Sample records for hydrogen carrier system

  1. A novel liquid organic hydrogen carrier system based on catalytic peptide formation and hydrogenation. (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Fogler, Eran; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Iron, Mark A; Milstein, David


    Hydrogen is an efficient green fuel, but its low energy density when stored under high pressure or cryogenically, and safety issues, presents significant disadvantages; hence finding efficient and safe hydrogen carriers is a major challenge. Of special interest are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs), which can be readily loaded and unloaded with considerable amounts of hydrogen. However, disadvantages include high hydrogen pressure requirements, high reaction temperatures for both hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, which require different catalysts, and high LOHC cost. Here we present a readily reversible LOHC system based on catalytic peptide formation and hydrogenation, using an inexpensive, safe and abundant organic compound with high potential capacity to store and release hydrogen, applying the same catalyst for loading and unloading hydrogen under relatively mild conditions. Mechanistic insight of the catalytic reaction is provided. We believe that these findings may lead to the development of an inexpensive, safe and clean liquid hydrogen carrier system.

  2. Chemical utilization of hydrogen from fluctuating energy sources – Catalytic transfer hydrogenation from charged Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier systems


    Geburtig, Denise; Preuster, Patrick; Bösmann, Andreas; Müller, Karsten; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive way for storing and distributing hydrogen from electrolysis using excess energies from solar or wind power plants. In this contribution, an alternative, high-value utilization of such hydrogen is proposed namely its use in steady-state chemical hydrogenation processes. We here demonstrate that the hydrogen-rich form of the LOHC system dibenzyltoluene/perhydro-dibenzyltoluene can be directly applied as sole source of hydrog...

  3. A novel liquid organic hydrogen carrier system based on catalytic peptide formation and hydrogenation


    Hu, Peng; Fogler, Eran; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Iron, Mark A.; Milstein, David


    Hydrogen is an efficient green fuel, but its low energy density when stored under high pressure or cryogenically, and safety issues, presents significant disadvantages; hence finding efficient and safe hydrogen carriers is a major challenge. Of special interest are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs), which can be readily loaded and unloaded with considerable amounts of hydrogen. However, disadvantages include high hydrogen pressure requirements, high reaction temperatures for both hydro...

  4. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.


    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  5. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, M. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)


    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  6. Environmental and health impact assessment of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems – challenges and preliminary results


    Markiewicz, M.; Y. Q. Zhang; Bösmann, A.; Brückner, N. (Nadine); Thöming, J.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolte, S.


    Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive way to store and transport hydrogen, a technical feature that is highly desirable to link unsteady energy production from renewables with the vision of a sustainable, CO2-free, hydrogen-based energy system. LOHCs can be charged and discharged with considerable amounts of hydrogen in cyclic, catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. As their physico-chemical properties are very similar to diesel, today's infras...

  7. Efficient Reversible Hydrogen Carrier System Based on Amine Reforming of Methanol. (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Kar, Sayan; Sen, Raktim; Goeppert, Alain; Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya


    A novel hydrogen storage system based on the hydrogen release from catalytic dehydrogenative coupling of methanol and 1,2-diamine is demonstrated. The products of this reaction, N-formamide and N,N'-diformamide, are hydrogenated back to the free amine and methanol by a simple hydrogen pressure swing. Thus, an efficient one-pot hydrogen carrier system has been developed. The H2 generating step can be termed as "amine reforming of methanol" in analogy to the traditional steam reforming. It acts as a clean source of hydrogen without concurrent production of CO2 (unlike steam reforming) or CO (by complete methanol dehydrogenation). Therefore, a carbon neutral cycle is essentially achieved where no carbon capture is necessary as the carbon is trapped in the form of formamide (or urea in the case of primary amine). In theory, a hydrogen storage capacity as high as 6.6 wt % is achievable. Dehydrogenative coupling and the subsequent amide hydrogenation proceed with good yields (90% and >95% respectively, with methanol and N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine as dehydrogenative coupling partners).

  8. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier. (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  9. Evaluation of industrially applied heat-transfer fluids as liquid organic hydrogen carrier systems. (United States)

    Brückner, Nicole; Obesser, Katharina; Bösmann, Andreas; Teichmann, Daniel; Arlt, Wolfgang; Dungs, Jennifer; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive method for the decentralized storage of renewable excess energy. In this contribution, industrially well-established heat-transfer oils (typically sold under trade names, e.g., Marlotherm) are proposed as a new class of LOHC systems. It is demonstrated that the liquid mixture of isomeric dibenzyltoluenes (m.p. -39 to -34 °C, b.p. 390 °C) can be readily hydrogenated to the corresponding mixture of perhydrogenated analogues by binding 6.2 wt% of H2. The liquid H2 -rich form can be stored and transported similarly to diesel fuel. It readily undergoes catalytic dehydrogenation at temperatures above 260 °C, which proves its applicability as a reversible H2 carrier. The presented LOHC systems are further characterized by their excellent technical availability at comparably low prices, full registration of the H2 -lean forms, and excellent thermal stabilities. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Carbon: Hydrogen Carrier or Disappearing Skeleton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Wechem, H.M.H. van


    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently

  11. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): Toward a Hydrogen-free Hydrogen Economy. (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter


    The need to drastically reduce CO 2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent. Recent scientific and technological progress in handling hydrogen in chemically bound form as liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) supports the technological vision that a future hydrogen economy may work without handling large amounts of elemental hydrogen. LOHC systems are composed of pairs of hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich organic compounds that store hydrogen by repeated catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation cycles. While hydrogen handling in the form of LOHCs allows for using the existing infrastructure for fuels, it also builds on the existing public confidence in dealing with liquid energy carriers. In contrast to hydrogen storage by hydrogenation of gases, such as CO 2 or N 2 , hydrogen release from LOHC systems produces pure hydrogen after condensation of the high-boiling carrier compounds. This Account highlights the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage using LOHC systems. It first introduces fundamental aspects of a future hydrogen economy and derives therefrom requirements for suitable LOHC compounds. Molecular structures that have been successfully applied in the literature are presented, and their property profiles are discussed. Fundamental and applied aspects of the involved hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis are discussed, characteristic differences for the catalytic conversion of

  12. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg


    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies


    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  14. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others


    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  15. Hydrogen: The Ultimate Fuel and Energy Carrier. (United States)

    Dinga, Gustav P.


    Lists 24 frequently asked questions concerning hydrogen as a fuel with several responses given to each question. Emphasized are hydrogen production, storage, transmission, and application to various energy-consuming sectors. Summarizes current findings and research on hydrogen. An extensive bibliography is included. (ML)

  16. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A.; Engberg Pedersen, T.; Joergensen, K. (and others)


    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  17. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others


    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  18. Production of H2 from combined endothermic and exothermic hydrogen carriers. (United States)

    Wechsler, Dominik; Cui, Yi; Dean, Darrell; Davis, Boyd; Jessop, Philip G


    One of the major limitations to the use of fuel cell systems in vehicular transportation is the lack of hydrogen storage systems that have the required hydrogen storage density and moderate enthalpy of dehydrogenation. Organic liquid H(2) carriers that release H(2) endothermically are easier to handle with existing infrastructure because they are liquids, but they have low storage densities and their endothermicity consumes energy in the vehicle. On the other hand, inorganic solid H(2) carriers that release H(2) exothermically have greater storage densities but are unpumpable solids. This paper explores combinations of an endothermic carrier and an exothermic carrier, where the exothermic carrier provides some or all of the necessary heat required for dehydrogenation to the endothermic system, and the endothermic carrier serves as a solvent for the exothermic carrier. The two carriers can be either physically mixed or actually bonded to each other. To test the latter strategy, a number of chemically bound N-heterocycle:BH(3) adducts were synthesized and in turn tested for their ability to release H(2) by tandem hydrolysis of the BH(3) moiety and dehydrogenation of the heterocycle. To test the strategy of physically mixing two carriers, the hydrolysis of a variety of amine-boranes (H(3)N:BH(3), Me(2)HN:BH(3), Et(3)N:BH(3)) and the catalytic dehydrogenation of indoline were carried out together.

  19. The dehydrogenation of combined organic and inorganic hydrogen-storage carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, D.; Jessop, P.G. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Davis, B. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada); Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Fuel Cell Research Centre


    This paper discussed a hydrogen production system that used dehydrogenation of the exothermic carrier of a combined organic and inorganic hydrogen carrier system. Previous studies showed that the hydrolysis of boranes placed products into a thermodynamic well that inhibited the regeneration of hydrolized carriers. Two different approaches were considered, notably the placement of both carriers in the same molecule through a chemical bond, and a physical mixture of both carriers. The experimental study demonstrated that the chemically bound inorganic and organic carriers decomposed in the presence of several catalysts to indoline and unknown boron species. Boron poisoning of the catalyst was attributed to the failure of the free indoline to dehydrogenate. Limited success was obtained using the physical mixture of the 2 carriers. In the absence of borane, complete indoline dehydrogenation was achieved in the presence of a catalyst. Indoline dehydrogenation was prevented when borane was added. Results of the study indicated that the dehydrogenation of combined organic and inorganic carriers failed due to boron inhibition of the catalyst as well as electronic impacts on the endothermic carrier. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.


    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  1. Stable wafer-carrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C


    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell. (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D


    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O2-reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O2, which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  3. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.


    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O2-reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O2, which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells. PMID:23457415

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald


    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  5. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA


    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  6. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng


    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  7. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand


    of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets......Hydrogen system, as a new energy carrier, could deliver clean and efficient energy services in a wide range of applications. This paper presents an economic dispatch-based mathematical model that facilitates investigations on the techno-economic feasibility of hydrogen systems in the context...

  8. Solid-phase microextraction may catalize hydrogenation when using hydrogen as carrier in gas chromatography. (United States)

    Fiorini, D; Boarelli, M C


    When hydrogen is used as carrier gas, carbon-carbon double bonds may be hydrogenated in the hot gas chromatograph (GC) injector if introduced by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/carboxen/divinylbenzene (DVB), PDMS/carboxen, polyacrylate, PDMS/DVB and PDMS on fused silica, stableflex or metal alloy core have been tested with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from olive oil. Using coatings containing DVB, hydrogenation took place with high conversion rates (82.0-92.9%) independently of the core material. With all fibers having a metal core, hydrogenation was observed to a certain extent (27.4-85.3%). PDMS, PDMS/carboxen and polyacrylate coated fibers with a fused silica or stableflex core resulted in negligible hydrogenation (0.2-2.5%). The occurrence of hydrogenation was confirmed also with other substances containing carbon-carbon double bonds (n-alkenes, alkenoic acids, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper


    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  10. Hydrogen storage and generation system (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.


    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  11. Hydrogen and Biofuels - A Modeling Analysis of Competing Energy Carriers for Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guel, Timur; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo


    This paper deals with the prospects of hydrogen and biofuels as energy carriers in the Western European transportation sector. The assessment is done by combining the US hydrogen analysis H2A models for the design of hydrogen production and delivery chains, and the Western European Hydrogen Markal Model EHM with a detailed representation of biofuels, and the European electricity and transportation sector. The paper derives policy recommendations to support the market penetration of hydrogen and biofuels, and investigates learning interactions between the different energy carriers. (auth)

  12. Comparison of Iron and Tungsten Based Oxygen Carriers for Hydrogen Production Using Chemical Looping Reforming (United States)

    Khan, M. N.; Shamim, T.


    Hydrogen production by using a three reactor chemical looping reforming (TRCLR) technology is an innovative and attractive process. Fossil fuels such as methane are the feedstocks used. This process is similar to a conventional steam-methane reforming but occurs in three steps utilizing an oxygen carrier. As the oxygen carrier plays an important role, its selection should be done carefully. In this study, two oxygen carrier materials of base metal iron (Fe) and tungsten (W) are analysed using a thermodynamic model of a three reactor chemical looping reforming plant in Aspen plus. The results indicate that iron oxide has moderate oxygen carrying capacity and is cheaper since it is abundantly available. In terms of hydrogen production efficiency, tungsten oxide gives 4% better efficiency than iron oxide. While in terms of electrical power efficiency, iron oxide gives 4.6% better results than tungsten oxide. Overall, a TRCLR system with iron oxide is 2.6% more efficient and is cost effective than the TRCLR system with tungsten oxide.

  13. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.; Energy Systems; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Arctic Energies, Ltd.


    completing project tasks that consist of updating the John Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) pilot plantship design and extrapolating it to commercial plantships, evaluating a new energy-efficient ammonia synthesis process, evaluating the co-production of desalinated water on plantships, and developing a conceptual design of a satellite plantships system for commercial-scale ammonia production. In addition, an industrial workshop was organized to present the results and develop future goals for commercialization of ocean thermal plantships by 2015. The following goals, arranged in chronological order, were examined at the workshop: (1) Global displacement of petroleum-fuel-based (diesel, fuel oil, naphtha) power generation for freeing up these fuels for transportation, chemical feedstock, and other high-valued uses; (2) At-sea production of desalinated water for regions of critical water shortages; (3) Displacement of carbon-based feed stocks and energy for production of ammonia fertilizers; (4) Development of hydrogen supply to allow economic processing of heavy crude oils and upgrading oil sands; (5) Development of ammonia-fueled distributed energy to displace natural-gas fueled power generation to free up natural gas for higher-value uses and the mitigation of issues associated with imported liquefied natural gas (LNG); and (6) Use of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier for transportation.

  14. Enhancing Charge Carrier Lifetime in Metal Oxide Photoelectrodes through Mild Hydrogen Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Ji-Wook


    Widespread application of solar water splitting for energy conversion is largely dependent on the progress in developing not only efficient but also cheap and scalable photoelectrodes. Metal oxides, which can be deposited with scalable techniques and are relatively cheap, are particularly interesting, but high efficiency is still hindered by the poor carrier transport properties (i.e., carrier mobility and lifetime). Here, a mild hydrogen treatment is introduced to bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), which is one of the most promising metal oxide photoelectrodes, as a method to overcome the carrier transport limitations. Time-resolved microwave and terahertz conductivity measurements reveal more than twofold enhancement of the carrier lifetime for the hydrogen-treated BiVO4, without significantly affecting the carrier mobility. This is in contrast to the case of tungsten-doped BiVO4, although hydrogen is also a donor type dopant in BiVO4. The enhancement in carrier lifetime is found to be caused by significant reduction of trap-assisted recombination, either via passivation or reduction of deep trap states related to vanadium antisite on bismuth or vanadium interstitials according to density functional theory calculations. Overall, these findings provide further insights on the interplay between defect modulation and carrier transport in metal oxides, which benefit the development of low-cost, highly-efficient solar energy conversion devices.

  15. Hydrogen Recovery System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquid hydrogen is used extensively by NASA to support cryogenic rocket testing. In addition, there are many commercial applications in which delivery and use of...

  16. Hydrogen Recovery System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility and helium gas that is...

  17. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus


    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  18. Carriers (United States)

    ... addition, a small percentage of carriers have a mutation that cannot be identified through current testing. In this case, it will appear as though the disease has been caused by a single carrier. Carrier Testing A DNA test is the only way to detect carrier ...

  19. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang


    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  20. Low-Temperature Carrier Transport in Ionic-Liquid-Gated Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon (United States)

    Sasama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko


    We fabricated ionic-liquid-gated field-effect transistors on the hydrogen-terminated (111)-oriented surface of undoped silicon. Ion implantation underneath electrodes leads to good ohmic contacts, which persist at low temperatures down to 1.4 K. The sheet resistance of the channel decreases by more than five orders of magnitude as the gate voltage is changed from 0 to -1.6 V at 220 K. This is caused by the accumulation of hole carriers. The sheet resistance shows thermally activated behavior at temperatures below 10 K, which is attributed to hopping transport of the carriers. The activation energy decreases towards zero with increasing carrier density, suggesting the approach to an insulator-metal transition. We also report the variation of device characteristics induced by repeated sweeps of the gate voltage.

  1. Model Catalytic Studies of Novel Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers: Indole, Indoline and Octahydroindole on Pt(111). (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Bachmann, Philipp; Silva, Thais Nascimento; Mohr, Susanne; Scheuermeyer, Marlene; Späth, Florian; Bauer, Udo; Düll, Fabian; Steinhauer, Johann; Hohner, Chantal; Döpper, Tibor; Noei, Heshmat; Stierle, Andreas; Papp, Christian; Steinrück, H-P; Wasserscheid, Peter; Görling, Andreas; Libuda, Jörg


    Indole derivatives were recently proposed as potential liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC) for storage of renewable energies. In this work, we have investigated the adsorption, dehydrogenation and degradation mechanisms in the indole/indoline/octahydroindole system on Pt(111). We have combined infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and DFT calculations. Indole multilayers show a crystallization transition at 200 K, in which the molecules adopt a strongly tilted orientation, before the multilayer desorbs at 220 K. For indoline, a less pronounced restructuring transition occurs at 150 K and multilayer desorption is observed at 200 K. Octahydroindole multilayers desorb already at 185 K, without any indication for restructuring. Adsorbed monolayers of all three compounds are stable up to room temperature and undergo deprotonation at the NH bond above 300 K. For indoline, the reaction is followed by partial dehydrogenation at the 5-membered ring, leading to the formation of a flat-lying di-σ-indolide in the temperature range from 330-390 K. Noteworthy, the same surface intermediate is formed from indole. In contrast, the reaction of octahydroindole with Pt(111) leads to the formation of a different intermediate, which originates from partial dehydrogenation of the 6-membered ring. Above 390 K, all three compounds again form the same strongly dehydrogenated and partially decomposed surface species. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optimal carrier frequency assignments for a two-carrier-level SCPS system (United States)

    Vuong, X. T.; Forsey, R. J.

    A two-carrier-level SCPC system may occur in a star network where one master station (hub) with large G/T communicates with many remote stations with small G/T via one satellite transponder. By properly assigning the frequencies of carriers passing through the transponder, one can reduce and balance the relative intermodulation power levels falling into the SCPC channels. Through computer simulation, optimal carrier frequency assignments are found for four different criteria of optimality. The optimal assignments vary with respect to the difference in the two levels of carrier output power. All four criteria provide the conclusion that when the difference is around 3 dB, the assignment with small carriers stacked in the middle is best; and, when the difference is large (greater than 6 dB) the assignment with large carriers and small carriers alternated is best.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B


    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  4. Photo-excited hot carrier dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon imaged by 4D electron microscopy (United States)

    Liao, Bolin; Najafi, Ebrahim; Li, Heng; Minnich, Austin J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.


    Charge carrier dynamics in amorphous semiconductors has been a topic of intense research that has been propelled by modern applications in thin-film solar cells, transistors and optical sensors. Charge transport in these materials differs fundamentally from that in crystalline semiconductors owing to the lack of long-range order and high defect density. Despite the existence of well-established experimental techniques such as photoconductivity time-of-flight and ultrafast optical measurements, many aspects of the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers in amorphous semiconductors remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate direct imaging of carrier dynamics in space and time after photo-excitation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) by scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (SUEM). We observe an unexpected regime of fast diffusion immediately after photoexcitation, together with spontaneous electron-hole separation and charge trapping induced by the atomic disorder. Our findings demonstrate the rich dynamics of hot carrier transport in amorphous semiconductors that can be revealed by direct imaging based on SUEM.

  5. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.


    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  6. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim


    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  7. Estimating Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File Underreporting from Carrier Records. (United States)


    This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...

  8. Measurement of dissolved hydrogen in Al alloys and calculation of hydrogen removal efficiency of a degassing system


    *N. Akhtar; S. Javed; 1W. Akhtar


    In this paper we reported the diminution pattern of hydrogen contents in molten aluminium alloys during casting on industrial scale, and estimated the efficiency of inline rotary degassing system. The degassing parameters were tried to set constant in nearly 150 heats, so that other factors which govern the degassing efficiency of inline unit could be in-sighted well. In this study we used Leco RHEN-602 hydrogen determinator based on the principle of hot extraction carrier gas method, for the...

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes (United States)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.


    Hydrogen and chemical heat pipes were proposed as methods of transporting energy from a primary energy source (nuclear, solar) to the user. In the chemical heat pipe system, primary energy is transformed into the energy of a reversible chemical reaction; the chemical species are then transmitted or stored until the energy is required. Analysis of thermochemical hydrogen schemes and chemical heat pipe systems on a second law efficiency or available work basis show that hydrogen is superior especially if the end use of the chemical heat pipe is electrical power.

  10. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael


    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  11. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael


    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  12. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. Final report; Wasserstoff als Energietraeger. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, H. [ed.


    This final report of the Special Field of Research 270 (SFB 270) documents the work and results of the four promotion phases from 1989 to 1998, presented in reports on 15 part-projects. From its inception, SFB 270, which bears the title ''Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier'', has been dedicated to two fields of work: in Project Area A to the production of hydrogen (7 part-projects) and in Project Area B to the transport and storage of hydrogen (8 part-projects). The scientific results of the part-projects have also been presented in detail in the progress reports and interim reports of 1991, 1994 and 1997. Some of them have also been presented at the colloquiums of SFB 270. Twelve part-projects have been abstracted individually for the ENERGY database. [German] Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht des Sonderforschungsbereichs 270 dokumentiert die Arbeiten und Ergebnisse der vier Foerderungsphasen von 1989 bis 1998. Sie sind in den Berichten von 15 Teilprojekten wiedergegeben. Der Sonderforschungsbereich 270 'Wasserstoff als Energietraeger' hat sich von Anfang an zwei Aufgabengebieten gewidmet: Im Projektbereich A der Herstellung von Wasserstoff (7 Teilprojekte) und im Projektbereich B dem Transport und der Speicherung von Wasserstoff (8 Teilprojekte). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Teilprojekte sind ausfuehrlich auch in den Arbeits- und Ergebnisberichten 1991, 1994 und 1997 wiedergegeben. Sie wurden auch, in Teilen, in entsprechenden Kolloquien des SFB 270 praesentiert. Fuer die Datenbank ENERGY wurden 12 Teilprojekte separat aufgenommen. (orig.)

