varying types of research and applications.' As a result, Duncan Technologies Inc. of Auburn, Ca., has achieved a milestone $ 1 million in sales.

  19. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics’ Hydrogen Isotope Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmayda, W.T., E-mail: wshm@lle.rochester.edu; Wittman, M.D.; Earley, R.F.; Reid, J.L.; Redden, N.P.

    2016-11-01

    The University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics has commissioned a hydrogen Isotope Separation System (ISS). The ISS uses two columns—palladium on kieselguhr and molecular sieve—that act in a complementary manner to separate the hydrogen species by mass. The 4-sL per day throughput system is compact and has no moving parts. The columns and the attendant gas storage and handling subsystems are housed in a 0.8 -m{sup 3} glovebox. The glovebox uses a helium cover gas that is continuously processed to extract oxygen and water vapor that permeates through the glovebox gloves and any tritium that is released while attaching or detaching vessels to add feedstock to or drawing product from the system. The isotopic separation process is automated and does not require manual intervention. A total of 315 TBq of tritium was extracted from 23.6 sL of hydrogen with tritium purities reaching 99.5%. Deuterium was the sole residual component in the processed gas. Raffinate contained 0.2 TBq of activity was captured for reprocessing. The total emission from the system to the environment was 0.4 GBq over three weeks.

  20. Hydrogen Molecule Adsorption on a Borophene-Titanium System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Chavarria, Gregorio

    2015-03-01

    From the synthesis of graphene have developed a wide range of researchs on their use, both theoretical and experimental. So there have been research on graphene-based electronics, but also on issues of energy, particularly hydrogen adsorption on graphene-based systems. Given the potential represented by these structures is very natural to wonder about similar structures, but based in elements near carbon. One of the lines developed very recently consider the boron as the element to build graphene-like structures. Different studies, both theoretical and experimental have been made where the studied structures are graphene type or fullerene, where boron is used in place of carbon. We will use as a starting point the proposed structures by Xiaobao and Tang. This structure is known as the borophene, which in first place will be decorated with titanium and then, this system interact with hydrogen molecule. In our calculation we use functional density theory, atomic pseudopotentials, Born approximation and molecular dynamic.

  1. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary power system thruster investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, E. E.; Kusak, L.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a 111 newton (25 lb) thrust, integrated auxiliary propulsion system (IAPS) thruster for use with LH2/LO2 propellants is described. Hydrogen was supplied at a temperature range of 22 to 33 K (40 to 60 R), and oxygen from 89 to 122 K (160 to 220 R). The thruster was designed to operate in both pulse mode and steady-state modes for vehicle attitude control, space maneuvering, and as an abort backup in the event of failure of the main propulsion system. A dual-sleeve, tri-axial injection system was designed that utilizes a primary injector/combustor where 100 percent of the oxygen and 8 percent of the hydrogen is introduced; a secondary injector/combustor where 45 percent of the hydrogen is introduced to mix with the primary combustor gases; and a boundary layer injector that uses the remaining 45 percent of the hydrogen to cool the thrust throat/nozzle design. Hot-fire evaluation of this thruster with a BLC injection distance of 2.79 cm (1.10 in.) indicated that a specific impulse value of 390 sec can be attained using a coated molybdenum thrust chamber. Pulse mode tests indicated that a chamber pressure buildup to 90 percent thrust can be achieved in a time on the order of 48 msec. Some problems were encountered in achieving ignition of each pulse during pulse trains. This was interpreted to indicate that a higher delivered spark energy level ( 100 mJ) would be required to maintain ignition reliability of the plasma torch ignition system under the extra 'cold' conditions resulting during pulsing.

  2. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  3. Liquid Hydrogen Fuel System for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    the Office of Naval Research for support of this research. VII. References 1 R. Stroman, J.C. Kellogg, K. Swider-Lyons, “Testing of a PEM Fuel Cell ...energy storage system. The Naval Research Laboratory has been extending the duration of electric UAVs through the use of hydrogen fuel cells , which...take advantage of both the high energy of H2 fuel in combination with the high efficiency (~50%) of polymer fuel cells . In this paper, we describe

  4. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  5. Protonic transport through solitons in hydrogen-bonded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, L; Jayanthi, S; Muniyappan, A [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem-636 011 (India); Gopi, D, E-mail: louiskavitha@yahoo.co.in [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem-636 011 (India)

    2011-09-15

    We offer an alternative route for investigating soliton solutions in hydrogen-bonded (HB) chains. We invoke the modified extended tangent hyperbolic function method coupled with symbolic computation to solve the governing equation of motion for proton dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of proton transfer in HB chains through bell-shaped soliton excitations, which trigger the bio-energy transport in most biological systems. This solitonic mechanism of proton transfer could play functional roles in muscular contraction, enzymatic activity and oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide-based propulsion and power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melof, Brian Matthew; Keese, David L.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Ruffner, Judith Alison; Escapule, William Rusty

    2004-04-01

    Less toxic, storable, hypergolic propellants are desired to replace nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and hydrazine in certain applications. Hydrogen peroxide is a very attractive replacement oxidizer, but finding acceptable replacement fuels is more challenging. The focus of this investigation is to find fuels that have short hypergolic ignition delays, high specific impulse, and desirable storage properties. The resulting hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination would be highly desirable for virtually any high energy-density applications such as small but powerful gas generating systems, attitude control motors, or main propulsion. These systems would be implemented on platforms ranging from guided bombs to replacement of environmentally unfriendly existing systems to manned space vehicles.

  8. Hydrogen from biomass: large-scale hydrogen production based on a dual fluidized bed steam gasification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Stefan; Stidl, Martin; Proell, Tobias; Rauch, Reinhard; Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering-Future Energy Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    Hydrogen is used as an important feedstock for the chemical industry. Common production technologies for the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels today cause relevant CO{sub 2} emissions. Hydrogen from renewable energy sources is discussed as an alternative option to replace traditional feedstock and can therefore be part of a low-carbon energy system. This paper describes the results of a simulation of a concept for the production of hydrogen with biomass as feedstock. The described investigations include a possible process design, the process simulation using the software IPSEpro, a description of the operation characteristics, and a profitability analysis of the applied hydrogen production concept. The simulation result shows that 61 MW of hydrogen can be produced from 100 MW wood chips and 6 MW of electricity. As a result, hydrogen production costs of 54 EUR/MWh can be estimated. For the investigated concept, the wood chip price is the most important factor for the hydrogen production cost followed by investment costs for the plant and the realized plant operation time per year. (orig.)

  9. H/D Isotope Effects in Hydrogen Bonded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Filarowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of Δd (1H,2H on d (1H. This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ΔpKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals.

  10. H/D isotope effects in hydrogen bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Lucjan; Obrzud, Monika; Filarowski, Aleksander

    2013-04-16

    An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of Δd (¹H,²H) on d (¹H). This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ΔpKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals.

  11. Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985-2000 time frame - A review and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. A.; Foster, R. W.; Escher, W. J. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive state-of-the-art review of solar/hydrogen technologies has been conducted. From this, solar/hydrogen production systems which could be commercialized by the year 2000 have been characterized technically and economically. Incentives and disincentives for the early commercialization of four solar/hydrogen systems have been explored, conclusions drawn and recommendations made.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  13. Fiber Optic Sensors for Leak Detection and Condition Monitoring in Hydrogen Fuel Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses the need for explosion proof, sensitive and reliable hydrogen sensors for NASA and commercial hydrogen fuel systems. It also...

  14. Fuel cell drive system with hydrogen generation in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Schmidt, H.; Grube, T.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.; Tschauder, A.

    In the future, drive systems for vehicles with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) may be the environmentally more acceptable alternative to conventional drives with internal combustion engines. The energy carrier may not be gasoline or diesel, as in combustion engines today, but methanol, which is converted on-board into a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas in a reforming reaction with water. After removal of carbon monoxide in a gas-cleaning step, the conditioned synthesis gas is converted into electricity in a fuel cell using air as the oxidant. The electric energy thus generated serves to supply a vehicle's electric drive system. Based on the process design for a test drive system, a test facility was prepared and assembled at Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ). Final function tests with the PEMFC and the integrated compact methanol reformer (CMR) were carried out to determine the performance and the dynamic behaviour. With regard to the 50-kW(H 2)-compact methanol reformer, a special design of catalytic burner was constructed. The burner units, with a total power output of 16 kW, were built and tested under different states of constant and alternating load. If selecting a specific catalyst loading of 40 g Pt/m 2, the burner emissions are below the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) standard. The stationary performance test of the CMR shows a specific hydrogen production of 6.7 m N3/(kg cat h) for a methanol conversion rate of 95% at 280°C. Measurements of the transient behaviour of the CMR clearly show a response time of about 20 s, reaching 99% of the hydrogen flow demand due to the limited performance of the test facility control system. Simulations have been carried out in order to develop a control strategy for hydrogen production by the CMR during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Based on the NEDC, an optimized energy management for the total drive system was evaluated and the characteristic data for different peak load storage systems are

  15. Implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiner system as a hydrogen mitigation system in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Sung, Je Joong; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, In Seon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Ensuring the containment integrity during a severe accident in nuclear power reactor by maintaining the hydrogen concentration below an acceptable level has been recognized to be of critical importance since Three Mile Island and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidents. Although there exist various mitigation measures for hydrogen risk, a passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) has been emphasized as a viable option for the mitigation of hydrogen risk under the extended station blackout conditions due to its passive operation characteristics for the hydrogen removal. To enhance the capability of hydrogen control, the hydrogen mitigation system with various types of PARs has been implemented for all nuclear power plants in Korea. This paper presents an implementation procedure of PAR system and the analysis results to determine the location and capacity of PAR in OPR1000. Various accident scenarios have been adopted considering important event sequences from a combination of probabilistic methods, deterministic methods and sound engineering judgment. A MAAP 4.0.6+ with a multi-compartment model has been used as an analysis tool with conservative hydrogen generation and removal models. The detailed analyses have been performed for selected severe accident scenarios including sensitivity analysis with/without operations of various safety systems. The possibility of global flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration-to-detonation transient (DDT) has been assessed with sigma (flame acceleration potential) and 7-lambda (DDT potential) criterion. It is concluded that the newly designed hydrogen mitigation system with twenty-four (24) PARs can effectively remove hydrogen in the containment atmosphere and prevent global FA and DDT.

  16. Measurement of dissolved hydrogen in Al alloys and calculation of hydrogen removal efficiency of a degassing system

    OpenAIRE

    *N. Akhtar; S. Javed; 1W. Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we reported the diminution pattern of hydrogen contents in molten aluminium alloys during casting on industrial scale, and estimated the efficiency of inline rotary degassing system. The degassing parameters were tried to set constant in nearly 150 heats, so that other factors which govern the degassing efficiency of inline unit could be in-sighted well. In this study we used Leco RHEN-602 hydrogen determinator based on the principle of hot extraction carrier gas method, for the...

  17. Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucan, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    1999-12-31

    Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich

  18. Role of hydrogen in future North European power system in 2060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The Balmorel model has been used to calculate the economic optimal energy system configuration for the Scandinavian countries and Germany in 2060 assuming a nearly 100% coverage of the energy demands in the power, heat and transport sector with renewable energy sources. Different assumptions abou...... capacities of the electricity storages provided by plug-in hybrid electric vehicles were too small to make hydrogen storage superfluous....... the heat production in heat pumps and electric heat boilers, and by varying the production of hydrogen in electrolysis plants in combination with hydrogen storage. Investment in hydrogen storage capacity corresponded to 1.2% of annual wind power production in the scenarios without a hydrogen demand from...... the transport sector, and approximately 4% in the scenarios with a hydrogen demand from the transport sector. Even the scenarios without a demand for hydrogen from the transport sector saw investments in hydrogen storage due to the need for flexibility provided by the ability to store hydrogen. The storage...

  19. Control design for an autonomous wind based hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Evangelista, C.A. [CONICET, Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC.91, C.P. 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a complete control scheme to efficiently manage the operation of an autonomous wind based hydrogen production system. This system comprises a wind energy generation module based on a multipolar permanent magnet synchronous generator, a lead-acid battery bank as short term energy storage and an alkaline von Hoerner electrolyzer. The control is developed in two hierarchical levels. The higher control level or supervisor control determines the general operation strategy for the whole system according to the wind conditions and the state of charge of the battery bank. On the other hand, the lower control level includes the individual controllers that regulate the respective module operation assuming the set-points determined by the supervisor control. These last controllers are approached using second-order super-twisting sliding mode techniques. The performance of the closed-loop system is assessed through representative computer simulations. (author)

  20. Evaluation of hydrogen demonstration systems (Task 18 of IEA Implementing Agreement on Hydrogen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.N.; Carter, S.

    2005-07-01

    Task 18 aims to gather information about the integration of hydrogen into society around the world. As part of subtask B (demonstration projects), EA Technology Limited collected information and data on specific UK hydrogen demonstration projects and case studies. The work involved desk research, a literature review, telephone conversations and meetings with developers and operators of hydrogen-related projects in the UK. Various examples were identified in phase 1 that were either proposed, planned, under construction, commissioned or operational. The main demonstration activities described in the report are: the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) refuelling station at Hornchurch in Essex; the Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI) project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire; the Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project on Unst in the Shetland Isles; the Hunterston Hydrogen Project in North Ayrshire, Scotland; and the Tees Valley Hydrogen Project. The CUTE, HARI and PURE projects were selected for inclusion in the overall Task 18 workplan. The report also covers developments associated with the Fuel Cell House, the Hydrogen Office, INEOS Chlor, the London Hydrogen Partnership and the Wales Hydrogen Project.

  1. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  2. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  3. Polysulfide reduction using sulfate-reducing bacteria in a photocatalytic hydrogen generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yui; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi

    2008-09-01

    A hydrogen generation process using photocatalytic reactions has been proposed. In this process, hydrogen sulfide is a source of hydrogen and is turned into polysulfide. In order to establish the cyclic operation of a photocatalytic hydrogen generation system, it is necessary to convert polysulfide back into hydrogen sulfide with a small energy input. This paper proposes the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the regeneration of hydrogen sulfide. Batch cultivation of natural source SRB samples were carried out using a culture medium containing polysulfide as the only sulfur compound source. SRB produced hydrogen sulfide from several kinds of polysulfide sources, including a photocatalytic hydrogen generation-produces solution. Production lag phase and production rate of hydrogen sulfide were affected by initial polysulfide concentration. SRB activity was inhibited at high initial polysulfide concentrations. SRB enrichment culture T2, exhibited the highest hydrogen sulfide production rate, and was able to utilize several kinds of organic matter as the electron donor. The results suggest the possibility of using large biomass sources, such as sewage sludge and the raw garbage in a hydrogen generation system. We developed speculative estimates that an SRB based hydrogen generation system is feasible.

  4. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  5. Calculation of hydrogen isotopic fractionations in biogeochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Hayes, John M.

    2005-02-01

    Hydrogen-isotopic data are often interpreted using mathematical approximations originally intended for other isotopes. One of the most common, apparent in literature over the last several decades, assumes that delta values of reactants and products are separated by a constant fractionation factor: δ p = δ r + ɛ p/r. Because of the large fractionations that affect hydrogen isotopes, such approximations can lead to substantial errors. Here we review and develop general equations for isotopic mass balances that include the differential fractionation of each component in a mixture and discuss their use in three geochemical applications. For the fractionation of a single component, the reactant and product are related by δ p = α p/rδ r + ɛ p/r, where α and ɛ refer to the same fractionation. Regression of δ p on δ r should give equivalent fractionations based on the intercept and slope, but this has not generally been recognized in studies of D/H fractionation. In a mixture of two components, each of which is fractionated during mixing, there is no unique solution for the three unknown variables (two fractionation factors and the elemental mixing ratio of the two hydrogen sources). The flow of H from CH 4 and H 2O to bacterial lipids in the metabolism of Methylococcus capsulatus provides an example of such a case. Data and conclusions from an earlier study of that system (Sessions et al., 2002) are reexamined here. Several constraints on the variables are available based on plausible ranges for fractionation factors. A possible refinement to current experimental procedures is the measurement of three different isotopes, which would allow unique determination of all variables.

  6. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world.

  7. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  8. Colonic hydrogen sulfide produces portal hypertension and systemic hypotension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Tomasz; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Jaworska, Kinga; Onyszkiewicz, Maksymilian; Ufnal, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas, at low concentrations is also a biological mediator in animals. In the colon, hydrogen sulfide is produced by intestinal tissues and gut sulfur bacteria. Gut-derived molecules undergo liver metabolism. Portal hypertension is one of the most common complications contributing to the high mortality in liver cirrhosis. We hypothesized that the colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may affect portal blood pressure. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained either on tap water (controls) or on water solution of thioacetamide to produce liver cirrhosis (CRH-R). Hemodynamics were measured after administration of either saline or Na2S, a hydrogen sulfide donor, into (1) the colon, (2) the portal vein, or (3) the femoral vein. Expression of enzymes involved in hydrogen sulfide metabolism was measured by RT-PCR. CRH-R showed a significantly higher portal blood pressure but a lower arterial blood pressure than controls. Saline did not affect hemodynamic parameters. In controls, intracolonic hydrogen sulfide decreased arterial blood pressure and portal blood flow but increased portal blood pressure. Similarly, hydrogen sulfide administered into the portal vein decreased arterial blood pressure but increased portal blood pressure. In contrast, hydrogen sulfide administered into the systemic vein decreased both arterial and portal blood pressures. CRH-R showed significantly greater responses to hydrogen sulfide than controls. CRH-R had a significantly higher liver concentration of hydrogen sulfide but lower expression of rhodanese, an enzyme converting hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. In conclusion, colon-administered hydrogen sulfide increases portal blood pressure while decreasing the systemic arterial blood pressure. The response to hydrogen sulfide is more pronounced in cirrhotic rats which show reduced hydrogen sulfide liver metabolism. Therefore, colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may be involved in the regulation of portal blood pressure, and may contribute to

  9. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  10. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  11. Hydrogen bonding-mediated dehydrogenation in the ammonia borane combined graphene oxide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Anlong; Liu, Taijuan; Kuang, Minquan; Yang, Ruifeng; Huang, Rui; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xiaolan

    2018-03-01

    The dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB) adsorbed on three different graphene oxide (GO) sheets is investigated within the ab initio density functional theory. The energy barriers to direct combination the hydrogens of hydroxyl groups and the hydridic hydrogens of AB to release H2 are relatively high, indicating that the process is energetically unfavorable. Our theoretical study demonstrates that the dehydrogenation mechanism of the AB-GO systems has undergone two critical steps, first, there is the formation of the hydrogen bond (O-H-O) between two hydroxyl groups, and then, the hydrogen bond further react with the hydridic hydrogens of AB to release H2 with low reaction barriers.

  12. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

    2000-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an

  13. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  14. Integrated Hydrogen and Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Timothy; Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This "Integrated Hydrogen/Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation" project was conceived to investigate hydrogen activities in the State and around the U.S. that might impact the California Department of Transportation's (Caltrans) operations. The project is intended to review these activities and to suggest potential interesting applications of combined hydrogen and intelligent transportation system (ITS) technologies. This project was co...

  15. Potential of hydrogen fuel for future air transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W. J.; Fetterman, D. E.; Bonner, T. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydrogen fuel can yield spectacular improvements in aircraft performance in addition to its more widely discussed environmental advantages. The characteristics of subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic transport aircraft using hydrogen fuel are discussed, and their performance and environmental impact are compared to that of similar aircraft using conventional fuel. The possibilities of developing hydrogen-fueled supersonic and hypersonic vehicles with sonic boom levels acceptable for overland flight are also explored.

  16. Long-Term Cycling of the Magnesium Hydrogen System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1984-01-01

    Magnesium powder with a grain size of approximately 50γm was hydrogenated for 30 min and dehydrogenated the same time at 390°C, 515 times. A moderate loss in hydrogen storage capacity was observed and was ascribed to a measured decrease in reaction kinetics as the cycle number increased. The time...... for maximum hydrogen absorption was found to depend significantly on cycle number while the time for maximum desorption was found to be virtually independent of cycle number....

  17. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of a wind-hydrogen system; Bewertung eines Wind-Wasserstoff-Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasz, J.; Sykula, P. [Technische Univ. Szczecin, Lehrstuhl fuer Waermetechnik, Szczecin (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Developments during the past few years have shown that hydrogen may be an alternative to coal and nuclear power. A particularly interesting option is the combination of a wind power system and a conventional hydrogen generation system, with storage of the generated power in the form of hydrogen. This will ensure frequency-relevant stability of the electricity grid and the possibility of emergency power supply in a given region. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre weisen immer deutlich darauf hin, dass nach der Zeit der Steinkohle und des Erdoels die Wasserstofftechnologie eine Alternative fuer die zukuenftige, verstaerkte Kernenergienutzung bilden kann. Als besonders interessant scheinen hier die Koppelung einer Windkraftanlage mit einem konventionellen Wasserstofferzeuger und die Speicherung der ueber die Windkraft erzeugten Elektroenergie in Form von Wasserstoff. Unter dem Gesichtspunkt der frequenzrelevanten Stabilitaet der oeffentlichen Elektroenergienetze oder der elektroenergetischen bzw. waermetechnischen Noteinspeisung eines bestimmten Versorgungsgebietes scheint diese Art von Koppelung der beiden Energietechnologien in der letzten Zeit an Bedeutung zu gewinnen. (orig.)

  19. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  20. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  1. Commissioning of the cryogenic hydrogen system in J-PARC: Preliminary operation by helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hasegawa, S; Ohtsu, K; Uehara, T; Kawakami, Y; Sakurayama, H; Maekawa, F; Futakawa, M; Ushijima, I

    2009-01-01

    A cryogenic hydrogen circulation system to cool the moderators for the spallation neutron source in J-PARC has been constructed. This system provides supercritical hydrogen at the temperature of 20 K and the pressure of 1.5 MPa to three moderators and absorbs nuclear heating produced in the moderators. The cryogenic hydrogen system commissioning was started. In January 2008, for the first time, we carried out a cryogenic test of the whole system, in which helium gas was used in stead of hydrogen. The cryogenic hydrogen system can be cooled down to 18 K within 30 hours, and be kept to be the rated condition for 36 hours without any problems. We confirmed the soundness of each component such as circulation pump and operation control system.

  2. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

  3. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S.; Felseghi, R.-A.; Rǎboacǎ, S.; Aşchilean, I.; Giurca, I.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  4. Two step novel hydrogen system using additives to enhance hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of alane and activated aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore

    2015-12-01

    A system for the generation of hydrogen for use in portable power systems is set forth utilizing a two-step process that involves the thermal decomposition of AlH.sub.3 (10 wt % H.sub.2) followed by the hydrolysis of the activated aluminum (Al*) byproduct to release additional H.sub.2. Additionally, a process in which water is added directly without prior history to the AlH.sub.3:PA composite is also disclosed.

  5. Protein S-sulfhydration by hydrogen sulfide in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhao, Shuang; Xie, Liping; Han, Yi; Ji, Yong

    2017-04-22

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), independently of any specific transporters, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. However, until now, the detailed mechanism of H2 S was not clear. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is the chemical modification of specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H2 S. There are several methods for detecting S-sulfhydration, such as the modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry. H2 S induces S-sulfhydration on enzymes or receptors (such as p66Shc, phospholamban, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and ATP synthase subunit α), transcription factors (such as specific protein-1, kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor-1), and ion channels (such as voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, transient receptor potential channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels) in the cardiovascular system. Although significant progress has been achieved in delineating the role of protein S-sulfhydration by H2 S in the cardiovascular system, more proteins with detailed cysteine sites of S-sulfhydration as well as physiological function need to be investigated in further studies. This review mainly summarizes the role and possible mechanism of S-sulfhydration in the cardiovascular system. The S-sulfhydrated proteins may be potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention and drug design in the cardiovascular system, which may accelerate the development and application of H2 S-related drugs in the future. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Study on system layout and component design in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Shoji [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The global warming becomes a significant issue in the world so that it needs to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission. It is expected that hydrogen is in place of the fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and plays the important role to resolve the global warming. There are several hydrogen making processes such as water electrolysis and steam reforming of hydrocarbon. Steam reforming of hydrocarbon is a major hydrogen making process because of economy in industry. It utilizes the fossil fuels as process heat for chemical reaction and results in a large CO{sub 2} emission. New steam reforming system without fossil fuel can contribute to resolve the global warming. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has a unique feature to be able to supply a hot helium gas whose temperature is approximately 950degC at the reactor outlet. This makes HTGR possible to utilize for not only power generation but also process heat utilization. JAERI constructed the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) that is a sort of HTGR in Oarai establishment and starts operation. Nuclear heat utilization is one of the R and D items of the HTTR. The steam reforming system coupling to the HTTR for hydrogen production has been designed. This report represents the system layout and design specification of key components in HTTR steam reforming system. (author)

  7. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  8. Novel Applications of the Methyltrioxorhenium/Hydrogen Peroxide Catalytic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovic, Sasa [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-12

    Methylrhenium trioxide (MTO), CH3Re03, was first prepared in 1979. An improved synthetic route to MTO was devised from dirhenium heptoxide and tetramethyltin in the presence of hexafluoro glutaric anhydride was reported by Herrmann in 1992. During the course of research on this dissertation we uncovered other reactions where the presence or absence of pyridine can, in some cases dramatically, affect the reaction outcome. This dissertation consists of four chapters. The first two chapters deal with the ,oxidation of water sensitive olefinic compounds with the hydrogen perox’ide/MTO system. Chapters 111 and IV focus on the oxidation of hydrazones with the same catalytic system. Chapter I has been published in The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Chapter III in Chemical Communications. Chapters II and IV have been submitted for publication in The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Each section is selfcontained with its own equations, tables, figures and references. All of the work in this dissertation was performed by this author.

  9. Metal-hydrogen systems with an exceptionally large and tunable thermodynamic destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngene, Peter; Longo, Alessandro; Mooij, Lennard; Bras, Wim; Dam, Bernard

    2017-11-29

    Hydrogen is a key element in the energy transition. Hydrogen-metal systems have been studied for various energy-related applications, e.g., for their use in reversible hydrogen storage, catalysis, hydrogen sensing, and rechargeable batteries. These applications depend strongly on the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen system. Therefore, tailoring the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen interactions is crucial for tuning the properties of metal hydrides. Here we present a case of large metal hydride destabilization by elastic strain. The addition of small amounts of zirconium to yttrium leads to a compression of the yttrium lattice, which is maintained during (de)hydrogenation cycles. As a result, the equilibrium hydrogen pressure of YH2 ↔ YH3 can be rationally and precisely tuned up to five orders of magnitude at room temperature. This allows us to realize a hydrogen sensor which indicates the ambient hydrogen pressure over four orders of magnitude by an eye-visible color change.

  10. H2 at Scale: Benefitting our Future Energy System - Update for the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-12-06

    Hydrogen is a flexible, clean energy carrying intermediate that enables aggressive market penetration of renewables while deeply decarbonizing our energy system. H2 at Scale is a concept that supports the electricity grid by utilizing energy without other demands at any given time and also supports transportation and industry by providing low-priced hydrogen to them. This presentation is an update to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC).

  11. Environmental and health impact assessment of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems – challenges and preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Markiewicz, M.; Y. Q. Zhang; Bösmann, A.; Brückner, N. (Nadine); Thöming, J.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolte, S.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive way to store and transport hydrogen, a technical feature that is highly desirable to link unsteady energy production from renewables with the vision of a sustainable, CO2-free, hydrogen-based energy system. LOHCs can be charged and discharged with considerable amounts of hydrogen in cyclic, catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. As their physico-chemical properties are very similar to diesel, today's infras...

  12. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY INFRASTRUCTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolley, George S

    2010-06-29

    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not

  13. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  14. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-06-06

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  16. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  17. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  18. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  19. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Thanh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, Matt [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, Stephen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, Karen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  20. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Operational Experience, Performance Testing, and Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.; Ramsden, T. G.; Kramer, W. E.; Novachek, F. J.

    2009-03-01

    The Wind2H2 system is fully functional and continues to gather performance data. In this report, specifications of the Wind2H2 equipment (electrolyzers, compressor, hydrogen storage tanks, and the hydrogen fueled generator) are summarized. System operational experience and lessons learned are discussed. Valuable operational experience is shared through running, testing, daily operations, and troubleshooting the Wind2H2 system and equipment errors are being logged to help evaluate the reliability of the system.

  1. Optimization and field demonstration of hybrid hydrogen generator/high efficiency furnace system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entchev, E.; Coyle, I.; Szadkowski, F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A-1M1 (Canada); Manning, M.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Graydon, J.; Kirk, D. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen is seen as an energy carrier of the future and significant research on hydrogen generation, storage and utilization is accomplished around the world. However, an appropriate intermediate step before wide hydrogen introduction will be blending conventional fuels such as natural gas, oil or diesel with hydrogen and follow up combustion through conventional means. Due to changes in the combustion and flame characteristics of the system additional research is needed to access the limits and the impact of the fuel mix on the combustion systems performance. The hybrid system consists of a 5 kW{sub el} electrolyzer and a residential 15 kW{sub th} high efficiency gas fired furnace. The electrolyzer was integrated with the furnace gas supply and setup to replace 5-25% of the furnace natural gas flow with hydrogen. A mean for proper mixing of hydrogen with natural gas was provided and a control system for safe system operation was developed. Prior to the start of the field trial the hybrid system was investigated in laboratory environment. It was subjected to a variety of steady state and cycling conditions and a detailed performance and optimization analysis was performed with a range of hydrogen/natural gas mixtures. The optimized system was then installed at the Canadian Centre for Housing Technologies (CCHT) Experimental research house. The energy performance of the hybrid system was compared to the energy performance of an identical high efficiency furnace in the Control research house next door. (author)

  2. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua; Hu, Weihao; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Chen, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates the tradeoffs between selling the hydrogen directly to customers or using it as a storage medium to re-generate electricity at a time when it is more valuable. This research finds that the most beneficial configuration is to produce hydrogen at a time that complements the wind farm and sell the hydrogen directly to end users.

  3. Proceedings of the DOE chemical/hydrogen energy systems contractor review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    This volume contains 45 papers as well as overviews of the two main project areas: the NASA Hydrogen Energy Storage Technology Project and Brookhaven National Laboratory's program on Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems. Forty-six project summaries are included. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  4. Artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy inference systems as virtual sensors for hydrogen safety prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karri, Vishy; Ho, Tien [School of Engineering, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-65, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Madsen, Ole [Department of Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, DK-9220 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2008-06-15

    Hydrogen is increasingly investigated as an alternative fuel to petroleum products in running internal combustion engines and as powering remote area power systems using generators. The safety issues related to hydrogen gas are further exasperated by expensive instrumentation required to measure the percentage of explosive limits, flow rates and production pressure. This paper investigates the use of model based virtual sensors (rather than expensive physical sensors) in connection with hydrogen production with a Hogen 20 electrolyzer system. The virtual sensors are used to predict relevant hydrogen safety parameters, such as the percentage of lower explosive limit, hydrogen pressure and hydrogen flow rate as a function of different input conditions of power supplied (voltage and current), the feed of de-ionized water and Hogen 20 electrolyzer system parameters. The virtual sensors are developed by means of the application of various Artificial Intelligent techniques. To train and appraise the neural network models as virtual sensors, the Hogen 20 electrolyzer is instrumented with necessary sensors to gather experimental data which together with MATLAB neural networks toolbox and tailor made adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) were used as predictive tools to estimate hydrogen safety parameters. It was shown that using the neural networks hydrogen safety parameters were predicted to less than 3% of percentage average root mean square error. The most accurate prediction was achieved by using ANFIS. (author)

  5. The elusive ≡C-H···O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hydrogen-bonded complexes of phenylacetylene (PhAc) with methanol (MeOH) and diethylether. (DEE) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. This study specifically searched for the ≡C-. H···O hydrogen bonded complex in these systems, which manifest a n-σ* interaction and which is a local.

  6. The elusive≡ CH··· O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen-bonded complexes of phenylacetylene (PhAc) with methanol (MeOH) and diethylether (DEE) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. This study specifically searched for the ≡CH · · ·O hydrogen bonded complex in these systems, which manifest a n-σ* interaction and which is a local minimum ...

  7. Evaluation of Lighting Systems, Carbon Sources, and Bacteria Cultures on Photofermentative Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengcheng; Choy, Sing-Ying; Giannis, Apostolos

    2017-11-10

    Fluorescent and incandescent lighting systems were applied for batch photofermentative hydrogen production by four purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria (PNSB). The hydrogen production efficiency of Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodospirillum rubrum was evaluated using different carbon sources (acetate, butyrate, lactate, and malate). Incandescent light was found to be more effective for bacteria cell growth and hydrogen production. It was observed that PNSB followed substrate selection criteria for hydrogen production. Only R. palustris was able to produce hydrogen using most carbon sources. Cell density was almost constant, but cell growth rate and hydrogen production were significantly varied under the different lighting systems. The kinetics study suggested that initial substrate concentration had a positive correlation with lag phase duration. Among the PNSB, R. palustris grew faster and had higher hydrogen yields of 1.58, 4.92, and 2.57 mol H2/mol using acetate, butyrate, and lactate, respectively. In the integrative approach with dark fermentation effluents rich in organic acids, R. palustris should be enriched in the phototrophic microbial consortium of the continuous hydrogen production system.

  8. The role of hydrogen sulfide in renal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells. Likewise, it also influences the release of renin from juxtaglomerular (JG cells and thereby modulates blood pressure. A possible role of H2S as an oxygen sensor has also been discussed, especially at renal medulla. Alternation of H2S level has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as renal ischemia/reperfusion, obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy. Moreover, H2S donors exhibit broad beneficial effects in renal diseases although a few conflicts need to be resolved. Further research reveals that multiple mechanisms are underlying the protective effects of H2S, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis. In the review, several research directions are also proposed including the role of mitochondrial H2S in renal diseases, H2S delivery to kidney by targeting D-amino acid oxidase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (DAO/3-MST pathway, effect of drug-like H2S donors in kidney diseases and understanding the molecular mechanism of H2S. The completion of the studies in these directions will not only improves our understanding of renal H2S functions but may also be critical to translate H2S to be a new therapy for renal diseases.

  9. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  10. Transfer Hydrogenation: Employing a Simple, In Situ Prepared Catalytic System

    KAUST Repository

    Ang, Eleanor Pei Ling

    2017-04-01

    Transfer hydrogenation has been recognized to be an important synthetic method in both academic and industrial research to obtain valuable products including alcohols. Transition metal catalysts based on precious metals, such as Ru, Rh and Ir, are typically employed for this process. In recent years, iron-based catalysts have attracted considerable attention as a greener and more sustainable alternative since iron is earth abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic. In this work, a combination of iron disulfide with chelating bipyridine ligand was found to be effective for the transfer hydrogenation of a variety of ketones to the corresponding alcohols in the presence of a simple base. It provided a convenient and economical way to conduct transfer hydrogenation. A plausible role of sulfide next to the metal center in facilitating the catalytic reaction is demonstrated.

  11. Efficient Reversible Hydrogen Carrier System Based on Amine Reforming of Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Kar, Sayan; Sen, Raktim; Goeppert, Alain; Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya

    2017-02-22

    A novel hydrogen storage system based on the hydrogen release from catalytic dehydrogenative coupling of methanol and 1,2-diamine is demonstrated. The products of this reaction, N-formamide and N,N'-diformamide, are hydrogenated back to the free amine and methanol by a simple hydrogen pressure swing. Thus, an efficient one-pot hydrogen carrier system has been developed. The H2 generating step can be termed as "amine reforming of methanol" in analogy to the traditional steam reforming. It acts as a clean source of hydrogen without concurrent production of CO2 (unlike steam reforming) or CO (by complete methanol dehydrogenation). Therefore, a carbon neutral cycle is essentially achieved where no carbon capture is necessary as the carbon is trapped in the form of formamide (or urea in the case of primary amine). In theory, a hydrogen storage capacity as high as 6.6 wt % is achievable. Dehydrogenative coupling and the subsequent amide hydrogenation proceed with good yields (90% and >95% respectively, with methanol and N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine as dehydrogenative coupling partners).

  12. Achieving ethanol-type fermentation for hydrogen production in a granular sludge system by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying; Pan, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of aeration on hydrogen-producing granular system, experiments were performed in two laboratory-scale anaerobic internal circulation hydrogen production (AICHP) reactors. The preliminary experiment of Reactor 1 showed that direct aeration was beneficial to enhancing hydrogen production. After the direct aeration was implied in Reactor 2, hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen content were increased by 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, mixed-acid fermentation was transformed into typical ethanol-type fermentation (ETF). Illumina MiSeq sequencing shows that the direct aeration did not change the species of hydrogen-producing bacteria but altered their abundance. Hydrogen-producing bacteria and ethanol-type fermentative bacteria were increased by 24.5% and 146.3%, respectively. Ethanoligenens sp. sharply increased by 162.2% and turned into predominant bacteria in the system. These findings indicated that appropriate direct aeration might be a novel and promising way to obtain ETF and enhance hydrogen production in practical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, S.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is very flexible in different fields of application of energy conversion. It can be generated by water electrolysis. Stored in tanks it is available for re-electrification by fuel cells. But it is not only the power system, which benefits from use of hydrogen, but also the life support system, which can contain hydrogen consuming technologies for recycling management (e.g. carbon dioxide removal and waste combustion processes). This paper points out various fields of hydrogen use in a human spaceflight system. Depending on mission scenarios, shadow phases, and the need of energy storage, regenerative fuel cell systems can be more efficient than secondary batteries. Here, different power storage concepts are compared by equivalent system mass calculation, thus including impact in the peripheral structure (volume, thermal management, etc.) on the space system. It is also focused on the technical integration aspect, e.g. which peripheral components have to be adapted when hydrogen is also used for life support technologies and what system mass benefit can be expected. Finally, a recommendation is given for the following development steps for a synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems.

  14. Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume I. Gas blends flow in distribution system, mixing points, and regulatory standards. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [10 and 20% hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-01

    This volume of the subject study ''Blending of Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes studies on the determination of gas distribution system flows with hydrogen - natural gas blends, potential hydrogen admission points to gas distribution systems, and the impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on regulatory standards for gas distribution systems. The studies resulted in the following principal findings: (1) Most existing natural gas distribution systems could adequately transport 20% blends of hydrogen by volume with little or no modification. (2) The best point of admission of the hydrogen into a natural gas distribution system would be at the meter and regulating stations supplying a particular distribution system. (3) The impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on state regulatory standards appears to be minimal for PSE and G, but requires further study for various National Codes and for other states.

  15. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ...

  16. Efficiency of Small Autonomous Wind/Diesel/Hydrogen Systems in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko, Oleg; Solomin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy in the form of hydrogen in the small autonomous wind/diesel/hydrogen power systems that include wind turbines, diesel generator, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank and fuel cells are analyzed. The paper presents the zones of economic efficiency of the system (set of parameters that provide its competitiveness) depending on load, fuel price and long-term average annual wind speed.At low wind speed and low price of fuel it is reasonable to use only diesel generator to...

  17. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, M. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2011-06-21

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  18. The Origin of the Non-Additivity in Resonance-Assisted Hydrogen Bond Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2017-11-09

    The concept of resonance-assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB) has been widely accepted, and its impact on structures and energetics can be best studied computationally using the block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and able to derive strictly electron-localized structures self-consistently. In this work, we use the BLW method to examine a few molecules that result from the merging of two malonaldehyde molecules. As each of these molecules contains two hydrogen bonds, these intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be cooperative or anticooperative, depended on their relative orientations, and compared with the hydrogen bond in malonaldehyde. Apart from quantitatively confirming the concept of RAHB, the comparison of the computations with and without π resonance shows that both σ-framework and π-resonance contribute to the nonadditivity in these RAHB systems with multiple hydrogen bonds.

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for systemic gas embolism after hydrogen peroxide ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Brendan; Sherwin, Robert; Courage, Cheryl; Baylor, Alfred; Dolcourt, Bram; Brudzewski, Jacek R; Mosteller, Jeffrey; Wilson, Robert F

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly available product and its ingestion has been demonstrated to produce in vivo gas bubbles, which can embolize to devastating effect. We report two cases of hydrogen peroxide ingestion with resultant gas embolization, one to the portal system and one cerebral embolus, which were successfully treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), and review the literature. Two individuals presented to our center after unintentional ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide solutions. Symptoms were consistent with portal gas emboli (Patient A) and cerebral gas emboli (Patient B), which were demonstrated on imaging. They were successfully treated with HBO and recovered without event. As demonstrated by both our experience as well as the current literature, HBO has been used to successfully treat gas emboli associated with hydrogen peroxide ingestion. We recommend consideration of HBO in any cases of significant hydrogen peroxide ingestion with a clinical picture compatible with gas emboli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Cyanobacterial System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyman, Philip D [J. Craig Venter Institute; Smith, Hamillton O.

    2014-12-03

    Photobiological processes are attractive routes to renewable H2 production. With the input of solar energy, photosynthetic microbes such as cyanobacteria and green algae carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using sunlight energy to extract protons and high energy electrons from water. These protons and high energy electrons can be fed to a hydrogenase system yielding H2. However, most hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases are inhibited by O2, which is an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The rate of H2 production is thus limited. Certain photosynthetic bacteria are reported to have an O2-tolerant evolving hydrogenase, yet these microbes do not split water, and require other more expensive feedstocks. To overcome these difficulties, the goal of this work has been to construct novel microbial hybrids by genetically transferring O2-tolerant hydrogenases from other bacteria into a class of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria. These hybrid organisms will use the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterial hosts to perform the water-oxidation reaction with the input of solar energy, and couple the resulting protons and high energy electrons to the O2-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase, all within the same microbe (Fig. 1). The ultimate goal of this work has been to overcome the sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme to O2 and address one of the key technological hurdles to cost-effective photobiological H2 production which currently limits the production of hydrogen in algal systems. In pursuit of this goal, work on this project has successfully completed many subtasks leading to a greatly increased understanding of the complicated [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. At the beginning of this project, [NiFe] hydrogenases had never been successfully moved across wide species barriers and had never been heterologously expressed in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the idea that whole, functional genes could be extracted from complicated, mixed-sequence meta-genomes was not

  1. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

  2. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  3. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  4. Hydrogen Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  5. Feasibility analysis of a hydrogen backup power system for Russian telecom market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenko, V. I.; Dunikov, D. O.

    2017-11-01

    We performed feasibility analysis of 10 kW hydrogen backup power system (H2BS) consisting of a water electrolyzer, a metal hydride hydrogen storage and a fuel cell. Capital investments in H2BS are mostly determined by the costs of the PEM electrolyzer, the fuel cell and solid state hydrogen storage materials, for single unit or small series manufacture the cost of AB5-type intermetallic compound can reach 50% of total system cost. Today the capital investments in H2BS are 3 times higher than in conventional lead-acid system of the same capacity. Wide distribution of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles, development of hydrogen infrastructure, and mass production of hydrogen power systems will for sure lower capital investments in fuel cell backup power. Operational expenditures for H2BS is only 15% from the expenditures for lead acid systems, and after 4-5 years of exploitation the total cost of ownership will become lower than for batteries.

  6. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (TIAX, LLC)

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  7. The Assessment of Hydrogen Energy Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Principal Componenet Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation...... to verify the correctness and accuracy of the principal components (PCs) determined by PCA in this paper. A case including 11 different hydrogen energy systems for fuel cell vehicles has been studied in this paper, and the system using steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production, pipeline...... for transportation of hydrogen, hydrogen gas tank for the storage of hydrogen at refueling stations, and gaseous hydrogen as power energy for fuel cell vehicles has been recognized as the best scenario. Also, the clustering results calculated by CA are consistent with those determined by PCA, denoting...

  8. Hourly energy management for grid-connected wind-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This paper is a complete technical-economic analysis of the hourly energy management of the energy generated in wind-hydrogen systems. Wind power generation depends on the unpredictable nature of the wind. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will be necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve, consisting of the generation of hydrogen and storing it in a hydrogen tank during off-peak (low demand) hours, while during the rest of the hours (peak hours, high demand) the stored hydrogen can be used to generate electricity. After revising the results obtained in this paper, for the current values of efficiency of the electricity-hydrogen-electricity conversion (approximately 30%) and due to the high cost of the hydrogen components, for a wind-hydrogen system to be economically viable the price of the sale of the energy generated by the fuel cell would be very high (approximately 171 cEUR/kWh). (author)

  9. Hydrogen production methods efficiency coupled to an advanced high temperature accelerator driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Daniel González; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernández, Carlos García, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogen economy is one of the most promising concepts for the energy future. In this scenario, oil is replaced by hydrogen as an energy carrier. This hydrogen, rather than oil, must be produced in volumes not provided by the currently employed methods. In this work two high temperature hydrogen production methods coupled to an advanced nuclear system are presented. A new design of a pebbled-bed accelerator nuclear driven system called TADSEA is chosen because of the advantages it has in matters of transmutation and safety. For the conceptual design of the high temperature electrolysis process a detailed computational fluid dynamics model was developed to analyze the solid oxide electrolytic cell that has a huge influence on the process efficiency. A detailed flowsheet of the high temperature electrolysis process coupled to TADSEA through a Brayton gas cycle was developed using chemical process simulation software: Aspen HYSYS®. The model with optimized operating conditions produces 0.1627 kg/s of hydrogen, resulting in an overall process efficiency of 34.51%, a value in the range of results reported by other authors. A conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur thermochemical water splitting cycle was also developed. The overall efficiency of the process was calculated performing an energy balance resulting in 22.56%. The values of efficiency, hydrogen production rate and energy consumption of the proposed models are in the values considered acceptable in the hydrogen economy concept, being also compatible with the TADSEA design parameters. (author)

  10. [The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on the Spectrum of HPAM in Various Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    IR and UV-Vis was employed to analyzed the spectrum effect of hydrogen bonding on the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer(HPAM). The study reveals that, the characteristic absorption peak of free amino group moves to the low frequency due to the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding between amide group and carboxyl group. In the water solution, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is the main factor that shifted maximal absorption towards long wavelength. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding and intermolecular hydrogen bonds exist at the same time in the water solution contains intermediate sodium and calcium ions. While in the high concentration solution, the main form between amide group and carboxyl group is intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The effect of hydrogen bonding on the spectrum of HPAM demonstrates different extent in various systems. In the water solution, the maximum absorption wavelength red shifts 8 nm. In the system contains sodium ions, this shift is 4 nm. And this shift is only 2 nm in the solution contains both sodium ions and calcium ions.

  11. Analysis Method for Licensing Application of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner System as a Hydrogen Mitigation System of OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhyun; Sung, Jejoong; Ha, Sangjun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Inseon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As a result, for some plants, dual hydrogen mitigation systems are prepared with a combination of PARs and igniters that each system has a 100% of full capacity for hydrogen control for postulated severe accident conditions. In the original design of OPR-1000, hydrogen mitigation systems consist of a thermal recombiner and twenty glow-type igniters, which are used for design basis accident and severe accident, respectively. This paper presents an analysis method for licensing application in Korea to determine the capacity and locations of PARs for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A licensed analysis method of OPR-1000 has been presented to determine the capacity and locations of PAR for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A lumped parameter code of MAAP 4.0.6+ has been adopted to simulate various severe accident scenarios with a 26 multi-compartment containment model. Hydrogen generations were analysed and required capacity and locations of PAR were determined for six accident scenarios selected from a combination of probabilistic and deterministic considerations. A total of twenty-four PARs in the containment dome, steam generator rooms, annulus and adjacent areas was designed and the adequacy of this system has been confirmed through detailed analyses including sensitivity analyses with/without operations of safety systems such as containment heat removal systems, reactor coolant depressurization system and safety injection by accumulator, etc. Through the assessment on the possibility of global FA and DDT, it has been concluded that new PAR system with twenty-four recombiners can remove hydrogen effectively in the containment atmosphere and prevent from global FA and DDT. Further works are required in the future to develop a well-balanced analysis methodology with a combination of lumped and CFD tools focusing on the optimum locations of recombiners and local hydrogen behaviour in containment compartments.

  12. Slurry-Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Semelsberger, Troy; Simmons, Kevin L.; Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2014-05-30

    In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80 kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE developed set of system level targets for on-board storage. While most of the DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry is majority of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance of plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.

  13. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC

    2010-03-03

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  14. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  15. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  16. A structured and qualitative systems approach to analysing hydrogen transitions: Key changes and actor mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh, Michael J.; Yetano Roche, Maria [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (IDMEC), Pav. De Mecanica 1-2, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bennett, Simon J. [Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology (ICCEPT), Imperial College London, Fourth Floor RSM Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    A number of 'roadmapping' activities are being carried out internationally with the aim of planning and facilitating transitions to hydrogen energy systems. However, there is an evident discrepancy between the treatment of quantitative and qualitative information in the majority of roadmapping efforts. Whilst quantitative information is frequently analysed in numerical and computational models, conversely qualitative information tends to be incorporated on a significantly more ad hoc basis. Previous attempts at incorporating qualitative considerations have not usually been systematised. In this paper we present a methodology aimed at increasing the rigour with which qualitative information is treated in hydrogen roadmapping activities. The key changes and actor mapping (KCAM) methodology was developed as the primary qualitative component of the European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap project 'HyWays'. KCAM, developed from a well known general systems development model, constitutes a means of qualitatively analysing variable hydrogen supply chains that is structured, systematic and flexible. (author)

  17. Hydrogen sulphide in cardiovascular system: A cascade from interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Jie; Cai, Wen-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-05-15

    As a gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulphide exerts its extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects in mammals. The interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules forms a cascade that modulates cellular functions and homeostasis. In this review, we focus on the signalling mechanism underlying the effect of hydrogen sulphide in the cardiovascular system and metabolism as well as the biological relevance to human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  19. OH stretching frequencies in systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens; Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    OH stretching wavenumbers were investigated for 30 species with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded hydroxyl groups, covering the range from 3600 to ca. 1900 cm-1. Theoretical wavenumbers were predicted with B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional theory using the standard harmonic approximation, as well....... This is significant in view of the fact that the full anharmonic PT2 analysis requires orders-of-magnitude more computing time than the harmonic analysis. νOH also correlates with OH chemical shifts....

  20. Tethered Transition Metals Promoted Photocatalytic System for Efficient Hydrogen Evolutions

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-03-05

    The present invention is directed, at least in part, to a process for improving the efficiency of a photocatalyst (a semiconductor photocatalyst) by tethering (depositing) a metal (e.g., metal ions of a late transition metal, such as nickel) to the semiconductor (photocatalyst) surface through the use of an organic ligand. More specifically, 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) functions as an excellent molecular linker (organic ligand) to attach a transition metal complex (e.g., nickel (Ni.sup.2+ ions)) to the semiconductor surface, which can be in the form of a cadmium sulfide surface. The photocatalyst has particular utility in generating hydrogen from H.sub.2S.

  1. Separation of gaseous hydrogen from a water-hydrogen mixture in a fuel cell power system operating in a weightless environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, William E. (Inventor); Suljak, George T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell power system for use in a weightless environment, such as in space, includes a device for removing water from a water-hydrogen mixture condensed from the exhaust from the fuel cell power section of the system. Water is removed from the mixture in a centrifugal separator, and is fed into a holding, pressure operated water discharge valve via a Pitot tube. Entrained nondissolved hydrogen is removed from the Pitot tube by a bleed orifice in the Pitot tube before the water reaches the water discharge valve. Water discharged from the valve thus has a substantially reduced hydrogen content.

  2. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  3. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P. Y.

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality

  4. Control analysis of renewable energy system with hydrogen storage for residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, A.; Agbossou, K.

    The combination of an electrolyzer and a fuel cell can provide peak power control in a decentralized/distributed power system. The electrolyzer produces hydrogen and oxygen from off-peak electricity generated by the renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic array), for later use in the fuel cell to produce on-peak electricity. An issue related to this system is the control of the hydrogen loop (electrolyzer, tank, fuel cell). A number of control algorithms were developed to decide when to produce hydrogen and when to convert it back to electricity, most of them assuming that the electrolyzer and the fuel cell run alternatively to provide nominal power (full power). This paper presents a complete model of a stand-alone renewable energy system with hydrogen storage controlled by a dynamic fuzzy logic controller (FLC). In this system, batteries are used as energy buffers and for short time storage. To study the behavior of such a system, a complete model is developed by integrating the individual sub-models of the fuel cell, the electrolyzer, the power conditioning units, the hydrogen storage system, and the batteries. An analysis of the performances of the dynamic fuzzy logic controller is then presented. This model is useful for building efficient peak power control.

  5. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Gas-Phase Reaction Pathways and Rate Coefficients for the Dichlorosilane-Hydrogen and Trichlorosilane-Hydrogen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Walch, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA Ames Research Center's Integrated Process Team on Device/Process Modeling and Nanotechnology our goal is to create/contribute to a gas-phase chemical database for use in modeling microelectronics devices. In particular, we use ab initio methods to determine chemical reaction pathways and to evaluate reaction rate coefficients. Our initial studies concern reactions involved in the dichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H2--H2) and trichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H-H2) systems. Reactant, saddle point (transition state), and product geometries and their vibrational harmonic frequencies are determined using the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) electronic structure method with the correlation consistent polarized valence double-zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ). Reaction pathways are constructed by following the imaginary frequency mode of the saddle point to both the reactant and product. Accurate energetics are determined using the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Using the data from the electronic structure calculations, reaction rate coefficients are obtained using conventional and variational transition state and RRKM theories.

  7. Materials for hydrogen storage and the Na-Mg-B-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphiny Pottmaier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review on materials for hydrogen storage in the solid state gives a brief discussion underlying reasons and driving forces of this specific field of research and development (the why question. This scenario is followed by an outline of the main materials investigated as options for hydrogen storage (the what exactly. Then, it moves into breakthroughs in the specific case of solid state storage of hydrogen, regarding both materials (where to store it and properties (how it works. Finally, one of early model systems, namely NaBH4/MgH2 (the case study, is discussed more comprehensively to better elucidate some of the issues and drawbacks of its use in solid state hydrogen storage.

  8. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    , electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates......In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines...

  9. Hydrogen Purification and Recycling for an Integrated Oxygen Recovery System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Wall, Terry; Nur, Mononita; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Preston, Joshua; Molter, Trent

    2016-01-01

    The United States Atmosphere Revitalization life support system on the International Space Station (ISS) performs several services for the crew including oxygen generation, trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, and oxygen recovery. Oxygen recovery is performed using a Sabatier reactor developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, wherein CO2 is reduced with hydrogen in a catalytic reactor to produce methane and water. The water product is purified in the Water Purification Assembly and recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) to provide O2 to the crew. This architecture results in a theoretical maximum oxygen recovery from CO2 of approx.54% due to the loss of reactant hydrogen in Sabatier-produced methane that is currently vented outside of ISS. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) technology, developed by Umpqua Research Company, provides the capability to further close the Atmosphere Revitalization oxygen loop by recovering hydrogen from Sabatier-produced methane. A key aspect of this technology approach is the need to purify the hydrogen from the PPA product stream which includes acetylene, unreacted methane and byproduct water and carbon monoxide. In 2015, four sub-scale hydrogen separation systems were delivered to NASA for evaluation. These included two electrolysis single-cell hydrogen purification cell stacks developed by Sustainable Innovations, LLC, a sorbent-based hydrogen purification unit using microwave power for sorbent regeneration developed by Umpqua Research Company, and a LaNi4.6Sn0.4 metal hydride produced by Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. Here we report the results of these evaluations to-date, discuss potential architecture options, and propose future work.

  10. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  11. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  12. Hydrogen release properties of lithium alanate for application to fuel cell propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    In this paper the results of an experimental study on LiAlH 4 (lithium alanate) as hydrogen source for fuel cell propulsion systems are reported. The compound examined in this work was selected as reference material for light metal hydrides, because of its high hydrogen content (10.5 wt.%) and interesting desorption kinetic properties at moderate temperatures. Thermal dynamic and kinetic of hydrogen release from this hydride were investigated using a fixed bed reactor to evaluate the effect of heating procedure, carrier gas flow rate and sample form. The aim of this study was to characterize the lithium alanate decomposition through the reaction steps leading to the formation of Li 3AlH 6 and LiH. A hydrogen tank was designed and realized to contain pellets of lithium alanate as feeding for a fuel cell propulsion system based on a 2-kW Polymeric Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) stack. The fuel cell system was integrated into the power train comprising DC-DC converter, energy storage systems and electric drive for moped applications (3 kW). The experiments on the power train were conducted on a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on specific driving cycles. In particular the efficiencies of individual components and overall power train were analyzed evidencing the energy requirements of the hydrogen storage material.

  13. Continuous hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage cheese whey fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Navarro, C B; Carrillo-Reyes, J; Davila-Vazquez, G; Alatriste-Mondragón, F; Razo-Flores, E

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating biological hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage process using mixed cultures and cheese whey powder (CWP) as substrate was studied. The effect of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on the volumetric hydrogen (VHPR) and methane (VMPR) production rates was assessed. The highest VHPR was 28 L H2/L/d, obtained during stable operation in a CSTR at HRT and OLR of 6 h and 142 g lactose/ L/d, respectively. Moreover, hydrogen (13 L/L/d) was produced even at HRT as low as 3.5 h and OLR of 163 g lactose/L/d, nonetheless, the reactor operation was not stable. Regarding methane production in an UASB reactor, the acidified effluent from the hydrogen-producing bioreactor was efficiently treated obtaining COD removals above 90% at OLR and HRT of 20 g COD/L/d and 6 h, respectively. The two-stage process for continuous production of hydrogen and methane recovered over 70% of the energy present in the substrate. This study demonstrated that hydrogen production can be efficiently coupled to methane production in a two-stage system and that CWP is an adequate substrate for energy production.