  13. Use of hydrogen as a carrier gas for the analysis of steroids with anabolic activity by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Muñoz-Guerra, J A; Prado, P; García-Tenorio, S Vargas


    Due to the impact in the media and the requirements of sensitivity and robustness, the detection of the misuse of forbidden substances in sports is a really challenging area for analytical chemistry, where any study focused on enhancing the performance of the analytical methods will be of great interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of using hydrogen instead of helium as a carrier gas for the analysis of anabolic steroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization. There are several drawbacks related with the use of helium as a carrier gas: it is expensive, is a non-renewable resource, and has limited availability in many parts of the world. In contrast, hydrogen is readily available using a hydrogen generator or high-pressure bottled gas, and allows a faster analysis without loss of efficiency; nevertheless it should not be forgotten that due to its explosiveness hydrogen must be handled with caution. Throughout the study the impact of the change of the carrier gas will be evaluated in terms of: performance of the chromatographic system, saving of time and money, impact on the high vacuum in the analyzer, changes in the fragmentation behaviour of the analytes, and finally consequences for the limits of detection achieved with the method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioreactors configured with distributors and carriers enhance the performance of continuous dark hydrogen fermentation. (United States)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lin, Ping-Jei; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Anaerobic granular sludge bed (AnGSB) bioreactors were supplemented with activated carbon carriers and combined with distributors (e.g., acrylic resin board, stainless steel net and plastic net) installed at different locations to investigate the effect of distributor/carrier on biohydrogen production efficiency. The results show that plastic net stimulated the substrate/microorganisms contact and sludge granulation, thereby leading to a much better H(2) production performance when compared with those obtained from traditional CSTR. The highest H(2) production rate (7.89 L/h/L) and yield (3.42 mol H(2)/mol sucrose) were obtained when two pieces of plastic nets were installed at both 4 cm and 16 cm from the bottom of AnGSB without carrier addition and the bioreactor was operated at a HRT of 0.5h. For the AnGSB installed with two pieces of plastic net distributors, addition of carriers led to significant improvement on the H(2) production efficiency at a longer HRT (1-4h) when compared with the carrier-absent system.

  15. Block division carrier slot setting for satellite SCPC systems (United States)

    Yashima, Hiroyuki; Sasase, Iwao; Mori, Shinsaku


    A carrier slot setting plan is proposed to reduce intermodulation (IM) effects for satellite single-channel-per-carrier (SCPC) systems. Carrier slots are divided into blocks and slight frequency gaps are set among blocks. This setting introduces frequency offset between the center frequencies of carrier slots and the center frequencies of the IM components. A method of deriving optimum division in order to derive the upper bound of improvement of the C/IM ratio in the worst channel is developed. The results show that the setting plan achieves significant improvement of IM effects at a cost of only slight bandwidth expansion, even in fully loaded SCPC systems.

  16. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.


    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  17. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper


    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  18. Carrier Load Balancing and Packet Scheduling for Multi-Carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    Abstract-In this paper we focus on resource allocation for next generation wireless communication systems with aggregation of multiple Component Carriers (CCs), i.e., how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex multiple users in each CC. We first investigate two carrier load balancing...... methods for allocating the CCs to the users- Round Robin (RR) and Mobile Hashing (MH) balancing by means of a simple theoretical formulation, as well as system level simulations. At Layer-2 we propose a simple cross-CC packet scheduling algorithm that improves the coverage performance and the resource...... allocation fairness among users, as compared to independent scheduling per CC. The Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is selected for the case study of a multi-carrier system. In such a system, RR provides better performance than MH balancing, and the proposed simple scheduling algorithm is shown...

  19. Hydrogen Fire Detection System Features Sharp Discrimination (United States)

    Bright, C. S.


    Hydrogen fire detection system discovers fires by detecting the flickering ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OH molecule, a short-lived intermediate combustion product found in hydrogen-air flames. In a space application, the system discriminates against false signals from sunlight and rocket engine exhaust plume radiation.

  20. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System (United States)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal


    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  1. Comparative study of using different materials as bacterial carriers to treat hydrogen sulfide. (United States)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Zhu, Nanwen; Cao, Xinde; Jia, Jinping


    The use of support media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and protect the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, molecular sieve, granular porous carbon, and ferric oxide desulfurizer, immobilized with autotrophic bacteria capable of oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron, were developed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Their corresponding bioreactors were referred to as BMS, BPC, and BFO, respectively. H(2)S loading, gas retention time, hydrogen ion, and aluminous, ferric, and ferrous iron concentrations of recycling effluents were evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis, Brauner-Emmett-Teller method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize packing materials. Results showed that the elimination capacity was in the order of BFO > BPC > BMS. This study suggested that the material characteristics progressively influenced the deodorization capacities of bioreactors. H(2)S was oxidized into elemental sulfur and oxidized sulfur species, according to differences of carriers. Furthermore, this study revealed the potential application of simultaneously treating of H(2)S under extremely acidic conditions.

  2. Carriers reactivation in p{sup +}-type porous silicon accompanies hydrogen desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivolo, P.; Geobaldo, F.; Salvador, G.P.; Pallavidino, L.; Garrone, E. [Dip. Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Ugliengo, P. [Dip. Chimica IFM, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)


    FTIR spectra of p{sup +}-type mesoporous silicon (m-PS) outgassed in the 300-600 K range show a loss of transparency with increasing temperature, more pronounced at low frequencies. This is evidence of free-carrier formation. Previous work (F. Geobaldo et al., Sensors and Actuators B, in press [1]) concerning the reversible interaction of NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} has shown the presence at the surface of adsorption sites involving Si/B pairs. Thermal treatment of the sample causes desorption of molecular hydrogen, released through the homolytic splitting of Si-H bonds. Besides meeting each other forming a H{sub 2} molecule, H atoms may interact with an adsorption site, by creating a new H-Si-B bond. This new bond needs one additional electron to be formed and injection of a hole takes place into the solid. At higher temperatures, surface hydrogen is almost totally removed and the sample transparency recovered. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Different nanocrystal systems for carrier multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, X.C.


    Carrier multiplication is an important process which can enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic and electronic devices. To investigate this process, diverse experimental setups can be used; the thesis considers some particular artifacts which negatively impact the accuracy of the measurements, and

  4. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.


    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  5. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L


    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  6. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  7. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  8. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad


    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  9. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems. (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  10. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.


    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  11. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  12. Seasonal stoage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain architecture model


    Reuss, Markus; Grube, Thomas; Robinius, Martin; Preuster, Patrick; Wasserscheid, Peter; Stolten, Detlef


    A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue,...

  13. Composite material systems for hydrogen management (United States)

    Pangborn, R. N.; Queeney, R. A.


    The task of managing hydrogen entry into elevated temperature structural materials employed in turbomachinery is a critical engineering area for propulsion systems employing hydrogen or decomposable hydrocarbons as fuel. Extant structural materials, such as the Inconel series, are embrittled by the ingress of hydrogen in service, leading to a loss of endurance and general deterioration of load-bearing dependability. Although the development of hydrogen-insensitive material systems is an obvious engineering option, to date insensitive systems cannot meet the time-temperature-loading service extremes encountered. A short-term approach that is both feasible and technologically sound is the development and employment of hydrogen barrier coatings. The present project is concerned with developing, analyzing, and physically testing laminate composite hydrogen barrier systems, employing Inconel 718 as the structural material to be protected. Barrier systems will include all metallic, metallic-to-ceramic, and, eventually, metallic/ceramic composites as the lamellae. Since space propulsion implies repetitive engine firings without earth-based inspection and repair, coating durability will be closely examined, and testing regimes will include repetitive thermal cycling to simulate damage accumulation. The target accomplishments include: generation of actual hydrogen permeation data for metallic, ceramic-metallic, and hybrid metallic/ceramic composition barrier systems, practically none of which is currently extant; definition of physical damage modes imported to barrier systems due to thermal cycling, both transient temperature profiles and steady-state thermal mismatch stress states being examined as sources of damage; and computational models that incorporate general laminate schemes as described above, including manufacturing realities such as porosity, and whatever defects are introduced through service and characterized during the experimental programs.

  14. Downlink transmission in multi-carrier systems with reduced feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    in this paper we address the problem of reducing the feedback for the downlink transmission in multi-carrier systems. In these systems multiple Component Carriers (CCs) are aggregated together to form a wide spectrum. Consequently, a large feedback overhead is required to report the channel quality...... overhead in future generation wireless communication systems that operate over multiple CCs....... information over such a wide bandwidth. We first generalize two existing feedback reduction techniques, and then propose a new one. These techniques use different feedback schemes across the CCs, or allow some CCs to be un-reported, for the purpose of reducing the amount of feedback. Performance...

  15. Dehydrogenation mechanism of liquid organic hydrogen carriers: dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole on Pd(111). (United States)

    Amende, Max; Schernich, Stefan; Sobota, Marek; Nikiforidis, Ioannis; Hieringer, Wolfgang; Assenbaum, Daniel; Gleichweit, Christoph; Drescher, Hans-Jörg; Papp, Christian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Görling, Andreas; Wasserscheid, Peter; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg


    Dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H12-NEC) has been proposed as a potential liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) for chemical energy storage, as it combines both favourable physicochemical and thermodynamic properties. The design of optimised dehydrogenation catalysts for LOHC technology requires a detailed understanding of the reaction pathways and the microkinetics. Here, we investigate the dehydrogenation mechanism of H12-NEC on Pd(111) by using a surface-science approach under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. By combining infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, density functional theory calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface intermediates and their stability are identified. We show that H12-NEC adsorbs molecularly up to 173 K. Above this temperature (223 K), activation of C-H bonds is observed within the five-membered ring. Rapid dehydrogenation occurs to octahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H8-NEC), which is identified as a stable surface intermediate at 223 K. Above 273 K, further dehydrogenation of H8-NEC proceeds within the six-membered rings. Starting from clean Pd(111), C-N bond scission, an undesired side reaction, is observed above 350 K. By complementing surface spectroscopy, we present a temperature-programmed molecular beam experiment, which permits direct observation of dehydrogenation products in the gas phase during continuous dosing of the LOHC. We identify H8-NEC as the main product desorbing from Pd(111). The onset temperature for H8-NEC desorption is 330 K, the maximum reaction rate is reached around 550 K. The fact that preferential desorption of H8-NEC is observed even above the temperature threshold for H8-NEC dehydrogenation on the clean surface is attributed to the presence of surface dehydrogenation and decomposition products during continuous reactant exposure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Performance of a Coherent Residual Carrier PSK System Using Hybrid Carrier Phase Synchronization (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Tsou, H.; Hinedi, S. M.; Hamdan, K.


    This article presents a generic theory for the behavior and performance of hybrid carrier synchronization loops, i.e., loops composed of a combination of discrete and suppressed carrier types, and evaluates their impact on the error probability performance of a phase-shift-keyed (PSK) communication system. Since hybrid loops are characterized by two not necessarily equiprobable lock points (one at zero phase error and one at 180-deg phase error), it is necessary to properly take this phenomenon into account in predicting hybrid loop performance. As such, a new form of solution for the phase error probability density is proposed based on the solution of the Zakai equation. Using this mathematical model, the meansquared phase error of the hybrid loop is derived and numerically compared with results obtained from a computer simulation. Two methods of resolving the inherent 180-deg phase ambiguity associated with using a hybrid loop for carrier synchronization are discussed and the corresponding average error probability performances of an associated PSK system are evaluated.

  17. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  18. Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucan, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich

  19. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.


    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  20. Poly(hydroxyethylaspartamide) derivatives as colloidal drug carrier systems. (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Licciardi, Mariano; Giammona, Gaetano; Caliceti, Paolo; Semenzato, Alessandra; Salmaso, Stefano


    Poly(hydroxyethylaspartamide) (PHEA) derivatives bearing at the polyaminoacidic backbone poly(ethyleneglycol) (2000 or 5000 Da) or both poly(ethyleneglycol) and hexadecylalkylamine as pendant moieties were investigated as polymeric colloidal drug carriers. The ability of the PHEA derivatives to solubilize hydrophobic drugs was investigated using paclitaxel, amphotericin B and methotrexate. The results demonstrated that the drug solubility depends on both macromolecule composition and drug physicochemical properties. In particular, PEG/hexadecylalkylamine co-grafting increased significantly the solubilization properties of PHEA for the considered drugs while the conjugation of PEG only did not endow PHEA with drug carrier properties. A stability study carried out with paclitaxel/PHEA-PEG(5000)-hexadecylalkylamine demonstrated that the drug/carrier system is characterized by physicochemical instability, which is strictly related to the incubation pH. However, the carrier was found to partially prevent drug degradation. Investigations performed using murine myeloid leukaemia NFS-60 cell line showed that paclitaxel loaded PHEA-PEG(5000)-hexadecylalkylamine possesses high pharmacological activity with IC(50) value of 22.3 ng/ml. Pharmacokinetic studies carried out by intravenous administration of paclitaxel loaded PHEA-PEG(5000)-hexadecylalkylamine to Balb/c mice demonstrated that the carrier modifies the in vivo paclitaxel fate. In particular, PHEA-PEG(5000)-hexadecylalkylamine prolonged the drug distribution and elimination phase of 6 and 17 times, respectively; in addition, it increased the systemic availability (AUC) by about 30 times.

  1. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche


    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  2. Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the guidance of Drs. Michael Seibert (retired, Fellow Emeritus) and Maria Ghirardi (Fellow), led 15 years of research addressing the issue of algal H2 photoproduction. This project resulted in greatly increased rates and yields of algal hydrogen production; increased understanding of the H2 metabolism in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; expanded our knowledge of other physiological aspects relevant to sustained algal photosynthetic H2 production; led to the genetic identification, cloning and manipulation of algal hydrogenase genes; and contributed to a broader, fundamental understanding of the technical and scientific challenges to improving the conversion efficiencies in order to reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office’s targets. Some of the tangible results are: (i) 64 publications and 6 patents, (ii) international visibility to NREL, (iii) reinvigoration of national and international biohydrogen research, and (iv) research progress that helped stimulate new funding from other DOE and non-DOE programs, including the AFOSR and the DOE Office of Science.

  3. Artificial photosynthetic systems for production of hydrogen. (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi


    The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has caused unacceptable environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, which may lead to disastrous climatic consequences. Because fossil fuels are the products of long-term photosynthesis, it is highly desirable to develop artificial photosynthetic systems for the production of renewable and clean energy such as hydrogen. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of artificial photosynthetic systems for photocatalytic production of hydrogen with hydrogenases and their functional mimics including hybrids of natural and artificial components. Because it is highly desired to convert gaseous H2 to an easily storable form, recent progress on storage of hydrogen as liquid or solid form has also been described in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R


    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  5. Jitter Limitations on a Gigabit Copper Multi-Carrier System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, Jan L.; Nauta, Bram

    The feasibility of a multi-carrier system for data-transmission over copper wires at gigabit rates is analyzed. More specific, we look at the effects of jitter and duty-cycle deviations on the SNR and error rate using Matlab simulations. Jitter causes crosstalk between the inphase and quadrature

  6. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems. (United States)


    ... accomplish the desired purpose. No equipment authorization is required. (d) The best engineering principles...-interference basis in accordance with § 15.5 of this part. If harmful interference occurs, the electric power... frequencies. (e) Power line carrier system apparatus shall conform to such engineering standards as may be...

  7. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)


    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  8. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center


    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  9. Measuring laser carrier-envelope-phase effects in the noble gases with an atomic hydrogen calibration standard (United States)

    Khurmi, Champak; Wallace, W. C.; Sainadh U, Satya; Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.; Tong, X. M.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Sang, R. T.; Kielpinski, D.


    We present accurate measurements of carrier-envelope-phase effects on ionization of the noble gases with few-cycle laser pulses. The experimental apparatus is calibrated by using atomic hydrogen data to remove any systematic offsets and thereby obtain accurate CEP data on other generally used noble gases such as Ar, Kr, and Xe. Experimental results for H are well supported by exact time-dependent Schrödinger equation theoretical simulations; however, significant differences are observed in the case of the noble gases.

  10. Rapid analysis of urinary opiates using fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and hydrogen as a carrier gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumandeep Rana


    Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis was performed in electron ionization mode by selective ion monitoring, using hydrogen as a carrier gas, a short narrow bore GC capillary column, and fast temperature program, allowing for a rapid analytical cycle to maximize the instrument time for high throughput laboratories. While maintaining specificity for these drugs, concentrations in human urine ranging from 50 to 5,000 ng/mL can be measured with intraday and interday imprecision, expressed as variation coefficients, of less than 2.3% for all analytes within a run time of less than 3.5 minutes.

  11. Optimization and field demonstration of hybrid hydrogen generator/high efficiency furnace system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entchev, E.; Coyle, I.; Szadkowski, F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A-1M1 (Canada); Manning, M.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Graydon, J.; Kirk, D. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Hydrogen is seen as an energy carrier of the future and significant research on hydrogen generation, storage and utilization is accomplished around the world. However, an appropriate intermediate step before wide hydrogen introduction will be blending conventional fuels such as natural gas, oil or diesel with hydrogen and follow up combustion through conventional means. Due to changes in the combustion and flame characteristics of the system additional research is needed to access the limits and the impact of the fuel mix on the combustion systems performance. The hybrid system consists of a 5 kW{sub el} electrolyzer and a residential 15 kW{sub th} high efficiency gas fired furnace. The electrolyzer was integrated with the furnace gas supply and setup to replace 5-25% of the furnace natural gas flow with hydrogen. A mean for proper mixing of hydrogen with natural gas was provided and a control system for safe system operation was developed. Prior to the start of the field trial the hybrid system was investigated in laboratory environment. It was subjected to a variety of steady state and cycling conditions and a detailed performance and optimization analysis was performed with a range of hydrogen/natural gas mixtures. The optimized system was then installed at the Canadian Centre for Housing Technologies (CCHT) Experimental research house. The energy performance of the hybrid system was compared to the energy performance of an identical high efficiency furnace in the Control research house next door. (author)

  12. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)


    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  13. FY17 Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Journal Publication Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center published 39 journal articles in fiscal year 2017 highlighting recent research in advanced vehicle technology, alternative fuels, and hydrogen systems.

  14. Catalytic Dehydrogenative Coupling of Hydrosilanes with Alcohols for the Production of Hydrogen On-demand: Application of a Silane/Alcohol Pair as a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier. (United States)

    Ventura-Espinosa, David; Carretero-Cerdán, Alba; Baya, Miguel; García, Hermenegildo; Mata, Jose A


    The compound [Ru(p-cym)(Cl)2 (NHC)] is an effective catalyst for the room-temperature coupling of silanes and alcohols with the concomitant formation of molecular hydrogen. High catalyst activity is observed for a variety of substrates affording quantitative yields in minutes at room temperature and with a catalyst loading as low as 0.1 mol %. The coupling reaction is thermodynamically and, in the presence of a Ru complex, kinetically favourable and allows rapid molecular hydrogen generation on-demand at room temperature, under air, and without any additive. The pair silane/alcohol is a potential liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) for energy storage over long periods in a safe and secure way. Silanes and alcohols are non-toxic compounds and do not require special handling precautions such as high pressure or an inert atmosphere. These properties enhance the practical applications of the pair silane/alcohol as a good LOHC in the automotive industry. The variety and availability of silanes and alcohols permits a pair combination that fulfils the requirements for developing an efficient LOHC. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad


    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  16. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  17. Hydrogen Production from Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming over Yttrium Promoted Ni/SBA-16 Oxygen Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Daneshmand-Jahromi


    Full Text Available In this work, the modification of Ni/SBA-16 oxygen carrier (OC with yttrium promoter is investigated. The yttrium promoted Ni-based oxygen carrier was synthesized via co-impregnation method and applied in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process, which is used for the production of clean energy carrier. The reaction temperature (500–750 °C, Y loading (2.5–7.4 wt. %, steam/carbon molar ratio (1–5, Ni loading (10–30 wt. % and life time of OCs over 16 cycles at 650 °C were studied to investigate and optimize the structure of OC and process temperature with maximizing average methane conversion and hydrogen production yield. The synthesized OCs were characterized by multiples techniques. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of reacted OCs showed that the presence of Y particles on the surface of OCs reduces the coke formation. The smaller NiO species were found for the yttrium promoted OC and therefore the distribution of Ni particles was improved. The reduction-oxidation (redox results revealed that 25Ni-2.5Y/SBA-16 OC has the highest catalytic activity of about 99.83% average CH4 conversion and 85.34% H2 production yield at reduction temperature of 650 °C with the steam to carbon molar ratio of 2.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide generation and detection system. (United States)

    Ackley, M W


    A test system has been devised for generation and measurement of hydrogen sulfide/air mixtures. Such a system has numerous applications, including toxicology studies, detector badge and tube evaluation, sorbent capacity measurements, and respirator cartridge or canister breakthrough testing. The system in this study utilizes an HNU photoionization analyzer for detection of H2S concentrations of 1.0 ppm to 26.0 ppm. Generation techniques for these low concentration levels, and also for much higher H2S concentrations, have been described. Special consideration has been given to H2S permeation of transfer tubing, and to the effects of water vapor interference upon the analyzer.

  19. Influenza virosomes as a vaccine adjuvant and carrier system. (United States)

    Moser, Christian; Amacker, Mario; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo


    Influenza virosomes have been used for more than 10 years in commercial vaccines. The technology has been further developed as a carrier and adjuvant system for subunit vaccines, in particular for synthetic peptides. The extensive amount of preclinical and clinical data supports the notion that influenza virosomes represent a platform technology that ensures robust and long-lasting immune responses against subunit antigens with an excellent safety profile. Structurally and functionally, virosomes are enveloped virus-like particles, although they are assembled in vitro. This unique feature ensures a tight control of their composition and at the same time provides the flexibility to adapt the particle to various types of antigens. The mode of action of virosomes is complex and includes carrier as well as immune-stimulatory functions.

  20. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations is developing a technology for efficient separation and compression of hydrogen gas. The electrochemical hydrogen separator and compressor...