  14. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  15. GEOMETRY, HEAT REMOVAL AND KINETICS SCOPING MODELS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    It is recognized that detailed models of proposed hydrogen storage systems are essential to gain insight into the complex processes occurring during the charging and discharging processes. Such insight is an invaluable asset for both assessing the viability of a particular system and/or for improving its design. The detailed models, however, require time to develop and run. Clearly, it is much more efficient to begin a modeling effort with a good system design and to progress from that point. To facilitate this approach, it is useful to have simplified models that can quickly estimate optimal loading and discharge kinetics, effective hydrogen capacities, system dimensions and heat removal requirements. Parameters obtained from these models can then be input to the detailed models to obtain an accurate assessment of system performance that includes more complete integration of the physical processes. This report describes three scoping models that assess preliminary system design prior to invoking a more detailed finite element analysis. The three models address the kinetics, the scaling and heat removal parameters of the system, respectively. The kinetics model is used to evaluate the effect of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the loading and discharge kinetics. As part of the kinetics calculations, the model also determines the mass of stored hydrogen per mass of hydride (in a particular reference form). As such, the model can determine the optimal loading and discharge rates for a particular hydride and the maximum achievable loading (over an infinite period of time). The kinetics model developed with the Mathcad{reg_sign} solver, runs in a mater of seconds and can quickly be used to identify the optimal temperature and pressure for either the loading or discharge processes. The geometry scoping model is used to calculate the size of the system, the optimal placement of heat transfer elements, and the gravimetric and volumetric capacities for a particular

  16. A Theoretical Study of two Novel Concept Systems for Maximum Thermal-Chemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two concept systems that are based on the thermochemical process of high-temperature steam gasification of lignocellulosic biomass and municipal solid waste are introduced. The primary objectives of the concept systems are 1 to develop the best scientific, engineering, and technology solutions for converting lignocellulosic biomass, as well as agricultural, forest and municipal waste to clean energy (pure hydrogen fuel, and 2 to minimize water consumption and detrimental impacts of energy production on the environment (air pollution and global warming. The production of superheated steam is by hydrogen combustion using recycled hydrogen produced in the first concept system while in the second concept system concentrated solar energy is used for the steam production. A membrane reactor that performs the hydrogen separation and water gas shift reaction is involved in both systems for producing more pure hydrogen and CO2 sequestration. Based on obtaining the maximum hydrogen production rate the hydrogen recycled ratio is around 20% for the hydrogen combustion steam heating system. Combined with pure hydrogen production, both high temperature steam gasification systems potentially possess more than 80% in first law overall system thermodynamic efficiencies.

  17. Economic Efficiency Assessment of Autonomous Wind/Diesel/Hydrogen Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic efficiency of harnessing wind energy in the autonomous power systems of Russia is analyzed. Wind turbines are shown to be competitive for many considered variants (groups of consumers, placement areas, and climatic and meteorological conditions. The authors study the possibility of storing energy in the form of hydrogen in the autonomous wind/diesel/hydrogen power systems that include wind turbines, diesel generator, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank, and fuel cells. The paper presents the zones of economic efficiency of the system (set of parameters that provide its competitiveness depending on load, fuel price, and long-term average annual wind speed. At low wind speed and low price of fuel, it is reasonable to use only diesel generator to supply power to consumers. When the fuel price and wind speed increase, first it becomes more economical to use a wind-diesel system and then wind turbines with a hydrogen system. In the latter case, according to the optimization results, diesel generator is excluded from the system.

  18. Conceptual design of an extraction system for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Bornea, A.; Balteanu, O.; Bidica, N.

    2007-07-01

    One of the main problems of the hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation is represented by the extraction of the heavy fraction from a distillation column. This can be achieved by an optimal design of the cycle scheme. The main problem consist of the possibility to make an extraction from a distillation column when the mixture that feed the column is made from one prevalent isotope as hydrogen and small amounts of other two isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). Another problem that affects the design of the extraction system is the relation between the hold-up of the cryogenic distillation column and the extraction flow rate. The present study is focused on the realization of the conceptual design for the extraction system from a cryogenic distillation column used in the hydrogen isotopes separation process. In the hydrogen distillation process by cryogenic distillation, the heavy fraction (DT,T{sub 2}) is separated and increase in the bottom of the distillation column. The extraction will be made in gas phase in the bottom of the column. The extraction system from a cryogenic column is used for the temporary extraction inside a vessel filled with adsorption material, and also the system has the possibility to provide samples to a gas chromatographer. The paper presents the conceptual design of the extraction system, and also the connection to all the process systems as automatization, gas analysis devices and storage. (orig.)

  19. Study of degenerate parabolic system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a nuclear waste repository

    KAUST Repository

    Caro, Florian

    2013-09-01

    Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.

  20. Effect of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of lactoperoxidase system (LP-system) in temporary preservation of raw milk has been found useful particularly in places where refrigeration is not feasible. The activity of this system, however, varies from species to species and there are no reports on its effect in camel milk. This study was conducted to investigate ...

  1. Sputtered Pd as Hydrogen Storage for a Chip-Integrated Microenergy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Slavcheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AMF. The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis and discharging (fuel cell operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  2. Sputtered Pd as hydrogen storage for a chip-integrated microenergy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavcheva, E; Ganske, G; Schnakenberg, U

    2014-01-01

    The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AMF). The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis) and discharging (fuel cell) operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  3. The Assessment of Hydrogen Energy Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jing-Zheng; Tan, Shi-yu; Dong, Li-chun

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation and analysis of the hydrogen systems is meaningful for decision makers to select the best scenario. principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to evaluate the integrated performance of different hydroge...

  4. Heuristic algorithms and a spatial decision support system for locating hydrogen-refueling stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seow

    The vision of using hydrogen energy to replace fossil fuels as the primary energy carrier for our transportation infrastructure has been gaining recognition in recent years. The obstacles facing the hydrogen economy vision are technological feasibilities and the cost of infrastructure buildup. Technological feasibilities include the production, storage, distribution, and refueling of hydrogen energy in a safe and economical manner. The cost of infrastructure development includes the building of production plants, storage facilities, distribution network, and refueling stations of hydrogen energy. The purpose of the research is to develop heuristic algorithms and a spatial decision support system (SDSS) to facilitate efficient planning of the refueling infrastructure of hydrogen energy. Facility location-allocation models, specifically the Flow Refueling Location Model (FRLM), have been applied to determine the combination of refueling stations to be built in order to maximize the flow covered with a fixed investment cost. A mixed-integer programming version of the model has been formulated and published. While the mixed-integer programming model could be used to obtain an optimal solution for a problem, it is slow and inefficient in solving problems with a large network and large number of candidate facilities. In this research, heuristics algorithms, specifically the greedy adding, greedy adding with substitution, and genetic algorithm, are developed and applied to solve the FRLM problem. These algorithms are shown to be effective and efficient in solving complex FRLM-problems. The SDSS presented in this research integrates geographical information systems (GIS) and heuristic search algorithms to provide a flexible and powerful system for selecting the locations of hydrogen refueling stations in a real-world scenario. GIS is used to gather and process the input for the model, such as the candidate facilities and traffic flows. The SDSS also uses GIS to display and

  5. Model for energy conversion in renewable energy system with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kélouwani, S.; Agbossou, K.; Chahine, R.

    A dynamic model for a stand-alone renewable energy system with hydrogen storage (RESHS) is developed. In this system, surplus energy available from a photovoltaic array and a wind turbine generator is stored in the form of hydrogen, produced via an electrolyzer. When the energy production from the wind turbine and the photovoltaic array is not enough to meet the load demand, the stored hydrogen can then be converted by a fuel cell to produce electricity. In this system, batteries are used as energy buffers or for short time storage. To study the behavior of such a system, a complete model is developed by integrating individual sub-models of the fuel cell, the electrolyzer, the power conditioning units, the hydrogen storage system, and the batteries (used as an energy buffer). The sub-models are valid for transient and steady state analysis as a function of voltage, current, and temperature. A comparison between experimental measurements and simulation results is given. The model is useful for building effective algorithms for the management, control and optimization of stand-alone RESHSs.

  6. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bonfanti@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.martinazzo@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  7. Shared symmetries of the hydrogen atom and the two-bit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A. R. P.; Alber, G.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogen atom is the simplest system of atomic and molecular physics, while a two-qubit system is the simplest of quantum information. Remarkably, they share common symmetry aspects which are described in this paper, based on a correspondence between the four-dimensional unitary group and the six-dimensional rotational group with its non-compact extensions. Both systems involve 15 basic operators. Reductions to Lorentz and Poincare space–time group symmetries of a free particle are also discussed.

  8. Modification and development of the external tank hydrogen vent umbilical system for the space shuttle vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Bemis C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of a new T-O lock and secondary release mechanism which is being introduced to the ET Hydrogen Vent Umbilical System for the next launch of the Space Shuttle Vehicle is described. Critical analysis of the system in early 1986 indicated the need for an improvement in the secondary release system. The new T-O lock increases the clearance with the vehicle during secondary disconnect and is described.

  9. Entropic uncertainty measures for large dimensional hydrogenic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Puertas-Centeno; N.M. Temme (Nico); I.V. Toranzo; J.S. Dehesa

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe entropic moments of the probability density of a quantum system in position and momentum spaces describe not only some fundamental and/or experimentally accessible quantities of the system but also the entropic uncertainty measures of Rényi type, which allow one to find the most

  10. A design study of hydrogen isotope separation system for ITER-FEAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Preliminary design study of the hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS) for the fuel cycle of the ITER-FEAT, a fusion experimental reactor, was carried out based on the substantial reduction of hydrogen flow to the ISS resulting from the design study for scale reduction of the formerly-designed ITER. Three feed streams (plasma exhaust gas stream, streams from the water detritiation system and that from the neutral beam injectors) are fed to the ISS, and three product streams (high purity tritium gas, high purity deuterium gas and hydrogen gas) are made in it by the method of cryogenic distillation. In this study, an original four-column cascade was proposed to the ISS cryogenic distillation column system considering simplification and the operation scenario of the ITER-FEAT. Substantial reduction of tritium inventory in the ISS was found to be possible in the progress of investigation concerning of the corresponding flow rate of tritium product stream (T>90 %) for pellet injector which depends upon the operation condition. And it was found that tritium concentration in the released hydrogen stream into environment from the ISS could easily fluctuate with current design of column arrangement due to the small disturbance in mass flow balance in the ISS. To solve this problem, two-column system for treatment of this flow was proposed. (author)

  11. Construction and commissioning of a hydrogen cryogenic distillation system for tritium recovery at ICIT Rm. Valcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, George, E-mail: george.ana@icsi.ro [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Cristescu, Ion [Karlsruhe Istitute for Technologies, Tritium Laboratory, Eggenstein-Leopoldshaffen (Germany); Draghia, Mirela [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania); Bucur, Ciprian; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Vijulie, Mihai; Popescu, Gheorghe; Costeanu, Claudiu; Sofilca, Nicolae; Stefan, Iulia; Daramus, Robert; Niculescu, Alina; Oubraham, Anisoara; Spiridon, Ionut; Vasut, Felicia; Moraru, Carmen; Brad, Sebastian [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Pasca, Gheorghe [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Cryogenic distillation (CD) process is being employed for tritium separation from tritiated hydrogen mixtures. • Process control and safety phylosophy with the detritiation plant from Rm. Vâlcea. • Tests undertaken prior to commissioning of the CD system from Rm. Vâlcea. • Preliminary experiments with the CD system (non-radiological). - Abstract: Cryogenic distillation (CD) of hydrogen in combination with Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) or Combined Electrolytic Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is used for tritium removal/recovery from tritiated water. Tritiated water is being obtained after long time operation of CANDU reactors, or in case of ITER mainly by the Detritiation System (DS). The cryogenic distillation system (CDS) used to remove/recover tritium from a hydrogen stream consists of a cascade of cryogenic distillation columns and a refrigeration unit which provides the cooling capacity for the condensers of CD columns. The columns, together with the condensers and the process heat-exchangers are accommodated in a vacuumed cold box. In the particularly case of the ICIT Plant, the cryogenic distillation cascade consists of four columns with diameters between 100–7 mm and it has been designed to process up to 10 mc/h of tritiated deuterium. This paper will present the steps undertaken for construction and commissioning of a pilot plant for tritium removal/recovery by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen. The paper will show besides preliminary data obtained during commissioning, also general characteristics of the plant and its equipments.

  12. Understanding the build-up of a technological innovation system around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insight into the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the Netherlands (1980-2007). This is done by applying a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach. This approach takes the perspective that a technology is shaped by a surrounding network of actors,

  13. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate t...... to a storage capacity four times larger than a tube-in-tube solution of the same size. The volumetric and gravimetric densities of the shell and tube are 2.46% and 1.25% respectively. The dehydriding ability of this solution is proven to withstand intense discharging conditions....

  14. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic fueling model is built to simulate the fueling process of a hydrogen tank with an integrated passive cooling system. The study investigates the possibility of absorbing a part of the heat of compression in the high latent-heat material during melting, with the aim of saving the monetary...... temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank, but its influence on the hydrogen peak temperature that occurs at the end of refueling is modest. The heat transfer from the gas...

  15. A compressed hydrogen gas storage system with an integrated phase change material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic fueling model is built to simulate the fueling process of a hydrogen tank with an integrated passive cooling system. The study investigates the possibility of absorbing a part of the heat of compression in the high latent-heat material during melting, with the aim of keeping the walls...... below the critical temperature of 85 °C, while filling the hydrogen at ambient temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank. The heat transfer from the gas to the phase...

  16. Method of Hydrogenous Fuel Usage to Increase the Efficiency in Tandem Diverse Temperature Oxidation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimation energy efficiency, the collation data of thermodynamic calculations and data on material balance for an assessment of electric and thermal components in considered ways to use convention products, performance enhancement in the tandem system containing the high-temperature fuel cell and the low-temperature fuel cell with full heat regeneration for hydrogenous fuel (CH4. The overall effective efficiency (ηΣef. making full use of the recovered heat considered tandem system depends on the efficiency of its constituent fuel cells. The overall effective efficiency of the tandem installation including the fuel converter, separating system, high-temperature oxidation system, and hydrogen disposal system in case of fuel use in the low-temperature fuel cell, is higher than for each of the fuel cell elements separately.

  17. High pressure in situ diffraction studies of metal-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yartys, V.A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO 7491 (Norway); Denys, R.V. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, NAS of Ukraine, Lviv 79601 (Ukraine); Webb, C.J. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University (Australia); Maehlen, J.P. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Gray, E. MacA.; Blach, T. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University (Australia); Isnard, O. [Institute Neel, CNRS/UJF, 38042 Grenoble (France); Barnsley, L.C. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    Research highlights: > CeNi{sub 5}-D{sub 2} and Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2}-D{sub 2} systems were studied by in situ NPD at P up to 1000 bar. > In the hexagonal CeNi{sub 5}D{sub 6.3} deuterium atoms fill three types of interstices. > In the Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2}-based deuterides D atoms occupy the Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2} tetrahedra only D/Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2}, hysteresis and hydrides stability systematically change with Al content. - Abstract: 'Hybrid' hydrogen storage, where hydrogen is stored in both the solid material and as a high pressure gas in the void volume of the tank can improve overall system efficiency by up to 50% compared to either compressed hydrogen or solid materials alone. Thermodynamically, high equilibrium hydrogen pressures in metal-hydrogen systems correspond to low enthalpies of hydrogen absorption-desorption. This decreases the calorimetric effects of the hydride formation-decomposition processes which can assist in achieving high rates of heat exchange during hydrogen loading-removing the bottleneck in achieving low charging times and improving overall hydrogen storage efficiency of large hydrogen stores. Two systems with hydrogenation enthalpies close to -20 kJ/mol H{sub 2} were studied to investigate the hydrogenation mechanism and kinetics: CeNi{sub 5}-D{sub 2} and ZrFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x} (x = 0.02; 0.04; 0.20)-D{sub 2}. The structure of the intermetallics and their hydrides were studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction at pressures up to 1000 bar and complementary X-ray diffraction. The deuteration of the hexagonal CeNi{sub 5} intermetallic resulted in CeNi{sub 5}D{sub 6.3} with a volume expansion of 30.1%. Deuterium absorption filled three different types of interstices, Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2} and Ni{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 3} half-octahedra and was accompanied by a valence change for Ce. Significant hysteresis was observed between deuterium absorption and desorption which profoundly decreased on a second absorption cycle. For the Al

  18. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  19. Integration and dynamics of a renewable regenerative hydrogen fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Alvin Peter

    2008-10-01

    This thesis explores the integration and dynamics of residential scale renewable-regenerative energy systems which employ hydrogen for energy buffering. The development of the Integrated Renewable Energy Experiment (IRENE) test-bed is presented. IRENE is a laboratory-scale distributed energy system with a modular structure which can be readily re-configured to test newly developed components for generic regenerative systems. Key aspects include renewable energy conversion, electrolysis, hydrogen and electricity storage, and fuel cells. A special design feature of this test bed is the ability to accept dynamic inputs from and provide dynamic loads to real devices as well as from simulated energy sources/sinks. The integration issues encountered while developing IRENE and innovative solutions devised to overcome these barriers are discussed. Renewable energy systems that employ a regenerative approach to enable intermittent energy sources to service time varying loads rely on the efficient transfer of energy through the storage media. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the hydrogen energy buffer under a range of dynamic operating conditions. Results indicate that the operating characteristics of the electrolyser under transient conditions limit the production of hydrogen from excess renewable input power. These characteristics must be considered when designing or modeling a renewable-regenerative system. Strategies to mitigate performance degradation due to interruptions in the renewable power supply are discussed. Experiments were conducted to determine the response of the IRENE system to operating conditions that are representative of a residential scale, solar based, renewable-regenerative system. A control algorithm, employing bus voltage constraints and device current limitations, was developed to guide system operation. Results for a two week operating period that indicate that the system response is very dynamic but repeatable are

  20. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  1. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  2. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  3. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  4. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Seasonal energy storage system based on hydrogen for self sufficient living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmann, M.; Vogt, U. F.; Zimmermann, M.; Züttel, A.

    SELF is a resource independent living and working environment. By on-board renewable electricity generation and storage, it accounts for all aspects of living, such as space heating and cooking as well as providing a purified rainwater supply and wastewater treatment, excluding food supply. Uninterrupted, on-demand energy and water supply are the key challenges. Off-grid renewable power supply fluctuations on daily and seasonal time scales impose production gaps that have to be served by local storage, a function normally fulfilled by the grid. While daily variations only obligate a small storage capacity, requirements for seasonal storage are substantial. The energy supply for SELF is reviewed based on real meteorological data and demand patterns for Zurich, Switzerland. A battery system with propane for cooking serves as a reference for battery-only and hybrid battery/hydrogen systems. In the latter, hydrogen is used for cooking and electricity generation. The analysis shows that hydrogen is ideal for long term bulk energy storage on a seasonal timescale, while batteries are best suited for short term energy storage. Although the efficiency penalty from hydrogen generation is substantial, in off-grid systems, this parameter is tolerable since the harvesting ratio of photovoltaic energy is limited by storage capacity.

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  7. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  8. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  9. Hydrogen isotope distillation for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    A system of four, interlinked, cryogenic fractional distillation columns has been designed as a prototype for fuel processing for fusion power reactors. The distillation system will continuously separate a feedstream of 360 g moles/day of roughly 50-50 deuterium-tritium containing approximately 1% H into four product streams: (1) a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal; (2) a stream of high-purity D/sub 2/ for simulated neutral beam injection; (3) a stream of DT for simulated reactor refueling; and (4) a stream of high purity T/sub 2/ for refueling and studies on properties of tritium and effects of tritium on materials.

  10. Compact fuel cell system utilizing a combination of hydrogen storage materials for optimized performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Jennifer P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Gross, Karl J.; Ng, Greg L.

    2004-12-01

    An entirely new class of light-weight reversible hydrides was recently discovered (the Ti-doped alanates)[1]. These NaAIH{sub 4}-based materials have demonstrated reversible hydrogen storage capacities of up to 5 wt%, nearly 4 times the gravimetrically density of commercial metal hydrides. For this reason, they have been considered a breakthrough for hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles. This project is the first to publish the use of alanates for the generation of electrical power and the first demonstration of a hydride-fueled elevated-temperature PEM Fuel Cell. Because the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release by the alanate improves with elevated temperatures, novel concepts were tested for the purpose of developing a highly efficient stand-alone power system. A major focus of this work was on the modeling, design, construction and testing of an integrated fuel cell stack and hydrogen storage system that eliminates the need of complicated heat transfer systems and media. After extensive modeling efforts, a proof-of-concept system was built that employs an integrated fuel cell stack and hydride beds that balancing the generation of fuel cell waste heat with the endothermic release of hydrogen from the alanates. Our demonstration unit was capable of greater than one hour of operation on a single charge of hydrogen from the integrated 173 gram alanate bed. In addition, composite hydride materials with synergistic reaction heats were evaluated and tested to enhance the operational performance of the alanates. The composites provide a unique opportunity to utilize the heat produced from hydriding classic metal hydrides to improve both absorption and desorption rates of the alanates. A particular focus of the mixed storage materials work was to balance the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydrides for start-up conditions. Modeling of the sorption properties proved invaluable in evaluating the optimum composition of hydrides. The modeling efforts were followed

  11. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia

    2017-12-01

    Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  12. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  13. Modeling, simulation, and optimization of a front-end system for acetylene hydrogenation reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gobbo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The modeling, simulation, and dynamic optimization of an industrial reaction system for acetylene hydrogenation are discussed in the present work. The process consists of three adiabatic fixed-bed reactors, in series, with interstage cooling. These reactors are located after the compression and the caustic scrubbing sections of an ethylene plant, characterizing a front-end system; in contrast to the tail-end system where the reactors are placed after the de-ethanizer unit. The acetylene conversion and selectivity profiles for the reactors are optimized, taking into account catalyst deactivation and process constraints. A dynamic optimal temperature profile that maximizes ethylene production and meets product specifications is obtained by controlling the feed and intercoolers temperatures. An industrial acetylene hydrogenation system is used to provide the necessary data to adjust kinetics and transport parameters and to validate the approach.

  14. Load control of a wind-hydrogen stand-alone power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miland, Harald; Gloeckner, Ronny [Institute of Energy Technology (IFE), P.O. Box 40, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Taylor, Phil [Econnect, 19 Haugh Lane Ind Est, Hexham NE46 3PU (United Kingdom); Jarle Aaberg, Rolf [Statkraft SF, PB 200 Lilleaker, 0216 Oslo (Norway); Hagen, Georg [Department of Materials Technology, NTNU, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-08-15

    A new generation of load controllers enable stand-alone power systems (SAPS) to use one or many standard (grid connected) wind turbines. The controllers use fuzzy logic software algorithms. The strategy is to use the control loads to balance the flow of active power in the system and hence control system frequency. The dynamic supply of reactive power by a synchronous compensator maintains the system voltage within the limits specified in EN50160. The resistive controller loads produce a certain amount of heat that is exchanged down to the end user (hot water). It was decided to investigate the implementation of a hydrogen subsystem into the SAPS that can work in parallel with the Distributed Intelligent Load Controller (DILC). The hydrogen subsystem can then function as energy storage on long-term basis and an active load controller on short-term basis. (author)

  15. Renewable Energy and Hydrogen System Concepts for Remote Communities in the West Nordic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein; Moerkved, Andreas

    2008-02-25

    In 2003 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted the funding for the first of several studies on renewable energy and hydrogen (RE/H2) energy systems for remote communities in the West Nordic region. The objective with this report is to summarize the main findings from Phase II and III of the West Nordic project. The island Nolsoy, Faroe Islands, was selected as a case study. The main conclusion is that it makes sense to design a wind/diesel-system with thermal storage, both from a techno-economical and environmental point of view. Such systems can have close to 100% local utilization of the wind energy, and can cover up to 75% of the total annual electricity demand and 35% of the annual heat demand at a cost of energy around 0.07 - 0.09 euro/kWh. The introduction of a hydrogen system is technically feasible, but doubles the overall investment costs

  16. Proton and hydrogen atom detection efficiency of resistance strip magnetic electron multiplier particle-counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrenberg, P.J.; Clark, K.C.

    1976-10-01

    The absolute detection efficiency for protons and for hydrogen atoms in the energy range 5--60 keV is determined for a resistance strip magnetic electron multiplier particle-counting system. Significant history-dependent gain variations are discussed. The detector system is suitable for use in coincidence experiments requiring particle-counting rates to 1.0 MHz and timing accuracies of 3.0 nsec. (AIP)

  17. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  18. Final Technical Report for GO15056 Millennium Cell: Development of an Advanced Chemical Hydrogen Storage and Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Oscar [Millennium Cell Inc., Eatontown, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-22

    The objectives of this project are to increase system storage capacity by improving hydrogen generation from concentrated sodium borohydride, with emphasis on reactor and system engineering; to complete a conceptual system design based on sodium borohydride that will include key technology improvements to enable a hydrogen fuel system that will meet the systembased storage capacity of 1.2 kWh/L (36 g H2/L) and 1.5 kWh/kg (45 g H2/kg), by the end of FY 2007; and to utilize engineering expertise to guide Center research in both off-board chemical hydride regeneration and on-board hydrogen generation systems.

  19. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian

    2014-07-01

    Novel developments regarding materials for solid-state hydrogen storage show promising prospects. These complex hydrides exhibit high mass-related storage capacities and thus great technical potential to store hydrogen in an efficient and safe way. However, a comprehensive evaluation of economic competitiveness is still lacking, especially in the case of the LiBH4 / MgH2 storage material. In this study, an assessment with respect to the economic feasibility of implementing complex hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is presented. The cost structure of hydrogen storage systems based on NaAlH4 and LiBH4 / MgH2 is discussed and compared with the conventional high pressure (700 bar) and liquid storage systems. Furthermore, the properties of LiBH4 / MgH2, so-called Li-RHC (Reactive Hydride Composite), are scientifically compared and evaluated on the lab and pilot plant scale. To enhance the reaction rate, the addition of TiCl3 is investigated and high energy ball milling is evaluated as processing technique. The effect of the additive in combination with the processing technique is described in detail. Finally, an optimum set of processing parameters and additive content are identified and can be applied for scaled-up production of the material based on simple models considering energy input during processing. Furthermore, thermodynamic, heat transfer and kinetic properties are experimentally determined by different techniques and analysed as a basis for modelling and designing scaled-up storage systems. The results are analysed and discussed with respect to the reaction mechanisms and reversibility of the system. Heat transfer properties are assessed with respect to the scale-up for larger hydrogen storage systems. Further improvements of the heat transfer were achieved by compacting the material. In this regard, the influence of the compaction pressure on the apparent density, thermal conductivity and sorption behaviour, was investigated in detail. Finally, scaled

  20. Simulating pH and hydrogen sulfide in a distributed collection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Le Guennec, Anne; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2013-01-01

    A concept for modeling the pH in distributed sewer systems is presented. The concept is an extension of the existing sewer process model WATS, which simulates physical, chemical and biological processes in wastewater, biofilms, sediments, and sewer headspace, as well as water flow, gas flow...... was calibrated to the conveyance system of Tangier, Morocco, and was able to simulate the observed variation in pH as well as the observed levels of hydrogen sulfide in the network. For the sewer system of Tangier, the most important buffer system was the carbonate system, followed by ammonia and amino groups...

  1. A head-to-head comparison of hydrogen peroxide vapor and aerosol room decontamination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmdahl, T; Lanbeck, P; Wullt, M; Walder, M H

    2011-09-01

    New technologies have emerged in recent years for the disinfection of hospital rooms and equipment that may not be disinfected adequately using conventional methods. There are several hydrogen peroxide-based area decontamination technologies on the market, but no head-to-head studies have been performed. We conducted a head-to-head in vitro comparison of a hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) system (Bioquell) and an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) system (Sterinis). The tests were conducted in a purpose-built 136-m(3) test room. One HPV generator and 2 aHP machines were used, following recommendations of the manufacturers. Three repeated tests were performed for each system. The microbiological efficacy of the 2 systems was tested using 6-log Tyvek-pouched Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs). The indicators were placed at 20 locations in the first test and 14 locations in the subsequent 2 tests for each system. All BIs were inactivated for the 3 HPV tests, compared with only 10% in the first aHP test and 79% in the other 2 aHP tests. The peak hydrogen peroxide concentration was 338 ppm for HPV and 160 ppm for aHP. The total cycle time (including aeration) was 3 and 3.5 hours for the 3 HPV tests and the 3 aHP tests, respectively. Monitoring around the perimeter of the enclosure with a handheld sensor during tests of both systems did not identify leakage. One HPV generator was more effective than 2 aHP machines for the inactivation of G. stearothermophilus BIs, and cycle times were faster for the HPV system.

  2. Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pötzinger; Markus Preißinger; Dieter Brüggemann

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of co...

  3. Hydrogen production by model systems including hydrogenases from phototrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotov, I.N.; Zorin, N.A.; Serebriakova, L.T. (AN SSSR, Pushchino (SU). Inst. of Soil Science and Photosynthesis)

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogenases of purple (Rhodobacter capsulatus, Thiocapsa roseopersicina) and green (Chlorobium limicola, Chloroflexus aurantiacus) bacteria catalyse the reactions of H{sub 2} evolution (uptake) and isotopic exchange in the system D{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at a high rate (20-60 units mg{sup -1} protein; 30{sup o}C). The enzyme active center includes a proton-accepting group, an (FeS) cluster and nickel. The data proving the direct participation of nickel in H{sub 2} activation are obtained. The hydrogenases from phototrophic bacteria are characterized by a high stability to denaturing factors. Thiocapsa roseopersicina hydrogenase absorbed at the carbon electrode accelerates electrochemical H{sub 2} oxidation and evolution. Biocatalytic systems containing chloroplasts, ferredoxin and hydrogenase produce H{sub 2} at a rate up to 100{mu}mol (h mg Chl){sup -1} but exhibit low stability. Thiocapsa roseopersicina hydrogenase adsorbed on the particles of inorganic semiconductor TiO{sub 2} carries out H{sub 2} photoproduction. (author).