  1. Model Catalytic Studies of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers: Dehydrogenation and Decomposition Mechanisms of Dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole on Pt(111). (United States)

    Amende, Max; Gleichweit, Christoph; Werner, Kristin; Schernich, Stefan; Zhao, Wei; Lorenz, Michael P A; Höfert, Oliver; Papp, Christian; Koch, Marcus; Wasserscheid, Peter; Laurin, Mathias; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Libuda, Jörg


    Liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC) are compounds that enable chemical energy storage through reversible hydrogenation. They are considered a promising technology to decouple energy production and consumption by combining high-energy densities with easy handling. A prominent LOHC is N-ethylcarbazole (NEC), which is reversibly hydrogenated to dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H12-NEC). We studied the reaction of H12-NEC on Pt(111) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions by applying infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation-based high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed molecular beam methods. We show that molecular adsorption of H12-NEC on Pt(111) occurs at temperatures between 173 and 223 K, followed by initial C-H bond activation in direct proximity to the N atom. As the first stable dehydrogenation product, we identify octahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H8-NEC). Dehydrogenation to H8-NEC occurs slowly between 223 and 273 K and much faster above 273 K. Stepwise dehydrogenation to NEC proceeds while heating to 380 K. An undesired side reaction, C-N bond scission, was observed above 390 K. H8-NEC and H8-carbazole are the dominant products desorbing from the surface. Desorption occurs at higher temperatures than H8-NEC formation. We show that desorption and dehydrogenation activity are directly linked to the number of adsorption sites being blocked by reaction intermediates.

  2. Estimating motor carrier management information system crash file underreporting from carrier records : research brief. (United States)


    This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...

  3. Fuel cell drive system with hydrogen generation in test (United States)

    Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Schmidt, H.; Grube, T.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.; Tschauder, A.

    In the future, drive systems for vehicles with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) may be the environmentally more acceptable alternative to conventional drives with internal combustion engines. The energy carrier may not be gasoline or diesel, as in combustion engines today, but methanol, which is converted on-board into a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas in a reforming reaction with water. After removal of carbon monoxide in a gas-cleaning step, the conditioned synthesis gas is converted into electricity in a fuel cell using air as the oxidant. The electric energy thus generated serves to supply a vehicle's electric drive system. Based on the process design for a test drive system, a test facility was prepared and assembled at Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ). Final function tests with the PEMFC and the integrated compact methanol reformer (CMR) were carried out to determine the performance and the dynamic behaviour. With regard to the 50-kW(H 2)-compact methanol reformer, a special design of catalytic burner was constructed. The burner units, with a total power output of 16 kW, were built and tested under different states of constant and alternating load. If selecting a specific catalyst loading of 40 g Pt/m 2, the burner emissions are below the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) standard. The stationary performance test of the CMR shows a specific hydrogen production of 6.7 m N3/(kg cat h) for a methanol conversion rate of 95% at 280°C. Measurements of the transient behaviour of the CMR clearly show a response time of about 20 s, reaching 99% of the hydrogen flow demand due to the limited performance of the test facility control system. Simulations have been carried out in order to develop a control strategy for hydrogen production by the CMR during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Based on the NEDC, an optimized energy management for the total drive system was evaluated and the characteristic data for different peak load storage systems are

  4. Hydrogen as Future Energy Carrier: The ENEA Point of View on Technology and Application Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ronchetti


    Full Text Available Hydrogen and fuel cells should reduce costs and increase reliability and durability to compete in the energy market. A considerable long term effort is necessary for research, development and demonstration of adequate solutions; important programs in this sense are carried out in the main industrialized countries, with the involvement of many industries, research structures and stakeholders. In such framework a relevant role is played in Italy by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment. In the paper the main aspects related to the possible hydrogen role in the future society are addressed, according to ENEA perspectives.

  5. Catalytic Hydrogen Production by Ruthenium Complexes from the Conversion of Primary Amines to Nitriles: Potential Application as a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier. (United States)

    Ventura-Espinosa, David; Marzá-Beltrán, Aida; Mata, Jose A


    The potential application of the primary amine/nitrile pair as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) has been evaluated. Ruthenium complexes of formula [(p-cym)Ru(NHC)Cl2 ] (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyze the acceptorless dehydrogenation of primary amines to nitriles with the formation of molecular hydrogen. Notably, the reaction proceeds without any external additive, under air, and under mild reaction conditions. The catalytic properties of a ruthenium complex supported on the surface of graphene have been explored for reutilization purposes. The ruthenium-supported catalyst is active for at least 10 runs without any apparent loss of activity. The results obtained in terms of catalytic activity, stability, and recyclability are encouraging for the potential application of the amine/nitrile pair as a LOHC. The main challenge in the dehydrogenation of benzylamines is the selectivity control, such as avoiding the formation of imine byproducts due to transamination reactions. Herein, selectivity has been achieved by using long-chain primary amines such as dodecylamine. Mechanistic studies have been performed to rationalize the key factors involved in the activity and selectivity of the catalysts in the dehydrogenation of amines. The experimental results suggest that the catalyst resting state contains a coordinated amine. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms. (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang


    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  7. Optimization of a solar hydrogen storage system: Exergetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.; Isorna, F.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. S. Juan-Matalascanas, km.34, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)


    From production to end-users, the choice of suitable hydrogen delivery and storage systems will be essential to assure the adequate introduction and development of these facilities. This article describes the main options for hydrogen storage when produced from renewable energy, and explains different criteria to be considered in the design and building-up of stationary hydrogen storage systems, with special attention to exergy issues. An example of exergy analysis is done using data from the solar hydrogen storage facility of the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). As expected, the main conclusions of this analysis show the advantage of low pressure hydrogen in comparison with other available methods to store hydrogen. Another interesting option, from the exergy efficiency point of view, is the storage of hydrogen in metal hydride systems. The last option, and the most inefficient, is the high pressure hydrogen storage. (author)

  8. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie


    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  9. Influenza virosomes as vaccine adjuvant and carrier system. (United States)

    Moser, Christian; Müller, Matthias; Kaeser, Matthias D; Weydemann, Ulrike; Amacker, Mario


    The basic concept of virosomes is the controlled in vitro assembly of virus-like particles from purified components. The first generation of influenza virosomes developed two decades ago is successfully applied in licensed vaccines, providing a solid clinical safety and efficacy track record for the technology. In the meantime, a second generation of influenza virosomes has evolved as a carrier and adjuvant system, which is currently applied in preclinical and clinical stage vaccine candidates targeting various prophylactic and therapeutic indications. The inclusion of additional components to optimize particle assembly, to stabilize the formulations, or to enhance the immunostimulatory properties have further improved and broadened the applicability of the platform.

  10. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others


    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  11. Carrier-envelope phase dependence of the directional fragmentation and hydrogen migration in toluene in few-cycle laser fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li


    Full Text Available The dissociative ionization of toluene initiated by a few-cycle laser pulse as a function of the carrier envelope phase (CEP is investigated using single-shot velocity map imaging. Several ionic fragments, CH3+, H2+, and H3+, originating from multiply charged toluene ions present a CEP-dependent directional emission. The formation of H2+ and H3+ involves breaking C-H bonds and forming new bonds between the hydrogen atoms within the transient structure of the multiply charged precursor. We observe appreciable intensity-dependent CEP-offsets. The experimental data are interpreted with a mechanism that involves laser-induced coupling of vibrational states, which has been found to play a role in the CEP-control of molecular processes in hydrocarbon molecules, and appears to be of general importance for such complex molecules.

  12. Hydrogen production methods efficiency coupled to an advanced high temperature accelerator driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Daniel González; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernández, Carlos García, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)


    The hydrogen economy is one of the most promising concepts for the energy future. In this scenario, oil is replaced by hydrogen as an energy carrier. This hydrogen, rather than oil, must be produced in volumes not provided by the currently employed methods. In this work two high temperature hydrogen production methods coupled to an advanced nuclear system are presented. A new design of a pebbled-bed accelerator nuclear driven system called TADSEA is chosen because of the advantages it has in matters of transmutation and safety. For the conceptual design of the high temperature electrolysis process a detailed computational fluid dynamics model was developed to analyze the solid oxide electrolytic cell that has a huge influence on the process efficiency. A detailed flowsheet of the high temperature electrolysis process coupled to TADSEA through a Brayton gas cycle was developed using chemical process simulation software: Aspen HYSYS®. The model with optimized operating conditions produces 0.1627 kg/s of hydrogen, resulting in an overall process efficiency of 34.51%, a value in the range of results reported by other authors. A conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur thermochemical water splitting cycle was also developed. The overall efficiency of the process was calculated performing an energy balance resulting in 22.56%. The values of efficiency, hydrogen production rate and energy consumption of the proposed models are in the values considered acceptable in the hydrogen economy concept, being also compatible with the TADSEA design parameters. (author)

  13. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.


    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  14. Research Issues for Development of Hydrogen Energy System (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi

    It is generally considered that use of hydrogen in energy system is attractive because it produces no matters to cause air pollution or water pollution. Following this recognition, research to develop a car with low temperature fuel cell or hydrogen engine is extensively performed. The future energy system where hydrogen is used as the key material is shown in the figure below. To realize this system we must develop 1) the reasonable way to produce electricity or heat by using hydrogen as fuel, 2) the infrastructure to supply hydrogen to whole society, 3) energy sources and methods to produce huge amount of cheap hydrogen with minimum impact on nature, 4) together with assurance of resources to construct the system and 5) establishment of understanding about the basic behavior of hydrogen in various materials.

  15. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL


    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options

  16. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and many others often rely on delivery of cryogenic hydrogen to meet their facility needs. NASA's Stennis Space Center is one of the largest users of hydrogen,...

  17. Quality of obturation achieved by an endodontic core-carrier system with crosslinked gutta-percha carrier in single-rooted canals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Guo-Hua; Niu, Li-Na; Selem, Lisa C; Eid, Ashraf A; Bergeron, Brian E; Chen, Ji-Hua; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R


    The present study examined the quality of obturation in root canals obturated by GuttaCore, a gutta-percha-based core-carrier system with a cross-linked thermoset gutta-percha carrier, by comparing...

  18. Hydrogen. (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M


    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  19. Binding and Release between Polymeric Carrier and Protein Drug: pH-Mediated Interplay of Coulomb Forces, Hydrogen Bonding, van der Waals Interactions, and Entropy. (United States)

    De Luca, Sergio; Chen, Fan; Seal, Prasenjit; Stenzel, Martina H; Smith, Sean C


    The accelerating search for new types of drugs and delivery strategies poses challenge to understanding the mechanism of delivery. To this end, a detailed atomistic picture of binding between the drug and carrier is quintessential. Although many studies focus on the electrostatics of drug-vector interactions, it has also been pointed out that entropic factors relating to water and counterions can play an important role. By carrying out extensive molecular dynamics simulations and subsequently validating with experiments, we shed light herein on the binding in aqueous solution between a protein drug and polymeric carrier. We examined the complexation between the polymer poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-b-poly(carboxyethyl acrylate (PEGMEA-b-PCEA) and the protein egg white lysozyme, a system that acts as a model for polymer-vector/protein-drug delivery systems. The complexation has been visualized and characterized using contact maps and hydrogen bonding analyses for five independent simulations of the complex, each running over 100 ns. Binding at physiological pH is, as expected, mediated by Coulombic attraction between the positively charged protein and negatively charged carboxylate groups on the polymer. However, we find that consideration of electrostatics alone is insufficient to explain the complexation behavior at low pH. Intracomplex hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions, as well as water-water interactions dictate that the polymer does not release the protein at pH 4.8 or indeed at pH 3.2 even though the Coulombic attractions are largely removed as carboxylate groups on the polymer become titrated. Experiments in aqueous solution carried out at pH 7.0, 4.5, and 3.0 confirm the veracity of the computed binding behavior. Overall, these combined simulation and experimental results illustrate that coulomb interactions need to be complemented with consideration of other entropic forces, mediated by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding

  20. Influence of the formation- and passivation rate of boron-oxygen defects for mitigating carrier-induced degradation in silicon within a hydrogen-based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallam, Brett, E-mail:; Abbott, Malcolm; Nampalli, Nitin; Hamer, Phill; Wenham, Stuart [School of Photovoltaics and Renewable Energy Engineering, Level 1 Tyree Energy Technologies Building, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    A three-state model is used to explore the influence of defect formation- and passivation rates of carrier-induced degradation related to boron-oxygen complexes in boron-doped p-type silicon solar cells within a hydrogen-based model. The model highlights that the inability to effectively mitigate carrier-induced degradation at elevated temperatures in previous studies is due to the limited availability of defects for hydrogen passivation, rather than being limited by the defect passivation rate. An acceleration of the defect formation rate is also observed to increase both the effectiveness and speed of carrier-induced degradation mitigation, whereas increases in the passivation rate do not lead to a substantial acceleration of the hydrogen passivation process. For high-throughput mitigation of such carrier-induced degradation on finished solar cell devices, two key factors were found to be required, high-injection conditions (such as by using high intensity illumination) to enable an acceleration of defect formation whilst simultaneously enabling a rapid passivation of the formed defects, and a high temperature to accelerate both defect formation and defect passivation whilst still ensuring an effective mitigation of carrier-induced degradation.

  1. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  2. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne (United States)

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh


    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  3. Gelatin as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandra


    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of different encapsulation techniques (lyophilization and spray drying on gelatin, as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds, on wild thyme extracts and on encapsulated extracts was investigated. FTIR analyses has shown the presence of carbohydrates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, monoterpenes and carboxylates in the dried extracts, while FTIR spectrum of the encapsulated extracts has shown almost exclusively gelatin-based stripes, indicating the efficient encapsulation of the active ingredients of the extracts and therefore their protection. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the lyophilization process produced irregularly shaped particles, while spray drying formed spherical and pseudo-spherical particles with rough surface. Using the method of diffraction of laser light, it has been found that spray dried encapsulate possessed significantly lower particle size and significantly better uniformity in comparison to the lyophilized sample. According to the results obtained in differential scanning calorimetry, endothermic peak of lyophilized gelatin encapsulate appeared at higher temperature, thus it can be concluded that lyophilized sample was more thermostable than spray dried parallel. Additionally, the values of enthalpy of gelatin encapsulates were significantly higher compared to pure extracts, which confirmed the presence of stabilizing interactions between the encapsulated components and a carrier.

  4. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin


    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  5. Operation of metal hydride hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen compression using solar thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruki Endo


    Full Text Available By using a newly constructed bench-scale hydrogen energy system with renewable energy, ‘Pure Hydrogen Energy System’, the present study demonstrates the operations of a metal hydride (MH tank for hydrogen compression as implemented through the use solar thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is used to generate hot water as a heat source of the MH tank. Thus, 70 kg of LaNi5, one of the most typical alloys used for hydrogen storage, was placed in the MH tank. We present low and high hydrogen flow rate operations. Then, the operations under winter conditions are discussed along with numerical simulations conducted from the thermal point of view. Results show that a large amount of heat (>100 MJ is generated and the MH hydrogen compression is available.

  6. Renewable energy systems based on hydrogen for remote applications (United States)

    Agbossou, K.; Chahine, R.; Hamelin, J.; Laurencelle, F.; Anouar, A.; St-Arnaud, J.-M.; Bose, T. K.

    An integrated renewable energy (RE) system for powering remote communication stations and based on hydrogen is described. The system is based on the production of hydrogen by electrolysis whereby the electricity is generated by a 10 kW wind turbine (WT) and 1 kW photovoltaic (PV) array. When available, the excess power from the RE sources is used to produce and store hydrogen. When not enough energy is produced from the RE sources, the electricity is then regenerated from the stored hydrogen via a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. Overview results on the performances of the WT, PV, and fuel cells system are presented.

  7. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.


    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  8. Carriers in electron transport from molecular hydrogen to oxygen in Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids. (United States)

    Eisbrenner, G; Evans, H J


    An investigation has been conducted to identify electron transport carriers that participate in the oxidation of H2 by H2 uptake-positive strains of Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids. We have observed that the reduced form of dibromothymoquinone at a concentration of 0.2 mM strongly inhibited H2 uptake, endogenous respiration, and C2H2 reduction by bacteroid suspensions. Reduced dibromothymoquinone, however, failed to inhibit the transfer of electrons from H2 to methylene blue under anaerobic conditions, indicating that the hydrogenase per se is insensitive to this inhibitor. Metronidazole, at 1 mM, affected rates of H2 uptake and endogenous respiration only slightly, but strongly inhibited C2H2 reduction. Evidence for H2-dependent cytochrome reduction in an H2 uptake-positive strain of R. japonicum bacteroids is presented. In kinetic studies, the rates of reduction of the type b and c cytochromes in the presence of H2 were shown to be severalfold higher than the rates due to endogenous respiration alone. With hydrogenase-deficient mutants of R. japonicum, no measurable effect of H2 on cytochrome reduction was observed. Our results indicate that ubiquinone and cytochromes of types b and c are involved in the oxyhydrogen reaction in R. japonicum.

  9. System Frequency as Information Carrier in AC Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Heussen, Kai; You, Shi


    Power generators contain control systems able to regulate system frequency, but the frequency setpoint values are only rarely modified from nominal values. This paper describes design considerations for a communication system from generators to frequency sensitive distributed energy resourc es (FS......-DER) using changes to frequency setpoint values of genera- tors. Signaling discrete system states by generating off-nominal system frequency values can be used as a novel narrowband unidirectional broadcast communications channel. This paper describes two protocols for utilizing off-nominal frequencies...... to carry information: First, a protocol for dispatching blocks of FS- DER that is suitable for systems restricted to relatively slow rates of change of frequency (ROCOF). Second, for systems that allow higher ROCOF values, the feasibility of using power generation resources as a power line communication...

  10. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision (United States)


    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  11. Monovinyl sulfone β-cyclodextrin. A flexible drug carrier system. (United States)

    del Castillo, Teresa; Marales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Santoyo-González, Francisco; Magez, Stefan; Lopez-Jaramillo, F Javier; Garcia-Salcedo, Jose A


    Cyclodextrins have been conjugated to target various receptors and have also been functionalized with carbohydrates for targeting specific organs. However, this approach is based on a rigid design that implies the ad hoc synthesis of each cyclodextrin-targeting agent conjugate. We hypothesized that: 1)a modular design that decouples the carrier function from the targeting function leads to a flexible system, 2) combining the reactivity of the vinyl sulfone group toward biomolecules that act as targeting agents with the ability of cyclodextrin to form complexes with a wide range of drugs may yield a versatile system that allows the targeting of different organs with different drugs, and 3) the higher reactivity of histidine residues toward the vinyl sulfone group can be exploited to couple the cyclodextrin to the targeting system with a degree of regioselectivity. As a proof of concept, we synthesized a monovinyl sulfone β-cyclodextrin (module responsible for the payload), which, after coupling to recombinant antibody fragments raised against Trypanosoma brucei (module responsible for targeting) and loading with nitrofurazone (module responsible for therapeutic action) resulted in an effective delivery system that targets the surface of the parasites and shows trypanocidal activity. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hydrogen release properties of lithium alanate for application to fuel cell propulsion systems (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    In this paper the results of an experimental study on LiAlH 4 (lithium alanate) as hydrogen source for fuel cell propulsion systems are reported. The compound examined in this work was selected as reference material for light metal hydrides, because of its high hydrogen content (10.5 wt.%) and interesting desorption kinetic properties at moderate temperatures. Thermal dynamic and kinetic of hydrogen release from this hydride were investigated using a fixed bed reactor to evaluate the effect of heating procedure, carrier gas flow rate and sample form. The aim of this study was to characterize the lithium alanate decomposition through the reaction steps leading to the formation of Li 3AlH 6 and LiH. A hydrogen tank was designed and realized to contain pellets of lithium alanate as feeding for a fuel cell propulsion system based on a 2-kW Polymeric Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) stack. The fuel cell system was integrated into the power train comprising DC-DC converter, energy storage systems and electric drive for moped applications (3 kW). The experiments on the power train were conducted on a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on specific driving cycles. In particular the efficiencies of individual components and overall power train were analyzed evidencing the energy requirements of the hydrogen storage material.

  13. Intermodulation owing to quantisation of two-carrier-level SCPC system (United States)

    Abuelmaatti, M. T.


    A general analysis for the prediction of the output spectrum resulting from the quantization of a two-carrier-level single-channel-per-carrier system is presented. The output of the quantization staircase is represented by the sum of the input plus a sawtooth. By expanding the sawtooth as in infinite Fourier series, closed-form expressions in terms of the Zeta function are obtained for the quantized output carrier and the resulting intermodulation products. The special case of a large carrier level and a small carrier level is considered.

  14. 78 FR 66420 - Proposed Enhancements to the Motor Carrier Safety Measurement System (SMS) Public Web Site (United States)


    ..., the SMS provides the motor carrier industry and other safety stakeholders with more comprehensive... and Fitness Electronic Records System (SAFER) Web site. Displaying current insurance and authority...

  15. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.


    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  16. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris


    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  17. High and rapid hydrogen release from thermolysis of ammonia borane near PEM fuel cell operating temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Arvind; Hwang, Hyun Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad


    A system for generating and purifying hydrogen. To generate hydrogen, the system includes inlets configured to receive a hydrogen carrier and an inert insulator, a mixing chamber configured to combine the hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, a heat exchanger configured to apply heat to the mixture of hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, wherein the applied heat results in the generation of hydrogen from the hydrogen carrier, and an outlet configured to release the generated hydrogen. To purify hydrogen, the system includes a primary inlet to receive a starting material and an ammonia filtration subassembly, which may include an absorption column configured to absorb the ammonia into water for providing purified hydrogen at a first purity level. The ammonia filtration subassembly may also include an adsorbent member configured to adsorb ammonia from the starting material into an adsorbent for providing purified hydrogen at a second purity level.

  18. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith


    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  19. Vacuum Surface Science Meets Heterogeneous Catalysis: Dehydrogenation of a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier in the Liquid State. (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Taccardi, Nicola; Schwegler, Johannes; Wasserscheid, Peter; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian


    Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science techniques are used to study the heterogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of a liquid organic hydrogen carrier in its liquid state close to the conditions of real catalysis. For this purpose, perhydrocarbazole (PH), otherwise volatile under UHV, is covalently linked as functional group to an imidazolium cation, forming a non-volatile ionic liquid (IL). The catalysed dehydrogenation of the PH unit as a function of temperature is investigated for a Pt foil covered by a macroscopically thick PH-IL film and for Pd particles suspended in the PH-IL film, and for PH-IL on Au as inert support. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy allows us to follow in situ the catalysed transition of perhydrocarbazole to carbazole at technical reaction temperatures. The data demonstrate the crucial role of the Pt and Pd catalysts in order to shift the dehydrogenation temperature below the critical temperature of thermal decomposition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar-Hydrogen Energy System (United States)

    Xiao, Jinsheng; Guan, Xuehua

    The system of solar thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid generation for hydrogen production is designed in this paper. The mathematical model of the hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is carried out. And the logic control system is designed. The current of the various sub-systems and the energy of the hydrogen storage tank are simulated and analyzed, this paper proves the solar hybrid system can be reliable and effective.

  1. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  2. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.


    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  3. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen (United States)

    Oh, Chang H [Idaho Falls, ID; Kim, Eung S [Ammon, ID; Sherman, Steven R [Augusta, GA


    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  4. Introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system. NorWays - Regional model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari Aamodt


    The overall aim of the NorWays project has been to provide decision support for the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the Norwegian energy system. The NorWays project is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. An important task has been to develop alternative scenarios and identifying market segments and regions of the Norwegian energy system where hydrogen may play a significant role. The main scenarios in the project have been: Reference: Based on the assumptions of World Energy Outlook with no new transport technologies; HyWays: Basic assumptions with technology costs (H{sub 2}) based on results from the HyWays project; No tax: No taxes on transport energy ('revenue neutral'); CO{sub 2} reduction: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions by 75% in 2050. Three regional models have been developed and used to analyse the introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in competition with other alternatives such as natural gas, electricity, district heating and bio fuels.The focus of the analysis has been on the transportation sector. (Author)

  5. Online Systems for Oversize and Overweight Freight Permitting and Motor Carrier Credentialing : Transportation Research Synthesis. (United States)


    MnDOT uses two online systems implemented in the 1990s to issue and manage permits for oversize/overweight (OS/OW) freight and motor carrier credentials: - RouteBuilder, an OS/OW permitting system with a routing component. - Motor Carrier Information...

  6. Carrier system for a plant extract or bioactive compound from a plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound.......This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound....

  7. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.


    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  8. A manual of recommended practices for hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, W.; Leach, S. [W. Hoagland and Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging hydrogen energy systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to hydrogen commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of hydrogen energy systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future hydrogen demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of hydrogen demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for hydrogen procedures, case studies of experience at existing hydrogen demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of hydrogen equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Energy Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.

  9. Standard-D hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, D.T., Westinghouse Hanford


    This document details the results of the field Acceptance Testing of the Standard-D Hydrogen Monitoring System on the waste tank exhaust stacks in 241-AW and 241-AN tank farm. The monitors will be used to measure hydrogen and ammonia from the exhaust stacks.

  10. High-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon investigated by spectroscopic femtosecond pump–probe reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yurkevich, Igor V. [Aston University, Nonlinearity and Complexity Research Group, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zakar, Ammar [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kaplan, Andrey, E-mail: [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)


    We report an investigation into the high-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers far from equilibrium with the lattice. The investigated samples consist of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films grown on a thin film of silicon oxide on top of a silicon substrate. For the investigation, we used an optical femtosecond pump–probe setup to measure the reflectance change of a probe beam. The pump beam ranged between 580 and 820 nm, whereas the probe wavelength spanned 770 to 810 nm. The pump fluence was fixed at 0.6 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We show that at a fixed delay time of 300 fs, the conductivity of the excited electron–hole plasma is described well by a classical conductivity model of a hot charge carrier gas found at Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, while Fermi–Dirac statics is not suitable. This is corroborated by values retrieved from pump–probe reflectance measurements of the conductivity and its dependence on the excitation wavelength and carrier temperature. The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the excitation wavelength, as expected for a nondegenerate charge carrier gas. - Highlights: • We study high‐frequency conductivity of excited hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon. • Reflectance change was measured as a function of pump and probe wavelength. • Maxwell–Boltzmann transport theory was used to retrieve the conductivity. • The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the pump wavelength.

  11. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Sensors and Systems. Part 2 (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan


    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Sensor systems research was focused on hydrogen leak detection and smart sensors with adaptive feedback control for fuel cells. The goal was to integrate multifunction smart sensors, low-power high-efficiency wireless circuits, energy harvesting devices, and power management circuits in one module. Activities were focused on testing and demonstrating sensors in a realistic environment while also bringing them closer to production and commercial viability for eventual use in the actual operating environment.

  12. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...... than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research notes is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption...

  13. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System (IRHUS) business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This business plan is for a proposed legal entity named IRHUS, Inc. which is to be formed as a subsidiary of Energy Partners, L.C. (EP) of West Palm Beach, Florida. EP is a research and development company specializing in hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and systems. A fuel cell is an engine with no moving parts that takes in hydrogen and produces electricity. The purpose of IRHUS, Inc. is to develop and manufacture a self-sufficient energy system based on the fuel cell and other new technology that produces hydrogen and electricity. The product is called the Integrated renewable Hydrogen utility System (IRHUS). IRHUS, Inc. plans to start limited production of the IRHUS in 2002. The IRHUS is a unique product with an innovative concept in that it provides continuous electrical power in places with no electrical infrastructure, i.e., in remote and island locations. The IRHUS is a zero emissions, self-sufficient, hydrogen fuel generation system that produces electricity on a continuous basis by combining any renewable power source with hydrogen technology. Current plans are to produce a 10 kilowatt IRHUS MP (medium power). Future plans are to design and manufacture IRHUS models to provide power for a variety of power ranges for identified attractive market segments. The technological components of the IRHUS include an electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage subsystems, fuel cell system, and power control system. The IRHUS product is to be integrated with a variety of renewable energy technologies. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  15. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.


    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  16. Nanovesicular carriers as alternative drug delivery systems: ethosomes in focus. (United States)

    Mbah, Chukwuemeka C; Builders, Philip F; Attama, Anthony A


    The application of vesicular carrier formulations has generated promise of overcoming some problems associated with drug delivery arising from not only the physicochemical properties of the drug but also those of the biological barriers, such as the membrane linings of various body tissues and the skin. This review article discusses the importance of various vesicular carriers, namely liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes and ethosomes in drug delivery with greater emphasis on ethosomes. The nature, mechanism of drug delivery, methods of preparation as well as characterization of vesicular carriers was discussed with a focus on ethosomes. An overview of their potential applications was provided with discussions on the future prospects and challenges of achieving enhanced drug delivery using ethosomes. Vesicular carriers offer controlled and sustained drug release, improved permeability and protection of the encapsulated bioactives. Ethosomes offer more efficient and enhanced bioavailability better than the older dosage forms owing to the high ethanol content. Ethosomes have potential applications in the development of nanomedicines, including phytomedicines, for the treatment of challenging diseases ravaging the world today. The future holds great prospects in the utilization of vesicular carriers, especially ethosomes, in overcoming peculiar problems of drug delivery.

  17. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G


    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  19. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system field acceptance testprocedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.


    The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E) installed on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas are constructed as intended by the design.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This review deals with active targeting of particulate drug carriers through (1) physico-chemical (e.g., complex formation between a homing device and a surface exposed molecule at the target site) and (2) physical means, Target sites discussed are restricted to those in the blood circulation.

  1. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark


    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production

  2. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele


    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  3. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur


    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  4. Thermophysicochemical Reaction of ZrCo-Hydrogen-Helium System (United States)

    Jung, Kwangjin; Kang, Hee-Seok; Yun, Sei-Hun; Chung, Hongsuk


    Nuclear fusion energy, which is clean and infinite, has been studied for more than half a century. Efforts are in progress worldwide for the demonstration and validation of nuclear fusion energy. Korea has been developing hydrogen isotope storage and delivery system (SDS) technologies including a basic scientific study on a hydrogen storage medium. An SDS bed, which is a key component of the SDS, is used for storing hydrogen isotopes in a metal hydride form and supplying them to a tokamak. Thermophysicochemical properties of the ZrCo-H2-He system are investigated for the practical utilization of a hydriding alloy system. The hydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx is composed as ZrCo absorbing hydrogen, is exothermic. The dehydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx decomposes into ZrCo and hydrogen, is endothermic. The heat generated through the hydriding reaction interrupts the hydriding progress. The heat loss by a dehydriding reaction impedes the dehydriding progress. The tritium decay product, helium-3, covers the ZrCo and keeps the hydrogen from contact with ZrCo in the SDS bed. In this study, we designed and fabricated a ZrCo bed and its performance test rig. The helium blanketing effect on a ZrCo hydrogen reaction with 0 % to 20 % helium content in a gaseous phase and a helium blanket removal method were studied experimentally. In addition, the volumetric flow rates and temperature at the beginning of a ZrCo hydrogen reaction in a hydrogen or helium atmosphere, and the cooling of the SDS bed by radiation only and by both radiation and natural convection related to the reuse cycle, were obtained.

  5. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)


    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  6. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  7. A new high strength alloy for hydrogen fueled propulsion systems (United States)

    Mcpherson, W. B.


    This paper describes the development of a high-strength alloy (1241 MPa ultimate and 1103 MPa yield, with little or no degradation in hydrogen) for application in advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Various compositions of the Fe-Ni-Co-Cr system with elemental additions of Cb, Ti and Al are discussed. After processing, notched tensile specimens were tested in 34.5-MPa hydrogen at room temperature, as the main screening test. The H2/air notch tensile ratio was used as the selection/rejection criterion. The most promising alloys are discussed.

  8. Analysis of hydrogen operation in the Danish Traffic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj


    The main report of a study of the utilisation of hydrogen in the Danish energy and traffic system.The report contains an overview and assessment of the potential hydrogen technologies as well as analyses of the energy and environmental effects of different applications in the Danish transport sec...... sector (passenger car, bus, van, truck). The report concludes that hydrogen along with electric and hybrid propulsion can be a very interesting element in a strategy for sustainable transport, but only if based mainly on renewable energy....

  9. Heuristic algorithms and a spatial decision support system for locating hydrogen-refueling stations (United States)

    Lim, Seow

    The vision of using hydrogen energy to replace fossil fuels as the primary energy carrier for our transportation infrastructure has been gaining recognition in recent years. The obstacles facing the hydrogen economy vision are technological feasibilities and the cost of infrastructure buildup. Technological feasibilities include the production, storage, distribution, and refueling of hydrogen energy in a safe and economical manner. The cost of infrastructure development includes the building of production plants, storage facilities, distribution network, and refueling stations of hydrogen energy. The purpose of the research is to develop heuristic algorithms and a spatial decision support system (SDSS) to facilitate efficient planning of the refueling infrastructure of hydrogen energy. Facility location-allocation models, specifically the Flow Refueling Location Model (FRLM), have been applied to determine the combination of refueling stations to be built in order to maximize the flow covered with a fixed investment cost. A mixed-integer programming version of the model has been formulated and published. While the mixed-integer programming model could be used to obtain an optimal solution for a problem, it is slow and inefficient in solving problems with a large network and large number of candidate facilities. In this research, heuristics algorithms, specifically the greedy adding, greedy adding with substitution, and genetic algorithm, are developed and applied to solve the FRLM problem. These algorithms are shown to be effective and efficient in solving complex FRLM-problems. The SDSS presented in this research integrates geographical information systems (GIS) and heuristic search algorithms to provide a flexible and powerful system for selecting the locations of hydrogen refueling stations in a real-world scenario. GIS is used to gather and process the input for the model, such as the candidate facilities and traffic flows. The SDSS also uses GIS to display and

  10. Engineering analysis of potential photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen-production systems (United States)

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M. E.


    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are capable of generating hydrogen from organics in effluents from food processing, pulp and paper, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Hydrogen evolution takes place under light in the absence of air. The rate of hydrogen production is expected to range between 300 to 600 scf of hydrogen per 1000 galloons of waste stream treated per hour. This hydrogen production system has been demonstrated at a bench-scale level and is ready for engineering development. A conceptual design for a PSB hydrogen production system is described. The system is expected to be sited adjacent to a waste stream source which will be pretreated by fermentation and pH adjustment, innoculated with bacteria, and then passed into the reactor. The reactor effluent can either be discharged into a rapid infiltration system, an irrigation ditch, and/or recycled back into the reactor. Several potential reactor designs have been developed, analyzed, and costed. A large covered pond appears to be the most economical design approach.

  11. The Benchmark of Gutzwiller Density Functional Theory in Hydrogen Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming


    We propose an approximate form of the exchange-correlation energy functional for the Gutzwiller density functional theory. It satisfies certain physical constraints in both weak and strong electron correlation limits. We benchmark the Gutzwiller density functional approximation in the hydrogen systems, where the static correlation error is shown to be negligible. The good transferability is demonstrated by applications to the hydrogen molecule and some crystal structures. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2012

  12. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  13. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.


    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  14. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.


    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  15. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink


    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...... ammonia and benefits from the properties of ammonia as a fuel. The system can be used as a safe, reversible, low-cost hydrogen carrier....

  16. Bringing OAM to carrier-class EPON system (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; He, Yan; Chen, Li; Zhu, LiLi


    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), which represents the convergence of low-cost Ethernet equipment and reliable fiber infrastructure, appears to be the best candidate for the next-generation broadband access network. A coin has two sides. Although EPON inherits the benefits of Ethernet, it also suffers some disadvantages. With its origin as a LAN technology, where "best effort" delivery and 99.96% uptime were acceptable, Ethernet was never considered to be a candidate for achieving "carrier-class" status, mainly because lack of powerful OAM capabilities. That"s to say OAM function is essential to carrier-class EPON. In this study, the principals of EPON and OAM, together with the necessity of OAM, are presented firstly. Besides, different ways to provide OAM in ITU-T APON, GPON are analyzed respectively. Three means to obtain EPON OAM, using MAC Control Frame, Physical Link Service Overhead Coding Sublayer (PLSOCS) and Reconciliation Sublayer (RS) Preamble are proposed in detail. Moreover, the main functions, such as remote failure indication, remote loop-back, link monitoring and variable retrieval are studied subsequently. After that, the concrete implementation of OAM in EPON is addressed, combining with hardware and software. As a result, an effective way to carry out EPON OAM can be easily drawn.

  17. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)


    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.


    A transcript is presented of a speech on the history of the development of hydrogenation of coal and tar. Apparently the talk had been accompanied by the showing of photographic slides, but none of the pictures were included with the report. In giving the history, Dr. Pier mentioned the dependence of much of the development of hydrogenation upon previous development in the related areas of ammonia and methanol syntheses, but he also pointed out several ways in which equipment appropriate for hydrogenation differed considerably from that used for ammonia and methanol. Dr. Pier discussed the difficulties encountered with residue processing, design of the reaction ovens, manufacture of ovens and preheaters, heating of reaction mixtures, development of steels, and development of compressor pumps. He described in some detail his own involvement in the development of the process. In addition, he discussed the development of methods of testing gasolines and other fuels. Also he listed some important byproducts of hydrogenation, such as phenols and polycyclic aromatics, and he discussed the formation of iso-octane fuel from the butanes arising from hydrogenation. In connection with several kinds of equipment used in hydrogenation (whose pictures were being shown), Dr. Pier gave some of the design and operating data.

  19. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.


    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  20. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.


    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  1. Standard-C hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.


    The primary function of the standard-C hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank atmosphere which may also contain (but not be limited to) unknown quantities of air, nitrous oxide, ammonia, water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other gaseous constituents. The SHMS will consist of hydrogen specific monitors, a grab sampler to collect samples for laboratory analysis, a gas chromatograph, and the gas sample collection system necessary to support the operation of the instrumentation. This system will be located in a cabinet placed at the tank of interest. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that the SHMS is constructed as intended by design.

  2. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  3. Hydrogen photoproduction by use of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic systems. (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Nagata, Toshi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Hydrogen can be important clean fuel for future. Among different technologies for hydrogen production, oxygenic natural and artificial photosyntheses using direct photochemistry in synthetic complexes have a great potential to produce hydrogen, since both use clean and cheap sources: water and solar energy. Artificial photosynthesis is one way to produce hydrogen from water using sunlight by employing biomimetic complexes. However, splitting of water into protons and oxygen is energetically demanding and chemically difficult. In oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms such as algae and cyanobacteria, water is split into electrons and protons, which during primary photosynthetic process are redirected by photosynthetic electron transport chain, and ferredoxin, to the hydrogen-producing enzymes hydrogenase or nitrogenase. By these enzymes, e- and H+ recombine and form gaseous hydrogen. Biohydrogen activity of hydrogenase can be very high but it is extremely sensitive to photosynthetic O2. In contrast, nitrogenase is insensitive to O2, but has lower activity. At the moment, the efficiency of biohydrogen production is low. However, theoretical expectations suggest that the rates of photon conversion efficiency for H2 bioproduction can be high enough (>10%). Our review examines the main pathways of H2 photoproduction by using of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic photosynthetic systems.

  4. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo


    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  5. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs


    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  6. A systems view of the differences between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang


    Full Text Available APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD and accounts for 50-65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers’ module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson’s disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular

  7. Modeling a PV-FC-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javadpoor


    Full Text Available Electrical grid expansion onto remote areas is often not cost-effective and/or technologically feasible. Thus, isolated electrical systems are preferred in such cases. This paper focuses on a hybrid photovoltaic (PV-hydrogen/fuel cell (FC system which basic components include a PV, a FC, alkaline water electrolysis and a hydrogen gas tank. To increase the response rate, supercapacitors or small batteries are usually employed in such systems. This study focuses on the dynamics of the system. In the suggested structure, the PV is used as the main source of power. The FC is connected to the load in parallel with the PV by a transducer in order to inject the differential power while reducing power generation in relation to power consumption. An electrolyzer is used to convert the surplus power to hydrogen. This study studies a conventional hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen/fuel cell system to evaluate different loading behaviors. Software modeling is done for the suggested hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  8. Measurements of capillary system degradation. [liquid hydrogen propellant retention capability (United States)

    Warren, R. P.; Butz, J. R.; Maytum, C. D.; Fester, D. A.; Young, G. M.


    The effects of vibration, flow transients, and warm gas pressurization on capillary acquisition system performance were evaluated. The degradation observed under wide band random and high frequency sinusoidal vibration was of a substantially different nature from that obtained under low frequency sinusoidal vibration. With the former, ingestion of small gas bubbles into the liquid region was correlated by a hydrostatic model, while the capillary stability was destroyed and liquid was lost from the liquid region with the latter. No degradation was observed as a result of flow transients in a flight-type multichannel screen device, but it was observed in a transparent laboratory device. Liquid hydrogen outflow tests were conducted with a multilayer dual-screen-liner system with both helium and hydrogen pressurant gases. The tendency towards dryout of the device with hydrogen pressurant was found to increase with increasing pressurant temperature and length of prepressurization period. Dryout did not occur with helium pressurant.

  9. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  10. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and


    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen

  11. Attrition Rate of Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion Systems (United States)

    Feilen, Harry Martin

    This project developed an evaluation methodology for determining, accurately and rapidly, the attrition resistance of oxygen carrier materials used in chemical looping technologies. Existing test protocols, to evaluate attrition resistance of granular materials, are conducted under non-reactive and ambient temperature conditions. They do not accurately reflect the actual behavior under the unique process conditions of chemical looping, including high temperatures and cyclic operation between oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. This project developed a test method and equipment that represented a significant improvement over existing protocols. Experimental results obtained from this project have shown that hematite exhibits different modes of attrition, including both due to mechanical stresses and due to structural changes in the particles due to chemical reaction at high temperature. The test methodology has also proven effective in providing reactivity changes of the material with continued use, a property, which in addition to attrition, determines material life. Consumption/replacement cost due to attrition or loss of reactivity is a critical factor in the economic application of the chemical looping technology. This test method will allow rapid evaluation of a wide range of materials that are best suited for this technology. The most important anticipated public benefit of this project is the acceleration of the development of chemical looping technology for lowering greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

  12. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage


    Bakić Vukman V.; Pezo Milada L.; Jovanović Marina P.; Turanjanin Valentina M.; Vučićević Biljana S.


    The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized usin...

  13. Development of power transmission tower monitoring system. Landslide detection by GPS carrier sensor; Soden tetto ijo kanshi system no kaihatsu. GPS carrier sensor ni yoru jisuberi kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to reduce labor required for monitoring, patrolling, and checking anomalies in power transmission towers, a development has been made on a remotely controlled monitoring system that can detect landslides easily by detecting carrier waves from the global positioning system (GPS) in combination with use of cellular phones. The present system does not use code signals from the GPS, but receives carrier waves used for its transmission at two locations, measures precisely the phase difference therein, and calculates a very small change in the distance between two points from difference in arrival time of the waves. Receivers are placed at base points (substations) and GPS measuring points (transmission towers). Pocket bells are called from a personal computer at the maintenance location (a power center) during observation, and power is supplied into the receivers from solar cells. The data of GPS carrier waves received at both locations are transmitted to the power center through a cellular phone. The phase difference is calculated and the amount of movement is displayed on the personal computer screen to carry out remote surveillance. A measurement of accuracy of about 1 cm may be realized. Demonstration tests have begun in 1995 at towers installed in the Shiga plateau district where landslide occurs frequently, and the feasibility of the system was verified. 5 figs.

  14. Size and Structure Effects Controlling the Stability of the Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier Dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole during Dehydrogenation over Pt Model Catalysts. (United States)

    Amende, Max; Gleichweit, Christoph; Schernich, Stefan; Höfert, Oliver; Lorenz, Michael P A; Zhao, Wei; Koch, Marcus; Obesser, Katharina; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Libuda, Jörg


    Hydrogen can be stored conveniently using so-called liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs), for example, N-ethylcarbazole (NEC), which can be reversibly hydrogenated to dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H12-NEC). In this study, we focus on the dealkylation of H12-NEC, an undesired side reaction, which competes with dehydrogenation. The structural sensivity of dealkylation was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) on Al2O3-supported Pt model catalysts and Pt(111) single crystals. We show that the morphology of the Pt deposit strongly influences LOHC degradation via C-N bond breakage. On smaller, defect-rich Pt particles, the onset of dealkylation is shifted by 90 K to lower temperatures as compared to large, well-shaped particles and well-ordered Pt(111). We attribute these effects to a reduced activation barrier for C-N bond breakage at low-coordinated Pt sites, which are abundant on small Pt aggregates but are rare on large particles and single crystal surfaces.