  4. Study of Systems and Technology for Liquid Hydrogen Production Independent of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafka, R. J.; Escher, W. J. D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Shingleton, J.; Moore, J. S.; Baker, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on Kennedy Space Center siting and logistics requirements and the nonfossil energy resources at the Center, a number of applicable technologies and system candidates for hydrogen production were identified and characterized. A two stage screening of these technologies in the light of specific criteria identified two leading candidates as nonfossil system approaches. Conceptual design and costing of two solar-operated, stand alone systems, one photovoltaic based on and the other involving the power tower approach reveals their technical feasibility as sited as KSC, and the potential for product cost competitiveness with conventional supply approaches in the 1990 to 1210 time period. Conventional water hydrolysis and hydrogen liquefaction subsystems are integrated with the solar subsystems.

  5. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1998-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems; L'hydrogene electrolytique comme moyen de stockage d'electricite pour systemes photovoltaiques isoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, J

    2006-12-15

    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  7. Development of a Hydrogen Energy System as a Grid Frequency Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewan, Mitch [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Rocheleau, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen [U.S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Virji, Meheboob [GRandalytics, Honolulu, HI (United States); Randolph, Guenter [Hydrogen Renewable Energy System Analysis, Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    The Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is conducting research to assess the technical potential of using an electrolyzer-based hydrogen (H2) production and storage system as a grid demand response tool using battery data from a 200 MW grid to show the kind of response required. The hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer is used for transportation. A 65 kg/day hydrogen energy system (HES) consisting of a PEM electrolyzer, 35 bar buffer tank, 450 bar compressor, and associated chiller systems was purchased and installed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Laboratory Hawaii Authority (NELHA) to demonstrate long-term durability of the electrolyzer under cyclic operation required for frequency regulation on an island grid system. The excess hydrogen was stored for use by three fuel-cell buses to be operated at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) and by the County of Hawai‘i Mass Transit Agency (MTA). This paper describes the site selection and equipment commissioning, plus a comprehensive test plan that was developed to characterize the performance and durability of the electrolyzer under dynamic load conditions. The controls were modified for the operating envelope and dynamic limits of the electrolyzer. While the data showed these modifications significantly improved the system response time, it is not fast enough to match a BESS response time for grid frequency management. The electrolyzer can only be used for slower acting changes (1 to 0.5 Hz). A potential solution is to design an electrolyzer/BESS hybrid system and develop a modeling program to find the optimum mix of battery and electrolyzer to provide the maximum grid regulation services at minimum cost.

  8. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  9. Algal Hydrogen Production -- Stand Alone or Integrated System?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; Maness, Pin Ching; Kosourovo, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria and green algae photoproduce H2. but do so utilizing different catalysts and substrates. Green algae use reductant generate mostly by water oxidation to catalyze the reduction of protons to H2 gas, while photosynthetic bacteria catalyze H2 production from organic acids using the nitrogenase enzyme. Moreover, these two organisms utilize different regions of the solar spectrum to perform photosynthesis: green algae's light harvesting antenna is comprised of chlorophyll molecules that absorb mostly blue and red light; photosynthetic bacteria harvest blue and far-red light through their light-harvesting pigments to run its non-oxygenic photosynthetic reactions. There is thus an opportunity to increase the range of solar spectrum used to photoproduce H2 by combining the light-harvesting and catalytic properties of these two organisms in a single process. In the current manuscript, we describe an experimental system that validates this hypothesis and demonstrates quantitatively the advantages of a two organism process for production of higher amounts of H2 and thus achieving solar light conversion efficiencies.

  10. A Self-Supported Direct Borohydride-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Shukla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-supported direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell system with internal manifolds and an auxiliary control unit is reported. The system, while operating under ambient conditions, delivers a peak power of 40 W with about 2 W to run the auxiliary control unit. A critical cause and effect analysis, on the data for single cells and stack, suggests the optimum concentrations of fuel and oxidant to be 8 wt. % NaBH4 and 2 M H2O2, respectively in extending the operating time of the system. Such a fuel cell system is ideally suited for submersible and aerospace applications where anaerobic conditions prevail.

  11. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  12. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen boost/vane pump for the advanced orbit transfer vehicles auxiliary propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzek, F.; Mokadam, R. G.; To, I. H.; Stanitz, J. D.; Wollschlager, J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotating, positive displacement vane pump with an integral boost stage was designed to pump saturated liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen for auxiliary propulsion system of orbit transfer vehicle. This unit is designed to ingest 10% vapor by volume, contamination free liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The final pump configuration and the predicted performance are included.

  13. Start Up of Biohydrogen Production System and Effect of Metal Ions on Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, An-ying; Li, Yong-feng; Yue, Li-ran; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a promising biochemical route to produce renewable H2. The effect of organic loading rate on the biohydrogen production during the start-up phase and effect of Fe2+ and Mg2+ concentration on biohydrogen production of a continuous stirred tank reactor using molasses wastewater as substrate were investigated. It was found that an initial biomass of 14.07 gVSS/L and an organic loading rate of 6.0 kgCOD/m3ṡd, an equilibrial microbial community in the butyric-type fermentation could be established with in 30 days. It was demonstrated that both Fe2+ and Mg2+ were able to enhance the hydrogen production capacity of microorganism flora. Different concentration of Fe2+ was added to the biohydrogen producing system (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 500 mg/L), the maximum biogas production yield of 6.78 L/d and the maximum specific hydrogen production rate of 10.1 ml/gVSSṡh were obtained at Fe2+ concentration of 500 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. The maximum biogas production yield of 6.84 L/d and the maximum specific hydrogen production rate of 10.2 ml/gVSSṡh were obtained at Mg2+ concentration of 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively.

  14. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  15. Hydrogen Production Enhancement Using a Stratified Catalyst Bed in Reforming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Nadia Olivia

    An investigation was conducted for a stratified catalyst arrangement for methanol reforming. The motivation for the stratified system is to strategically place different catalysts within the reactor so that the reaction will progress according to the catalyst selectivity. This will allow the reduction of the unwanted intermediates and serves to improve the overall hydrogen product concentration. The stratified arrangement consisted of a platinum group metal (PGM) catalyst, along with a commercially available Cu/ZnO/Al2O 3 water gas shift (WGS) catalyst. The system was experimentally investigated under different test conditions by varying the flow rate, oxygen-to-methanol ratio, and the packed length of the downstream WGS section. From these experiments the effects of each variable were quantified for their influence on the conversion and hydrogen yield. The oxidation reactions were carried out on the PGM catalyst, causing internal heating of the downstream WGS packed bed. The supplied heat keeps the WGS catalyst active to reform and shift the final products into a hydrogen-rich composition. Conversion increases of 30% were possible within one added section of WGS catalyst, with two sections achieving full conversion. This behavior can be modeled as a first order response from which a characteristic WGS length can be determined and used as a descriptive parameter to compare stratified systems. Overall, this study is expected to provide a basic analysis, and contribute to the improvement of reformer design for better fuel processing system performance.

  16. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  18. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...... than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research notes is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption...

  19. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic fueling model is built to simulate the fueling process of a hydrogen tank with an integrated passive cooling system. The study investigates the possibility of absorbing a part of the heat of compression in the high latent-heat material during melting, with the aim of saving the monetary...... and energy resources spent at the refueling station to cool the gas prior to tank filling. This is done while respecting the technical constraint of keeping the walls below the critical temperature of 85 C to ensure the mechanical stability of the storage system even when the gas is fueled at ambient...... temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank, but its influence on the hydrogen peak temperature that occurs at the end of refueling is modest. The heat transfer from the gas...

  20. Control of systems with asymmetric bounds using linear programming: application to a hydrogen reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies controller design for feedback systems in the presence of asymmetrically bounded signals, using a case study. An asymmetric objective functional is used to consider the asymmetrically bounded signals, which makes possible to derive a linear programming problem. Solving this LP makes possible to design controllers that minimize certain outputs, fulfilling at the same time hard constraints on certain signals. The method is presented by application to a hydrogen reformer, a system in petrochemical plants that produces hydrogen from hydrocarbons: a mixed sensitivity problem is stated and solved, with an additional constraint given by the asymmetric limitations on the magnitude and rate of the control signal, and the asymmetricity in the disturbances.

  1. Interdependent multi-objective sizing and control optimisation of a renewable energy hydrogen system

    OpenAIRE

    Human, Gerhardus; Schoor, George van; Uren, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a sizing and control optimisation architecture for the design and evaluation of a small-scale stand-alone hybrid PV-wind-battery system for the production of hydrogen (H2) using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Three objectives are considered simultaneously namely cost, efficiency and reliability. For this task an optimisation approach is developed combining a single objective genetic algorithm (GA) with a multiobjective GA (MOGA) to optimise nine ...

  2. On the lattice dynamics of metallic hydrogen and other Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, H.; Straus, D.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical results for the phonon spectra of metallic hydrogen and other Coulomb systems in cubic lattices are presented. In second order in the electron-ion interaction, the behavior of the dielectric function of the interacting electron gas for arguments around the seond Fermi harmonic leads to drastic Kohn anomalies and even to imaginary phonon frequencies. Third-order band-structure corrections are also calculated. Properties of self-consistent phonons and the validity of the adiabatic approximation are discussed.

  3. Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nakhla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

  4. Design and economical analysis of hybrid PV-wind systems connected to the grid for the intermittent production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3. 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Mendoza, Franklin [Electrical Engineering Department, UNEXPO, Urbanizacion Villa Asia, Puerto Ordaz (Venezuela)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper, several designs of hybrid PV-wind (photovoltaic-wind) systems connected to the electrical grid, including the intermittent production of hydrogen, are shown. The objective considered in the design is economical to maximise the net present value (NPV) of the system. A control strategy has been applied so that hydrogen is only produced by the electrolyser when there is an excess of electrical energy that cannot be exported to the grid (intermittent production of hydrogen). Several optimisation studies based on different scenarios have been carried out. After studying the results - for systems with which the produced hydrogen would be sold for external consumption - it can be stated that the selling price of hydrogen should be about 10 EUR/kg in areas with strong wind, in order to get economically viable systems. For the hydrogen-producing systems in which hydrogen is produced when there is an excess of electricity and then stored and later used in a fuel cell to produce electricity to be sold to the grid, even in areas with high wind speed rate, the price of electrical energy produced by the fuel cell should be very high for the system to be profitable. (author)

  5. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high

  6. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  7. Multi-objective design of PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, a triple multi-objective design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing, simultaneously, the total cost throughout the useful life of the installation, pollutant emissions (CO{sub 2}) and unmet load. For this task, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) have been used in order to find the best combination of components of the hybrid system and control strategies. As an example of application, a complex PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery system has been designed, obtaining a set of possible solutions (Pareto Set). The results achieved demonstrate the practical utility of the developed design method. (author)

  8. Development and validation of purged thermal protection systems for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks of hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenbrook, R. D.; Colt, J. Z.

    1977-01-01

    An economical, lightweight, safe, efficient, reliable, and reusable insulation system was developed for hypersonic cruise vehicle hydrogen fuel tanks. Results indicate that, a nitrogen purged, layered insulation system with nonpermeable closed-cell insulation next to the cryogenic tank and a high service temperature fibrous insulation surrounding it, is potentially an attractive solution to the insulation problem. For the postulated hypersonic flight the average unit weight of the purged insulation system (including insulation, condensate and fuel boil off) is 6.31 kg/sq m (1.29 psf). Limited cyclic tests of large specimens of closed cell polymethacrylimide foam indicate it will withstand the expected thermal cycle.

  9. Final Technical Report for EE0006091: H2Pump Hydrogen Recycling System Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Rhonda [H2Pump LLC, Latham, NY (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the product readiness and to quantify the benefits and customer value proposition of H2Pump’s Hydrogen Recycling System (HRS-100™) by installing and analyzing the operation of multiple prototype 100-kg per day systems in real world customer locations. The data gathered will be used to measure reliability, demonstrate the value proposition to customers, and validate our business model. H2Pump will install, track and report multiple field demonstration systems in industrial heat treating and semi-conductor applications. The customer demonstrations will be used to develop case studies and showcase the benefits of the technology to drive market adoption.

  10. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m-3. However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ∼1.5× to 118 W h m-3. Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m-3 or ∼1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  11. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Marta C; Ivanov, Ivan; Cusick, Roland D; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-28

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m(-3). However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ~1.5× to 118 W h m(-3). Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m(-3) or ~1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  12. Multi-Generation Concentrating Solar-Hydrogen Power System for Sustainable Rural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krothapalli, A.; Greska, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an energy system that is designed to meet the demands of rural populations that currently have no access to grid-connected electricity. Besides electricity, it is well recognized that rural populations need at least a centralized refrigeration system for storage of medicines and other emergency supplies, as well as safe drinking water. Here we propose a district system that will employ a multi-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) system that will generate electricity and supply the heat needed for both absorption refrigeration and membrane distillation (MD) water purification. The electricity will be used to generate hydrogen through highly efficient water electrolysis and individual households can use the hydrogen for generating electricity, via affordable proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and as a fuel for cooking. The multi-generation system is being developed such that its components will be easy to manufacture and maintain. As a result, these components will be less efficient than their typical counterparts but their low cost-to-efficiency ratio will allow for us to meet our installation cost goal of $1/Watt for the entire system. The objective of this paper is to introduce the system concept and discuss the system components that are currently under development. (auth)

  13. Reconfiguration of photovoltaic panels for reducing the hydrogen consumption in fuel cells of hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Montoya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid generation combines advantages from fuel cell systems with non-predictable generation approaches, such as photovoltaic and wind generators. In such hybrid systems, it is desirable to minimize as much as possible the fuel consumption, for the sake of reducing costs and increasing the system autonomy. This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, referred to as population-based incremental learning, in order to maximize the produced power of a photovoltaic generator. This maximization reduces the fuel consumption in the hybrid aggregation. Moreover, the algorithm's speed enables the real-time computation of the best configuration for the photovoltaic system, which also optimizes the fuel consumption in the complementary fuel cell system. Finally, a system experimental validation is presented considering 6 photovoltaic modules and a NEXA 1.2KW fuel cell. Such a validation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to reduce the hydrogen consumption in these hybrid systems.

  14. Introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system. NorWays - Regional model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2008-12-15

    The overall aim of the NorWays project has been to provide decision support for the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the Norwegian energy system. The NorWays project is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. An important task has been to develop alternative scenarios and identifying market segments and regions of the Norwegian energy system where hydrogen may play a significant role. The main scenarios in the project have been: Reference: Based on the assumptions of World Energy Outlook with no new transport technologies; HyWays: Basic assumptions with technology costs (H{sub 2}) based on results from the HyWays project; No tax: No taxes on transport energy ('revenue neutral'); CO{sub 2} reduction: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions by 75% in 2050. Three regional models have been developed and used to analyse the introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in competition with other alternatives such as natural gas, electricity, district heating and bio fuels.The focus of the analysis has been on the transportation sector. (Author)

  15. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (research and development of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a guiding principle of new hydrogen absorbing alloy design, case studies on the stationary hydrogen storage systems for multiple dwelling houses using hydrogen absorbing alloys and on the hydrogen fuel tank systems for a motor vehicle, and survey on development status in the world. As a result of the investigation of alloys, it was concluded that realization of hydrogen absorbing alloys with new target properties of the WE-NET Project is not easy through the current technology. It was found that two kinds of Mg-based and V-based high capacity materials must be selected as target alloys among current alloys, and that three techniques, i.e., ultra-fine microstructure, composite, and amorphousness, are effective for improving the hydrogen discharge property which has been a problem of these alloys. It was desired that the latest techniques are established by integrating these materials and techniques. It is necessary to promote the development of brake-through new materials by new concepts and technologies through the cooperation of national institutes, universities, and companies. 124 refs., 56 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Safety operation of chromatography column system with discharging hydrogen radiolytically generated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Sou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction chromatography system, accumulation of hydrogen gas in the chromatography column is suspected to lead to fire or explosion. In order to prevent the hazardous accidents, it is necessary to evaluate behaviors of gas radiolytically generated inside the column. In this study, behaviors of gas inside the extraction chromatography column were investigated through experiments and Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation. N2 gas once accumulated as bubbles in the packed bed was hardly discharged by the flow of mobile phase. However, the CFD simulation and X-ray imaging on γ-ray irradiated column revealed that during operation the hydrogen gas generated in the column was dissolved into the mobile phase without accumulation and discharged.

  17. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  18. Assessment of the efficacy of a low temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyi, M S; Holton, J; Ridgway, G L

    1995-12-01

    The STERRAD 100 sterilization system (Johnson & Johnson Medical Ltd) uses low temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma for sterilization of heat labile equipment. The efficacy of the machine was tested by contaminating a standard set of instruments with different organisms and using a filtration method to assess recovery of organisms from the wash fluids of instruments post-sterilization. Experiments were performed under clean (the organism only) and dirty (organism mixed with egg protein) conditions. A parallel study conducted using a 3M STERIVAC ethylene oxide sterilizer could not be completed owing to closure of the ethylene oxide plant. For sterilization of instruments with long and narrow lumens, hydrogen peroxide adaptors are necessary. The STERRAD 100 sterilizer can achieve effective sterilization of heat labile instruments with a reduction of 6 log10 cfu/mL of organisms tested. This method has the advantages over ethylene oxide sterilization of safety, ease of maintenance and no requirement for aeration time.

  19. McPhy-Energy’s proposal for solid state hydrogen storage materials and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehan, Michel, E-mail: michel.jehan@mcphy.com [McPhy Energy SA, ZA Retière, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Fruchart, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.fruchart@grenoble.cnrs.fr [McPhy Energy SA, ZA Retière, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Institut Néel and CRETA, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Mechanical alloying with nano-structurizing highly reactive magnesium metal hydrides particles. •Solid reversible hydrogen storage at scale of kg to tons of hydrogen using MgH{sub 2} composite discs. •Natural Expanded Graphite draining heat of reaction during sorption. •Change Phase Material storing reversibly heat of reaction within tank storage as adiabatic system. •Technology fully adapted for renewable energy storage and network energy peak shavings through H{sub 2}. -- Abstract: The renewable resources related, for instance, to solar energies exhibit two main characteristics. They have no practical limits in regards to the efficiency and their various capture methods. However, their intermittence prevents any direct and immediate use of the resulting power. McPhy-Energy proposes solutions based on water electrolysis for hydrogen generation and storage on reversible metal hydrides to efficiently cover various energy generation ranges from MW h to GW h. Large stationary storage units, based on MgH{sub 2}, are presently developed, including both the advanced materials and systems for a total energy storage from ∼70 to more than 90% efficient. Various designs of MgH{sub 2}-based tanks are proposed, allowing the optional storage of the heat of the Mg–MgH{sub 2} reaction in an adjacent phase changing material. The combination of these operations leads to the storage of huge amounts of hydrogen and heat in our so-called adiabatic-tanks. Adapted to intermittent energy production and consumption from renewable sources (wind, sun, tide, etc.), nuclear over-production at night, or others, tanks distribute energy on demand for local applications (on-site domestic needs, refueling stations, etc.) via turbine or fuel cell electricity production.

  20. Effect of the Metal Hydride Tank Structure on the Reaction Heat Recovery for the Totalized Hydrogen Energy Utilization System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maeda, Tetsuhiko; Nakano, Akihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Motyka, Theodore; Perez-Berrios, Jose M; Greenway, Scott

    2013-01-01

    .... In this paper, a metal hydride tank (MHT) is chosen as hydrogen storage. In the MHT, the heating and cooling from adsorption/desorption processes is used to produced heated and chilled water for building ventilation systems...

  1. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Y. F. [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  2. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  3. Monitoring and control of a hydrogen production and storage system consisting of water electrolysis and metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Herranz, V.; Perez-Page, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Beneito, R. [Area de Energia. Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion. Instituto Tecnologico del Juguete (AIJU). Avda. Industria 23, 03440 Ibi, Alicante (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic are energy sources that cannot generate continuous electric power. The seasonal storage of solar or wind energy in the form of hydrogen can provide the basis for a completely renewable energy system. In this way, water electrolysis is a convenient method for converting electrical energy into a chemical form. The power required for hydrogen generation can be supplied through a photovoltaic array. Hydrogen can be stored as metal hydrides and can be converted back into electricity using a fuel cell. The elements of these systems, i.e. the photovoltaic array, electrolyzer, fuel cell and hydrogen storage system in the form of metal hydrides, need a control and monitoring system for optimal operation. This work has been performed within a Research and Development contract on Hydrogen Production granted by Solar Iniciativas Tecnologicas, S.L. (SITEC), to the Politechnic University of Valencia and to the AIJU, and deals with the development of a system to control and monitor the operation parameters of an electrolyzer and a metal hydride storage system that allow to get a continuous production of hydrogen. (author)

  4. Tool for optimal design and operation of hydrogen storage based autonomous energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschachtsiek, B.; Lemken, D. [ZBT - Duisburg (Germany); Stark, M.; Krost, G. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Decentralized small scale electricity generation based on renewable energy sources usually necessitates decoupling of volatile power generation and consumption by means of energy storage. Hydrogen has proven as an eligible storage medium for mid- and long-term range, which - when indicated - can be reasonably complemented by accumulator short term storage. The selection of appropriate system components - sources, storage devices and the appertaining peripherals - is a demanding task which affords a high degree of freedom but, on the other hand, has to account for various operational dependencies and restrictions of system components, as well as for conduct of load and generation. An innovative tool facilitates the configuration and dimensioning of renewable energy based power supply systems with hydrogen storage paths, and allows for applying appropriate operation strategies. This tool accounts for the characteristics and performances of relevant power sources, loads, and types of energy storage, and also regards safety rules the energy system has to comply with. In particular, the tool is addressing small, detached and autonomous supply systems. (orig.)

  5. Optimization of control strategies for stand-alone renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza. Calle Maria de Luna, 3. E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Contreras, Javier [Applied Mechanics and Project Engineering Department, University of Castilla, La Mancha. Campus Universitario s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents a novel strategy, optimized by genetic algorithms, to control stand-alone hybrid renewable electrical systems with hydrogen storage. The strategy optimizes the control of the hybrid system minimizing the total cost throughout its lifetime. The optimized hybrid system can be composed of renewable sources (wind, PV and hydro), batteries, fuel cell, AC generator and electrolyzer. If the renewable sources produce more energy than the one required by the loads, the spare energy can be used either to charge the batteries or to produce H{sub 2} in the electrolyzer. The control strategy optimizes how the spare energy is used. If the amount of energy demanded by the loads is higher than the one produced by the renewable sources, the control strategy determines the most economical way to meet the energy deficit. The optimization of the various system control parameters is done using genetic algorithms. This paper explains the strategy developed and shows its application to a PV-diesel-battery-hydrogen system. (author)

  6. Development of a Hydrogen and Heat Storage System for Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Alexander; Pawelke, Roland; Hummel, Stefan; Gerger, Joachim; Lutz, Matthias; Farnes, Jarle; Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve; Schautz, Max; Geneste, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand increasingly more power in the range of 30 kW or more within the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30 kW for an eclipse length of up to 72 minutes will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with new Li-ion battery technologies. Regenerative fuel cell systems (RFCS) were identified years ago as a possible alternative to rechargeable batteries. They consist of a dedicated fuel cell unit for electricity generation and a dedicated electrolyser which regenerates the fuel cell reactants hydrogen and oxygen from the fuel cell reaction product water. All units are integrated in a closed loop system. Nevertheless, one major drawback has been identified by several independent system studies [4,5], namely the need to dissipate large amounts of heat from the fuel cell during Eclipse. This in turn requires massive thermal hardware (mainly large radiators) that can contribute up to 50% of the system mass. FOTEC has suggested the use of metal hydrides as combined hydrogen and heat storage system to overcome this issue and is currently manufacturing a technology demonstrator within an ongoing ESA project. The status of these developments is outlined in this paper.

  7. Study on La–Mg based ternary system for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capurso, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.capurso@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Naik, Mehraj-ud-din; Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Saccone, Adriana; Gastaldo, Federica; De Negri, Serena [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Explorative study in the Mg-rich corner of the La–Pd–Mg ternary system. ► The studied alloys lay on the La{sub 2}(Mg{sub 1−x}Pd{sub x}){sub 17} compositional line. ► Higher Pd content results in lower H{sub 2} capacity, but higher equilibrium pressures. ► The highest absorbed hydrogen quantity is 4.8 wt% at 2 MPa and 310 °C. -- Abstract: An explorative study on the hydriding/dehydriding characteristics of the La{sub 2}(Mg,Pd){sub 17} ternary alloy, with different Pd content, is presented. All the samples were prepared by induction melting of the selected elements, characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, to detect present phases, and subsequently milled with a high-energy shaker apparatus. The hydrogen reaction kinetics and thermodynamics properties have been investigated by means of a volumetric Sievert’s apparatus. The measured H{sub 2} gravimetric capacity of the alloy varied with the Pd content, being the highest for the sample without Pd (>4.5 wt%). A possible correlation between the constituent phases individuated with microanalysis and the variation in the hydrogenation behaviour is proposed.

  8. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  9. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 11. Distributed transportation of hydrogen/hydrogen absorbing alloy for hydrogen storage; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 11. Suiso bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were conducted to find out hydrogen absorbing alloys with an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 3 mass % or more, hydrogen discharge temperature of 100 degrees C or lower, hydrogen absorbing capacity after 5,000 cycles not less than 90% of the initial capacity, applicable to stationary and mobile systems. The V-based alloy that achieved an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 2.6 mass % in the preceding fiscal year was subjected to studies relating to safety and durability. Since V is costly, efforts were exerted to develop TiCrMo alloys to replace the V-based alloy. In the search for novel high-performance alloys, endeavors centered on novel ternary alloys, novel alloys based on Mg and Ti, and novel intermetallic compounds of the Mg-4 family. In the study of guidelines for developing next-generation high-performance alloys, methods for creating hydrides with an H/M (hydrogen/metal) ratio far higher than 2 were discussed. Mentioned as techniques to produce such hydrides were the utilization of the hole regulated lattice, novel alloys based on the ultrahigh pressure hydride phase, new substances making use of the cooperative phenomenon in the coexistent multiple-phase structure, and the like. (NEDO)

  11. Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötzinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency. Therefore, the influences of storage capacity and of storage efficiencies are discussed. A short-time storage system can increase the proportion of consumption by up to 35 percentage points compared to a self-consumption system without storage. However, the seasonal storing system uses almost the entire energy produced by the photovoltaic (PV system (nearly 100% self-consumption. Thereby, the energy drawn from the grid can be reduced and a degree of self-sufficiency of about 90% is achieved. Based on these findings, some scenarios to reach self-sufficiency are analyzed. The results show that full self-sufficiency will be possible with a seasonal hydrogen-based storage system if PV area and initial storage level are appropriate.

  12. Description and modelling of the solar-hydrogen-biogas-fuel cell system in GlashusEtt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, L.; Wallmark, C.; Alvfors, P.; Rissanen, M.; Stridh, B.; Ekman, J.

    The need to reduce pollutant emissions and utilise the world's available energy resources more efficiently has led to increased attention towards e.g. fuel cells, but also to other alternative energy solutions. In order to further understand and evaluate the prerequisites for sustainable and energy-saving systems, ABB and Fortum have equipped an environmental information centre, located in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden, with an alternative energy system. The system is being used to demonstrate and evaluate how a system based on fuel cells and solar cells can function as a complement to existing electricity and heat production. The stationary energy system is situated on the top level of a three-floor glass building and is open to the public. The alternative energy system consists of a fuel cell system, a photovoltaic (PV) cell array, an electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks, a biogas burner, dc/ac inverters, heat exchangers and an accumulator tank. The fuel cell system includes a reformer and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with a maximum rated electrical output of 4 kW el and a maximum thermal output of 6.5 kW th. The fuel cell stack can be operated with reformed biogas, or directly using hydrogen produced by the electrolyser. The cell stack in the electrolyser consists of proton exchange membrane (PEM) cells. To evaluate different automatic control strategies for the system, a simplified dynamic model has been developed in MATLAB Simulink. The model based on measurement data taken from the actual system. The evaluation is based on demand curves, investment costs, electricity prices and irradiation. Evaluation criteria included in the model are electrical and total efficiencies as well as economic parameters.

  13. The impact of iron on the bleaching efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in liquid whey systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Suzanne M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2013-02-01

    Whey is a value-added product that is utilized in many food and beverage applications for its nutritional and functional properties. Whey and whey products are generally utilized in dried ingredient applications. One of the primary sources of whey is from colored Cheddar cheese manufacture that contains the pigment annatto resulting in a characteristic yellow colored Cheddar cheese. The colorant is also present in the liquid cheese whey and must be bleached so that it can be used in ingredient applications without imparting a color. Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are 2 commercially approved chemical bleaching agents for liquid whey. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have been previously reported for whey bleached with hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how bleaching can impact flavor and functionality of dried ingredients. Currently, the precise mechanisms of off-flavor development and functionality changes are not entirely understood. Iron reactions in a bleached liquid whey system may play a key role. Reactions between iron and hydrogen peroxide have been widely studied since the reaction between these 2 relatively stable species can cause great destruction in biological and chemical systems. The actual mechanism of the reaction of iron with hydrogen peroxide has been a controversy in the chemistry and biological community. The precise mechanism for a given reaction can vary greatly based upon the concentration of reactants, temperature, pH, and addition of biological material. In this review, some hypotheses for the mechanisms of iron reactions that may occur in fluid whey that may impact bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and changes in functionality are presented. Cheese whey is bleached to remove residual carotenoid cheese colorant. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have

  14. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  15. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiaohua [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, New Materials Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China); Business Unit of Energy Systems, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Osterfelder Strasse 3, Oberhausen 46047 (Germany); Yang, Haijun; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, New Materials Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China); Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian [Business Unit of Energy Systems, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Osterfelder Strasse 3, Oberhausen 46047 (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A{sup 2}/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m{sup 3} pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A{sup 2}/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US$ t{sup -1} wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US$ t{sup -1} by the A{sup 2}/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A{sup 2}/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid. (author)

  16. HI{sub x} system thermodynamic model for hydrogen production by the Sulfur-Iodine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadj-Kali, Mohamed Kamel; Gerbaud, Vincent; Floquet, Pascal; Joulia, Xavier [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, LGC (Laboratoire de Genie Chimique), 5 rue Paulin Talabot, F-31106 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); CNRS, LGC (Laboratoire de Genie Chimique), F-31106 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Borgard, Jean-Marc; Carles, Philippe [CEA, DEN, Physical Chemistry Department, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baudouin, Olivier [ProSim, Stratege Batiment A, BP 27210, F-31672 Labege Cedex (France)

    2009-02-15

    The HI{sub x} ternary system (H{sub 2}O-HI-I{sub 2}) is the latent source of hydrogen for the Sulfur-Iodine thermo-chemical cycle. After analysis of the literature data and models, a homogeneous approach with the Peng-Robinson equation of state used for both the vapor and liquid phase fugacity calculations is proposed for the first time to describe the phase equilibrium of this system. The MHV2 mixing rule is used, with UNIQUAC activity coefficient model combined with of hydrogen iodide solvation by water. This approach is theoretically consistent for HI{sub x} separation processes operating above HI critical temperature. Model estimation is done on selected literature vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapor-liquid-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system and the three binaries subsystems. Validation is done on the remaining literature data. Results agree well with the published data, but more experimental effort is needed to improve modeling of the HI{sub x} system. (author)

  17. System design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pounds, T.S.; Smith, S.O. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-08-24

    This document describes the hardware subsystems of the data acquisition and control system (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste tank, directed at certain angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. The SY-101 tank has experienced recurrent periodic gas releases of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and (recently discovered) methane. The hydrogen gas represents a danger, as some of the releases are in amounts above the lower flammability limit (LFL). These large gas releases must be mitigated. Several instruments have been added to the tank to monitor the gas compositions, the tank level, the tank temperature, and other parameters. A mixer pump has been developed to stir the tank waste to cause the gases to be released at a slow rate. It is the function of the DACS to monitor those instruments and to control the mixer pump in a safe manner. During FY93 and FY94 the mixer pump was installed with associated testing operations support equipment and a mitigation test project plan was implemented. These activities successfully demonstrated the mixer pump`s ability to mitigate the SY-101 tank hydrogen gas hazard.

  18. Coordinated Control of a Wind-Methanol-Fuel Cell System with Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejiang Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wind-methanol-fuel cell system with hydrogen storage. It can manage various energy flow to provide stable wind power supply, produce constant methanol, and reduce CO2 emissions. Firstly, this study establishes the theoretical basis and formulation algorithms. And then, computational experiments are developed with MATLAB/Simulink (R2016a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA. Real data are used to fit the developed models in the study. From the test results, the developed system can generate maximum electricity whilst maintaining a stable production of methanol with the aid of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. A sophisticated control scheme is also developed to coordinate these actions to achieve satisfactory system performance.

  19. Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Good, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practices with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1,700-L pilot-scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and operated under constant conditions...... and contradict prevailing notions that HP cannot be used safely in RAS that employ biofiltration. The development of effective new HP treatment protocols for recirculating aquaculture could reduce the current dependence on formalin to improve water quality and control parasitic loads...

  20. Laser and optical system for laser assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping at SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Menshov, A.; Webster, A.; Gorlov, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a high-efficiency laser assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping was successfully carried out in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The experiment was not only an important step toward foil-less H- stripping for charge exchange injection, it also set up a first example of using megawatt ultraviolet (UV) laser source in an operational high power proton accelerator facility. This paper reports in detail the design, installation, and commissioning result of a macro-pulsed multi-megawatt UV laser system and laser beam transport line for the laser stripping experiment.

  1. Design of BODIPY Dyes as Photosensitisers in Multicomponent Catalyst Systems for Light-Driven Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Laura; Ahrens, Johannes; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Höfler, Sebastian; Bröring, Martin; Beweries, Torsten

    2015-09-21

    A study of visible-light-driven hydrogen production using a multicomponent system consisting of different boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes, triethylamine and [{Pd(PPh3)Cl2}2] from THF/water mixtures is presented. A trio of meso-mesityl BODIPY dyes display the best activities and long-term stabilities of more than ten days with the 2,6-diiodo derivative showing the best performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development of the Raman lidar system for remote hydrogen gas detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Young; Baik, Sung Hoon; Park, Seung Kyu; Park, Nak Gyu; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Detection of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas leakage is very important for safety of the nuclear power plant because H{sub 2} gas is very flammable and explosive. H{sub 2} gas is generated by oxidizing the nuclear fuel cladding during the critical accident and generated H{sub 2} gas leads to serious secondary damages in the containment building of nuclear power plant. Thus, various H{sub 2} gas detection techniques are used in the nuclear power plant such as catalytic combustion sensors, semiconducting oxide sensors, thermal conductivity sensors and electrochemical sensor. A Raman lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) system for remote detection of the H{sub 2} gas can cover the area in the containment building of a nuclear power plant. H{sub 2} gas has a very strong Raman Effect, and H{sub 2} Raman cells have been widely used for laser wavelength conversion. In this study, Raman lidar system was developed for H{sub 2} gas detection used in the containment building of nuclear power plant. In this study, remote hydrogen gas detection devices and measuring algorithm are developed by using the Raman lidar method. Through the experiment, we proved that our developed Raman lidar system was possible to measure the N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gas scattering signal remotely.

  3. Electrolyzer Performance Analysis of an Integrated Hydrogen Power System for Greenhouse Heating. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse containing an integrated system of photovoltaic panels, a water electrolyzer, fuel cells and a geothermal heat pump was set up to investigate suitable solutions for a power system based on solar energy and hydrogen, feeding a self-sufficient, geothermal-heated greenhouse. The electricity produced by the photovoltaic source supplies the electrolyzer; the manufactured hydrogen gas is held in a pressure tank. In these systems, the electrolyzer is a crucial component; the technical challenge is to make it work regularly despite the irregularity of the solar source. The focus of this paper is to study the performance and the real energy efficiency of the electrolyzer, analyzing its operational data collected under different operating conditions affected by the changeable solar radiant energy characterizing the site where the experimental plant was located. The analysis of the measured values allowed evaluation of its suitability for the agricultural requirements such as greenhouse heating. On the strength of the obtained result, a new layout of the battery bank has been designed and exemplified to improve the performance of the electrolyzer. The evaluations resulting from this case study may have a genuine value, therefore assisting in further studies to better understand these devices and their associated technologies.

  4. Evaluation of industrially applied heat-transfer fluids as liquid organic hydrogen carrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Nicole; Obesser, Katharina; Bösmann, Andreas; Teichmann, Daniel; Arlt, Wolfgang; Dungs, Jennifer; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive method for the decentralized storage of renewable excess energy. In this contribution, industrially well-established heat-transfer oils (typically sold under trade names, e.g., Marlotherm) are proposed as a new class of LOHC systems. It is demonstrated that the liquid mixture of isomeric dibenzyltoluenes (m.p. -39 to -34 °C, b.p. 390 °C) can be readily hydrogenated to the corresponding mixture of perhydrogenated analogues by binding 6.2 wt% of H2. The liquid H2 -rich form can be stored and transported similarly to diesel fuel. It readily undergoes catalytic dehydrogenation at temperatures above 260 °C, which proves its applicability as a reversible H2 carrier. The presented LOHC systems are further characterized by their excellent technical availability at comparably low prices, full registration of the H2 -lean forms, and excellent thermal stabilities. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abermann S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  6. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, S.

    2012-10-01

    The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  8. Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.

  9. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, which must provide the enough energy for long time flights in a reliable way. In this paper a photovoltaic/hydrogen system is proposed as power system for a HALE aircraft due its high power density characteristic. In order to obtain the optimal sizing for photovoltaic/hydrogen system a particle swarm optimizer (PSO is used. As a case study, theoretical design of the photovoltaic/hydrogen power system for three different HALE aircrafts located at 18° latitude is presented. At this latitude, the range of solar radiation intensity was from 310 to 450 Wh/sq·m/day. The results obtained show that the photovoltaic/hydrogen systems calculated by PSO can operate during one year with efficacies ranging between 45.82% and 47.81%. The obtained sizing result ensures that the photovoltaic/hydrogen system supplies adequate energy for HALE aircrafts.

  10. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status.

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic Sensitivity Study of Intermediate Loop Parameters for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Hwa; Lee, Heung Nae; Park, Jea Ho [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The heat generated from the VHTR is transferred to the intermediate loop through Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX). It is further passed on to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) hydrogen production system (HPS) through Process Heat Exchanger (PHX). The IL provides the safety distance between the VHTR and HPS. Since the IL performance affects the overall nuclear HPS efficiency, it is required to optimize its design and operation parameters. In this study, the thermal-hydraulic sensitivity of IL parameters with various coolant options has been examined by using MARS-GCR code, which was already applied for the case of steam generator. Sensitivity study of the IL and PHX parameters has been carried out based on their thermal-hydraulic performance. Several parameters for design and operation, such as the pipe diameter, safety distance and surface area, are considered for different coolant options, He, CO{sub 2} and He-CO{sub 2} (2:8). It was found that the circulator work is the major factor affecting on the overall nuclear hydrogen production system efficiency. Circulator work increases with the safety distance, and decreases with the operation pressure and loop pipe diameter. Sensitivity results obtained from this study will contribute to the optimization of the IL design and operation parameters and the optimal coolant selection.

  12. On the mean kinetic energy of the proton in strong hydrogen bonded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center–Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Shchur, Ya. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, 1 Svientsitskii str., L’viv 79011 (Ukraine)

    2016-02-07

    The mean atomic kinetic energies of the proton, Ke(H), and of the deuteron, Ke(D), were calculated in moderate and strongly hydrogen bonded (HB) systems, such as the ferro-electric crystals of the KDP type (XH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, X = K, Cs, Rb, Tl), the DKDP (XD{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, X = K, Cs, Rb) type, and the X{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} superprotonic conductors (X = K, Rb). All calculations utilized the simulated partial phonon density of states, deduced from density functional theory based first-principle calculations and from empirical lattice dynamics simulations in which the Coulomb, short range, covalent, and van der Waals interactions were accounted for. The presently calculated Ke(H) values for the two systems were found to be in excellent agreement with published values obtained by deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements carried out using the VESUVIO instrument of the Rutherford Laboratory, UK. The Ke(H) values of the M{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds, in which the hydrogen bonds are centro-symmetric, are much lower than those of the KDP type crystals, in direct consistency with the oxygen-oxygen distance R{sub OO}, being a measure of the HB strength.

  13. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  14. Integrated High Temperature Coal-to-Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Ruud; Anthony Ku; Vidya Ramaswamy; Wei Wei; Patrick Willson

    2007-05-31

    A significant barrier to the commercialization of coal-to-hydrogen technologies is high capital cost. The purity requirements for H{sub 2} fuels are generally met by using a series of unit clean-up operations for residual CO removal, sulfur removal, CO{sub 2} removal and final gas polishing to achieve pure H{sub 2}. A substantial reduction in cost can be attained by reducing the number of process operations for H{sub 2} cleanup, and process efficiency can be increased by conducting syngas cleanup at higher temperatures. The objective of this program was to develop the scientific basis for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H{sub 2} from a coal-based system. The approach was to evaluate the feasibility of a 'one box' process that combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membrane to convert CO to CO{sub 2}, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO{sub 2} in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. A system-level design was produced for a shift reactor that incorporates a high-temperature membrane. The membrane performance targets were determined. System level benefits were evaluated for a coal-to-hydrogen system that would incorporate membranes with properties that would meet the performance targets. The scientific basis for high temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membranes was evaluated by developing and validating a model for high temperature surface flow membranes. Synthesis approaches were pursued for producing membranes that integrated control of pore size with materials adsorption properties. Room temperature reverse-selectivity for CO{sub 2} was observed and performance at higher temperatures was evaluated. Implications for future membrane development are discussed.

  15. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  16. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of a Solar Hydrogen/Fuel Cell Hybrid Energy System for Grid-Connected Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourkia Lajnef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different energy sources and converters need to be integrated with each other for extended usage of alternative energy, in order to meet sustained load demands during various weather conditions. The objective of this paper is to associate photovoltaic generators, fuel cells, and electrolysers. Here, to sustain the power demand and solve the energy storage problem, electrical energy can be stored in the form of hydrogen. By using an electrolyser, hydrogen can be generated and stored for future use. The hydrogen produced by the electrolyser using PV power is used in the FC system and acts as an energy buffer. Thus, the effects of reduction and even the absence of the available power from the PV system can be easily tackled. Modeling and simulations are performed using MATLAB/Simulink and SimPowerSystems packages and results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  17. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Adams, J.A.; Kinnelly, A.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    In partial fulfillment of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-ACO2-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this conceptual vehicle design report addresses the design and packaging of battery augmented fuel cell powertrain vehicles. This report supplements the {open_quotes}Conceptual Vehicle Design Report - Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes} and includes a cost study of the fuel cell power system. The three classes of vehicles considered in this design and packaging exercise are the same vehicle classes that were studied in the previous report: the Aspire, representing the small vehicle class; the AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, representing the mid-size vehicle; and the E-150 Econoline, representing the van-size class. A preliminary PEM fuel cell power system manufacturing cost study is also presented. As in the case of the previous report concerning the {open_quotes}Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes}, the same assumptions are made for the fuel cell power system. These assumptions are fuel cell system power densities of 0.33 kW/ka and 0.33 kW/l, platinum catalyst loading of less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total, and hydrogen tanks containing compressed gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The batteries considered for power augmentation of the fuel cell vehicle are based on the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program. These are state-of-the-art high power lead acid batteries with power densities ranging from 0.8 kW/kg to 2 kW/kg. The results reported here show that battery augmentation provides the fuel cell vehicle with a power source to meet instant high power demand for acceleration and start-up. Based on the assumptions made in this report, the packaging of the battery augmented fuel cell vehicle appears to be as feasible as the packaging of the pure fuel cell powered vehicle.

  18. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    cycling processes in contaminated aquifers relative to their importance for the biodegradation. The results show that sulfur cycling is an important process driving microbial degradation of contaminants in porous groundwater systems. For the anoxic plume core it appears that elemental sulfur is a key...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....... in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...

  19. Degradation and effect of hydrogen peroxide in small-scale recirculation aquaculture system biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Sune; Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2010-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, hydrogen peroxide (HP) has beneficial attributes compared with other disinfectants in terms of its ready degradation and neutral by-products. The rapid degradation of HP can, however, cause difficulties with regard to safe and efficient water treatment when...... applied in different systems. In this study, we investigated the degradation kinetics of HP in biofilters from water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The potential effect of HP on the nitrification process in the biofilters was also examined. Biofilter elements from two different pilot-scale RAS...... were exposed to various HP treatments in batch experiments, and the HP concentration was found to follow an exponential decay. The biofilter ammonia and nitrite oxidation processes showed quick recuperation after exposure to a single dose of HP up to 30 mg L−1. An average HP concentration of 10–13 mg L...

  20. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RF gauging efforts with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as applicable to subcritical space vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, H. E.; Ott, W.; Stanley, N.

    1974-01-01

    The RF gauging concept is based on the interaction between a fluid dielectric medium in an enclosed metallic cavity and electromagnetic fields set up within that cavity. In RF gauging systems, the fundamental measurement relies on the interpretation of changes in the resonant RF frequencies of an enclosed tank as the mass of the propellant contained in the tank is changed. In addition to a discussion of the basic principles of operation of these systems, the study presents a description of the current breadboard implementation with typical test arrangements, along with supporting test data. The experimental testing of the RF gauging technique for liquid cryogen mass gauging indicates that this technique is a feasible approach to liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen gauging under all attitude or reduced gravity environments.

  2. High precision X-ray spectroscopy in hydrogen-like fermionic and bosonic atomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchert, G.L.; Anagnostopoulos, D.; Augsburger, M.; Belmiloud, D.; Castelli, C.; Chatellard, D.; Daum, M.; Egger, J.P.; El-Khoury, P.; Elble, M.; Frosch, R.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Indelicato, P.; Kirch, K.; Lenz, S.; Nelms, N.; Rashid, K.; Schult, O.W.B. (and others)

    1998-11-15

    Some time after its formation an exotic atom may be considered a hydrogen-like system consisting of a nucleus and an exotic particle in a bound state. In this situation it is an ideal tool to study cascade properties, while for the innermost orbits it can be used to probe the interaction with the nucleus. From an extended series of experiments using high resolution X-ray spectroscopy for both aspects typical examples are reported and preliminary results are given: 1. To determine the complex scattering length in p-barH the 3D{yields}2P hyperfine transitions have been measured. 2. To determine the pion mass the 5 {yields} 4 transitions in {pi}{sup 14}N have been studied. In all cases a major contribution to the uncertainty originates from the calibration. Therefore a new method is proposed that will establish a universal set of high precision calibration lines for pionic, muonic and electronic systems.

  3. Gut Bacteria and Hydrogen Sulfide: The New Old Players in Circulatory System Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasova, Lenka; Konopelski, Piotr; Ufnal, Marcin

    2016-11-17

    Accumulating evidence suggests that gut bacteria play a role in homeostasis of the circulatory system in mammals. First, gut bacteria may affect the nervous control of the circulatory system via the sensory fibres of the enteric nervous system. Second, gut bacteria-derived metabolites may cross the gut-blood barrier and target blood vessels, the heart and other organs involved in the regulation of the circulatory system. A number of studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is an important biological mediator in the circulatory system. Thus far, research has focused on the effects of H₂S enzymatically produced by cardiovascular tissues. However, some recent evidence indicates that H₂S released in the colon may also contribute to the control of arterial blood pressure. Incidentally, sulfate-reducing bacteria are ubiquitous in mammalian colon, and H₂S is just one among a number of molecules produced by the gut flora. Other gut bacteria-derived compounds that may affect the circulatory system include methane, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, trimethylamine or indole. In this paper, we review studies that imply a role of gut microbiota and their metabolites, such as H₂S, in circulatory system homeostasis.

  4. Developing a Model Using Homer for a Hybrid Hydrogen Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera Annisa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hydrogen is widely considered be the fuel of the near future. Combined wind/PV energy hybrid systems can be used to sources energy to hydrogen production. This paper describes design, simulation and feasibility study of a hybrid energy system for a household in Malaysia. One year recorded wind speed and solar radiation are used for the design of a hybrid energy system. In 2000 was average annual wind speed in Johor Bahru is 3.76 m/s and annual average solar energy resource available is 5.08 kWh/m2/day. National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s HOMER software was used to select an optimum hybrid energy system. In the optimization process, HOMER simulates every system configuration in the search space and displays the feasible ones in a table, sorted by total net present cost (TNPC. The optimization study indicates that sensitivity analysis of the HOMER is shown in the overall winner which shows that the most least cost and optimize hybrid system is combination of 10 kW of PV array, 1 unit of wind turbine, 2 kW of fuel cell, 120 units of batteries and 6 kW converter as well as 1 kW of electrolyzer so as to generate the minimum COE, $2.423 kWh- 1. Although renewable sources (wind and PV involved in the power generation, 1 kg of hydrogen was produced in this system. Pengembangan Model Dengan Menggunakan Homer Untuk Sistem Sel Berbahan bakar Hidrogen Hibrida ABSTRAK. Hidrogen secara luas dianggap sebagai bahan bakar masa depan. Gabungan sistem hibrida energi angin/fotovoltaik dapat digunakan untuk sumber energi produksi hidrogen. Makalah ini menjelaskan desain, simulasi dan studi kelayakan dari sistem energi hibrida untuk rumah tangga di Malaysia. Satu tahun kecepatan angin tercatat dan radiasi matahari digunakan untuk desain sistem energi hibrida. Pada tahun 2000 adalah kecepatan angin rata-rata tahunan di Johor Bahru 3.76 m/det dan rata-rata sumber daya energi surya tahunan yang tersedia adalah 5.08 kWjam/m2/ hari. Software HOMER digunakan

  5. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics of the Photon-Hydrogen System and 21 cm Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    A basic physical problem of 21 cm cosmology is the so-called Wouthuysen-Field coupling, which assumes that the resonant scattering of Lyα photons with neutral hydrogen atoms will lock the color temperature of the photon spectrum around the Lyα frequency to be equal to the kinetic temperature of hydrogen gas. This assumption is actually the zeroth thermodynamic law on the formation of the local statistically thermal equilibrium state of the photon-atom system. However, the time-dependent process of approaching a local statistically thermal equilibrium with the kinetic temperature has never been studied, as it needs to solve an integral-differential equation — the radiative transfer equation of the resonant scattering. Recently, with a state-of-the-art numerical method, the formation and evolution of the Wouthuysen-Field coupling has been systematically studied. This paper reviews the physical results, including the time scales of the onset of Wouthuysen-Field coupling, the profile of frequency distribution of photons in the state of local thermal equilibrium, the effects of the expansion of the universe, the Wouthuysen-Field coupling in an optical thick halo, etc.

  6. PROTON ORDERING MODEL OF PHASE TRANSITIONS IN HYDROGEN BONDED FERRIELECTRIC TYPE SYSTEMS: THE GPI CRYSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Stasyuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A microscopic model based on the consideration of the proton ordering is proposed for describing the H-bonded ferroelectric crystalline systems with a complex structure of the hydrogen bond network. The model has been used for the investigation of thermodynamics and dielectric properties of the GPI crystal. The symmetry analysis of the order parameters responsible for the mixed (ferro- and antiferroelectric nature of ordering is performed within the model. The phase transition into the ferroelectric state is described. Changes in the dielectric susceptibility of the crystal are studied in the presence of the transverse external electric field acting along the c-axis. The results of measurements of temperature and field dependences of dielectric permittivity εc' in the paraelectric phase are presented. The microscopic mechanism of the observed effects is discussed based on the comparison of theoretical results and experimental data. A conclusion is made about the significant role of the ionic groups connected by hydrogen bonds in the charge transfer. So they make an important contribution into the polarizability of the GPI crystal along the direction of H-bonded chains.

  7. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Hestekin', Jamie A [Fayetteville, AR; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Pujado, Peter [Kildeer, IL; Oroskar, Anil [Oak Brook, IL; Kulprathipanja, Santi [Inverness, IL; Randhava, Sarabjit [Evanston, IL

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  8. An analytical system for the measurement of stable hydrogen isotopes in ambient volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisehen, T.; Bühler, F.; Koppmann, R.; Krebsbach, M.

    2015-10-01

    Stable isotope measurements in atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an excellent tool to analyse chemical and dynamical processes in the atmosphere. While up to now isotope studies of VOCs in ambient air have mainly focussed on carbon isotopes, we herein present a new measurement system to investigate hydrogen isotope ratios in atmospheric VOCs. This system, consisting of a gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-P-IRMS) and a pre-concentration system, was thoroughly characterised using a VOC test mixture. A precision of better than 9 ‰ (in δ 2H) is achieved for n-pentane, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), n-heptane, 4-methyl-pentane-2-one (4-methyl-2-pentanone), methylbenzene (toluene), n-octane, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. A comparison with independent measurements via elemental analysis shows an accuracy of better than 9 ‰ for n-pentane, n-heptane, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene and n-octane. Above a minimum required pre-concentrated compound mass the obtained δ 2H values are constant within the standard deviations. In addition, a remarkable influence of the pyrolysis process on the isotope ratios is found and discussed. Reliable measurements are only possible if the ceramic tube used for the pyrolysis is sufficiently conditioned, i.e. the inner surface is covered with a carbon layer. It is essential to verify this conditioning regularly and to renew it if required. Furthermore, influences of a necessary H3+ correction and the pyrolysis temperature on the isotope ratios are discussed. Finally, the applicability to measure hydrogen isotope ratios in VOCs at ambient levels is demonstrated with measurements of outside air on 5 different days in February and March 2015. The measured hydrogen isotope ratios range from -136 to -105 ‰ forn-pentane, from -86 to -63 ‰ for toluene, from -39 to -15 ‰ for ethylbenzene, from -99 to -68 ‰ for m/p-xylene and from -45 to -34 ‰ for o-xylene.

  9. Efficiency assessment of an integrated gasifier/boiler system for hydrogen production with different biomass types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we utilize some experimental data taken from the literature, especially on the air-blown gasification characteristics of six different biomass fuels, namely almond shell (ASF), walnut pruning (WPF), rice straw (RSF), whole tree wood chips (WWF), sludge (SLF) and non-recyclable waste paper (NPF) in order to study the thermodynamic performance of an integrated gasifier-boiler power system for its hydrogen production. In this regard, both energy and exergy efficiencies of the system are investigated. The exergy contents of different biomass fuels are calculated to be ranging from 15.89 to 22.07 MJ/kg, respectively. The hydrogen concentrations based on the stack gases at the cyclone exit are determined to be between 7 and 18 (%v/v) for NPF and ASF. Also, percentages of combustible vary from 30% to 46%. The stack gas has physical and chemical exergies. The total specific exergy rates are calculated and illustrated. These values change from 3.54 to 6.41 MJ/kg. Then, two types of exergy efficiencies are calculated, such as that exergy efficiency 1 is examined via all system powers, exergy and efficiency 2 is calculated according to specific exergy rates of biomass fuels and product gases. While the exergy efficiencies 1 change between 4.33% and 11.89%, exergy efficiencies 2 vary from 18.33% to 39.64%. Also, irreversibilities range from 9.76 to 18.02 MJ/kg. Finally, we investigate how nitrogen contents of biomass fuels affect on energy and exergy efficiencies. The SLF has the highest amount of nitrogen content as 5.64% db while the NPF has the lowest one as 0.14% db. The minimum and maximum exergetic efficiencies belong to the same fuels. Obviously, the higher the nitrogen content the lower the efficiency based on an inverse ratio between exergy efficiency and nitrogen content. (author)

  10. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.1 technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina; Hecht, Ethan; Reynolds, John Thomas; Blaylock, Myra L.; Erin E. Carrier

    2017-03-01

    The HyRAM software toolkit provides a basis for conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence modeling for hydrogen infrastructure and transportation systems. HyRAM is designed to facilitate the use of state-of-the-art science and engineering models to conduct robust, repeatable assessments of hydrogen safety, hazards, and risk. HyRAM is envisioned as a unifying platform combining validated, analytical models of hydrogen behavior, a stan- dardized, transparent QRA approach, and engineering models and generic data for hydrogen installations. HyRAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. De- partment of Energy to increase access to technical data about hydrogen safety and to enable the use of that data to support development and revision of national and international codes and standards. This document provides a description of the methodology and models contained in the HyRAM version 1.1. HyRAM 1.1 includes generic probabilities for hydrogen equipment fail- ures, probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, and computa- tionally and experimentally validated analytical and first order models of hydrogen release and flame physics. HyRAM 1.1 integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing hydrogen hazards (thermal effects from jet fires, overpressure effects from deflagrations), and assessing impact on people and structures. HyRAM is a prototype software in active development and thus the models and data may change. This report will be updated at appropriate developmental intervals.

  11. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  12. Time-resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of a Cobalt-Based Hydrogen Evolution System for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Gimbert, Carolina; Lehmann, Carl; Southworth, Stephen; Llobet, Antoni; Argonne National Laboratory Team; Institut Català d'Investigació Química Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Production of cost-effective hydrogen gas through solar power is an important challenge of the Department of Energy among other global industry initiatives. In natural photosynthesis, the oxygen evolving complex(OEC) can carry out four-electron water splitting to hydrogen with an efficiency of around 60%. Although, much progress has been carried out in determining mechanistic pathways of the OEC, biomimetic approaches have not duplicated Nature's efficiency in function. Over the past years, we have witnessed progress in developments of light harvesting modules, so called chromophore/catalytic assemblies. In spite of reportedly high catalytic activity of these systems, quantum yields of hydrogen production are below 40 % when using monochromatic light. Proper understanding of kinetics and bond making/breaking steps has to be achieved to improve efficiency of hydrogen evolution systems. This project shows the timing implementation of ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy to visualize in ``real time'' the photo-induced kinetics accompanying a sequence of redox reactions in a cobalt-based molecular photocatalytic system. Formation of a Co(I) species followed by a Co(III) hydride species all the way towards hydrogen evolution is shown through time-resolved XANES.