  15. Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems (United States)

    Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup


    The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…

  16. The mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier is regulated by hydrogen sulfide via interaction with C136 and C155. (United States)

    Giangregorio, Nicola; Tonazzi, Annamaria; Console, Lara; Lorusso, Imma; De Palma, Annalisa; Indiveri, Cesare


    The carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC or CACT) mediates transport of acylcarnitines into mitochondria for the β-oxidation. CAC possesses Cys residues which respond to redox changes undergoing to SH/disulfide interconversion. The effect of H2S has been investigated on the [(3)H]carnitine/carnitine antiport catalyzed by recombinant or native CAC reconstituted in proteoliposomes. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed for identifying Cys reacting with H2S. H2S led to transport inhibition, which was dependent on concentration, pH and time of incubation. Best inhibition with IC50 of 0.70 μM was observed at physiological pH after 30-60 min incubation. At longer times of incubation, inhibition was reversed. After oxidation of the carrier by O2, transport activity was rescued by H2S indicating that the inhibition/activation depends on the initial redox state of the protein. The observed effects were more efficient on the native rat liver transporter than on the recombinant protein. Only the protein containing both C136 and C155 responded to the reagent as the WT. While reduced responses were observed in the mutants containing C136 or C155. Multi-alignment of known mitochondrial carriers, highlighted that only the CAC possesses both Cys residues. This correlates well with the absence of effects of H2S on carriers which does not contain the Cys couple. Altogether, these data demonstrate that H2S regulates the CAC by inhibiting or activating transport on the basis of the redox state of the protein. CAC represents a specific target of H2S among mitochondrial carriers in agreement with the presence of a reactive Cys couple. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen-methane fuel control systems for turbojet engines (United States)

    Goldsmith, J. S.; Bennett, G. W.


    Design, development, and test of a fuel conditioning and control system utilizing liquid methane (natural gas) and liquid hydrogen fuels for operation of a J85 jet engine were performed. The experimental program evaluated the stability and response of an engine fuel control employing liquid pumping of cryogenic fuels, gasification of the fuels at supercritical pressure, and gaseous metering and control. Acceptably stable and responsive control of the engine was demonstrated throughout the sea level power range for liquid gas fuel and up to 88 percent engine speed using liquid hydrogen fuel.

  18. Single-cell-based system to monitor carrier driven cellular auxin homeostasis. (United States)

    Barbez, Elke; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Maizel, Alexis; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Friml, Jiří; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen


    Abundance and distribution of the plant hormone auxin play important roles in plant development. Besides other metabolic processes, various auxin carriers control the cellular level of active auxin and, hence, are major regulators of cellular auxin homeostasis. Despite the developmental importance of auxin transporters, a simple medium-to-high throughput approach to assess carrier activities is still missing. Here we show that carrier driven depletion of cellular auxin correlates with reduced nuclear auxin signaling in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cell cultures. We developed an easy to use transient single-cell-based system to detect carrier activity. We use the relative changes in signaling output of the auxin responsive promoter element DR5 to indirectly visualize auxin carrier activity. The feasibility of the transient approach was demonstrated by pharmacological and genetic interference with auxin signaling and transport. As a proof of concept, we provide visual evidence that the prominent auxin transport proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN)2 and PIN5 regulate cellular auxin homeostasis at the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Our data suggest that PIN2 and PIN5 have different sensitivities to the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Also the putative PIN-LIKES (PILS) auxin carrier activity at the ER is insensitive to NPA in our system, indicating that NPA blocks intercellular, but not intracellular auxin transport. This single-cell-based system is a useful tool by which the activity of putative auxin carriers, such as PINs, PILS and WALLS ARE THIN1 (WAT1), can be indirectly visualized in a medium-to-high throughput manner. Moreover, our single cell system might be useful to investigate also other hormonal signaling pathways, such as cytokinin.

  19. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz


    This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

  20. Analysis of hypothetical geothermal hydrogen systems in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Penev, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Devlin, Peter [U.S. Department of Energy, Rockville, MD (United States)


    Analysis is presented for three theoretical geothermal energy systems on the Big Island of Hawaii. This preliminary study evaluates performance and economics for several strategies for enhancing integration of a geothermal renewable resource into the grid and for producing vehicle fuel by way of hydrogen production and storage. The analysis includes production of hydrogen and ammonia for use as fuels in light duty vehicles, and production of peak power using hydrogen produced off-peak, stored, and later use in a steam turbine to produce electricity during peak demand. Technological performance and costs are assessed for a near-term installation (next 2-3 years) and are compared on an apples-to-apples basis using consistent economic assumptions for two key metrics: (1) the ratio of geothermal energy product costs to comparable commodity prices, and (2) fuel costs per mile. (orig.)

  1. Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling...

  2. Downlink Performance of a Multi-Carrier MIMO System in a Bursty Traffic Cellular Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan; Wang, Yuanye


    In this paper we analyse the downlink performance of a rank adaptive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system in a busty traffic cellular network. A LTE-Advanced system with multiple component carriers was selected as a study case. To highlight the advantage of using MIMO techniques, we used...

  3. Emission scenarios for a global hydrogen economy and the consequences for global air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; Lamarque, J.F.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.


    Hydrogen is named as possible energy carrier for future energy systems. However, the impact of large-scale hydrogen use on the atmosphere is uncertain. Application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of air pollutants, but emissions from hydrogen production and leakages of molecular

  4. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.


    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  5. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaselev, O.; Bansal, A.; Kocha, S.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    With an eye towards developing a photoelectrochemical system for hydrogen production using sunlight as the only energy input, two types of systems were studied, both involving multijunction devices. One set of cells consisted of a-Si triple junctions and the other a GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs tandem cell combination. Additional investigations were carried out on semiconductor surface modifications to move semiconductor band edges to more favorable energetic positions.

  6. Secure optical generalized filter bank multi-carrier system based on cubic constellation masked method. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun


    A secure optical generalized filter bank multi-carrier (GFBMC) system with carrier-less amplitude-phase (CAP) modulation is proposed in this Letter. The security is realized through cubic constellation-masked method. Large key space and more flexibility masking can be obtained by cubic constellation masking aligning with the filter bank. An experiment of 18 Gb/s encrypted GFBMC/CAP system with 25-km single-mode fiber transmission is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Effective information rates of single-carrier and multi-carrier modulation schemes for bandwidth constrained IM/DD systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mazahir, Sana


    Information-theoretic and signal processing aspects of some modulation schemes designed for intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) optical wireless communication (OWC) systems are studied. Due to the constraints of IM/DD signals (non-negative real and baseband signals), the construction of these signals along with their time and frequency characteristics differ from their RF counterparts. This necessitates a careful study of such schemes under practical constraints. Three schemes are studied in this paper, namely, single carrier pulse amplitude modulation (SC-PAM), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), and DC biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM). Our aim is to carry out a comparative study of these schemes in the presence of identical constraints on bandwidth and average optical power. The study reveals that the clipping operation required in ACO-OFDM significantly reduces its information rate, and as a result, it is outperformed by SC-PAM. Such a limitation does not apply to DCO-OFDM which has a higher information rate, even though part of the available optical power is expended in the non-information-bearing DC bias.

  8. Pilot-scale hydrogen fermentation system start-up performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Lay, Chyi-How [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Ping-Jei; Chang, Alex C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taichung 40724 (China); Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Cheng, Chin-Hung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402 (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology (China); Chang, Feng-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon [Research Center for Energy and Resources, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China)


    A high-rate hydrogen production process able to produce H{sub 2} at a maximum rate of 15 L/L/h was successfully developed by the Feng Chia University (FCU) biohydrogen research team. This highly efficient hydrogen fermentation system includes a 400 L pilot-scale system constructed for determining scale-up operation parameters for commercializing the bioH{sub 2} production technology. The pilot-scale system is composed of a feedstock tank, mixing system, fermentor, gas/liquid separator and automatic control system. The fermentor is fed with sucrose (20 g COD/L) and operated at 35 C. A batch strategy is used for system start-up. The fermentor was first operated in a batch mode for two days and then switched to a continuous-feeding mode (HRT 12 h) for one month. During the continuous operation, pH notably affected H{sub 2} production efficiency and bacterial community. For the first 14-day operation, the H{sub 2} production rate increased from 0.017 to 0.256 L/L/h with a pH variation from 5.0 to 7.0. The DGGE results indicate the presence of two Clostridium species (namely, Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium pasteurianum) in the fermenter. Stable hydrogen production rate was obtained at pH 5.5-6.0 when C. pasteurianum became dominant in the mixed culture. (author)

  9. Physicochemical characterisation and investigation of the bonding mechanisms of API-titanate nanotube composites as new drug carrier systems. (United States)

    Sipos, Barbara; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Kónya, Zoltán; Kelemen, András; Regdon, Géza; Sovány, Tamás


    Titanate nanotube (TNT) has recently been explored as a new carrier material for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The aim of the present work was to reveal the physicochemical properties of API-TNT composites, focusing on the interactions between the TNTs and the incorporated APIs. Drugs belonging to different Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classes were loaded into TNTs: diltiazem hydrochloride (BCS I.), diclofenac sodium (BCS II.), atenolol (BCS III.) and hydrochlorothiazide (BCS IV.). Experimental results demonstrated that it is feasible for spiral cross-sectioned titanate nanotubes to carry drugs and maintain their bioactivity. The structural properties of the composites were characterized by a range of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, DSC, TG-MS, etc. The interactions between APIs and TNTs were identified as electrostatic attractions, mainly dominated by hydrogen bonds. Based on the results, it can be stated that the strength of the association depends on the hydrogen donor strength of the API. The drug release of incorporated APIs was evaluated from compressed tablets and compared to that of pure APIs. Differences noticed in the dissolution profiles due to incorporation showed a correlation with the strength of interactions between the APIs and the TNTs observed in the above analytical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal-hydrogen systems with an exceptionally large and tunable thermodynamic destabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, Peter; Longo, Alessandro; Mooij, L.P.A.; Bras, Wim; Dam, B.


    Hydrogen is a key element in the energy transition. Hydrogen-metal systems have been studied for various energy-related applications, e.g., for their use in reversible hydrogen storage, catalysis, hydrogen sensing, and rechargeable batteries. These applications depend strongly on the

  11. Carrier transport simulation in a model liquid crystalline system with the biaxial Gay-Berne potential. (United States)

    Goto, Masanao; Takezoe, Hideo; Ishikawa, Ken


    In this paper, we performed carrier transport simulation to understand the unusual temperature dependence of the carrier mobility observed in nematic liquid crystals. For this purpose, we made a model liquid crystalline system consisting of biaxial Gay-Berne particles, and then we simulated hopping transport between these particles. The hopping rate was formulated suitably for the biaxial Gay-Berne particles based on the investigation of the electronic overlaps between actual aromatic molecules. The carrier transport simulation was performed by master equation method on the model system prepared by N-P-T ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. We reproduced gradual mobility increase in the nematic phase as a result of the change in the short range molecular order.

  12. The DSP-Carrier Board Used by the LEIR Low-Level RF System User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E


    A new digital technology to implement beam control systems was tested in the PS Booster in 2004 and 2005 and commissioned in LEIR in 2006. The technology is based upon RF custom hardware that heavily exploits Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) processing power. This architecture is extremely flexible in that it relies on a DSP-carrier board hosting one DSP and carrying different daughtercards. The LEIR beam control system deploys three DSP-carrier boards, which inter-communicate and exchange data continuously for the implementation of the various beam control loops. This user's manual for the DSP-carrier board, release 1.0 (EDA-00990-V1), was written in 2004 and has been used by CERN and BNL developers since then. It describes the DSP-carrier board hardware, user settings and FPGA software; hints on the DSP code used with the board are also given. An additional VME board, called Rear Transition Module, is described because it acts as a DSP-carrier board extension.

  13. Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage Options and System Design


    Ogden, Joan M; Yang, Christopher


    The development of a hydrogen infrastructure has been identified as a key barrier to implementing hydrogen as for a future transportation fuel. Several recent studies of hydrogen infrastructure have assessed near-term and long-term alternatives for hydrogen supply [1-2]. In this paper, we discuss how advances in material science related to hydrogen storage could change how a future hydrogen infrastructure is designed. Using a simplified engineering/economic model for hydrogen infrastructure d...

  14. Evaluation of Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Day, K.; Brooker, A.


    This poster presentation demonstrates an approach to evaluate trade-offs among hydrogen storage system characteristic across several vehicle configurations and estimates the sensitivity of hydrogen storage system improvements on vehicle viability.

  15. Review on processing of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials towards system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei


    Full Text Available Development of safe and effective hydrogen storage systems is critical for further implementation of hydrogen in fuel cell technologies. Amongst the various approaches to improve the performance of such systems, porous materials-based adsorptive...

  16. Hydrogen powered fuel cell systems : different designs for variable specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckhaus, P.; Goessling, S.; Notthoff, T.; Souzani, S.; Schoemaker, M.; Heinzel, A. [ZBT GmbH, Duisburg (Germany). Fuel Cells and Systems


    This paper discussed system designs for hydrogen-powered fuel cell systems in the sub-kilowatt range. Designs were presented for the following 3 different types of applications: (1) supplying electrical power for high efficiency drives of 60 per cent, (2) supplying power for small uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices with high power densities and minimum start-up times in a variety of environmental conditions, and (3) providing the supply of oxygen-reduced breathing air for the high altitude training of athletes. Different control strategies and approaches to system design were discussed. The results of experimental studies conducted to test the fuel cell stack systems were also provided.

  17. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  18. Carrier Mediated Systemic Delivery of Protein and Peptide Therapeutics. (United States)

    Zaman, Rahela; Othman, Iekhan; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque


    Over the last few decades proteins and peptide therapeutics have occupied an enormous fraction of pharmaceutical industry. Despite their high potential as therapeutics, the big challenge often encountered is the effective administration and bioavailability of protein therapeutics in vivo system. Peptide molecules are well known for their in vivo short half-lives. In addition, due to high molecular weight and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, often it is not easy to administer peptides and proteins orally or through any other noninvasive routes. Conventional drug management system often demands for frequent and regular interval intravenous/subcutaneous administration, which decreases overall patient compliance and increases chances of side-effects related to dose-fluctuation in systemic circulation. A controlled mode of delivery system could address all these short-comings at a time. Therefore, long-acting sustained release formulations for both invasive and noninvasive routes are under rigorous study currently. Long-acting formulations through invasive routes can address patient compliance and dose-fluctuation issues by less frequent administration. Also, any new route of administration other than invasive routes will address cost-effectiveness of the therapeutic by lessening the need to deal with health professional and health care facility. Although a vast number of studies are dealing with novel drug delivery systems, till now only a handful of controlled release formulations for proteins and peptides have been approved by FDA. This study therefore focuses on current and perspective controlled release formulations of existing and novel protein/peptide therapeutics via conventional invasive routes as well as potential novel non-invasive routes of administration, e.g., oral, buccal, sublingual, nasal, ocular, rectal, vaginal and pulmonary.

  19. The atomic hydrogen cloud in the saturnian system (United States)

    Tseng, W.-L.; Johnson, R. E.; Ip, W.-H.


    The importance of Titan's H torus shaped by solar radiation pressure and of hydrogen atoms flowing out of Saturn's atmosphere in forming the broad hydrogen cloud in Saturn's magnetosphere is still debated. Since the Saturnian system also contains a water product torus which originates from the Enceladus plumes, the icy ring particles, and the inner icy satellites, as well as Titan's H2 torus, we have carried out a global investigation of the atomic hydrogen cloud taking into account all sources. We show that the velocity and angle distributions of the hot H ejected from Saturn's atmosphere following electron-impact dissociation of H2 are modified by collisions with the ambient atmospheric H2 and H. This in turn affects the morphology of the escaping hydrogen from Saturn, as does the morphology of the ionospheric electron distribution. Although an exact agreement with the Cassini observations is not obtained, our simulations show that H directly escaping from Titan is the dominant contributor in the outer magnetosphere. Of the total number of H observed by Cassini from 1 to 5RS, ∼5.7×1034, our simulations suggest ∼20% is from dissociation in the Enceladus torus, ∼5-10% is from dissociation of H2 in the atmosphere of the main rings, and ∼50% is from Titan's H torus, implying that ∼20% comes from Saturn atmosphere.

  20. Hydrogen Flame Imaging System Soars to New, Different Heights (United States)


    When Judy and Dave Duncan of Auburn, Calif.-based Duncan Technologies Inc. (DTI) developed their color hydrogen flame imaging system in the early 1990's, their market prospects were limited. 'We talked about commercializing the technology in the hydrogen community, but we also looked at commercialization on a much broader aspect. While there were some hydrogen applications, the market was not large enough to suppport an entire company; also, safety issues were a concern,' said Judy Duncan, owner and CEO of Duncan Technologies. Using the basic technology developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR); DTI conducted market research, identified other applications, formulated a plan for next generation development, and implemented a far-reaching marketing strategy. 'We took that technology; reinvested our own funds and energy into a second-generation design on the overall camera electronics and deployed that basic technology intially in a series of what we call multi-spectral cameras; cameras that could image in both the visible range and the infrared,' explains Duncan. 'The SBIR program allowed us to develop the technology to do a 3CCD camera, which very few compaines in the world do, particularly not small companies. The fact that we designed our own prism and specked the coding as we had for the hydrogen application, we were able to create a custom spectral configuration which could support varying types of research and applications.' As a result, Duncan Technologies Inc. of Auburn, Ca., has achieved a milestone $ 1 million in sales.

  1. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics’ Hydrogen Isotope Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmayda, W.T., E-mail:; Wittman, M.D.; Earley, R.F.; Reid, J.L.; Redden, N.P.


    The University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics has commissioned a hydrogen Isotope Separation System (ISS). The ISS uses two columns—palladium on kieselguhr and molecular sieve—that act in a complementary manner to separate the hydrogen species by mass. The 4-sL per day throughput system is compact and has no moving parts. The columns and the attendant gas storage and handling subsystems are housed in a 0.8 -m{sup 3} glovebox. The glovebox uses a helium cover gas that is continuously processed to extract oxygen and water vapor that permeates through the glovebox gloves and any tritium that is released while attaching or detaching vessels to add feedstock to or drawing product from the system. The isotopic separation process is automated and does not require manual intervention. A total of 315 TBq of tritium was extracted from 23.6 sL of hydrogen with tritium purities reaching 99.5%. Deuterium was the sole residual component in the processed gas. Raffinate contained 0.2 TBq of activity was captured for reprocessing. The total emission from the system to the environment was 0.4 GBq over three weeks.

  2. Hydrogen Molecule Adsorption on a Borophene-Titanium System (United States)

    Ruiz-Chavarria, Gregorio


    From the synthesis of graphene have developed a wide range of researchs on their use, both theoretical and experimental. So there have been research on graphene-based electronics, but also on issues of energy, particularly hydrogen adsorption on graphene-based systems. Given the potential represented by these structures is very natural to wonder about similar structures, but based in elements near carbon. One of the lines developed very recently consider the boron as the element to build graphene-like structures. Different studies, both theoretical and experimental have been made where the studied structures are graphene type or fullerene, where boron is used in place of carbon. We will use as a starting point the proposed structures by Xiaobao and Tang. This structure is known as the borophene, which in first place will be decorated with titanium and then, this system interact with hydrogen molecule. In our calculation we use functional density theory, atomic pseudopotentials, Born approximation and molecular dynamic.

  3. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN


    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  4. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN


    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  5. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast...... and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly non-trivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. This thesis presents the development of a specifically deuterated, stealth nanodisc system...

  6. Measuring the carrier lifetime by using a quasi-optical millimeter- and THz-wave system (United States)

    Choe, Mun Seok; Sawant, Ashwini; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, EunMi


    The existing method for contactless measurement of the photoconductivity decay time is limited in terms of sample selection according to the injection level or doping density. To solve this problem and improve the measurement sensitivity, we developed a quasi-optical photoconductivity decay (QO-PCD) technique based on millimeter- and terahertz-wave technology. A semi-insulating silicon (Si) wafer was used in a proof-of-concept experiment with the proposed QO-PCD system to find the initial excess carrier density and carrier lifetime based on the Drude-Zener model with a single decay function. The initial excess carrier density and carrier lifetime were measured to be 1.5 × 1015 cm-3 and 30.6 μs, respectively, in semi-insulating Si wafer (460 μm thickness). A 2D areal measurement of the decay time of the Si wafer was experimentally obtained. The proposed QO-PCD technique can provide more reliable and sensitive carrier lifetime measurement data for semiconductor wafers, which may impact the fields of photovoltaic solar cells and power electronics.

  7. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY..., $3, $4, or $4.50 per trip segment up to a maximum of two segments on a one-way trip and four segments...

  8. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.


    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a

  9. Message-Passing Receivers for Single Carrier Systems with Frequency-Domain Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Wang, Zhongyong


    In this letter, we design iterative receiver algorithms for joint frequency-domain equalization and decoding in a single carrier system assuming perfect channel state information. Based on an approximate inference framework that combines belief propagation (BP) and the mean field (MF) approximati...

  10. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.


    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  11. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary power system thruster investigation (United States)

    Eberle, E. E.; Kusak, L.


    The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a 111 newton (25 lb) thrust, integrated auxiliary propulsion system (IAPS) thruster for use with LH2/LO2 propellants is described. Hydrogen was supplied at a temperature range of 22 to 33 K (40 to 60 R), and oxygen from 89 to 122 K (160 to 220 R). The thruster was designed to operate in both pulse mode and steady-state modes for vehicle attitude control, space maneuvering, and as an abort backup in the event of failure of the main propulsion system. A dual-sleeve, tri-axial injection system was designed that utilizes a primary injector/combustor where 100 percent of the oxygen and 8 percent of the hydrogen is introduced; a secondary injector/combustor where 45 percent of the hydrogen is introduced to mix with the primary combustor gases; and a boundary layer injector that uses the remaining 45 percent of the hydrogen to cool the thrust throat/nozzle design. Hot-fire evaluation of this thruster with a BLC injection distance of 2.79 cm (1.10 in.) indicated that a specific impulse value of 390 sec can be attained using a coated molybdenum thrust chamber. Pulse mode tests indicated that a chamber pressure buildup to 90 percent thrust can be achieved in a time on the order of 48 msec. Some problems were encountered in achieving ignition of each pulse during pulse trains. This was interpreted to indicate that a higher delivered spark energy level ( 100 mJ) would be required to maintain ignition reliability of the plasma torch ignition system under the extra 'cold' conditions resulting during pulsing.

  12. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.


    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  13. Liquid Hydrogen Fuel System for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles (United States)


    the Office of Naval Research for support of this research. VII. References 1 R. Stroman, J.C. Kellogg, K. Swider-Lyons, “Testing of a PEM Fuel Cell storage system. The Naval Research Laboratory has been extending the duration of electric UAVs through the use of hydrogen fuel cells , which...take advantage of both the high energy of H2 fuel in combination with the high efficiency (~50%) of polymer fuel cells . In this paper, we describe

  14. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)


    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  15. Protonic transport through solitons in hydrogen-bonded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, L; Jayanthi, S; Muniyappan, A [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem-636 011 (India); Gopi, D, E-mail: [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem-636 011 (India)


    We offer an alternative route for investigating soliton solutions in hydrogen-bonded (HB) chains. We invoke the modified extended tangent hyperbolic function method coupled with symbolic computation to solve the governing equation of motion for proton dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of proton transfer in HB chains through bell-shaped soliton excitations, which trigger the bio-energy transport in most biological systems. This solitonic mechanism of proton transfer could play functional roles in muscular contraction, enzymatic activity and oxidative phosphorylation.

  16. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.


    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  17. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco


    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide-based propulsion and power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melof, Brian Matthew; Keese, David L.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Ruffner, Judith Alison; Escapule, William Rusty


    Less toxic, storable, hypergolic propellants are desired to replace nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and hydrazine in certain applications. Hydrogen peroxide is a very attractive replacement oxidizer, but finding acceptable replacement fuels is more challenging. The focus of this investigation is to find fuels that have short hypergolic ignition delays, high specific impulse, and desirable storage properties. The resulting hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination would be highly desirable for virtually any high energy-density applications such as small but powerful gas generating systems, attitude control motors, or main propulsion. These systems would be implemented on platforms ranging from guided bombs to replacement of environmentally unfriendly existing systems to manned space vehicles.

  19. Hydrogen storage methods (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Tchemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a

  20. Design, fabrication and biomedical applications of zein-based nano/micro-carrier systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Lili; Li, Feng; Shi, Nianqiu; Li, Chunlei; Yu, Xianghui; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei


    Nano/micro-carrier systems have shown promising application in the biomedical field as various delivery carriers. The composite material and fabrication method determine their microstructures, properties and thus their potential applications. Since approved as tablet coating material by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), zein has been widely investigated as one of protein-based materials in the past few decades. Zein is renewable, biodegradable and relatively inexpensive in comparison with animal proteins (e.g., gelatin and albumin). This paper reviews the current landscape of zein-based nano/micro-carrier systems, with particular emphasis on nano/microparticles, nano/microcapsules and their design, fabrication, assembly mechanisms and biomedical applications especially for controlled drug delivery. The benefits, challenges and related solutions of zein-based colloidal carrier systems are also discussed. In addition, investigations on the molecular structure, biocompatibility and immunogenicity of zein are summarized and discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen from biomass: large-scale hydrogen production based on a dual fluidized bed steam gasification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Stefan; Stidl, Martin; Proell, Tobias; Rauch, Reinhard; Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering-Future Energy Technology, Vienna (Austria)


    Hydrogen is used as an important feedstock for the chemical industry. Common production technologies for the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels today cause relevant CO{sub 2} emissions. Hydrogen from renewable energy sources is discussed as an alternative option to replace traditional feedstock and can therefore be part of a low-carbon energy system. This paper describes the results of a simulation of a concept for the production of hydrogen with biomass as feedstock. The described investigations include a possible process design, the process simulation using the software IPSEpro, a description of the operation characteristics, and a profitability analysis of the applied hydrogen production concept. The simulation result shows that 61 MW of hydrogen can be produced from 100 MW wood chips and 6 MW of electricity. As a result, hydrogen production costs of 54 EUR/MWh can be estimated. For the investigated concept, the wood chip price is the most important factor for the hydrogen production cost followed by investment costs for the plant and the realized plant operation time per year. (orig.)

  2. H/D Isotope Effects in Hydrogen Bonded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Filarowski


    Full Text Available An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of Δd (1H,2H on d (1H. This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ΔpKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals.

  3. H/D isotope effects in hydrogen bonded systems. (United States)

    Sobczyk, Lucjan; Obrzud, Monika; Filarowski, Aleksander


    An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of Δd (¹H,²H) on d (¹H). This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ΔpKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals.

  4. Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985-2000 time frame - A review and assessment (United States)

    Hanson, J. A.; Foster, R. W.; Escher, W. J. D.; Tison, R. R.


    A comprehensive state-of-the-art review of solar/hydrogen technologies has been conducted. From this, solar/hydrogen production systems which could be commercialized by the year 2000 have been characterized technically and economically. Incentives and disincentives for the early commercialization of four solar/hydrogen systems have been explored, conclusions drawn and recommendations made.

  5. Hydrogen production costs -- A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basye, L.; Swaminathan, S.


    Hydrogen, produced using renewable resources, is an environmentally benign energy carrier that will play a vital role in sustainable energy systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure. International interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier is high. Research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of hydrogen energy systems are in progress in many countries. Annex 11 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) facilitates member countries to collaborate on hydrogen RD and D projects. The United States is a member of Annex 11, and the US representative is the Program Manager of the DOE Hydrogen R and D Program. The Executive Committee of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in its June 1997 meeting decided to review the production costs of hydrogen via the currently commercially available processes. This report compiles that data. The methods of production are steam reforming, partial oxidation, gasification, pyrolysis, electrolysis, photochemical, photobiological, and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.


    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  7. Fiber Optic Sensors for Leak Detection and Condition Monitoring in Hydrogen Fuel Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses the need for explosion proof, sensitive and reliable hydrogen sensors for NASA and commercial hydrogen fuel systems. It also...

  8. Development of an online energy monitoring system using power line carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, A.B.A.; Sulaiman, M.; Ahmad, A. [Technological Univ. of Malaysia, Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering


    The electric power industry's involvement in power Distribution Automation (DA) has focused primarily on remote monitoring and control of the distribution systems and their equipment. This paper presented a newly developed online energy monitoring system using a power line carrier (PLC). The application of this system in Malaysia was described along with its features and benefits. In addition to energy monitoring, the system consists of data acquisition, data processing, communication and energy metering using an automated billing system that eliminates collection problems and enhances cash flow. A cost saving monitoring model for power consumption and power quality was also presented in this paper. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of honeycomb cinder as carrier catalyst (United States)

    Zhang, D. H.; Yang, H. M.; Ou, Y. J.; Xu, C.; Gu, J. C.


    Under the condition of 35 °C, honeycomb cinder was used as the carrier, nickel as the active ingredient, impregnated for 2h, and calcined at 300 °C for 2h. The catalyst was used to Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation of methylene blue simulated printing and dyeing wastewater. The effect of the amount of catalyst, the amount of catalyst, the reaction temperature and the reaction time on the treatment efficiency and the effect of the self-made catalyst on the simulated wastewater with different concentration gradient were studied in the experiment. The results showed that when the reaction conditions were H2O2 8ml/L, catalyst 12g/L and reaction time 1h, the degradation rate of methylene blue reached more than 77% for the wastewater with concentration ranging from 40 mg/L to 200 mg/L. In addition, at a temperature of 30 DEG C, the wastewater, the concentration was 80mg/L, degradation rate was up to 85.70%.

  10. Protein encapsulated magnetic carriers for micro/nanoscale drug delivery systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.; Kaminski, M. D.; Mertz, C. J.; Finck, M. R.; Guy, S. G.; Chen, H.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine


    Novel methods for drug delivery may be based on nanotechnology using non-invasive magnetic guidance of drug loaded magnetic carriers to the targeted site and thereafter released by external ultrasound energy. The key building block of this system is to successfully synthesize biodegradable, magnetic drug carriers. Magnetic carriers using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) as matrix materials were loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by a double-emulsion technique. BSA-loaded magnetic microspheres were characterized for size, morphology, surface charge, and magnetization. The BSA encapsulation efficiency was determined by recovering albumin from the microspheres using dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.05N NaOH/0.5% SDS then quantifying with the Micro-BCA protein assay. BSA release profiles were also determined by the Micro-BCA protein assay. The microspheres had drug encapsulation efficiencies up to 90% depending on synthesis parameters. Particles were spherical with a smooth or porous surface having a size range less than 5 {mu}m. The surface charge (expressed as zeta potential) was near neutral, optimal for prolonged intravascular survival. The magnetization of these BSA loaded magnetic carriers was 2 to 6 emu/g, depending on the specific magnetic materials used during synthesis.

  11. Implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiner system as a hydrogen mitigation system in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Sung, Je Joong; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, In Seon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)


    Ensuring the containment integrity during a severe accident in nuclear power reactor by maintaining the hydrogen concentration below an acceptable level has been recognized to be of critical importance since Three Mile Island and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidents. Although there exist various mitigation measures for hydrogen risk, a passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) has been emphasized as a viable option for the mitigation of hydrogen risk under the extended station blackout conditions due to its passive operation characteristics for the hydrogen removal. To enhance the capability of hydrogen control, the hydrogen mitigation system with various types of PARs has been implemented for all nuclear power plants in Korea. This paper presents an implementation procedure of PAR system and the analysis results to determine the location and capacity of PAR in OPR1000. Various accident scenarios have been adopted considering important event sequences from a combination of probabilistic methods, deterministic methods and sound engineering judgment. A MAAP 4.0.6+ with a multi-compartment model has been used as an analysis tool with conservative hydrogen generation and removal models. The detailed analyses have been performed for selected severe accident scenarios including sensitivity analysis with/without operations of various safety systems. The possibility of global flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration-to-detonation transient (DDT) has been assessed with sigma (flame acceleration potential) and 7-lambda (DDT potential) criterion. It is concluded that the newly designed hydrogen mitigation system with twenty-four (24) PARs can effectively remove hydrogen in the containment atmosphere and prevent global FA and DDT.

  12. Hydrogen storage using a hot pressure swing reactor


    Preuster, P.; Dürr, S.; Seidel, A.; Müller, K.; Bösmann, A.; Jorschick, Holger; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Our contribution demonstrates that hydrogen storage in stationary Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) systems becomes much simpler and significantly more efficient if both, the LOHC hydrogenation and the LOHC dehydrogenation reaction are carried out in the same reactor using the same catalyst. The finding that the typical dehydrogenation catalyst for hydrogen release from perhydro dibenzyltoluene (H18-DBT), Pt on alumina, turns into a highly active and very selective dibenzyltoluene hydrog...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. О. Bedrosov


    Full Text Available Nowadays energy efficiency improvement and global warming are issues of current interest because of the natural resources depletion and extreme climate change. Thus, the problem of formation of strict regulations regarding emissions into the air arises. This paper presents the study of cascade refrigeration system for re-condensing of associated petroleum gas during sea transportation for LPG carrier. The structural optimization has been performed. LPG gas carriers with 266 000 m3 ethane capacity require 15 MW cascade refrigeration system for re-condensing if the temperature in the coastal LPG storage is -70°C, and the temperature for transported Ethan is maintained at  -75°C. For current storage conditions the required system cooling capacity is only 1,078 MW intended for the heat gain rejection from the environment during Ethane transportation. The replacement of ozone-depleting refrigerant R22 to alternative agents: R407C, R404A, R402A, R717, R290, R1270 was estimated. The results of analysis have shown that the proposed improvements can be used to optimize the LPG carrier cascade refrigeration system

  14. Role of hydrogen in future North European power system in 2060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard


    The Balmorel model has been used to calculate the economic optimal energy system configuration for the Scandinavian countries and Germany in 2060 assuming a nearly 100% coverage of the energy demands in the power, heat and transport sector with renewable energy sources. Different assumptions abou...... capacities of the electricity storages provided by plug-in hybrid electric vehicles were too small to make hydrogen storage superfluous....... the heat production in heat pumps and electric heat boilers, and by varying the production of hydrogen in electrolysis plants in combination with hydrogen storage. Investment in hydrogen storage capacity corresponded to 1.2% of annual wind power production in the scenarios without a hydrogen demand from...... the transport sector, and approximately 4% in the scenarios with a hydrogen demand from the transport sector. Even the scenarios without a demand for hydrogen from the transport sector saw investments in hydrogen storage due to the need for flexibility provided by the ability to store hydrogen. The storage...

  15. Control design for an autonomous wind based hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Evangelista, C.A. [CONICET, Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC.91, C.P. 1900, La Plata (Argentina)


    This paper presents a complete control scheme to efficiently manage the operation of an autonomous wind based hydrogen production system. This system comprises a wind energy generation module based on a multipolar permanent magnet synchronous generator, a lead-acid battery bank as short term energy storage and an alkaline von Hoerner electrolyzer. The control is developed in two hierarchical levels. The higher control level or supervisor control determines the general operation strategy for the whole system according to the wind conditions and the state of charge of the battery bank. On the other hand, the lower control level includes the individual controllers that regulate the respective module operation assuming the set-points determined by the supervisor control. These last controllers are approached using second-order super-twisting sliding mode techniques. The performance of the closed-loop system is assessed through representative computer simulations. (author)

  16. Simulation Performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems Employing Single-Carrier Modulation and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saglam, Halil D


    ...) systems utilizing Alamouti-based space-time block coding (STBC) technique. The MIMO communication systems using STBC technique employing both single-carrier modulation and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...

  17. Evaluation of hydrogen demonstration systems (Task 18 of IEA Implementing Agreement on Hydrogen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.N.; Carter, S.


    Task 18 aims to gather information about the integration of hydrogen into society around the world. As part of subtask B (demonstration projects), EA Technology Limited collected information and data on specific UK hydrogen demonstration projects and case studies. The work involved desk research, a literature review, telephone conversations and meetings with developers and operators of hydrogen-related projects in the UK. Various examples were identified in phase 1 that were either proposed, planned, under construction, commissioned or operational. The main demonstration activities described in the report are: the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) refuelling station at Hornchurch in Essex; the Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI) project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire; the Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project on Unst in the Shetland Isles; the Hunterston Hydrogen Project in North Ayrshire, Scotland; and the Tees Valley Hydrogen Project. The CUTE, HARI and PURE projects were selected for inclusion in the overall Task 18 workplan. The report also covers developments associated with the Fuel Cell House, the Hydrogen Office, INEOS Chlor, the London Hydrogen Partnership and the Wales Hydrogen Project.

  18. Blind Identification of Distributed Antenna Systems with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets


    Yu, Yuanning; Petropulu, Athina P.; Poor, H. Vincent


    In spatially distributed multiuser antenna systems, the received signal contains multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFOs) arising from mismatch between the oscillators of transmitters and receivers. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated at the receiver before symbol recovery. In this paper, a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery is proposed. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase compone...

  19. Band gap tunning in BN-doped graphene systems with high carrier mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.


    Using density functional theory, we present a comparative study of the electronic properties of BN-doped graphene monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer systems. In addition, we address a superlattice of pristine and BN-doped graphene. Five doping levels between 12.5% and 75% are considered, for which we obtain band gaps from 0.02 eV to 2.43 eV. We demonstrate a low effective mass of the charge carriers.

  20. Tunable Ultrafast Photon Source and Imaging System for Studying Carrier Dynamics in Graphene Devices (United States)


    and phonons in graphene through a combination of two optical techniques – tunable wavelength ultrafast optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy ...Fig 2. The set up for Raman spectroscopy showing the NIR CCD camera (BaySpec) in the bottom left corner. purchased from BaySpec using... Tunable ultrafast photon source and imaging system for studying carrier dynamics in graphene devices This project enabled the acquisition of a

  1. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.


    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  2. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio


    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  3. Polysulfide reduction using sulfate-reducing bacteria in a photocatalytic hydrogen generation system. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yui; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi


    A hydrogen generation process using photocatalytic reactions has been proposed. In this process, hydrogen sulfide is a source of hydrogen and is turned into polysulfide. In order to establish the cyclic operation of a photocatalytic hydrogen generation system, it is necessary to convert polysulfide back into hydrogen sulfide with a small energy input. This paper proposes the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the regeneration of hydrogen sulfide. Batch cultivation of natural source SRB samples were carried out using a culture medium containing polysulfide as the only sulfur compound source. SRB produced hydrogen sulfide from several kinds of polysulfide sources, including a photocatalytic hydrogen generation-produces solution. Production lag phase and production rate of hydrogen sulfide were affected by initial polysulfide concentration. SRB activity was inhibited at high initial polysulfide concentrations. SRB enrichment culture T2, exhibited the highest hydrogen sulfide production rate, and was able to utilize several kinds of organic matter as the electron donor. The results suggest the possibility of using large biomass sources, such as sewage sludge and the raw garbage in a hydrogen generation system. We developed speculative estimates that an SRB based hydrogen generation system is feasible.

  4. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.


    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  5. Calculation of hydrogen isotopic fractionations in biogeochemical systems (United States)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Hayes, John M.


    Hydrogen-isotopic data are often interpreted using mathematical approximations originally intended for other isotopes. One of the most common, apparent in literature over the last several decades, assumes that delta values of reactants and products are separated by a constant fractionation factor: δ p = δ r + ɛ p/r. Because of the large fractionations that affect hydrogen isotopes, such approximations can lead to substantial errors. Here we review and develop general equations for isotopic mass balances that include the differential fractionation of each component in a mixture and discuss their use in three geochemical applications. For the fractionation of a single component, the reactant and product are related by δ p = α p/rδ r + ɛ p/r, where α and ɛ refer to the same fractionation. Regression of δ p on δ r should give equivalent fractionations based on the intercept and slope, but this has not generally been recognized in studies of D/H fractionation. In a mixture of two components, each of which is fractionated during mixing, there is no unique solution for the three unknown variables (two fractionation factors and the elemental mixing ratio of the two hydrogen sources). The flow of H from CH 4 and H 2O to bacterial lipids in the metabolism of Methylococcus capsulatus provides an example of such a case. Data and conclusions from an earlier study of that system (Sessions et al., 2002) are reexamined here. Several constraints on the variables are available based on plausible ranges for fractionation factors. A possible refinement to current experimental procedures is the measurement of three different isotopes, which would allow unique determination of all variables.

  6. Combating Impairments in Multi-carrier Systems: A Compressed Sensing Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shuhail, Shamael


    Multi-carrier systems suffer from several impairments, and communication system engineers use powerful signal processing tools to combat these impairments and keep up with the capacity/rate demands. Compressed sensing (CS) is one such tool that allows recovering any sparse signal, requiring only a few measurements in a domain that is incoherent with the domain of sparsity. Almost all signals of interest have some degree of sparsity, and in this work we utilize the sparsity of impairments in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and its variants (i.e., orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) and single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA)) to combat them using CS. We start with the problem of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM. OFDM signals suffer from high PAPR and clipping is the simplest PAPR reduction scheme. However, clipping introduces inband distortions that result in compromised performance and hence needs to be mitigated at the receiver. Due to the high PAPR nature of the OFDM signal, only a few instances are clipped, these clipping distortions can be recovered at the receiver by employing CS. We then extend the proposed clipping recovery scheme to an interleaved OFDMA system. Interleaved OFDMA presents a special structure that result in only self-inflicted clipping distortions. In this work, we prove that distortions do not spread over multiple users (while utilizing interleaved carrier assignment in OFDMA) and construct a CS system that recovers the clipping distortions on each user. Finally, we address the problem of narrowband interference (NBI) in SC-FDMA. Unlike OFDM and OFDMA systems, SC-FDMA does not suffer from high PAPR, but (as the data is encoded in time domain) is seriously vulnerable to information loss owing to NBI. Utilizing the sparse nature of NBI (in frequency domain) we combat its effect on SC-FDMA system by CS recovery.

  7. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research. (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko


    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world.

  8. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.


    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem...

  9. Carrier frequency offset estimation for OFDM systems with time-varying DC Offset (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Hanzhang


    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems with direct-conversion architecture suffer from both carrier frequency offset (CFO) and dc offset (DCO). In this paper, we study CFO estimation problem for OFDM systems with time-varying DCO (TV-DCO) caused by gain mode switch of low noise amplifier (LNA). Based on linear approximation of TV-DCO, a blind algorithm is proposed for CFO estimation by means of DCO compensation and power leakage minimization. Performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by simulations.

  10. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source (United States)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.