  13. Fuel-rich hydrogen-air combustion for a gas-turbine system without CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Namo, Takamitsu; Arai, Norio [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Energy Conversion

    1997-02-01

    We propose a new and innovative gas-turbine system using fuel-rich hydrogen combustion, which we call a chemical gas-turbine system. It involves a fuel-rich hydrogen-air combustor as a major component. We have focused on a coaxial diffusion flame under normal pressure. The effects of equivalence ratio and swirl number have been investigated by measuring temperature profiles, gas composition, and flame structures using direct observations of OH radical emissions. The flames were shortened and NO{sub x} emission decreased with swirling under fuel-rich conditions. (author)

  14. Effect of water electrolysis temperature of hydrogen production system using direct coupling photovoltaic and water electrolyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuhiko Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose control methods of a photovoltaic (PV-water electrolyzer (ELY system that generates hydrogen by controlling the number of ELY cells. The advantage of this direct coupling between PV and ELY is that the power loss of DC/DC converter is avoided. In this study, a total of 15 ELY cells are used. In the previous researches, the electrolyzer temperature was constantly controlled with a thermostat. Actually, the electrolyzer temperature is decided by the balance of the electrolysis loss and the heat loss to the outside. Here, the method to control the number of ELY cells was investigated. Maximum Power Point Tracking efficiency of more than 96% was achieved without ELY temperature control. Furthermore we construct a numerical model taking into account of ELY temperature. Using this model, we performed a numerical simulation of 1-year. Experimental data and the simulation results shows the validity of the proposed control method.

  15. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  16. Hydrogen as a link between sustainable mobility and transition of the German energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conreder, Alexander [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Even 15 years ago, the predictions with regard to the market penetration of fuel cell automobiles or of so-called fuel cell heaters were communicated with differing statements. Daimler Benz AG, as it still was back then, had put their faith in the rapid integration of a fuel cell into the vehicle, whereas companies such as Vaillant, Hamburger Gas Consult, Sulzer Hexis or even MTU and Siemens were working on stationary fuel cell systems. The expectations at that time with regard to market and technology development have still not yet been fulfilled. Today, the subject has been given a new lease of life thanks to the public discussions regarding the energy transition and the current framework conditions. Many concepts that have already been under consideration, but which very few have considered realistic in the short-term, now appear at least to have come within reach. As a result of the fluctuations in the generation of renewable energies, Germany needs loads that can be switched and, above all, methods of storing energy. In conjunction with new technologies, such as PEM electrolysis and the pressure which has been put on politics to react and to create the necessary framework conditions, a new momentum has developed with regard to the use of hydrogen. This article analyses to what extent synergies between energy transition and mobility can be expected within the context of hydrogen. With a view to quantity, times and local relationships, quality and price, we have been able to determine that the relevant amounts and dependencies have a positive and relevant magnitude to one another, thus synergies are present. It should be noted that hydrogen will not be the sole solution for the Federal Government when it comes to achieving CO{sub 2} reduction aims. Electrical mobility with approaches for bidirectional charging, new storage technologies and alternative energy carriers, switchable loads as well as the local public transport systems and new mobility concepts will

  17. Bane of Hydrogen-Bond Formation on the Photoinduced Charge-Transfer Process in Donor–Acceptor Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu

    2017-03-14

    Controlling the ultrafast dynamical process of photoinduced charge transfer at donor acceptor interfaces remains a major challenge for physical chemistry and solar cell communities. The process is complicated by the involvement of other complex dynamical processes, including hydrogen bond formation, energy transfer, and solvation dynamics occurring on similar time scales. In this study, we explore the remarkable impact of hydrogen-bond formation on the interfacial charge transfer between a negatively charged electron donating anionic porphyrin and a positively charged electron accepting pi-conjugated polymer, as a model system in solvents with different polarities and capabilities for hydiogen bonding using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Unlike the conventional understanding of the key role of hydrogen bonding in promoting the charge-transfer process, our steadystate and time-resolved results reveal that the intervening hydrogen-bonding environment and, consequently, the probable longer spacing between the donor and acceptor molecules significantly hinders the charge-transfer process between them. These results show that site-specific hydrogen bonding and geometric considerations between donor and acceptor can be exploited to control both the charge-transfer dynamics and its efficiency not only at donor acceptor interfaces but also in complex biological systems.

  18. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, B V; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, "gasotransmitters" in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST) from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO), which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress.

  19. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Nagpure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, “gasotransmitters” in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO, which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress.

  20. Comparison of Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection Systems and Solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Reanne; Kilvington, Simon

    2001-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba causing a potentially blinding infection of the cornea. Contact lens wearers are most at risk and account for some 95% of cases. Hydrogen peroxide is used for contact lens disinfection due to its broad antimicrobial activity. Lenses must be neutralized before use to avoid pronounced stinging and possible corneal damage. Neutralization is achieved by adding a catalyst during the disinfection process (one-step) or afterwards (two-step). Here, the activities of commercial peroxide systems and individual solutions against trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga were compared. All disinfection systems were active against trophozoites, giving a ≥3-log (99.9%) kill within 1 h. Of the four one-step systems, only one showed some cysticidal activity, giving a 1.28 ± 0.41-log reduction. Both two-step systems were cysticidal, giving a ≥3-log kill at 4 h. All system peroxide solutions were cysticidal, giving a ≥3-log kill by 4 to 6 h. Variation in the cysticidal rate was observed with two solutions that gave a 1.8- to 2.1-log kill at 4 h compared with 3.0 to 4.0 for the rest (P sodium perborate or the contact lens protein remover subtilisin A. Two-step systems are cysticidal providing contact times of at least 4 h are employed. Variation in cyst killing occurs between peroxide solutions, possibly due to formulation differences. One-step systems are less effective against Acanthamoeba cysts due to rapid peroxide neutralization. The cysticidal activity of one-step systems could be improved if neutralization rates were retarded. PMID:11408220

  1. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  2. The Ti-V-Fe ternary alloy system and its application to hydrogen storage; Le systeme ternaire Ti-V-Fe et son application au stockage d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicot, B.; Jobert, J.M.; Latroche, M. [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est vient, CNRS, 94 - Thiais (France)

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the samples synthesized on a wide composition range of the system Ti-V-Fe have allowed to specify the isothermal section at 1000 C and to give data on the expansion of the centered cubic structure, attractive for hydrogen storage. (O.M.)

  3. Outline of operation and control system and analytical investigation of transient behavior of an out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Haga, Katsuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Hino, Ryutaro

    1997-10-01

    The hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas is to be constructed to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization systems with the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test system is planned to investigate the system characteristics, to develop high-temperature components such as a reformer, a high-temperature isolation valve and so on, and to verify operation and control technologies and safety technology at accidents. This paper presents outline of operation and control systems and analytical review of transient behavior of the out-of-pile hydrogen production system. Main function of the operation and control systems is made not to give disturbance to the HTTR at transient state under start-up and stop operations. The operation modes are separated into two ones, namely normal and accident operation modes, and operation sequences are made for each operation mode. The normal operation sequence includes start-up, steady operation and stop of the out-of-pile system. The accident one deals with accident conditions at which supply of feed gas is stopped and helium gas is cooled passively by the steam generator. Transient behavior of the out-of-pile system was analyzed numerically according as the operation sequences. As the results, it was confirmed that the designed operation and control systems are adequate to the out-of-pile system. (author)

  4. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle

  5. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  6. Sabatier Reactor System Integration with Microwave Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Post-Processor for Closed-Loop Hydrogen Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Williams, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) designed and developed for the International Space Station (ISS) represents the state-of-the-art in carbon dioxide reduction (CDRe) technology. The CRA produces water and methane by reducing carbon dioxide with hydrogen via the Sabatier reaction. The water is recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) and the methane is vented overboard resulting in a net loss of hydrogen. The proximity to earth and the relative ease of logistics resupply from earth allow for a semi-closed system on ISS. However, long-term manned space flight beyond low earth orbit (LEO) dictates a more thoroughly closed-loop system involving significantly higher recovery of hydrogen, and subsequent recovery of oxygen, to minimize costs associated with logistics resupply beyond LEO. The open-loop ISS system for CDRe can be made closed-loop for follow-on missions by further processing methane to recover hydrogen. For this purpose, a process technology has been developed that employs a microwave-generated plasma to reduce methane to hydrogen and acetylene resulting in 75% theoretical recovery of hydrogen. In 2009, a 1-man equivalent Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for technical evaluation. The PPA has been integrated with a Sabatier Development Unit (SDU). The integrated process configuration incorporates a sorbent bed to eliminate residual carbon dioxide and water vapor in the Sabatier methane product stream before it enters the PPA. This paper provides detailed information on the stand-alone and integrated performance of both the PPA and SDU. Additionally, the integrated test stand design and anticipated future work are discussed.

  7. Vital tooth whitening with a novel hydrogen peroxide strip system: design, kinetics, and clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, P A; Odioso, L L; McMillan, D A; Gerlach, R W

    2000-01-01

    For many years, at-home whitening has been used with great success and produces some of the most satisfying results of all dental procedures. Historically, the most common procedure used was a custom-fabricated tray loaded with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel that was worn overnight. Today, many manufacturers offer higher concentrations (15% and 20% carbamide peroxide) for faster results. Regardless of the peroxide concentration used, the custom tray delivery system has remained essentially the same. Recently, a trayless whitening system was developed that does not require any prefabrication or gel loading. The new delivery system is a thin, conformable strip precoated with an adhesive hydrogen peroxide gel. Each preloaded strip is presented on a backing liner. To use the strip, it is peeled off of the backing liner and applied to the facial surfaces of the anterior teeth. Each strip is worn for 30 minutes, removed, and discarded. The strip holds the gel in place for sufficient time to allow the peroxide to intrinsically and extrinsically whiten the teeth. The highly flexible strips conform intimately to the tooth surface and provide a uniform, controlled application of the peroxide gel.

  8. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  9. Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume II. Combustion tests of blends in burners and appliances. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31% hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    The emerging ''hydrogen economy'' is a strong contender as one method to supplement or extend the domestic natural gas supply. This volume of the subject study ''Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes combustion studies to determine the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be blended in natural gas and utilized satisfactorily in typical appliances with no adjustment or conversion. Eleven pilot burners and twenty-three main burners typical of those in current use were operated on hydrogen-natural gas mixtures containing approximately 8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31 percent, by volume, hydrogen. The eleven pilot burners and thirteen main burners were tested outside the appliance they were a part of. Ten main burners were tested in their respective appliances. Performance of the various burners tested are as follows: (1) Gas blends containing more than 6 to 11% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for target type pilot burners. (2) Gas blends containing more than 20 to 22% hyrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners operating in the open. (3) Gas blends containing more than 22 to 25% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners tested in appliances. (4) Modification of the orifice in target pilots or increasing the supply pressure to a minimum of 7 inches water column will permit the use of gas blends with 20% hydrogen.

  10. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  11. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  12. Modeling the vapor-liquid equilibria of polymer-solvent mixtures: Systems with complex hydrogen bonding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The vapor–liquid equilibria of binary polymer–solvent systems was modeled using the Non-Random Hydrogen Bonding (NRHB) model. Mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl acetate) with various solvents were investigated, while emphasis was put on h...

  13. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  14. Bioelectrochemical production of hydrogen in an innovative pressure-retarded osmosis/microbial electrolysis cell system: experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Heyang; Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    While microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously produce bioelectrochemical hydrogen and treat wastewater, they consume considerable energy to overcome the unfavorable thermodynamics, which is not sustainable and economically feasible in practical applications. This study presents a proof-of-concept system in which hydrogen can be produced in an MEC powered by theoretically predicated energy from pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). The system consists of a PRO unit that extracts high-quality water and generates electricity from water osmosis, and an MEC for organic removal and hydrogen production. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated using simulated PRO performance (in terms of energy production and effluent quality) and experimental MEC results (e.g., hydrogen production and organic removal). The PRO and MEC models were proven to be valid. The model predicted that the PRO unit could produce 485 mL of clean water and 579 J of energy with 600 mL of draw solution (0.8 M of NaCl). The amount of the predicated energy was applied to the MEC by a power supply, which drove the MEC to remove 93.7 % of the organic compounds and produce 32.8 mL of H2 experimentally. Increasing the PRO influent volume and draw concentration could produce more energy for the MEC operation, and correspondingly increase the MEC hydraulic retention time (HRT) and total hydrogen production. The models predicted that at an external voltage of 0.9 V, the MEC energy consumption reached the maximum PRO energy production. With a higher external voltage, the MEC energy consumption would exceed the PRO energy production, leading to negative effects on both organic removal and hydrogen production. The PRO-MEC system holds great promise in addressing water-energy nexus through organic removal, hydrogen production, and water recovery: (1) the PRO unit can reduce the volume of wastewater and extract clean water; (2) the PRO effluents can be further treated by the MEC; and (3) the

  15. Temperature dependence of the rate constant of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuri [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mukanova, Aliya [Al’ Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuri; Barsukov, Nikolay; Tulubaev, Evgeniy [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Platacis, Erik [University of Latvia (IPUL), Riga (Latvia); Kenzhin, Ergazy [Shakarim Semey State University, Semey (Kazakhstan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The experiments with Li CPS sample were carried out at reactor IVG-1.M. • The gas absorption technique was used to study hydrogen isotope interaction with lithium CPS. • The temperature dependence of constants of interaction rate was obtained for various power rates of the reactor. • Determination of the activation energies, and pre-exponents of Arrhenius dependence. • The effect of increase of the rate constant under reaction irradiation. -- Abstract: Experiments with a sample of a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) were performed at the reactor IVG-1.M of the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the parameters of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium CPS. The absorption technique was used during the experiments, and this technique allowed the temperature dependences of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate constants with the lithium CPS to be obtained under various reactor powers. The obtained dependencies were used to determine the main interaction parameters: the activation energies and the pre-exponents of the Arrhenius dependence of the hydrogen interaction rate constants with lithium and the lithium CPS. An increase of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate with the lithium CPS was observed under reactor irradiation.

  16. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of metal hydride based hydrogen storage systems using in-situ Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bellosta von Colbe, J. M.; Bücherl, T.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-10-01

    For the storage of hydrogen, complex metal hydrides are considered as highly promising with respect to capacity, reversibility and safety. The optimization of corresponding storage tanks demands a precise and time-resolved investigation of the hydrogen distribution in scaled-up metal hydride beds. In this study it is shown that in situ fission Neutron Radiography provides unique insights into the spatial distribution of hydrogen even for scaled-up compacts and therewith enables a direct study of hydrogen storage tanks. A technique is introduced for the precise quantification of both time-resolved data and a priori material distribution, allowing inter alia for an optimization of compacts manufacturing process. For the first time, several macroscopic fields are combined which elucidates the great potential of Neutron Imaging for investigations of metal hydrides by going further than solely 'imaging' the system: A combination of in-situ Neutron Radiography, IR-Thermography and thermodynamic quantities can reveal the interdependency of different driving forces for a scaled-up sodium alanate pellet by means of a multi-correlation analysis. A decisive and time-resolved, complex influence of material packing density is derived. The results of this study enable a variety of new investigation possibilities that provide essential information on the optimization of future hydrogen storage tanks.

  17. Optimization studies of bio-hydrogen production in a coupled microbial electrolysis-dye sensitized solar cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho Francis; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Chang, In Seop; Kim, In S

    2010-03-01

    Bio-hydrogen production in light-assisted microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was optimized by connecting multiple MECs to a single dye (N719) sensitized solar cell (V(OC) approx. 0.7 V). Hydrogen production occurred simultaneously in all the connected MECs when the solar cell was irradiated with light. The amount of hydrogen produced in each MEC depends on the activity of the microbial catalyst on their anode. Substrate (acetate) to hydrogen conversion efficiencies ranging from 42% to 65% were obtained from the reactors during the experiment. A moderate light intensity of 430 W m(-2) was sufficient for hydrogen production in the coupled MEC-DSSC. A higher light intensity of 915 W m(-2), as well as an increase in substrate concentration, did not show any improvement in the current density due to limitation caused by the rate of microbial oxidation on the anode. A significant reduction in the surface area of the connected DSSC only showed a slight effect on current density in the coupled MEC-DSSC system when irradiated with light.

  18. Reordering hydrogen bonds using Hamiltonian replica exchange enhances sampling of conformational changes in biomolecular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.; Wolf, M.G.; de Leeuw, S.W.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen bonds play an important role in stabilizing (meta-)stable states in protein folding. Hence, they can potentially be used as a way to bias these states in molecular simulation methods. Previously, Wolf et al. showed that applying repulsive and attractive hydrogen bond biasing potentials in

  19. Modification and testing of an engine and fuel control system for a hydrogen fuelled gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, H. H.-W.; Börner, S.; Hendrick, P.; Recker, E.

    2011-10-01

    The control of pollutant emissions has become more and more important by the development of new gas turbines. The use of hydrogen produced by renewable energy sources could be an alternative. Besides the reduction of NOx emissions emerged during the combustion process, another major question is how a hydrogen fuelled gas turbine including the metering unit can be controlled and operated. This paper presents a first insight in modifications on an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) GTCP 36300 for using gaseous hydrogen as a gas turbine fuel. For safe operation with hydrogen, the metering of hydrogen has to be fast, precise, and secure. So, the quality of the metering unit's control loop has an important influence on this topic. The paper documents the empiric determination of the proportional integral derivative (PID) control parameters for the metering unit.

  20. Molecular hydrogen and excitation in the HH 1-2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Garnavich, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    We present a series of molecular hydrogen images of the Herbig-Haro 1-2 system in the 1-0 S(1) transition at 2.121 microns, with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 sec. The distribution of H2 is then compared with that of the excitation, given by the (S II) 6717+6731 to H-alpha line ratio. We find that most optical condensations in the HH 1-2 system, including the VLA 1 jet, have H2 counterparts. H2 emission is detected in most low excitation knots, as expected for low velocity shocks (50 km/s less than), but also in high excitation regions, like in HH 1F and HH 2A min. For these latter objects, the H2 emission could be due to the interaction of the preionizing flux, produced by 150-200 km/s shocks, with the surrounding interstellar matter, i.e., fluorescence. The lack fluorescent lines in the ultraviolet (UV), however, suggest a different mechanism. H2 is detected at the tip of the VLA 1 jet, where the knot morphology suggests the presence of a second bow shock. H2 is detected also SE of HH 2E and SW of HH 1F, in regions with known NH3 emission.

  1. Quantum cascade laser-based sensor system for hydrogen peroxide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Jiang, Wenzhe; Sanchez, Nancy; Patimisco, Pietro; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Zah, Chung-en; Xie, Feng; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2013-12-01

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor system was developed for the sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using its absorption transitions in the v6 fundamental band near 7.73 μm. The recent availability of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs) provides convenient access to a strong H2O2 absorption line located at 1295.55 cm-1. Sensor calibration was performed by means of a water bubbler that generated titrated average vapor concentrations. A minimum detection limit of 75 parts per billion (ppb) was achieved at a pressure of 80 torr for a 1 sec data acquisition time. The long-term repeatability and stability of the sensor was investigated by measuring time-varying H2O2 mixtures for ~2 hrs. An Allan deviation analysis was performed to investigate the long-term performance of the QEPAS sensor system, indicating the feasibility of a minimum detection limit of 12 ppb using the optimum data averaging time of 100 sec.

  2. Techno-economical optimization of the production of hydrogen from PV-wind systems connected to the electrical grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    This paper shows a complete techno-economical analysis on facilities that make use of wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) generators for the production of hydrogen by means of electrolysis. Besides, the surplus of electrical energy produced can be sold and injected to the electrical grid. In the case studies, several scenarios have been considered with changing values for the prize of the electricity sold to the electrical grid as this is one of the parameters that most influences economical calculations. We have also made a sensitivity analysis depending on the prize of components and on the economical and meteorological changes. In each scenario - for each hour and for a period of one year - a great number of possible combinations of the system components have been simulated. These components are: photovoltaic generator, wind turbines, rectifier, inverter, electrolyser and other auxiliary elements. Each system, each combination of elements, once simulated, has been economically evaluated thus making it possible to select the best one. In the assessment of each system, there were two objectives to minimize: one of them is hydrogen selling price so the Net Present Value (NPV) equals nil and the other one is hydrogen selling price in order to recover the invested capital in a given number of years. The results achieved show that with the present cost of the components needed, and with the solar irradiation and wind conditions considered in this study, the selling price of hydrogen produced by means of electrolysis should be high in order to recover the initial investment of a PV-Wind system in a reasonable lapse of time (ten years). Nevertheless, the rising price of the spare energy sold and injected to the electrical grid by this type of equipment could help decrease hydrogen selling price. (author)

  3. Quantum cascade laser-based multipass absorption system for hydrogen peroxide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingchun; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Jiang, Wenzhe; Ren, Wei; Lewicki, Rafal; Jiang, Dongfang; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relevant molecular trace gas species, that is related to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the production of radical species such as OH, the generation of sulfate aerosol via oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), and the formation of acid rain. The detection of atmospheric H2O2 involves specific challenges due to its high reactivity and low concentration (ppbv to sub-ppbv level). Traditional methods for measuring atmospheric H2O2 concentration are often based on wet-chemistry methods that require a transfer from the gas- to liquid-phase for a subsequent determination by techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, which can lead to problems such as sampling artifacts and interference by other atmospheric constituents. A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based system for the measurement of atmospheric H2O2 with a detection limit of 75 ppb for 1-s integration time was previously reported. In this paper, an updated H2O2 detection system based on long-optical-path-length absorption spectroscopy by using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) will be described. A 7.73-μm CW-DFB-QCL and a thermoelectrically cooled infrared detector, optimized for a wavelength of 8 μm, are employed for theH2O2 sensor system. A commercial astigmatic Herriott multi-pass cell with an effective optical path-length of 76 m is utilized for the reported QCL multipass absorption system. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with second harmonic detection is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise-ratio. A minimum detection limit of 13.4 ppb is achieved with a 2 s sampling time. Based on an Allan-Werle deviation analysis the minimum detection limit can be improved to 1.5 ppb when using an averaging time of 300 s.

  4. Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, E. J.; Salvatore, E.; Munjiza, A.; Suponitsky, V.; Plant, D.; Laberge, M.

    2017-08-01

    An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots.

  5. Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, George

    2010-12-22

    One of the two major themes of the proposal was to study quantum coherence in stressed hydrogen bond networks. Our experiments on double wall carbon nanotubes and two versions of Nafion, together with earlier work on water confined in xerogel and in single wall carbon nanotubes demonstrate that water confined in dimensions on the order of 20 Angstroms is in a qualitatively different quantum ground state than bulk water. It cannot be described as a collection of molecules interacting only electrostatically. This has major implications for biology, where most of the water in the cell is confined to distances on that order, and for fuel cell development using Nafion like materials, where the conduction mechanism is expected to be strongly affected by the quantum state of the water. We have demonstrated its importance in the binding of water molecules to DNA. Protein folding experiments at several concentrations have been carried out and are presently being analyzed. Initial analysis shows strong temperature dependent effects on the proton momentum distribution. The theoretical work proposed has been completed, and complements the experiments by demonstrating that even in room temperature bulk water, the electron density overlap between donor and acceptor molecules in the hydrogen bond has a significant measurable effect on the momentum distribution of the protons. The electrons are distributed throughout the hydrogen bond network, not simply in localized molecules. We had proposed to look at low coverage experiments on MCM-41, and have done so, revealing the details of the interaction of water molecules with silanol groups. Related experiments, not proposed, on water layers on SnO2 and TiO2 powders have confirmed the strong deviations of the proton momentum distribution for water molecules adsorbed on these surfaces. These results are not yet published. Another major theme was to measure Born-Oppenheimer potentials in M3H(XO4)2 systems. We have done this for Rb3(SO4

  6. FT-IR and NIR spectroscopic investigation of hydrogen bonding in indole-ether systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordić, B.; Kovačević, M.; Sloboda, T.; Vidović, A.; Jović, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports FTIR and NIR spectroscopic study of hydrogen bonding between indole and different ethers in carbon tetrachloride. With increase in ether concentration increase in intensity of red-shifted band, and decrease of intensity of monomer band has been observed. The FTIR and NIR spectroscopic characteristics for N-H⋯O hydrogen bonded complexes and also the equilibrium constants for 1:1 complex formation are given. Influence of structural differences of ethers on hydrogen bonding was investigated using Taft equation. Good correlation has been obtained.

  7. An S-N2-model for proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    A new mechanism of proton transfer in donor-acceptor complexes with long hydrogen bonds is suggested. The transition is regarded as totally adiabatic. Two closest water molecules that move synchronously by hindered translation to and from the reaction complex are crucial. The water molecules induce...... a shift of the proton from the donor to the acceptor with simultaneous breaking/formation of hydrogen bonds between these molecules and the proton donor and acceptor. Expressions for the activation barrier and kinetic hydrogen isotope effect are derived. The general scheme is illustrated with the use...

  8. A simple and realistic model system for studying hydrogen bonds in beta-sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Hinnemann, Berit; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    and antiparallel structures. The calculated structures of alanine are compared to x-ray structures of beta-sheets and the model is found to reproduce the geometry of the hydrogen bonds very well both concerning parallel and antiparallel beta-sheets. We investigate the structures of both the N-H...O=C and the C......-alpha-H...O=C hydrogen bonds. The former is thoroughly investigated, whereas the structure of the latter still is the subject of much discussion. We show that the hydrogen bonds between peptide chains are considerably weaker than what is found in studies of smaller models, e.g., the N-methylacetamide molecule...

  9. Field-controlled electron transfer and reaction kinetics of the biological catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongki Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled reaction kinetics of the bio-catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide has been achieved using an electrostatic technique. The technique allowed independent control of 1 the thermodynamics of the system using electrochemical setup and 2 the quantum mechanical tunneling at the interface between microperoxidase-11 and the working electrode by applying a gating voltage to the electrode. The cathodic currents of electrodes immobilized with microperoxidase-11 showed a dependence on the gating voltage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, indicating a controllable reduction reaction. The measured kinetic parameters of the bio-catalytic reduction showed nonlinear dependences on the gating voltage as the result of modified interfacial electron tunnel due to the field induced at the microperoxidase-11-electrode interface. Our results indicate that the kinetics of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide can be controlled by a gating voltage and illustrate the operation of a field-effect bio-catalytic transistor, whose current-generating mechanism is the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water with the current being controlled by the gating voltage.

  10. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  11. Molecular hydrogen: a benchmark system for near threshold resonances in high partial waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, D.; Simbotin, I.; Côté, R.

    2017-10-01

    Benchmark reactions involving molecular hydrogen, such as H2 + D or H2 + Cl, provide the ideal platforms to investigate the effect of near threshold resonances (NTR) on scattering processes. Due to the small reduced mass of such systems, shape resonances in certain partial waves can provide features at scattering energies up to a few kelvin, achievable in current experiments. We explore the effects of NTRs on elastic and inelastic scattering for various partial waves ℓ (in the case of H2 + Cl for s-wave and H2 + D for p-wave scattering) and find that NTRs lead to a different energy scaling of the cross sections as compared to the well known Wigner threshold regime. We give a theoretical analysis based on Jost functions, and we explore the NTR effects for higher partial waves using a simple model that incorporates the key ingredients of coupled-channel scattering problems. The effect of long-range interactions is also discussed, with special attention paid to the appearance of an effective Wigner regime for elastic scattering in certain partial waves.

  12. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  13. Calibrating the Helium Pressurization System for the Space Shuttle Liquid-Hydrogen Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the results from the STS-114 tanking tests and subsequent launch called into question existing thermal and mass models of helium pressurization of the liquid hydrogen tank. This hydrogen tank, which makes up the bottom two-thirds of the External Tank, is pressurized prior to launch to avoid cavitation in the Shuttle Main Engine pumps. At about 2 minutes prior to launch, the main vent valve is closed, and pressurized helium flows into the tank ullage space to achieve set point pressure. As the helium gas cools, its pressure drops, calling for additional helium. Subsequent helium flows are provided in short, timed pulses. The number of pulses is taken as a rough leak indicator. An analysis of thermal models by Marshall Space Flight Center showed considerable uncertainty in the pressure-versus-time behavior of the helium ullage space and the ability to predict the number of pulses normally expected. Kennedy Space Center proposed to calibrate the dime-sized orifice, which together with valves, controls the helium flow quantity (Figure 1). Pressure and temperature sensors were installed to provide upstream and downstream measurements necessary to compute flow rate based on the orifice discharge coefficient. An assessment of flow testing with helium indicated an extremely costly use of this critical resource. In order to reduce costs, we proposed removing the orifices from each Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) and asking Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI) to calibrate the flow. CEESI has a high-pressure air flow system with traceable flow meters capable of handling the large flow rates. However, literature research indicated that square-edged orifices of small diameters often exhibit significant hysteresis and nonrepeatability in the vicinity of choked or sonic flow. Fortunately, the MLP orifices behaved relatively well in testing (Figure 2). Using curve fitting of the air-flow data, in conjunction with ASME orifice modeling equations, a

  14. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  15. Informing hazardous zones for on-board maritime hydrogen liquid and gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bran Anleu, Gabriela A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Proctor, Camron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The significantly higher buoyancy of hydrogen compared to natural gas means that hazardous zones defined in the IGF code may be inaccurate if applied to hydrogen. This could place undue burden on ship design or could lead to situations that are unknowingly unsafe. We present dispersion analyses to examine three vessel case studies: (1) abnormal external vents of full blowdown of a liquid hydrogen tank due to a failed relief device in still air and with crosswind; (2) vents due to naturally-occurring boil-off of liquid within the tank; and (3) a leak from the pipes leading into the fuel cell room. The size of the hydrogen plumes resulting from a blowdown of the tank depend greatly on the wind conditions. It was also found that for normal operations releasing a small amount of "boil- off" gas to regulate the pressure in the tank does not create flammable concentrations.

  16. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) supported by Lockheed Martin and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier...

  17. Techno-economic analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind/battery/hydrogen systems for very small-scale applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of three stand-alone hybrid power systems based on renewable energy sources which supply a specific group of low-power consumers. This particular case includes measuring sensors and obstacle lights on a meteorological mast for wind measurements requiring an uninterrupted power supply in cold climate conditions. Although these low-power (100 W measuring sensors and obstacle lights use little energy, their energy consumption is not the same as the available solar energy obtained on a daily or seasonal basis. In the paper, complementarity of renewable energy sources was analysed, as well as one of short-term lead-acid battery-based storage and seasonal, hydrogen-based (electrolyser, H2 tank, and fuel cells storage. These relatively complex power systems were proposed earlier for high-power consumers only, while this study specifically highlights the role of the hydrogen system for supplying low-power consumers. The analysis employed a numerical simulation method using the HOMER software tool. The results of the analysis suggest that solar and wind-solar systems, which involve meteorological conditions as referred to in this paper, include a relatively large number of lead-acid batteries. Additionally, the analysis suggests that the use of hydrogen power systems for supplying low power-consumers is entirely justifiable, as it significantly reduces the number of batteries (two at minimum in this particular case. It was shown that the increase in costs induced by the hydrogen system is acceptable.

  18. Conversion of organic solid waste to hydrogen and methane by two-stage fermentation system with reuse of methane fermenter effluent as diluting water in hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Moon, Chungman; Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a two-stage system converting organic solid waste (food waste+sewage sludge) to H2 and CH4 was operated. In the first stage of dark fermentative hydrogen production (DFHP), a recently proposed method that does not require external inoculum, was applied. In the second stage, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr) were followed to treat H2 fermenter effluent. (H2+CH4-ASBR) system showed better performance in terms of total biogas conversion (78.6%), while higher biogas production rate (2.03 L H2/Lsystem/d, 1.96 L CH4/Lsystem/d) was achieved in (H2+CH4-UASBr) system. To reduce the alkali addition requirement in DFHP process, CH4 fermenter effluent was tested as a diluting water. Both the ASBR and UASBr effluent was effective to keep the pH above 6 without CH4 production. In case of using ASBR effluent, H2 production dropped by 15%, but alkali addition requirement was reduced by 50%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on Liquid Management Technology in Water Tank and Reactor for Propulsion System with Hydrogen Production System Utilizing Aluminum and Water Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryoji; Imamura, Takuya; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Higashino, Kazuyuki

    2017-12-01

    High pressure hydrogen produced by aluminum and water reaction is considered to be applied to space propulsion system. Water tank and hydrogen production reactor in this propulsion system require gas and liquid separation function under microgravity condition. We consider to install vane type liquid acquisition device (LAD) utilizing surface tension in the water tank, and install gas-liquid separation mechanism by centrifugal force which swirling flow creates in the hydrogen reactor. In water tank, hydrophilic coating was covered on both tank wall and vane surface to improve wettability. Function of LAD in water tank and gas-liquid separation in reaction vessel were evaluated by short duration microgravity experiments using drop tower facility. In the water tank, it was confirmed that liquid was driven and acquired on the outlet due to capillary force created by vanes. In addition of this, it was found that gas-liquid separation worked well by swirling flow in hydrogen production reactor. However, collection of hydrogen gas bubble was sometimes suppressed by aluminum alloy particles, which is open problem to be solved.

  20. Research on Liquid Management Technology in Water Tank and Reactor for Propulsion System with Hydrogen Production System Utilizing Aluminum and Water Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryoji; Imamura, Takuya; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Higashino, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-01

    High pressure hydrogen produced by aluminum and water reaction is considered to be applied to space propulsion system. Water tank and hydrogen production reactor in this propulsion system require gas and liquid separation function under microgravity condition. We consider to install vane type liquid acquisition device (LAD) utilizing surface tension in the water tank, and install gas-liquid separation mechanism by centrifugal force which swirling flow creates in the hydrogen reactor. In water tank, hydrophilic coating was covered on both tank wall and vane surface to improve wettability. Function of LAD in water tank and gas-liquid separation in reaction vessel were evaluated by short duration microgravity experiments using drop tower facility. In the water tank, it was confirmed that liquid was driven and acquired on the outlet due to capillary force created by vanes. In addition of this, it was found that gas-liquid separation worked well by swirling flow in hydrogen production reactor. However, collection of hydrogen gas bubble was sometimes suppressed by aluminum alloy particles, which is open problem to be solved.

  1. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  2. Development of a high-current hydrogen-negative ion source for LHD-NBI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Yoshihide; Kaneko, Osamu; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Akiyama, Ryuichi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tanaka, Masanobu

    1998-08-01

    We have developed a high-current hydrogen-negative ion source for a negative-ion-based NBI system in Large Helical Device (LHD). The ion source is a cesium-seeded volume-production source equipped with an external magnetic filter. An arc chamber is rectangular, the dimensions of which are 35 cm x 145 cm in cross section and 21 cm in depth. A three-grid single-stage accelerator is divided into five sections longitudinally, each of which has 154(14 x 11) apertures in an area of 25 cm x 25 cm. The ion source was tested in the negative-NBI teststand, and 25 A of the negative ion beam is incident on a beamdump 13 m downstream with an energy of 104 keV for 1 sec. Multibeamlets of 770 are focused on a focal point 13 m downstream with an averaged divergence angle of 10 mrad by the geometrical arrangement of five sections of grid and the aperture displacement technique of the grounded grid. A uniform beam in the vertical direction over 125 cm is obtained with uniform plasma production in the arc chamber by balancing individual arc currents flowing through each filament. Long-pulse beam production was performed, and 1.3 MW of the negative ion beam is incident on the beamdump for 10 sec, and the temperature rise of the cooling water is almost saturated for the extraction and the grounded grids. These results satisfy the first-step specification of the LHD-NBI system. (author)

  3. Chronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to Daphnia magna in a continuous exposure, flow-through test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Greseth, Shari L.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schmidt, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    A flow-through, continuous exposure test system was developed to expose Daphnia magna to an unstable compound. 35% Perox-Aid?? is a specially formulated hydrogen peroxide (a highly oxidative chemical) product approved for use in U.S. aquaculture and therefore has the potential to be released from aquaculture facilities and pose a risk to aquatic invertebrates. The study objective was to assess the effects of 35% Perox-Aid?? on an aquatic invertebrate by evaluating the survival, growth, production, and gender ratio of progeny from a representative aquatic invertebrate continuously exposed to 35% Perox-Aid??. The study design consisted of 6 treatment groups (10 test chambers each) with target hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0.0, 0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0??mg L- 1. The study was initiated with effect on Daphnia time to death compared to controls and no significant effect on the time to first brood production and the number of broods produced. Concentrations ??? 0.63??mg L- 1 had no significant effect on the total number of young produced. Concentrations ??? 0.32??mg L- 1 had a negative effect on Daphnia growth. Hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the gender ratio of young produced. All second generation Daphnia were female. A continuous discharge of hydrogen peroxide into aquatic ecosystems is not likely to affect cladocerans if the concentration is maintained at ??? 0.63??mg L- 1 for less than 21??days.

  4. A Review of Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Organisms Using Whole-Cell and Cell-Free Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Baker A; Frymier, Paul D

    2017-10-01

    Molecular hydrogen is a promising currency in the future energy economy due to the uncertain availability of finite fossil fuel resources and environmental effects from their combustion. It also has important uses in the production of fertilizers and platform chemicals as well as in upgrading conventional fuels. Conventional methods for producing molecular hydrogen from natural gas produce carbon dioxide and use a finite resource as feedstock. However, these issues can be overcome by using light energy from the Sun combined with microorganisms and their molecular machinery capable of photosynthesis. In the presence of light, the proteins involved in photosynthesis coupled with appropriate catalysts in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria can produce molecular hydrogen, and optimization via genetic modifications and biomolecular engineering further improves production rates. In this review, we will discuss techniques that have been utilized to improve rates of hydrogen production in biological systems based on the protein machinery of photosynthesis coupled with appropriate catalysts. We will also suggest areas for improvement and future directions for work in the field.

  5. KINETIC, ISOTHERM AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDY OF ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE-WASTEWATER SYSTEM USING MODIFIED EGGSHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Habeeb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies of adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetics of hydrogen sulfide-water systems on calcite-based adsorbents prepared from eggshell are undertaken. The effects of operating variables such as contact time and initial concentration on the adsorption capacity of hydrogen sulfide are investigated. The modified eggshells are characterized by using different analytical approaches such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. The batch mode adsorption process is performed at optimum removal conditions: dosage of 1 g/L, pH level of pH 6, agitation speed of 150 rpm and contact time of 14h for adsorbing hydrogen sulfide with an initial concentration of 100-500 mg/L. In the current study, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin models are used to predict the adsorption isotherms. Our equilibrium data for hydrogen sulfide adsorption agrees well with those of the Langmuir equation. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity is 150.07 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of H2S adsorption by using the modified calcite of eggshell follows a pseudo-second-order model. From the current work, we have found that the calcite eggshell is a suitable adsorbent for H2S embeded inside the waste water. Most importantly, chicken eggshell is a waste and vastly available; hence, it could serve as a practical mean for H2S adsorption.

  6. Nonaqueous System of Iron-Based Ionic Liquid and DMF for the Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide and Regeneration by Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhihui; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Tiantian; Du, Jun; Jia, Bing; Gao, Shujing; Yu, Jiang

    2015-05-05

    To improve the hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency with the application of an iron-based imidazolium chloride ionic liquid (Fe(III)-IL) as desulfurizer, Fe(II) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are introduced to Fe(III)-IL to construct a new nonaqueous desulfurization system (Fe(III/II)-IL/DMF). Following desulfurization, the system can be regenerated using the controlled-potential electrolysis method. The addition of Fe(II) in Fe(III)-IL is beneficial for the hydrogen sulfide removal and the electrochemical regeneration of the desulfurizer. The addition of DMF in Fe(III/II)-IL does not change the structure of Fe(III/II)-IL but clearly decreases the acidity, increases the electrolytic current, and decreases the stability of the Fe-Cl bond in Fe(III/II)-IL. Fe(III/II)-IL/DMF can remove hydrogen sulfide and can be regenerated through an electrochemical method more efficiently than can Fe(III/II)-IL. After six cycles, the desulfurization efficiency remains higher than 98%, and the average conversion rate of Fe(II) is essentially unchanged. No sulfur peroxidation occurs, and the system remains stable. Therefore, this new nonaqueous system has considerable potential for removing H2S in pollution control applications.

  7. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  8. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Subseafloor microbial communities in hydrogen-rich vent fluids from hydrothermal systems along the Mid-Cayman Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveillaud, Julie; Reddington, Emily; McDermott, Jill; Algar, Christopher; Meyer, Julie L; Sylva, Sean; Seewald, Jeffrey; German, Christopher R; Huber, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Warm fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents can be used as windows into the rocky subseafloor habitat and its resident microbial community. Two new vent systems on the Mid-Cayman Rise each exhibits novel geologic settings and distinctively hydrogen-rich vent fluid compositions. We have determined and compared the chemistry, potential energy yielding reactions, abundance, community composition, diversity, and function of microbes in venting fluids from both sites: Piccard, the world's deepest vent site, hosted in mafic rocks; and Von Damm, an adjacent, ultramafic-influenced system. Von Damm hosted a wider diversity of lineages and metabolisms in comparison to Piccard, consistent with thermodynamic models that predict more numerous energy sources at ultramafic systems. There was little overlap in the phylotypes found at each site, although similar and dominant hydrogen-utilizing genera were present at both. Despite the differences in community structure, depth, geology, and fluid chemistry, energetic modelling and metagenomic analysis indicate near functional equivalence between Von Damm and Piccard, likely driven by the high hydrogen concentrations and elevated temperatures at both sites. Results are compared with hydrothermal sites worldwide to provide a global perspective on the distinctiveness of these newly discovered sites and the interplay among rocks, fluid composition and life in the subseafloor. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Concept for Hydrogen-Impregnated Nanofiber/Photovoltaic Cargo Stowage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry David; Howard, Robert L.; Poffenberger, Jaso Eric

    2012-01-01

    A stowage system was conceived that consists of collapsible, reconfigurable stowage bags, rigid polyethylene or metal inserts, stainless-steel hooks, flexible photovoltaic materials, and webbing curtains that provide power generation, thermal stabilization, impact resistance, work/sleeping surfaces, and radiation protection to spaceflight hardware and crew members. Providing materials to the Lunar surface is costly from both a mass and a volume standpoint. Most of the materials that will be transferred to other planets or celestial bodies will not be returned to the Earth. In developing a plan to reconfigure pressurized logistics modules, it was determined that there was a requirement to be able to utilize the interior volume of these modules and transform them from Logistics Modules to Storage/Living Quarters. Logistics-to-living must re-utilize stowage bags and the structures that support them to construct living spaces, partitions, furniture, protective shelters from solar particle events, galactic cosmic radiation, and workspaces. In addition to reusing these logistics items for development of the interior living spaces, these items could also be reused outside the habitable volumes to build berms that protect assets from secondary blast ejecta, to define pathways, to stabilize high traffic areas, to protect against dust contamination, to secure assets to mobility elements, to provide thermal protection, and to create other types of protective shelters for surface experiments. Unique features of this innovation include hydrogen-impregnated nano fibers encapsulated in a polyethelyne coating that act as radiation shielding, flexible solar collection cells that can be connected together with cells from other bags via the webbing walls to create a solar array, and the ability to reconfigure each bag to satisfy multiple needs.

  11. Hydrogen storage and production in utility systems. Second annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F.J. (ed.)

    1975-08-01

    Progress in the following three areas is reported: engineering analysis and design; hydrogen production and auxiliaries; and hydrogen storage development. Process designs for the 26-MW electric storage facility were completed. Work to determine the allowed break-even capital cost of ''black box'' electric storage devices is completed. Studies of the performance and temperature dependence of power consumption versus current density were completed for the Solid Polymer Electrolyte and KOH small multi-cell modules. Test Bed A-1, for long-term attrition studies, was operated for 1200 hydride-dehydride cycles. About 60 percent of the starting FeTi alloy suffered a factor of ten size reduction, but the ability to absorb hydrogen showed no decrease. (LK)

  12. Start up system for hydrogen generator used with an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen generator provides hydrogen rich product gases which are mixed with the fuel being supplied to an internal combustion engine for the purpose of enabling a very lean mixture of that fuel to be used, whereby nitrous oxides emitted by the engine are minimized. The hydrogen generator contains a catalyst which must be heated to a pre-determined temperature before it can react properly. To simplify the process of heating up the catalyst at start-up time, either some of the energy produced by the engine such as engine exhaust gas, or electrical energy produced by the engine, or the engine exhaust gas may be used to heat up air which is then used to heat the catalyst.

  13. Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczak, F.

    1998-03-01

    Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

  14. Tritium Movement and Accumulation in the NGNP System Interface and Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirofumi Ohashi; Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    Tritium movement and accumulation in a Next Generation Nuclear Plant with a hydrogen plant using a high temperature electrolysis process and a thermochemical water splitting sulfur iodine process are estimated by the numerical code THYTAN as a function of design, operational, and material parameters. Estimated tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product and in process chemicals in the hydrogen plant of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant using the high temperature electrolysis process are slightly higher than the drinking water limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the limit in the effluent at the boundary of an unrestricted area of a nuclear plant as defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However, these concentrations can be reduced to within the limits through use of some designs and modified operations. Tritium concentrations in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant using the Sulfur-Iodine Process are significantly higher as calculated and are affected by parameters with large uncertainties (i.e., tritium permeability of the process heat exchanger, the hydrogen concentration in the heat transfer and process fluids, the equilibrium constant of the isotope exchange reaction between HT and H2SO4). These parameters, including tritium generation and the release rate in the reactor core, should be more accurately estimated in the near future to improve the calculations for the NGNP using the Sulfur-Iodine Process. Decreasing the tritium permeation through the heat exchanger between the primary and secondary circuits may be an an effective measure for decreasing tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product, the hydrogen plant, and the tertiary coolant.

  15. Hydrogen storage methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Tchemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a

  16. Thermodynamic investigation of waste cooking oil based hydrogen generation system with chemical looping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Faleh

    2016-07-01

    The results show that coke formation can be thermodynamically inhibited by increasing the S/C ratio and/or the NiO/C ratio. The conditions that maximize hydrogen production, minimize methane and carbon monoxide content as well as avoid coke formation at thermoneutral conditions were found to be S/C = 5, T = 600 °C and NiO/C = 0.493. Under these conditions, a hydrogen yield of 144.3 mol/kg of soybean waste cooking oil can be obtained, which appears to be an attractive result for starting experimental research.

  17. A hybrid HTGR system producing electricity, hydrogen and such other products as water demanded in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Noguchi, H.; Sato, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Kunitomi, K.; Hino, R.

    2014-05-01

    Alternative energy products are being considered by the Middle East countries for both consumption and export. Electricity, water, and hydrogen produced not from oil and gas are amongst those desirable. A hybrid nuclear production system, GTHTR300C, under development in JAEA can achieve this regional strategic goal. The system is based on a 600 MWt HTGR and equipped to cogenerate electricity by gas turbine and seawater desalination by using only the nuclear plant waste heat. Hydrogen is produced via a thermochemical water-splitting process driven by the reactor's 950 °C heat. Additionally process steam may be produced for industrial uses. An example is shown of manufacturing soda ash, an internationally traded commodity, from using the steam produced and the brine discharged from desalination. The nuclear reactor satisfies nearly all energy requirements for the hybrid generations without emitting CO{sub 2}. The passive safety of the reactor as described in the paper permits proximity of siting the reactor with the production facilities to enhance energy transmission. Production flowsheet of the GTHTR300C is given for up to 300 MWe electricity, 58 t/day hydrogen, 56,000 m{sup 3}/day potable water, 3500 t/day steam, and 1000 t/day soda ash. The production thermal efficiency reaches 88%.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Activities at HySA from (Nano)materials to Systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of HySA’s missions is to deliver technologies for hydrogen storage infrastructure that meet the set cost targets and provide the best balance of safety, reliability, robustness, quality and functionality. HySA aims to develop storage...

  19. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astiaso Garcia, D.; Barbanera, F.; Cumo, F.; De Matteo, U.; Nastasi, B.

    2016-01-01

    Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical), hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G) from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into

  20. Developing an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor for an exhaled breath analysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; van Dorp, Henriëtte; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    In this work, we present a chip-integrated amperometric sensor targeted at the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the gaseous phase. Electrode chips are manufactured in a series of microfabrication steps and characterized electrochemically. Using such devices detection of H2O2 in an aqueous

  1. Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a simple water-soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bin; Feng, Ke; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-08-21

    Combined with a simple water soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic 1, Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and ascorbic acid enable hydrogen production photocatalytically. More than 88 equivalents of H(2) were achieved in water, which is much better than that obtained in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvent and water.

  2. Asymmetric hydrogenation of aromatic ketones by new recyclable ionic tagged ferrocene-ruthenium catalyst system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Li; Tang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Newly developed ferrocene-oxazoline-phosphine ligands containing quaternary ammonium ionic groups exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of aromatic ketonic substrates to give chiral secondary alcohols with high levels of conversions and enantioselectivities. Simple manipulation process, water tolerance, high activity and good recyclable property make this catalysis practical and appealing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

    2008-09-02

    The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The project’s research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The project’s literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a “heat mirror” that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nation’s future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely “home grown” and carbon free. As CPV enter the nation’s utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this project’s findings.

  4. Design of a Fuel Processor System for Generating Hydrogen for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolavennu, Panini K.; Telotte, John C.; Palanki, Srinivas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a train of tubular reactors that use a methane feed to produce hydrogen of the desired purity so that it can be utilized by a fuel cell for automotive applications. Reaction engineering principles, which are typically covered at the undergraduate level, are utilized to design this reactor train. It is shown…

  5. Ni foam-immobilized MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals toward system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available nanocrystals, as an example, were prepared and immobilized on Ni foam as multi-layers. The hydrogen storage properties of individual and hybrid materials were assessed and compared. The hybrid material with 81 wt.% loading of MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals exhibited...

  6. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  7. Interfacial Properties of an Ir/TiO2 System and Their Relevance in Crotonaldehyde Hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Granados, M.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; Aguirre, M.C.; Reyes, P.; Fierro, J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    Titania-supported iridium catalysts were prereduced in a hydrogen flow at 473 K (LT) and 723 K (HT). Metal particle sizes determined by H2 chemisorption and by direct observation of metal particles by transmission electron microscopy were quite similar for LT treatment, and close to 3.0 nm. For the

  8. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior

  9. Development of the on-demand fuel injection system for a light truck using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Sarawoot Watechagit; Ruangdet Panduang; Natthaporn Prommakorn; Peeraya Siriput; Yaowateera Achawangkul; Bunyongvut Chullabodhi

    2014-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel by mixing with a commercial fuel has recently been investigated continuously in order to solve the energy crisis and global warming. This article presents the results of the design and experimentation for the use of the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas or HCNG as a fuel. The prototype vehicle a light truck equipped with a 1809 cc. gasoline engine. The proposed system is a mixing system where the compressed natural gas and the hydrogen are stored on-board ...

  10. Hydrogen bonds and hydrogen-bonded systems in Mannich bases of 2,2'-biphenol: an FTIR study of the proton polarizability and Fermi resonance effects as a function of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Bogumil; Radziejewski, Piotr; Rabold, Arno; Zundel, Georg

    1995-09-01

    5,5'-Dibromo-3-diethylaminomethyl-2,2'-biphenol ( 1) and 5,5'-dibromo-3,3'-bis(diethylaminomethyl)-2,2'-biphenol ( 2) were synthesized and studied by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. In dichloromethane solution, 1 forms a hydrogen-bonded system with large proton polarizability due to collective tunnelling of protons in the two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. In acetonitrile the system is polarized to a greater extent. If this system is protonated, the HO⋯HO⋯bond is broken and hence the collective system destroyed. The FTIR spectrum of protonated 2 shows an intense continuum indicating a collective hydrogen-bonded system with large proton polarizability due to collective proton motion. The butyronitrile solution of 1 shows an increase of the Fermi resonance bands with decreasing temperature (above the glass transition). The hydrogen bonds become stronger. Furthermore, the proton polarizability increases. With the transition in the glass state the continuum remains unchanged since the local fields are frozen. Only the Fermi resonance effect becomes slightly stronger. With the butyronitrile solution of 2 the IR continuum caused by the polarizable OH⋯N ⇌ O -⋯H +N bonds increases above the glass transition with decreasing temperature. The equilibrium is shifted in favour of the polar structure. In the glass state no change of the continuum and thus of the proton polarizability is observed, since the local fields are frozen.

  11. Storage of Hydrogen in the Ti-Zr System; Almacenamiento de hidrogeno en el sistema Ti-Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmones, J.; Zeifert, B. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose_salmones@yahoo.com.mx; Ortega-Aviles, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Larios, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This research was conducted to contribute to the study of hydrogen storage systems, synthesizing and characterizing two Ti-Zr based systems: I) titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) + zirconium acetylacetonate (C{sub 20}H{sub 28}O{sub 8}Zr) and II) titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) + zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl{sub 4}). Both systems were prepared using mechanical grinding under the same conditions, with a composition of 50% Ti and Zr weights and grinding times of 2, 5, 7, 15, 30 and 70 hours. The samples were evaluated with hydrogen absorption tests and characterized with BET, DRX and MET. The results of hydrogen storage for one absorption-desorption cycle, at ambient temperature and pressure, showed that the samples from system I absorbed the greatest amount of hydrogen, but did not desorb them, while samples from system II liberated the hydrogen absorbed in them. The increase in temperature from mechanical grinding is directly associated with changes in the adsorption capacity of hydrogen, the size of the particle and formation of new components, as shows by BET measurements, XRD diffractograms and MET micrographs. The formation of Ti and Zr oxide nanoparticles in the samples in series II were associated with the desorption capacity of hydrogen. [Spanish] Esta investigacion se realizo para contribuir al estudio de sistemas para almacenamiento de hidrogeno, sintetizando y caracterizando dos sistemas base Ti-Zr: I) dioxido de titanio (TiO{sub 2}) + acetilacetonato de zirconio (C{sub 20}H{sub 28}O{sub 8}Zr) y II) dioxido de titanio (TiO{sub 2}) + tetracloruro de zirconio (ZrCl{sub 4}). Ambos sistemas se prepararon por molienda mecanica a las mismas condiciones, con composicion de 50% en peso de Ti y Zr y tiempos de molienda de 2, 5, 7, 15, 30 y 70 hrs. Las muestras fueron evaluadas mediante pruebas de absorcion de hidrogeno y caracterizadas por BET, DRX y MET. Los resultados de almacenamiento de hidrogeno para un ciclo de absorcion-desorcion, a presion y temperatura ambientes

  12. Energy Dense, Lighweight, Durable, Systems for Storage and Delivery of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacky Pruez; Samir Shoukry; Gergis William; Thomas Evans; Hermann Alcazar

    2008-12-31

    The work presented in this report summarizes the current state-of-the-art in on-board storage on compressed gaseous hydrogen as well as the development of analysis tools, methods, and theoretical data for devising high performance design configurations for hydrogen storage. The state-of-the-art in the area of compressed hydrogen storage reveals that the current configuration of the hydrogen storage tank is a seamless cylindrical part with two end domes. The tank is composed of an aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers. Such a configuration was proved to sustain internal pressures up to 350 bars (5,000 psi). Finite-element stress analyses were performed on filament-wound hydrogen storage cylindrical tanks under the effect of internal pressure of 700 bars (10,000 psi). Tank deformations, stress fields, and intensities induced at the tank wall were examined. The results indicated that the aluminum liner can not sustain such a high pressure and initiate the tank failure. Thus, hydrogen tanks ought to be built entirely out of composite materials based on carbon fibers or other innovative composite materials. A spherical hydrogen storage tank was suggested within the scope of this project. A stress reduction was achieved by this change of the tank geometry, which allows for increasing the amount of the stored hydrogen and storage energy density. The finite element modeling of both cylindrical and spherical tank design configurations indicate that the formation of stress concentration zones in the vicinity of the valve inlet as well as the presence of high shear stresses in this area. Therefore, it is highly recommended to tailor the tank wall design to be thicker in this region and tapered to the required thickness in the rest of the tank shell. Innovative layout configurations of multiple tanks for enhanced conformability in limited space have been proposed and theoretically modeled using 3D finite element analysis. Optimum tailoring of fiber orientations and lay

  13. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2}O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}{sub N}/h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  14. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  15. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  16. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  17. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on the conceptual design of the total system for the WE-NET project in 1996. Basic conditions are as follows: solid polymer water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, hydrogen transport/storage through ammonia medium, power generation scale of 1000-4000MW (2-5 yen/kWh), and transport distance of 5000-20000km between supply and consumption places. The system efficiency was estimated to be 68% and 23% at an ammonia arrival time and power sending end, respectively, and it was dependent on a transport distance, while no power generation scale. The power cost was estimated to be 7 yen/Mcal and 33 yen/kWh, respectively. The system efficiency at a sending end was lower by 15% and 2% than that of the liquid hydrogen and methanol system, while the power cost was higher by 0 and 8 yen/kWh, respectively. It was necessary for loss reduction of this ammonia system to develop a new high-efficiency ammonia synthesis process, and hydrogen separation (decomposition/refining) process. 80 figs., 52 tabs.

  18. Development of the on-demand fuel injection system for a light truck using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawoot Watechagit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen as a fuel by mixing with a commercial fuel has recently been investigated continuously in order to solve the energy crisis and global warming. This article presents the results of the design and experimentation for the use of the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas or HCNG as a fuel. The prototype vehicle a light truck equipped with a 1809 cc. gasoline engine. The proposed system is a mixing system where the compressed natural gas and the hydrogen are stored on-board and controlled separately. They are mixed as they are injected into the intake manifold right before the intake-port (Port Injection. The hydrogen supply system used in this investigation is adopted from the common system used for compressed natural gas system. The mixing ratio (%H in the total volume of HCNG ranges from 5% to 20% by volume. The performance testing is done through the Chassis Dynamometer. The results show that the power and the torque of the engine drops when using either CNG or HCNG as compared to the gasoline fuel. However, when compared to the case when using the CNG, the 10% addition of hydrogen can increase the performance by 1%. The performance, on the other hands, is reduced for other amount of hydrogen additions.