    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  11. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III


    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  12. Colonic hydrogen sulfide produces portal hypertension and systemic hypotension in rats. (United States)

    Huc, Tomasz; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Jaworska, Kinga; Onyszkiewicz, Maksymilian; Ufnal, Marcin


    Hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas, at low concentrations is also a biological mediator in animals. In the colon, hydrogen sulfide is produced by intestinal tissues and gut sulfur bacteria. Gut-derived molecules undergo liver metabolism. Portal hypertension is one of the most common complications contributing to the high mortality in liver cirrhosis. We hypothesized that the colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may affect portal blood pressure. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained either on tap water (controls) or on water solution of thioacetamide to produce liver cirrhosis (CRH-R). Hemodynamics were measured after administration of either saline or Na2S, a hydrogen sulfide donor, into (1) the colon, (2) the portal vein, or (3) the femoral vein. Expression of enzymes involved in hydrogen sulfide metabolism was measured by RT-PCR. CRH-R showed a significantly higher portal blood pressure but a lower arterial blood pressure than controls. Saline did not affect hemodynamic parameters. In controls, intracolonic hydrogen sulfide decreased arterial blood pressure and portal blood flow but increased portal blood pressure. Similarly, hydrogen sulfide administered into the portal vein decreased arterial blood pressure but increased portal blood pressure. In contrast, hydrogen sulfide administered into the systemic vein decreased both arterial and portal blood pressures. CRH-R showed significantly greater responses to hydrogen sulfide than controls. CRH-R had a significantly higher liver concentration of hydrogen sulfide but lower expression of rhodanese, an enzyme converting hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. In conclusion, colon-administered hydrogen sulfide increases portal blood pressure while decreasing the systemic arterial blood pressure. The response to hydrogen sulfide is more pronounced in cirrhotic rats which show reduced hydrogen sulfide liver metabolism. Therefore, colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may be involved in the regulation of portal blood pressure, and may contribute to

  13. Acylation of the Type 3 Secretion System Translocon Using a Dedicated Acyl Carrier Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie P Viala


    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens often deliver effectors into host cells using type 3 secretion systems (T3SS, the extremity of which forms a translocon that perforates the host plasma membrane. The T3SS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1 is genetically associated with an acyl carrier protein, IacP, whose role has remained enigmatic. In this study, using tandem affinity purification, we identify a direct protein-protein interaction between IacP and the translocon protein SipB. We show, by mass spectrometry and radiolabelling, that SipB is acylated, which provides evidence for a modification of the translocon that has not been described before. A unique and conserved cysteine residue of SipB is identified as crucial for this modification. Although acylation of SipB was not essential to virulence, we show that this posttranslational modification promoted SipB insertion into host-cell membranes and pore-forming activity linked to the SPI-1 T3SS. Cooccurrence of acyl carrier and translocon proteins in several γ- and β-proteobacteria suggests that acylation of the translocon is conserved in these other pathogenic bacteria. These results also indicate that acyl carrier proteins, known for their involvement in metabolic pathways, have also evolved as cofactors of new bacterial protein lipidation pathways.

  14. A hydrogen ice cube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Schoonman, J.; Schrauwers, A.


    Hydrogen is considered to be a highly promising energy carrier. Nonetheless, before hydrogen can become the fuel of choice for the future a number of slight problems will have to be overcome. For example, how can hydrogen be safely stored? Motor vehicles running on hydrogen may be clean in concept

  15. Incorporation of Carrier Phase Global Positioning System Measurements into the Navigation Reference System for Improved Performance (United States)


    AFB, including Mr. Scott Dance and LCol Dicker , must be recognized for their assistance in building the carrier-phase GPS model and for allowing me...The culmination of work completed by past AFIT masters degree students Joe Solomon (2), Britt Snodgrass (3), Richard Stacey (4), and William Negast (1

  16. Carrier - Interference ratios for frequency sharing between satellite systems transmitting frequency modulated and digital television signals (United States)

    Barnes, S. P.


    As the data rates required for digitally encoded television are reduced, satellite systems employing the transmission of digitally encoded television will become attractive. It is likely that television transmitted in this format will be adjacent to or in the same frequency band as television transmissions in other modulation formats, so a knowledge of carrier to interference power ratios as a function of assessed picture quality will be required for frequency sharing between these different modulation formats. This paper presents the results of subjective and quantitative tests describing the results of interference to a particular digital television system from a frequency modulated (FM) television system, and for interference to an FM television system from a digital television system.

  17. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani


    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.


    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  19. Hydrogen bonding-mediated dehydrogenation in the ammonia borane combined graphene oxide systems (United States)

    Kuang, Anlong; Liu, Taijuan; Kuang, Minquan; Yang, Ruifeng; Huang, Rui; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xiaolan


    The dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB) adsorbed on three different graphene oxide (GO) sheets is investigated within the ab initio density functional theory. The energy barriers to direct combination the hydrogens of hydroxyl groups and the hydridic hydrogens of AB to release H2 are relatively high, indicating that the process is energetically unfavorable. Our theoretical study demonstrates that the dehydrogenation mechanism of the AB-GO systems has undergone two critical steps, first, there is the formation of the hydrogen bond (O-H-O) between two hydroxyl groups, and then, the hydrogen bond further react with the hydridic hydrogens of AB to release H2 with low reaction barriers.

  20. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))


    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an

  1. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.


    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  2. Integrated Hydrogen and Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation


    Lipman, Timothy; Shaheen, Susan


    This "Integrated Hydrogen/Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation" project was conceived to investigate hydrogen activities in the State and around the U.S. that might impact the California Department of Transportation's (Caltrans) operations. The project is intended to review these activities and to suggest potential interesting applications of combined hydrogen and intelligent transportation system (ITS) technologies. This project was co...

  3. Potential of hydrogen fuel for future air transportation systems. (United States)

    Small, W. J.; Fetterman, D. E.; Bonner, T. F., Jr.


    Recent studies have shown that hydrogen fuel can yield spectacular improvements in aircraft performance in addition to its more widely discussed environmental advantages. The characteristics of subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic transport aircraft using hydrogen fuel are discussed, and their performance and environmental impact are compared to that of similar aircraft using conventional fuel. The possibilities of developing hydrogen-fueled supersonic and hypersonic vehicles with sonic boom levels acceptable for overland flight are also explored.

  4. Long-Term Cycling of the Magnesium Hydrogen System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent


    Magnesium powder with a grain size of approximately 50γm was hydrogenated for 30 min and dehydrogenated the same time at 390°C, 515 times. A moderate loss in hydrogen storage capacity was observed and was ascribed to a measured decrease in reaction kinetics as the cycle number increased. The time...... for maximum hydrogen absorption was found to depend significantly on cycle number while the time for maximum desorption was found to be virtually independent of cycle number....

  5. Effect of optical fiber reflections on the performance of sub-carrier-multiplexed (SCM) lightwave systems (United States)

    Betti, Silvello; Bravi, E.; Giaconi, M.


    Hybrid analog/digital Sub-Carrier-Multiplexing (SCM) technique is effective for broadband optical access networks designed for video broadcasting and interactive services. These systems are flexible in service management and channeling can be optimized to exploit the available bandwidth. A significant impairment in these systems is introduced by optical fiber multiple reflections, which give rise to an interferometric noise affecting the performance. So far, this effect has been evaluated assuming that the delay between transmitted and reflected optical signals is so large that such signals can be considered uncorrelated. In this paper, the interferometric noise due to optical fiber reflections is analyzed in SCM hybrid analog/digital systems independently of the position of the reflection points. The proposed model leads to a closed expression for the power spectral density of such noise source, which provides useful information for the system design and permits an accurate performance evaluation.

  6. Carrier Current Line Systems Technologies in M2M Architecture for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ching Chen


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Carrier Current Line Systems (CCLS technologies of Machine to Machine (M2M architecture which applied for mobile station coverage working with metro, high speed railway, and subway such as analysis for public transport of an indoor transition system. It is based on the theory and practical engineering principle which provide guidelines and formulas for link budget design to help designers fully control and analyze the single output power of uplink and downlink between Fiber Repeaters (FR and mobile station as well as base station. Finally, the results of this leakage cable system are successfully applied to indoor coverage design for metro rapid transit system which are easily installed cellular over fiber solutions for WCDMA/LTE access is becoming Ubiquitous Network to Internet of Thing (IOT real case hierarchy of telecommunication.

  7. Blind estimation of carrier frequency offset, I/Q imbalance and DC offset for OFDM systems (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Hanzhang


    Sensitivity to carrier frequency offset (CFO) is one of the biggest drawbacks of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. A lot of CFO estimation algorithms had been studied for compensation of CFO in OFDM system. However, with the adoption of direct-conversion architecture (DCA), which introduces additional impairments such as dc offset (DCO) and in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) imbalance in OFDM system, the established CFO estimation algorithms suffer from performance degradation. In our previous study, we developed a blind CFO, I/Q imbalance and DCO estimation algorithm for OFDM systems with DCA. In this article, we propose an alternative algorithm with reduced computation complexity and better accuracy. Performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by simulations.

  8. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad


    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Design of Bulk Carrier Cargo Holds State Integrated Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ru-jiang


    Full Text Available Most ship cargo hold Internal uses artificial watch or is unattended. Therefore, it is impossible to know the appropriate information of the cargo holds Internal timely and accurately. Cargo damage and ship accidents occurred frequently. Automation remote processing and monitoring alarm system for the bulk carrier is an important part of the marine automation. The system plays a significant role to guarantee the navigation safety for bulk carriers. The paper introduced the important parts of the integrated monitoring system, structural design, hardware configuration, various modules communication transmission and various data processing software design were included. Based on embedded development, the real time information including the cargo hold internal humidity temperature, oxygen concentration, smoke gas concentration, cold water well level and other data were collected, as well the hatch closed state was detected and the cargo hold internal real time video information was collected. Then the real-time communication between the control display and acquisition modules were assured. By adjusting the corresponding buttons on the bridge according to the monitoring information, so that the cargo hold always in a safe environment, so as to avoid cargo hold accidents.

  10. Evaluation of a wind-hydrogen system; Bewertung eines Wind-Wasserstoff-Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasz, J.; Sykula, P. [Technische Univ. Szczecin, Lehrstuhl fuer Waermetechnik, Szczecin (Poland)


    Developments during the past few years have shown that hydrogen may be an alternative to coal and nuclear power. A particularly interesting option is the combination of a wind power system and a conventional hydrogen generation system, with storage of the generated power in the form of hydrogen. This will ensure frequency-relevant stability of the electricity grid and the possibility of emergency power supply in a given region. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre weisen immer deutlich darauf hin, dass nach der Zeit der Steinkohle und des Erdoels die Wasserstofftechnologie eine Alternative fuer die zukuenftige, verstaerkte Kernenergienutzung bilden kann. Als besonders interessant scheinen hier die Koppelung einer Windkraftanlage mit einem konventionellen Wasserstofferzeuger und die Speicherung der ueber die Windkraft erzeugten Elektroenergie in Form von Wasserstoff. Unter dem Gesichtspunkt der frequenzrelevanten Stabilitaet der oeffentlichen Elektroenergienetze oder der elektroenergetischen bzw. waermetechnischen Noteinspeisung eines bestimmten Versorgungsgebietes scheint diese Art von Koppelung der beiden Energietechnologien in der letzten Zeit an Bedeutung zu gewinnen. (orig.)

  11. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.


    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  12. Hydrogen as a link between sustainable mobility and transition of the German energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conreder, Alexander [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Even 15 years ago, the predictions with regard to the market penetration of fuel cell automobiles or of so-called fuel cell heaters were communicated with differing statements. Daimler Benz AG, as it still was back then, had put their faith in the rapid integration of a fuel cell into the vehicle, whereas companies such as Vaillant, Hamburger Gas Consult, Sulzer Hexis or even MTU and Siemens were working on stationary fuel cell systems. The expectations at that time with regard to market and technology development have still not yet been fulfilled. Today, the subject has been given a new lease of life thanks to the public discussions regarding the energy transition and the current framework conditions. Many concepts that have already been under consideration, but which very few have considered realistic in the short-term, now appear at least to have come within reach. As a result of the fluctuations in the generation of renewable energies, Germany needs loads that can be switched and, above all, methods of storing energy. In conjunction with new technologies, such as PEM electrolysis and the pressure which has been put on politics to react and to create the necessary framework conditions, a new momentum has developed with regard to the use of hydrogen. This article analyses to what extent synergies between energy transition and mobility can be expected within the context of hydrogen. With a view to quantity, times and local relationships, quality and price, we have been able to determine that the relevant amounts and dependencies have a positive and relevant magnitude to one another, thus synergies are present. It should be noted that hydrogen will not be the sole solution for the Federal Government when it comes to achieving CO{sub 2} reduction aims. Electrical mobility with approaches for bidirectional charging, new storage technologies and alternative energy carriers, switchable loads as well as the local public transport systems and new mobility concepts will

  13. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke


    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  14. Commissioning of the cryogenic hydrogen system in J-PARC: Preliminary operation by helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hasegawa, S; Ohtsu, K; Uehara, T; Kawakami, Y; Sakurayama, H; Maekawa, F; Futakawa, M; Ushijima, I


    A cryogenic hydrogen circulation system to cool the moderators for the spallation neutron source in J-PARC has been constructed. This system provides supercritical hydrogen at the temperature of 20 K and the pressure of 1.5 MPa to three moderators and absorbs nuclear heating produced in the moderators. The cryogenic hydrogen system commissioning was started. In January 2008, for the first time, we carried out a cryogenic test of the whole system, in which helium gas was used in stead of hydrogen. The cryogenic hydrogen system can be cooled down to 18 K within 30 hours, and be kept to be the rated condition for 36 hours without any problems. We confirmed the soundness of each component such as circulation pump and operation control system.

  15. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)


    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

  16. Structural intensity analysis of a large container carrier under harmonic excitations of propulsion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Seung Cho


    Full Text Available The structural intensity analysis, which calculates the magnitude and direction of vibrational energy flow from vibratory velocity and internal force at any point of a structure, can give information on dominant transmission paths, positions of sources and sinks of vibration energy. This paper presents a numerical simulation system for structural intensity analysis and visualization to apply for ship structures based on the finite element method. The system consists of a general purpose finite element analysis program MSC/Nastran, its pre- and post-processors and an in-house program module to calculate structural intensity using the model data and its forced vibration analysis results. Using the system, the structural intensity analysis for a 4,100 TEU container carrier is carried out to visualize structural intensity fields on the global ship structure and to investigate dominant energy flow paths from harmonic excitation sources to superstructure at resonant hull girder and superstructure modes.

  17. Development of an insect metalloproteinase inhibitor drug carrier system for application in chronic wound infections. (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Michaela; Dobler, Dorota; Schlupp, Peggy; Schmidts, Thomas; Salzig, Mark; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter; Keusgen, Michael; Runkel, Frank


    The insect metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) represents the first peptide capable of inhibiting virulence-mediating microbial M4-metalloproteinases and is promising as a therapeutic. The purpose of this study was to develop a suitable drug carrier system for the IMPI drug to enable treatment of chronic wound infections. Specifically, we studied on poloxamer 407 hydrogels, examining the influence of several additives and preservatives on the rheological parameters of the hydrogels, the bioactivity and release of IMPI. The rheological characterisation of the hydrogel was performed by oscillatory measurements. The bioactivity of IMPI was evaluated in a Casein fluoresence quenching assay. In this study, a suitable application form for the dermal treatment of chronic wound infections with IMPI was designed. The influences of poloxamer 407 concentration and various additives on the viscoelastic properties and preservation of a thermosensitive hydrogel were investigated. The incorporation of the precursor drug IMPI-gluthathione-s-transferase (GST) in the hydrogel had no influence on the rheological characteristics and will be released. The bioactivity of IMPI-GST is not influenced by the hydrogel and remains constant over 4 weeks of storage. This study reports the development of a poloxamer hydrogel as a suitable carrier system for the application of IMPI. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Taming the Trojan horse: optimizing dynamic carrier cell/oncolytic virus systems for cancer biotherapy. (United States)

    Power, A T; Bell, J C


    Live cells offer unique advantages as vehicles for systemic oncolytic virus (OV) delivery. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have shown that virus-infected cells can serve as Trojan horse vehicles to evade antiviral mechanisms encountered in the bloodstream, prevent uptake by off-target tissues and act as microscale factories to produce OV upon arrival in tumor beds. However to be employed effectively, OV-infected cells are best viewed as dynamic biological systems rather than static therapeutic agents. The time-dependent processes of infection and in vivo cell trafficking will inevitably vary depending on which particular OV is being delivered, as well as the type of carrier cells (CC) employed. Understanding these parameters with respect to each unique CC/OV combination will therefore be required in order to effectively evaluate and harness their potential in preclinical study. In the following review, we discuss how early studies of OV delivery led us to investigate the use of cell carriers in our laboratory, and the approaches we are currently undertaking to compare the dynamics of different CC/OV systems. On the basis of these studies and others it is apparent that the success of any cell-based system for OV delivery rests upon the coordinated timing of three sequential phases--(1) ex vivo loading, (2) stealth delivery and (3) virus production at the tumor site. While at the current time, the timing of these processes are coupled to the natural cycle of infection and in vivo trafficking properties innate to each cell virus system, a quantitative delineation of their dynamics will lay the foundation for engineering CC/OV biotherapeutic systems that can be clinically deployed in a highly directed and controlled manner.

  19. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system (United States)

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S.; Felseghi, R.-A.; Rǎboacǎ, S.; Aşchilean, I.; Giurca, I.


    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  20. Two step novel hydrogen system using additives to enhance hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of alane and activated aluminum (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore


    A system for the generation of hydrogen for use in portable power systems is set forth utilizing a two-step process that involves the thermal decomposition of AlH.sub.3 (10 wt % H.sub.2) followed by the hydrolysis of the activated aluminum (Al*) byproduct to release additional H.sub.2. Additionally, a process in which water is added directly without prior history to the AlH.sub.3:PA composite is also disclosed.

  1. Protein S-sulfhydration by hydrogen sulfide in cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhao, Shuang; Xie, Liping; Han, Yi; Ji, Yong


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), independently of any specific transporters, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. However, until now, the detailed mechanism of H2 S was not clear. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is the chemical modification of specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H2 S. There are several methods for detecting S-sulfhydration, such as the modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry. H2 S induces S-sulfhydration on enzymes or receptors (such as p66Shc, phospholamban, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and ATP synthase subunit α), transcription factors (such as specific protein-1, kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor-1), and ion channels (such as voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, transient receptor potential channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels) in the cardiovascular system. Although significant progress has been achieved in delineating the role of protein S-sulfhydration by H2 S in the cardiovascular system, more proteins with detailed cysteine sites of S-sulfhydration as well as physiological function need to be investigated in further studies. This review mainly summarizes the role and possible mechanism of S-sulfhydration in the cardiovascular system. The S-sulfhydrated proteins may be potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention and drug design in the cardiovascular system, which may accelerate the development and application of H2 S-related drugs in the future. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Does contracting with owner operators lead to worse safety outcomes for US motor carriers? Evidence from the Motor Carrier Management Information System. (United States)

    Monaco, Kristen; Redmon, Brydey


    Using data from the Motor Carrier Management Information System, we model crashes as a function of firm characteristics, with a focus on the employment relationship. We find that very small firms (one driver, one truck) and firms that contract with owner operators have fewer crashes than employee-only companies, once other firm characteristics and exposure are controlled. Additionally, though very small firms are more likely to have severe crashes, we find no relationship between the share of owner operators and crash severity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on system layout and component design in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Shoji [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The global warming becomes a significant issue in the world so that it needs to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission. It is expected that hydrogen is in place of the fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and plays the important role to resolve the global warming. There are several hydrogen making processes such as water electrolysis and steam reforming of hydrocarbon. Steam reforming of hydrocarbon is a major hydrogen making process because of economy in industry. It utilizes the fossil fuels as process heat for chemical reaction and results in a large CO{sub 2} emission. New steam reforming system without fossil fuel can contribute to resolve the global warming. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has a unique feature to be able to supply a hot helium gas whose temperature is approximately 950degC at the reactor outlet. This makes HTGR possible to utilize for not only power generation but also process heat utilization. JAERI constructed the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) that is a sort of HTGR in Oarai establishment and starts operation. Nuclear heat utilization is one of the R and D items of the HTTR. The steam reforming system coupling to the HTTR for hydrogen production has been designed. This report represents the system layout and design specification of key components in HTTR steam reforming system. (author)

  4. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.


    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  5. Novel Applications of the Methyltrioxorhenium/Hydrogen Peroxide Catalytic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovic, Sasa [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Methylrhenium trioxide (MTO), CH3Re03, was first prepared in 1979. An improved synthetic route to MTO was devised from dirhenium heptoxide and tetramethyltin in the presence of hexafluoro glutaric anhydride was reported by Herrmann in 1992. During the course of research on this dissertation we uncovered other reactions where the presence or absence of pyridine can, in some cases dramatically, affect the reaction outcome. This dissertation consists of four chapters. The first two chapters deal with the ,oxidation of water sensitive olefinic compounds with the hydrogen perox’ide/MTO system. Chapters 111 and IV focus on the oxidation of hydrazones with the same catalytic system. Chapter I has been published in The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Chapter III in Chemical Communications. Chapters II and IV have been submitted for publication in The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Each section is selfcontained with its own equations, tables, figures and references. All of the work in this dissertation was performed by this author.

  6. Metal-hydrogen systems with an exceptionally large and tunable thermodynamic destabilization. (United States)

    Ngene, Peter; Longo, Alessandro; Mooij, Lennard; Bras, Wim; Dam, Bernard


    Hydrogen is a key element in the energy transition. Hydrogen-metal systems have been studied for various energy-related applications, e.g., for their use in reversible hydrogen storage, catalysis, hydrogen sensing, and rechargeable batteries. These applications depend strongly on the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen system. Therefore, tailoring the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen interactions is crucial for tuning the properties of metal hydrides. Here we present a case of large metal hydride destabilization by elastic strain. The addition of small amounts of zirconium to yttrium leads to a compression of the yttrium lattice, which is maintained during (de)hydrogenation cycles. As a result, the equilibrium hydrogen pressure of YH2 ↔ YH3 can be rationally and precisely tuned up to five orders of magnitude at room temperature. This allows us to realize a hydrogen sensor which indicates the ambient hydrogen pressure over four orders of magnitude by an eye-visible color change.

  7. H2 at Scale: Benefitting our Future Energy System - Update for the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    Hydrogen is a flexible, clean energy carrying intermediate that enables aggressive market penetration of renewables while deeply decarbonizing our energy system. H2 at Scale is a concept that supports the electricity grid by utilizing energy without other demands at any given time and also supports transportation and industry by providing low-priced hydrogen to them. This presentation is an update to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC).