  19. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF MULTI-COMPONENT AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR LIGHT-DRIVEN HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Richard Eisenberg

    2012-07-18

    The research focussed on fundamental problems in the conversion of light to stored chemical energy. Specifically, work was completed on the design, synthesis and study of multi-component super- and supramolecular systems for photoinduced charge separation, one of the key steps in artificial photosynthesis, and on the use of these and related systems for the photochemical generation of H2 from water. At the center of these systems are chromophores comprised of square planar coordinated Pt(II) ions with arylacetylide and either diimine or terpyridyl ligands. Previous work had shown that the chromophores are photoluminescent in fluid solution with long-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) excited states that are necessarily directional. An advance which set the stage for a number of proposed studies was the light-driven production of hydrogen from water using a Pt(terpyridyl)(arylacetylide)+ chromophore and a sacrificial electron donor. The reaction is catalytic and appears to rival previously reported ruthenium bipyridyl systems in terms of H2 production. Variation of system components and mechanistic studies were conducted to understand better the individual steps in the overall process and how to improve its efficiency. Success with light driven H2 generation was employed as a key probe as new systems were constructed consisting of triads for photoinduced charge separation placed in close proximity to the H2 generating catalyst - a Pt colloid - through direct linkage or supramolecular interactions with the polymer used to stabilize the colloid. In order to prepare new donor-chromophore-acceptor (D-C-A) triads and associated D-C and C-A dyads, new ligands were synthesized having functional groups for different coupling reactions such as simple amide formation and Pd-catalyzed coupling. In these systems, the donor was attached to the arylacetylide ligands and the acceptor was linked to the diimine or terpyridyl chelate. Research under the contract proved

  20. Hydrogen production from biopolymers by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and stabilization of the system by immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Galina [Department of Biotechnology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Rakhely, Gabor; Kovacs, Kornel L. [Department of Biotechnology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary)

    2008-12-15

    The biopolymers agarose and alginic acid, and hemicellulose-rich pine tree wood shavings, frequently discarded as waste, proved to be utilized as energy sources for hydrogen production by the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. The addition of 0.5% (w/v) pine wood shavings to the growth medium yielded a 14-fold increase in hydrogen production over a period of 55 days relative to cultures grown in the same medium without wood shavings (average rate was about 0.45 ml H{sub 2} ml culture{sup -1} day{sup -1}). The shavings were also shown to be degraded by C. saccharolyticus in the absence of any other carbohydrate source. A study on storage of the cells at 42 C in the presence of either agarose or alginic acid cultures immobilized on granulated activated carbon, wood shavings or perlite revealed that the immobilization improved both the storability and hydrogen evolving capacity of the cells. From these carriers the soft wood shavings showed the best performance. The relevance of these findings for biohydrogen production is discussed. (author)

  1. Determination of Safety Integrity Level (SIL using LOPA method in the Emergency Shutdown system (ESD of Hydrogen unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohamdadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical plants are high risk, high parameter, and high-energy units, with the potential risks of fire, explosion and poisoning. The severe accidents at Bhopal, Mexico City, Samton, Brazil, Panipat, Mumbai and many others have increased the public awareness of the health, property and environmental risks posed by chemical installations. The recent years have seen a convergence of scenario-based Hazard and Operability (HAZOP studies, Layer of Protection Analyses (LOPAs, and Safety Integrity Level (SIL determinations. The aim of the research was to study the hazardous scenario identified in the hydrogen unit of petrochemical plant and to determine the SIL for ESD system. 20 hazardous scenarios identified by HAZOP study and determined by SIL by applying the LOPA method for ESD system, were used to control the hazardous scenarios. KS-1, KS-2 and KS-3are three ESD systems applied in the hydrogen unit. The maximum SIL determined for ESD system was SIL3. Since the rise in SIL can be quite costly for the industry, adding other layers of protection can reduce the level of SIL for ESD (SIS.

  2. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): Toward a Hydrogen-free Hydrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-17

    The need to drastically reduce CO 2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent. Recent scientific and technological progress in handling hydrogen in chemically bound form as liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) supports the technological vision that a future hydrogen economy may work without handling large amounts of elemental hydrogen. LOHC systems are composed of pairs of hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich organic compounds that store hydrogen by repeated catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation cycles. While hydrogen handling in the form of LOHCs allows for using the existing infrastructure for fuels, it also builds on the existing public confidence in dealing with liquid energy carriers. In contrast to hydrogen storage by hydrogenation of gases, such as CO 2 or N 2 , hydrogen release from LOHC systems produces pure hydrogen after condensation of the high-boiling carrier compounds. This Account highlights the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage using LOHC systems. It first introduces fundamental aspects of a future hydrogen economy and derives therefrom requirements for suitable LOHC compounds. Molecular structures that have been successfully applied in the literature are presented, and their property profiles are discussed. Fundamental and applied aspects of the involved hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis are discussed, characteristic differences for the catalytic conversion of

  3. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  4. Toward a unified single-parameter extrapolation scheme for the correlation energy: Systems formed by atoms of hydrogen through neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, F. N. N.; Varandas, A. J. C.

    2015-07-01

    A simple scheme is suggested to extrapolate the valence electron correlation to the one-electron complete-basis-set limit in species formed by atoms of hydrogen through neon. The performance of the novel scheme is benchmarked for the correlation energy with a data set of 106 systems and, for the polarizability, with 8 molecules. For the former, the results are excellent, most often better than when extrapolated with the best available two-parameter protocols. For the polarizability, they show an enhancement relative to the raw ab initio values, and good agreement with the experimental ones.

  5. Controlling the Formation of Ionic-Liquid-based Aqueous Biphasic Systems by Changing the Hydrogen Bonding Ability of Polyethylene Glycol End Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Kurnia, Kiki A.; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) when mixing aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and an ionic liquid (IL) can be controlled by modification of the hydrogen bond ability of the polymer’s end groups. It is shown that the miscibility/immiscibility on these systems stems from both the solvation of the ether groups in the oxygen chain and the ability of the PEG terminal groups to preferably hydrogen bond with water or the salt anion. The reduction of even one hydrogen bond in PEG can noticeably affect the phase behavior, especially in those regions of the phase diagram where all the ethylene oxide (EO) units of the polymeric chain are completely solvated. In this region, removing or weakening the hydrogen bond donating ability of PEG results in greater immiscibility, i.e., in a higher ability to form ABS, as a result of the much weaker interactions between the IL anion and the PEG end groups. PMID:25943332

  6. Selective alkyne hydrogenation over nano-metal systems: closing the gap between model and real catalysts for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Lizana, Fernando; Crespo-Quesada, Micaela; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between catalytic response and properties of the active phase is difficult to establish in classical heterogeneous catalysis due to the number of variables that can affect catalytic performance. Ultrahigh-vacuum surface methods applied to model catalyst surfaces are useful tools to assess fundamental issues related to catalytic processes but they are limited by the significant differences with catalysts in the working state. In an attempt to overcome this issue, (unsupported) nano-metal systems with controlled size and shape have been synthesized and tested in selective alkyne hydrogenation. The results revealed a dependency of nano-particles (NPs) morphology (size and shape) and allowed the identification of the active sites for this type of reaction. The nature of the stabilizer (steric and electrostatic stabilization) used in the NPs preparation has been shown to influence catalytic performance. The tailored active phase was subsequently immobilized on suitable nano- and micro-structured inorganic (e.g. 3D sintered metal fibers) supports with controlled surface properties in order to corroborate if the results obtained on the optimized nano-metal systems could be extrapolated to real catalysts. This article highlights the advantages and limitations of the analysis of selective alkyne hydrogenation over nano-metal systems that close the gap between model and real catalysts where the main challenges that lie ahead are summarized.

  7. Feasibility of hydrogen production from ripened fruits by a combined two-stage (dark/dark) fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jeong-A; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Min, Booki; Song, Hocheol; Kim, Yongje; Lee, Eung Seok; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation for hydrogen (H2) production was studied in a two-stage fermentation system fed with different ripened fruit feedstocks (apple, pear, and grape). Among the feedstocks, ripened apple was the most efficient substrate for cumulative H2 production (4463.7 mL-H2 L(-1)-culture) with a maximum H2 yield (2.2 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose) in the first stage at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18 h. The additional cumulative biohydrogen (3337.4 mL-H2 L(-1)-culture) was produced in the second stage with the reused residual substrate from the first stage. The major byproducts in this study were butyrate, acetate, and ethanol, and butyrate was dominant among them in all test runs. During the two-stage system, the energy efficiency (H(2) conversion) obtained from mixed ripened fruits (RF) increased from 4.6% (in the first stage) to 15.5% (in the second stage), which indicated the energy efficiency can be improved by combined hydrogen production process. The RF could be used as substrates for biohydrogen fermentation in a two-stage (dark/dark) fermentation system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen-bonded rosettes comprising π-conjugated systems as building blocks for functional one-dimensional assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bimalendu; Lin, Xu; Yamauchi, Mitsuaki; Ouchi, Hayato; Aratsu, Keisuke; Yagai, Shiki

    2017-08-29

    Hydrogen-bonded supermacrocycles (rosettes) are attractive disk-shaped noncovalent synthons for extended functional columnar nanoassemblies. They can serve not only as noncovalent monomer units for supramolecular polymers and discrete oligomers in a dilute solution but also as constituent entities for soft matters such as gels and lyotropic/thermotropic liquid crystals. However, what are the merits of using supramolecular rosettes instead of using expanded π-conjugated covalent molecules? This review covers the self-assembly of photochemically and electrochemically active π-conjugated molecules through the formation of supramolecular rosettes via directional complementary multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions. These rosettes comprising π-conjugated covalent functional units stack into columnar nanoassemblies with unique structures and properties. By overviewing the design principle, characterization, and properties and functionalities of various examples, we illustrate the merits of utilizing rosette motifs. Basically, one can easily access a well-defined expanded π-surface composed of multi-chromophoric systems, which can ultimately afford stable extended nanoassemblies even in a dilute solution due to the higher association constants of supermacrocyclized π-systems. Importantly, these columnar nanoassemblies exhibit unique features in self-assembly processes, chiroptical, photophysical and electrochemical properties, nanoscale morphologies, and bulk properties. Moreover, the stimuli responsiveness of individual building blocks can be amplified to a greater extent by exploiting rosette intermediates to organize them into one-dimensional columnar structures. In the latter parts of the review, we also highlight the application of rosettes in supramolecular polymer systems, photovoltaic devices, and others.

  9. Development of heat and mass balance analysis code in out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Suyama, Kazumasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    A heat and mass balance analysis code has been developed to examine test conditions, to investigate transient behavior etc. in the out-of-pile hydrogen production system for the HTTR heat utilization system. The code can analyze temperature, mass and pressure profiles of helium and process gases and behavior of the control system under both static state (case of steady operation) and dynamic state (case of transient operation). This report describes analytical methods, basic equations and constitution of the code, and how to make of the input data, estimate of the analytical results and so on. (author)

  10. System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbir, F.; Oezay, K.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000 has been investigated. The analysis was divided in two parts: (i) analysis of vehicle technologies, and (ii) analysis of fuel production storage and distribution, from the primary energy sources to the refueling station. Only technologies that are developed to at least demonstration level were considered. The amount and type of the primary energy sources have been determined for each of the fuels being analyzed. A need for a common denominator for different types of energy has been identified.

  11. Energy management strategy based on short-term generation scheduling for a renewable microgrid using a hydrogen storage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cau, Giorgo; Cocco, Daniele; Petrollese, Mario

    2014-01-01

    scheduling of storage devices is carried out to maximize the benefits of available renewable resources by operating the photovoltaic systems and the wind turbine at their maximum power points and by minimizing the overall utilization costs. Unlike conventional EMS based on the state-of-charge (SOC......This paper presents a novel energy management strategy (EMS) to control an isolated microgrid powered by a photovoltaic array and a wind turbine and equipped with two different energy storage systems: electric batteries and a hydrogen production and storage system. In particular, an optimal......) of batteries, the proposed EMS takes into account the uncertainty due to the intermittent nature of renewable resources and electricity demand. In particular, the uncertainties are evaluated with a stochastic approach through the construction of different scenarios with corresponding probabilities. The EMS...

  12. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  13. First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Karl Johnson

    2011-05-20

    The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

  14. Fumigation of a laboratory-scale HVAC system with hydrogen peroxide for decontamination following a biological contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Calfee, M W; Wood, J P; Mickelsen, L; Attwood, B; Clayton, M; Touati, A; Delafield, R

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate hydrogen peroxide vapour (H2 O2 ) for its ability to inactivate Bacillus spores within a laboratory-scale heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct system. Experiments were conducted in a closed-loop duct system, constructed of either internally lined or unlined galvanized metal. Bacterial spores were aerosol-deposited onto 18-mm-diameter test material coupons and strategically placed at several locations within the duct environment. Various concentrations of H2 O2 and exposure times were evaluated to determine the sporicidal efficacy and minimum exposure needed for decontamination. For the unlined duct, high variability was observed in the recovery of spores between sample locations, likely due to complex, unpredictable flow patterns within the ducts. In comparison, the lined duct exhibited a significant desorption of the H2 O2 following the fumigant dwell period and thus resulted in complete decontamination at all sampling locations. These findings suggest that decontamination of Bacillus spore-contaminated unlined HVAC ducts by hydrogen peroxide fumigation may require more stringent conditions (higher concentrations, longer dwell duration) than internally insulated ductwork. These data may help emergency responders when developing remediation plans during building decontamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  16. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  17. Characterization of the hydrogen bond in molecular systems of biological interest by neutron scattering; Caracterisation de la liaison hydrogene dans des systemes moleculaires d'interet biologique par diffusion de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavillon, F

    2004-10-15

    This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the scattering spectra of neutrons on molecular liquids. This method is based on the adjustment of the molecular form factor concerning great momentum transfer. The subtraction of the intra-molecular contributions gives access to information on inter-molecular interactions such as the hydrogen bond. 3 systems with increasing levels of difficulty have been studied: the ammonia molecule, the N-methyl-formamide (NMF) and the N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). The value we get for the N-D intermolecular distance of the liquid ammonia molecule is 1.7 angstrom, this value is different from the value generally admitted (2.3 angstrom) but we have validated it by studying the isotopic substitution N{sup 14}/N{sup 15}. The adjustment to the NMF is obtained with a good accuracy but the characterization of the hydrogen bound is more delicate to infer. A preliminary study of the NMA molecule shows that this method can give relevant results on complex molecules.

  18. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  19. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  20. Energy of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in ortho-Hydroxybenzaldehydes, Phenones and Quinones. Transfer of Aromaticity from ipso-Benzene Ring to the Enol System(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinska-Roszak, Danuta

    2017-03-18

    Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (HB) is one of the most studied noncovalent interactions of molecules. Many physical, spectral, and topological properties of compounds are under the influence of HB, and there are many parameters used to notice and to describe these changes. Hitherto, no general method of measurement of the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bond (EHB) has been put into effect. We propose the molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for EHB calculation, modified to apply it to Ar-O-H∙∙∙O=C systems. The method, based on quantum calculations, was checked earlier for hydroxycarbonyl-saturated compounds, and for structures with resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding (RAHB). For phenolic compounds, the accuracy, repeatability, and applicability of the method is now confirmed for nearly 140 structures. For each structure its aromaticity HOMA indices were calculated for the central (ipso) ring and for the quasiaromatic rings given by intramolecular HB. The comparison of calculated HB energies and values of estimated aromaticity indices allowed us to observe, in some substituted phenols and quinones, the phenomenon of transfer of aromaticity from the ipso-ring to the H-bonded ring via the effect of electron delocalization.

  1. Energy of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in ortho-Hydroxybenzaldehydes, Phenones and Quinones. Transfer of Aromaticity from ipso-Benzene Ring to the Enol System(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Rusinska-Roszak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (HB is one of the most studied noncovalent interactions of molecules. Many physical, spectral, and topological properties of compounds are under the influence of HB, and there are many parameters used to notice and to describe these changes. Hitherto, no general method of measurement of the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bond (EHB has been put into effect. We propose the molecular tailoring approach (MTA for EHB calculation, modified to apply it to Ar-O-H∙∙∙O=C systems. The method, based on quantum calculations, was checked earlier for hydroxycarbonyl-saturated compounds, and for structures with resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding (RAHB. For phenolic compounds, the accuracy, repeatability, and applicability of the method is now confirmed for nearly 140 structures. For each structure its aromaticity HOMA indices were calculated for the central (ipso ring and for the quasiaromatic rings given by intramolecular HB. The comparison of calculated HB energies and values of estimated aromaticity indices allowed us to observe, in some substituted phenols and quinones, the phenomenon of transfer of aromaticity from the ipso-ring to the H-bonded ring via the effect of electron delocalization.

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for the hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 1. Investigations and researched on system assessment; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-1. Technologies drawing attentions relate to fuel cell driven automobiles and hybrid automobiles in the field of utilizing hydrogen derived from reproducible energies and fossil energies, and fuel cell co-generation and micro gas turbine co-generation in the field of electric power generation. Hydrogen reformed from gasoline on board the automobile as the fuel for fuel cell driven automobiles, hydrogen as a by-product of coke furnace off-gas (COG), and reproducible energy hydrogen have the same fuel consumption performance as in the hybrid automobiles. Particularly the COG is low in cost, and has large supply potential. Liquefied hydrogen is as promising as compressed hydrogen in view of the cost for automotive hydrogen supply stations. What has high economic performance as the self-sustaining systems for islands are photovoltaic and wind power generation, and the system using hydrogen as the secondary energy. Since much of the reproducible energies is used for electric power demand in Japan, the by-product hydrogen and the reformed hydrogen in an amount of 9.3 billion Nm{sup 3}/year would take care of majority of the demand in view of the short time period. For a longer time span, hydrogen originated from the reproduced energies in the Pan-Pacific Region should be introduced. (NEDO)

  3. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy Conversion Devices (a.k.a. Understanding Photosystem I as a Biomolecular Reactor for Energy Conversion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy Conversion Devices (a.k.a. Understanding Photosystem I as...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6904 April 2014 Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10/1/2010–10/1/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel

  4. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code and Tritium Transport in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Coupled with Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2010-06-01

    Abstract – A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) was developed by Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of analyzing tritium distributions in very high temperature reactor (VHTR) systems, including integrated hydrogen production systems. A MATLAB SIMULINK software package was used in developing the code. The TPAC is based on the mass balance equations of tritium-containing species and various forms of hydrogen coupled with a variety of tritium sources, sinks, and permeation models. In the TPAC, ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, and 3He were taken into considerations as tritium sources. Purification and leakage models were implemented as main tritium sinks. Permeation of tritium and H2 through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers were considered as main tritium transport paths. In addition, electroyzer and isotope exchange models were developed for analyzing hydrogen production systems, including high temperature electrolysis and sulfur-iodine processes.

  5. Realizing a hydrogen future: Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel recommendations (brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, G.

    1999-08-01

    When generated from renewable sources, hydrogen production and use is part of a clean, cyclic process. Hydrogen can be used to generate electricity, heat homes and businesses, fuel vehicles, and produce commodities used every day. The Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel's (HTAP) primary functions are to advise the Secretary of Energy on the implementation of the U.S.DOE programs in hydrogen RD and D and to review and make recommendations on the economic, technical, and environmental consequences of deploying safe hydrogen energy systems.

  6. MODELING OF 2LIBH4 PLUS MGH2 HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM ACCIDENT SCENARIOS USING EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL THERMODYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, C; David Tamburello, D; Joshua Gray, J; Kyle Brinkman, K; Bruce Hardy, B; Donald Anton, D

    2009-04-01

    It is important to understand and quantify the potential risk resulting from accidental environmental exposure of condensed phase hydrogen storage materials under differing environmental exposure scenarios. This paper describes a modeling and experimental study with the aim of predicting consequences of the accidental release of 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} from hydrogen storage systems. The methodology and results developed in this work are directly applicable to any solid hydride material and/or accident scenario using appropriate boundary conditions and empirical data. The ability to predict hydride behavior for hypothesized accident scenarios facilitates an assessment of the of risk associated with the utilization of a particular hydride. To this end, an idealized finite volume model was developed to represent the behavior of dispersed hydride from a breached system. Semiempirical thermodynamic calculations and substantiating calorimetric experiments were performed in order to quantify the energy released, energy release rates and to quantify the reaction products resulting from water and air exposure of a lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride combination. The hydrides, LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}, were studied individually in the as-received form and in the 2:1 'destabilized' mixture. Liquid water hydrolysis reactions were performed in a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a mixing cell using neutral water. Water vapor and oxygen gas phase reactivity measurements were performed at varying relative humidities and temperatures by modifying the calorimeter and utilizing a gas circulating flow cell apparatus. The results of these calorimetric measurements were compared with standardized United Nations (UN) based test results for air and water reactivity and used to develop quantitative kinetic expressions for hydrolysis and air oxidation in these systems. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from these tests were then inputted into a computational fluid dynamics

  7. Prediction of thermodynamically reversible hydrogen storage reactions utilizing Ca-M(M = Li, Na, K)-B-H systems: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yajuan; Ren, Ying; Wu, Haishun; Jia, Jianfeng

    2013-12-01

    Calcium borohydride is a potential candidate for onboard hydrogen storage because it has a high gravimetric capacity (11.5 wt.%) and a high volumetric hydrogen content (∼130 kg m(-3)). Unfortunately, calcium borohydride suffers from the drawback of having very strongly bound hydrogen. In this study, Ca(BH₄)₂ was predicted to form a destabilized system when it was mixed with LiBH₄, NaBH₄, or KBH₄. The release of hydrogen from Ca(BH₄)₂ was predicted to proceed via two competing reaction pathways (leading to CaB₆ and CaH₂ or CaB₁₂H₁₂ and CaH₂) that were found to have almost equal free energies. Using a set of recently developed theoretical methods derived from first principles, we predicted five new hydrogen storage reactions that are among the most attractive of those presently known. These combine high gravimetric densities (>6.0 wt.% H₂) with have low enthalpies [approximately 35 kJ/(mol(-1) H₂)] and are thermodynamically reversible at low pressure within the target window for onboard storage that is actively being considered for hydrogen storage applications. Thus, the first-principles theoretical design of new materials for energy storage in future research appears to be possible.

  8. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xia [value too long for type character varying(50); Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of

  9. System efficiency for two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production – Part 2: Impact of gas heat recuperation and separation temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Ehrhart, Brian D.

    2016-09-22

    The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency is calculated for various operating conditions for a two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle using cerium(IV) oxide. An inert sweep gas was considered as the O2 removal method. Gas and solid heat recuperation effectiveness values were varied between 0 and 100% in order to determine the limits of the effect of these parameters. The temperature at which the inert gas is separated from oxygen for an open-loop and recycled system is varied. The hydrogen and water separation temperature was also varied and the effect on STH efficiency quantified. This study shows that gas heat recuperation is critical for high efficiency cycles, especially at conditions that require high steam and inert gas flowrates. A key area for future study is identified to be the development of ceramic heat exchangers for high temperature gas-gas heat exchange. Solid heat recuperation is more important at lower oxidation temperatures that favor temperature-swing redox processing, and the relative impact of this heat recuperation is muted if the heat can be used elsewhere in the system. A high separation temperature for the recycled inert gas has been shown to be beneficial, especially for cases of lower gas heat recuperation and increased inert gas flowrates. A higher water/hydrogen separation temperature is beneficial for most gas heat recuperation effectiveness values, though the overall impact on optimal system efficiency is relatively small for the values considered. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  10. Preparation and catalytic effect of porous Co3O4 on the hydrogen storage properties of a Li-B-N-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A porous Co3O4 with a particle size of 1–3 µm was successfully prepared by heating Co-based metal organic frameworks MOF-74(Co up to 500 °C in air atmospheric conditions. The as-prepared porous Co3O4 significantly reduced the dehydrogenation temperatures of the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system and improved the purity of the released hydrogen. The LiBH4-2LiNH2-0.05/3Co3O4 sample started to release hydrogen at 140 °C and released hydrogen levels of approximately 9.7 wt% at 225 °C. The end temperature for hydrogen release was lowered by 125 °C relative to that of the pristine sample. Structural analyses revealed that the as-prepared porous Co3O4 is in-situ reduced to metallic Co, which functions as an active catalyst, reducing the kinetic barriers and lowering the dehydrogenation temperatures of the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system. More importantly, the porous Co3O4-containing sample exhibited partially improved reversibility for hydrogen storage in the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.103 - Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen. 1910.103 Section 1910.103 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.103 Hydrogen. (a) General—(1) Definitions. As used in this section (i) Gaseous hydrogen system is one in which the hydrogen is delivered, stored...

  12. Response of Cytokines and Hydrogen Peroxide to Sporothrix schenckii Exoantigen in Systemic Experimental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Manente, Francine Alessandra; Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-04-01

    The response of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytokines during an experimental sporotrichosis in male Swiss mice was assessed over a period of 10 weeks by monitoring macrophage activation challenged with exoantigen (ExoAg) from the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The studied endpoints were: H2O2 production, fungal burden at spleen, apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IL-10 production. During the two first weeks of infection was observed low burden of yeast in spleen and high response of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β. The weeks of highest fungal burden (fourth-sixth) coincided with major apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, normal production of IL-6 and lower production of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β, suggesting a role for these three last in the early control of infection. On the other hand, IL-1β (but not IL-6) was recovered since the sixth week, suggesting a possible role in the late phase of infection, contributing to the fungal clearance in conjunction with the specific mechanisms. The IL-10 was elevated until the sixth, principally in the second week. These results evidences that ExoAg is involved in the host immune modulation, influencing the S. Schenckii virulence, and its role is related with the time of the infection in the model used.

  13. Oxidative damage to collagen and related substrates by metal ion/hydrogen peroxide systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    (II)-H2O2, evidence has been obtained for: i) altered sites of attack and fragmentation, ii) C-terminal decarboxylation, and iii) hydrogen abstraction at N-terminal alpha-carbon sites. This altered behaviour is believed to be due to the binding of copper ions to some substrates and hence site......'R"), and alpha-carbon[.C(R)(NH-)CO-,R = side-chain]radicals. Reaction with collagen gave both broad anisotropic signals, from high-molecular-weight protein-derived radicals, and isotropic signals from mobile species. The latter may be low-molecular-weight fragments, or mobile side-chain species; these signals...... are similar to those from the alpha-carbon site of peptides and the side-chain of lysine. Enzymatic digestion of the large, protein-derived, species releases similar low-molecular-weight adducts. The metal ion employed has a dramatic effect on the species observed. With Cu(I)-H2O2 or Cu(II)-H2O2 instead of Fe...

  14. Development of core technology for KNGR system design; development of methodology to determine hydrogen ignitor position in KNGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Chul; Choi, Hee Dong; Whang, Yong Seok; Lee, Un Jang; Lee, Jung Jae; Kim, Do Yeun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The scope of this project is to generate fundamental engineering data of hydrogen behavior required in establishing the design guidance and regulation requirement with respect to hydrogen control and severe accident management. This is ultimately to arrange engineering hydrogen control scheme to clear factors threatening integrity of the containment building by hazard of explosion due to burning of hydrogen generated during the severe accident in APR 1400. On the basis of this study, to ensure the safety of nuclear power plant against the severe accident by serving efficient methodology for the positioning of hydrogen igniter is the aim of the project. The project proceeded in 6 phases. Details are followings;1. Capability examination of hydrogen controller. 2. Three dimensional hydrogen mixing experiments and development of He detector. 3. Verification on the three dimensional hydrogen analysis model of the GOTHIC code 4. Development of three dimensional hydrogen mixing code HYCA3D 5. Examination of PAR models 6. Development of methodology to determine hydrogen igniter position. 29 refs., 76 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  15. Hydrogen-bonding behavior of various conformations of the HNO3…(CH3OH)2ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Hasan; Uras-Aytemiz, Nevin; Balcı, F Mine

    2017-12-21

    Nine minima were found on the intermolecular potential energy surface for the ternary system HNO 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The cooperative effect, which is a measure of the hydrogen-bonding strength, was probed in these nine conformations of HNO 3 …(CH 3 OH) 2 . The results are discussed here in terms of structures, energetics, infrared vibrational frequencies, and topological parameters. The cooperative effect was observed to be an important contributor to the total interaction energies of the cyclic conformers of HNO 3 …(CH 3 OH) 2 , meaning that it cannot be neglected in simulations in which the pair-additive potential is applied. Graphical abstract The H-bonding behavior of various conformations of the HNO 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 trimer was investigated.

  16. Hydrogen Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  17. Power System Mass Analysis for Hydrogen Reduction Oxygen Production on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the lunar regolith requires both thermal and electrical power in roughly similar proportions. This unique power requirement is unlike most applications on the lunar surface. To efficiently meet these requirements, both solar PV array and solar concentrator systems were evaluated. The mass of various types of photovoltaic and concentrator based systems were calculated to determine the type of power system that provided the highest specific power. These were compared over a range of oxygen production rates. Also a hybrid type power system was also considered. This system utilized a photovoltaic array to produce the electrical power and a concentrator to provide the thermal power. For a single source system the three systems with the highest specific power were a flexible concentrator/Stirling engine system, a rigid concentrator/Stirling engine system and a tracking triple junction solar array system. These systems had specific power values of 43, 34, and 33 W/kg, respectively. The hybrid power system provided much higher specific power values then the single source systems. The best hybrid combinations were the triple junction solar array with the flexible concentrator and the rigid concentrator. These systems had a specific power of 81 and 68