  8. Power-efficient high-speed parallel-sampling adcs for broadband multi-carrier systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yu; Doris, Kostas; van Roermund, Arthur H M


    This book addresses the challenges of designing high performance analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) based on the “smart data converters” concept, which implies context awareness, on-chip intelligence and adaptation. Readers will learn to exploit various information either a-priori or a-posteriori (obtained from devices, signals, applications or the ambient situations, etc.) for circuit and architecture optimization during the design phase or adaptation during operation, to enhance data converters performance, flexibility, robustness and power-efficiency. The authors focus on exploiting the a-priori knowledge of the system/application to develop enhancement techniques for ADCs, with particular emphasis on improving the power efficiency of high-speed and high-resolution ADCs for broadband multi-carrier systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Karedla


    Full Text Available Resource allocation strategies in Mobile Communication Systems (4G/5G are proposed to enhance the data transmission and to meet the required QoS of the users by reducing the interference (inter/intra cell. The aim of this paper is to propose an efficient QoS-Constrained resource allocation strategy called QoS-Constrained Modified Load Matrix (QoS-MLM for Multi -Carrier Mobile Communication systems under 4G LTE scenario to reduce interference and to improve aggregate throughput, packet delay. Simulation results show that by using QoS-MLM the aggregate throughput and packet delay has improved significantly when compared to benchmark schedulers.

  10. Gene carriers and transfection systems used in the recombination of dendritic cells for effective cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhe; Yao, Xing-Lei; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Gao, Jian-Qing


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells. They play a vital role in the initiation of immune response by presenting antigens to T cells and followed by induction of T-cell response. Reported research in animal studies indicated that vaccine immunity could be a promising alternative therapy for cancer patients. However, broad clinical utility has not been achieved yet, owing to the low transfection efficiency of DCs. Therefore, it is essential to improve the transfection efficiency of DC-based vaccination in immunotherapy. In several studies, DCs were genetically engineered by tumor-associated antigens or by immune molecules such as costimulatory molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Encouraging results have been achieved in cancer treatment using various animal models. This paper describes the recent progress in gene delivery systems including viral vectors and nonviral carriers for DC-based genetically engineered vaccines. The reverse and three-dimensional transfection systems developed in DCs are also discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effector Proteins as Carriers for Heterologous Vaccine Antigens (United States)

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid


    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines. PMID:22252866

  12. Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation and I/Q Imbalance Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omair Ahmad


    Full Text Available Two types of radio-frequency front-end imperfections, that is, carrier frequency offset and the inphase/quadrature (I/Q imbalance are considered for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems. A preamble-assisted carrier frequency estimator is proposed along with an I/Q imbalance compensation scheme. The new frequency estimator reveals the relationship between the inphase and the quadrature components of the received preamble and extracts the frequency offset from the phase shift caused by the frequency offset and the cross-talk interference due to the I/Q imbalance. The proposed frequency estimation algorithm is fast, efficient, and robust to I/Q imbalance. An I/Q imbalance estimation/compensation algorithm is also presented by solving a least-square problem formulated using the same preamble as employed for the frequency offset estimation. The computational complexity of the I/Q estimation scheme is further reduced by using part of the short symbols with a little sacrifice in the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation and comparison with some of the existing algorithms are conducted, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolley, George S


    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not

  14. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael


    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  15. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts. (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei


    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael


    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  17. Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for Cross-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated Emissions; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.


    It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain emission levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a cross-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit cross-model as well as cross-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.

  18. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.


    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  19. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Thanh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, Matt [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, Stephen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, Karen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)


    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  20. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Operational Experience, Performance Testing, and Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.; Ramsden, T. G.; Kramer, W. E.; Novachek, F. J.


    The Wind2H2 system is fully functional and continues to gather performance data. In this report, specifications of the Wind2H2 equipment (electrolyzers, compressor, hydrogen storage tanks, and the hydrogen fueled generator) are summarized. System operational experience and lessons learned are discussed. Valuable operational experience is shared through running, testing, daily operations, and troubleshooting the Wind2H2 system and equipment errors are being logged to help evaluate the reliability of the system.

  1. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krassen, Henning


    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  2. Formulation of Indomethacin Colon Targeted Delivery Systems Using Polysaccharides as Carriers by Applying Liquisolid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the formulation of matrix tablets for colon-specific drug delivery (CSDD system of indomethacin (IDM by applying liquisolid (LS technique. A CSDD system based on time-dependent polymethacrylates and enzyme degradable polysaccharides was established. Eudragit RL 100 (E-RL 100 was employed as time-dependent polymer, whereas bacterial degradable polysaccharides were presented as LS systems loaded with the drug. Indomethacin-loaded LS systems were prepared using different polysaccharides, namely, guar gum (GG, pectin (PEC, and chitosan (CH, as carriers separately or in mixtures of different ratios of 1 : 3, 1 : 1, and 3 : 1. Liquisolid systems that displayed promising results concerning drug release rate in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 were compressed into tablets after the addition of the calculated amount of E-RL 100 and lubrication with magnesium stearate and talc in the ratio of 1 : 9. It was found that E-RL 100 improved the flowability and compressibility of all LS formulations. The release data revealed that all formulations succeeded to sustain drug release over a period of 24 hours. Stability study indicated that PEC-based LS system as well as its matrix tablets was stable over the period of storage (one year and could provide a minimum shelf life of two years.

  3. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark (United States)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua; Hu, Weihao; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Chen, Zhe


    In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates the tradeoffs between selling the hydrogen directly to customers or using it as a storage medium to re-generate electricity at a time when it is more valuable. This research finds that the most beneficial configuration is to produce hydrogen at a time that complements the wind farm and sell the hydrogen directly to end users.

  4. Proceedings of the DOE chemical/hydrogen energy systems contractor review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains 45 papers as well as overviews of the two main project areas: the NASA Hydrogen Energy Storage Technology Project and Brookhaven National Laboratory's program on Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems. Forty-six project summaries are included. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy inference systems as virtual sensors for hydrogen safety prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karri, Vishy; Ho, Tien [School of Engineering, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-65, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Madsen, Ole [Department of Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, DK-9220 Aalborg (Denmark)


    Hydrogen is increasingly investigated as an alternative fuel to petroleum products in running internal combustion engines and as powering remote area power systems using generators. The safety issues related to hydrogen gas are further exasperated by expensive instrumentation required to measure the percentage of explosive limits, flow rates and production pressure. This paper investigates the use of model based virtual sensors (rather than expensive physical sensors) in connection with hydrogen production with a Hogen 20 electrolyzer system. The virtual sensors are used to predict relevant hydrogen safety parameters, such as the percentage of lower explosive limit, hydrogen pressure and hydrogen flow rate as a function of different input conditions of power supplied (voltage and current), the feed of de-ionized water and Hogen 20 electrolyzer system parameters. The virtual sensors are developed by means of the application of various Artificial Intelligent techniques. To train and appraise the neural network models as virtual sensors, the Hogen 20 electrolyzer is instrumented with necessary sensors to gather experimental data which together with MATLAB neural networks toolbox and tailor made adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) were used as predictive tools to estimate hydrogen safety parameters. It was shown that using the neural networks hydrogen safety parameters were predicted to less than 3% of percentage average root mean square error. The most accurate prediction was achieved by using ANFIS. (author)

  6. The elusive ≡C-H···O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hydrogen-bonded complexes of phenylacetylene (PhAc) with methanol (MeOH) and diethylether. (DEE) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. This study specifically searched for the ≡C-. H···O hydrogen bonded complex in these systems, which manifest a n-σ* interaction and which is a local.

  7. The elusive≡ CH··· O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen-bonded complexes of phenylacetylene (PhAc) with methanol (MeOH) and diethylether (DEE) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. This study specifically searched for the ≡CH · · ·O hydrogen bonded complex in these systems, which manifest a n-σ* interaction and which is a local minimum ...

  8. Engineered red blood cells as carriers for systemic delivery of a wide array of functional probes. (United States)

    Shi, Jiahai; Kundrat, Lenka; Pishesha, Novalia; Bilate, Angelina; Theile, Chris; Maruyama, Takeshi; Dougan, Stephanie K; Ploegh, Hidde L; Lodish, Harvey F


    We developed modified RBCs to serve as carriers for systemic delivery of a wide array of payloads. These RBCs contain modified proteins on their plasma membrane, which can be labeled in a sortase-catalyzed reaction under native conditions without inflicting damage to the target membrane or cell. Sortase accommodates a wide range of natural and synthetic payloads that allow modification of RBCs with substituents that cannot be encoded genetically. As proof of principle, we demonstrate site-specific conjugation of biotin to in vitro-differentiated mouse erythroblasts as well as to mature mouse RBCs. Thus modified, RBCs remain in the bloodstream for up to 28 d. A single domain antibody attached enzymatically to RBCs enables them to bind specifically to target cells that express the antibody target. We extend these experiments to human RBCs and demonstrate efficient sortase-mediated labeling of in vitro-differentiated human reticulocytes.

  9. Polysaccharide based nanogels in the drug delivery system: Application as the carrier of pharmaceutical agents. (United States)

    Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Mekuria, Shewaye Lakew; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih


    Polysaccharide-based nanoparticles have fascinated attention as a vesicle of different pharmaceutical agents due to their unique multi-functional groups in addition to their physicochemical properties, including biocompatibility and biodegradability. The existence of multi-functional groups on the polysaccharide backbone permits facile chemical or biochemical modification to synthesize polysaccharide based nanoparticles with miscellaneous structures. Polysaccharide-based nanogels have high water content, large surface area for multivalent bioconjugation, tunable size, and interior network for the incorporation of different pharmaceutical agents. These unique properties offer great potential for the utilization of polysaccharide-based nanogels in the drug delivery systems. Hence, this review describes chemistry of certain common polysaccharides, several methodologies used to synthesize polysaccharide nanoparticles and primarily focused on the polysaccharide (or polysaccharide derivative) based nanogels as the carrier of pharmaceutical agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influenza virosomes as a combined vaccine carrier and adjuvant system for prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. (United States)

    Moser, Christian; Amacker, Mario; Kammer, Andreas R; Rasi, Silvia; Westerfeld, Nicole; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo


    Influenza virosomes are an efficient antigen carrier and adjuvant system that are approved for the use in human vaccines. Structurally, virosomes are spherical vesicles of approximately 150 nm in diameter, composed of a lipid membrane with integrated envelope proteins derived from influenza virus, predominantly hemagglutinin. The particle structure, together with the functions of hemagglutinin--receptor binding, pH-dependent fusion activity and immunostimulation--is responsible for the adjuvant effect of virosomes. In contrast to most other virus-like particles, virosomes are semisynthetic particles reconstituted in vitro from lipids and from virus-derived proteins. The production process has proven to be robust at industrial scale and fully compatible with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. At the same time, the formulation procedure is sufficiently flexible to allow modifications of the composition and structure for the intended use, including the positioning of the antigens of interest.

  11. Clean energy and the hydrogen economy. (United States)

    Brandon, N P; Kurban, Z


    In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems. This paper presents the opportunities for the use of hydrogen in key sectors of the economy and identifies the benefits and challenges within the hydrogen supply chain for power-to-gas, power-to-power and gas-to-gas supply pathways. While industry players have already started the market introduction of hydrogen fuel cell systems, including fuel cell electric vehicles and micro-combined heat and power devices, the use of hydrogen at grid scale requires the challenges of clean hydrogen production, bulk storage and distribution to be resolved. Ultimately, greater government support, in partnership with industry and academia, is still needed to realize hydrogen's potential across all economic sectors.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, Dennis


    Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling

  13. Evaluation of Lighting Systems, Carbon Sources, and Bacteria Cultures on Photofermentative Hydrogen Production. (United States)

    Hu, Chengcheng; Choy, Sing-Ying; Giannis, Apostolos


    Fluorescent and incandescent lighting systems were applied for batch photofermentative hydrogen production by four purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria (PNSB). The hydrogen production efficiency of Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodospirillum rubrum was evaluated using different carbon sources (acetate, butyrate, lactate, and malate). Incandescent light was found to be more effective for bacteria cell growth and hydrogen production. It was observed that PNSB followed substrate selection criteria for hydrogen production. Only R. palustris was able to produce hydrogen using most carbon sources. Cell density was almost constant, but cell growth rate and hydrogen production were significantly varied under the different lighting systems. The kinetics study suggested that initial substrate concentration had a positive correlation with lag phase duration. Among the PNSB, R. palustris grew faster and had higher hydrogen yields of 1.58, 4.92, and 2.57 mol H2/mol using acetate, butyrate, and lactate, respectively. In the integrative approach with dark fermentation effluents rich in organic acids, R. palustris should be enriched in the phototrophic microbial consortium of the continuous hydrogen production system.

  14. Simultaneous optical carrier and radio frequency re-modulation in radio-over-fiber systems employing reflective SOA modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassar, Carvalho; Calabretta, Nicola; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We demonstrate an innovative full-duplex radio-over-fibre transmission system employing a reflective SOA to perform simultaneous reusing of the optical carrier and data re-modulation, thus avoiding the use of local radiofrequency oscillator at the station sites.......We demonstrate an innovative full-duplex radio-over-fibre transmission system employing a reflective SOA to perform simultaneous reusing of the optical carrier and data re-modulation, thus avoiding the use of local radiofrequency oscillator at the station sites....

  15. The role of hydrogen sulfide in renal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cao


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells. Likewise, it also influences the release of renin from juxtaglomerular (JG cells and thereby modulates blood pressure. A possible role of H2S as an oxygen sensor has also been discussed, especially at renal medulla. Alternation of H2S level has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as renal ischemia/reperfusion, obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy. Moreover, H2S donors exhibit broad beneficial effects in renal diseases although a few conflicts need to be resolved. Further research reveals that multiple mechanisms are underlying the protective effects of H2S, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis. In the review, several research directions are also proposed including the role of mitochondrial H2S in renal diseases, H2S delivery to kidney by targeting D-amino acid oxidase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (DAO/3-MST pathway, effect of drug-like H2S donors in kidney diseases and understanding the molecular mechanism of H2S. The completion of the studies in these directions will not only improves our understanding of renal H2S functions but may also be critical to translate H2S to be a new therapy for renal diseases.

  16. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene. (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio


    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions.

  17. Channel coding for underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system (United States)

    Liu, Lanjun; Zhang, Yonglei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhou, Lin; Niu, Jiong


    CDMA is an effective multiple access protocol for underwater acoustic networks, and channel coding can effectively reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the underwater acoustic communication system. For the requirements of underwater acoustic mobile networks based on CDMA, an underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system (UWA/SCCDMA) based on the direct-sequence spread spectrum is proposed, and its channel coding scheme is studied based on convolution, RA, Turbo and LDPC coding respectively. The implementation steps of the Viterbi algorithm of convolutional coding, BP and minimum sum algorithms of RA coding, Log-MAP and SOVA algorithms of Turbo coding, and sum-product algorithm of LDPC coding are given. An UWA/SCCDMA simulation system based on Matlab is designed. Simulation results show that the UWA/SCCDMA based on RA, Turbo and LDPC coding have good performance such that the communication BER is all less than 10-6 in the underwater acoustic channel with low signal to noise ratio (SNR) from -12 dB to -10dB, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the convolutional coding. The system based on Turbo coding with Log-MAP algorithm has the best performance.

  18. The impact of the carrier envelope phase-dependence on system and laser parameters (United States)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.; Meier, C.


    We investigate, from a theoretical perspective, photoemission of electrons induced by ultra-short infrared pulses covering only a few photon cycles. In particular, we investigate the impact of the carrier envelope phase of the laser pulse which plays an increasingly large role for decreasing pulse length. As key observable we look at the asymmetry of the angular distribution as function of kinetic energy of the emitted electrons. The focus of the present study lies on the system dependence of the reaction. To this end, we study two very different systems in comparison, an Ar atom and the Na{}9+ cluster. The study employs a fully quantum–mechanical description of electron dynamics at the level of time-dependent density functional theory. We find a sensitive dependence on the system which can be related to the different spectral response properties. Results can be understood from an interplay of the ponderomotive motion driven by the external photon field and dynamical polarization of the system.

  19. A Novel Algorithm for Efficient Downlink Packet Scheduling for Multiple-Component-Carrier Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Liang Chung


    Full Text Available The simultaneous aggregation of multiple component carriers (CCs for use by a base station constitutes one of the more promising strategies for providing substantially enhanced bandwidths for packet transmissions in 4th and 5th generation cellular systems. To the best of our knowledge, however, few previous studies have undertaken a thorough investigation of various performance aspects of the use of a simple yet effective packet scheduling algorithm in which multiple CCs are aggregated for transmission in such systems. Consequently, the present study presents an efficient packet scheduling algorithm designed on the basis of the proportional fair criterion for use in multiple-CC systems for downlink transmission. The proposed algorithm includes a focus on providing simultaneous transmission support for both real-time (RT and non-RT traffic. This algorithm can, when applied with sufficiently efficient designs, provide adequate utilization of spectrum resources for the purposes of transmissions, while also improving energy efficiency to some extent. According to simulation results, the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of system throughput, mean delay, and fairness constitute substantial improvements over those of an algorithm in which the CCs are used independently instead of being aggregated.

  20. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.


    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  1. Design and development of a multifunctional nano carrier system for imaging, drug delivery, and cell targeting in cancer research (United States)

    Cho, Hoon-Sung

    There has been an increasing need in the last decade for early diagnosis and treatment of cancer prior to the tumor mass becoming evident as anatomical anomaly. A major challenge in cancer diagnosis is to distinguish cancer cells from the surrounding, normal tissue. For early cancer diagnosis and treatment, a nano carrier system was designed and developed with key components uniquely structured according to biomedical and clinical requirements: targeting, drug storage capabilities, fluorescent emissions near the infrared range for in vivo imaging, and magnetic hyperthermia. For in vivo imaging, quantum dots with emissions near infrared range (˜800 nm) were conjugated onto the surface of carbon nanotubes and nanospheres consisting of a spherical polystyrene matrix (˜100 nm) and high fraction of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (˜10 nm) embedded. The QDs on these nano carriers exhibited intense visible emissions using fluorescent spectroscopy and successfully facilitated in vivo soft tissue imaging in mice. For drug storage, the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (PTX) was loaded onto the surfaces of these nano-carriers by using a layer of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A cell-based cytotoxicity assay was employed to verify successful loading of pharmacologically active drug, PTX. Cell viability of human, metastatic PC3mm2 prostate cancer cells was assessed in the presence and absence of various nano-carrier populations using the MTT assay. For hyperthermia, Fe3O 4 nanoparticles were conjugated onto the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and embedded into the nanospheres. Magnetization measurements showed nearly reversible hysteresis curves from the Fe3O4-conjugated CNTs and the magnetic nanospheres (MNS). Application of an alternating electromagnetic field effectively induced heating the solution of the Fe3O 4-conjugated CNTs and the magnetic nanospheres (MNS) into temperature ranges (up to 55ºC) suitable for therapeutic hyperthermia

  2. Transfer Hydrogenation: Employing a Simple, In Situ Prepared Catalytic System

    KAUST Repository

    Ang, Eleanor Pei Ling


    Transfer hydrogenation has been recognized to be an important synthetic method in both academic and industrial research to obtain valuable products including alcohols. Transition metal catalysts based on precious metals, such as Ru, Rh and Ir, are typically employed for this process. In recent years, iron-based catalysts have attracted considerable attention as a greener and more sustainable alternative since iron is earth abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic. In this work, a combination of iron disulfide with chelating bipyridine ligand was found to be effective for the transfer hydrogenation of a variety of ketones to the corresponding alcohols in the presence of a simple base. It provided a convenient and economical way to conduct transfer hydrogenation. A plausible role of sulfide next to the metal center in facilitating the catalytic reaction is demonstrated.

  3. Long-Term Subconjunctival Delivery of Brimonidine Tartrate for Glaucoma Treatment Using a Microspheres/Carrier System. (United States)

    Pek, Y Shona; Wu, Hong; Mohamed, Siti Thaharah; Ying, Jackie Y


    Core-shell polymer microspheres with poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) core and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) shell are developed for the long-term subconjunctival release of brimonidine tartrate (BT) in order to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in the treatment of glaucoma. The PLLA-rich shell acts as a diffusion barrier, enabling linear release of BT over an extended period of 40 d. The microspheres are encased in a porous non-degradable methacrylate-based carrier for ease of subconjunctival implantation in a glaucoma-induced rabbit model. In vivo release of BT from the microspheres/carrier system has enabled a significant, immediate IOP reduction of 20 mmHg, which is sustained for 55 d. Long-term IOP reduction may be maintained by periodic replacement of the microspheres/carrier system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Structural Versatility of Bicellar Systems and Their Possibilities as Colloidal Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Olga


    Full Text Available Bicellar systems are lipid nanostructures formed by long- and short-chained phospholipids dispersed in aqueous solution. The morphological transitions of bicellar aggregates due to temperature, composition and time variations have been revised in this work. To this end, two bicellar systems have been considered; one formed by dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC and dihexanoyl- phosphatidylcholine (DHPC and another formed by dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC and DHPC. The relationship between the magnetic alignment, the morphology of the aggregates and the phase transition temperature (Tm of lipids is discussed. In general terms, the non-alignable samples present rounded objects at temperature below the Tm. Above this temperature, an increase of viscosity is followed by the formation of large elongated aggregates. Alignable samples presented discoidal objects below the Tm. The best alignment was achieved above this temperature with large areas of lamellar stacked bilayers and some multilamellar vesicles. The effect of the inclusion of ceramides with different chain lengths in the structure of bicelles is also revised in the present article. A number of physical techniques show that the bicellar structures are affected by both the concentration and the type of ceramide. Systems are able to incorporate 10% mol of ceramides that probably are organized forming domains. The addition of 20% mol of ceramides promotes destabilization of bicelles, promoting the formation of mixed systems that include large structures. Bicellar systems have demonstrated to be morphologically stable with time, able to encapsulate different actives and to induce specific effects on the skin. These facts make bicellar systems good candidates as colloidal carriers for dermal delivery. However, water dilution induces structural changes and formation of vesicular structures in the systems; stabilization strategies have been been explored in recent works and are also

  5. 75 FR 18256 - Withdrawal of Proposed Improvements to the Motor Carrier Safety Status Measurement System... (United States)


    ... the motor carrier industry and other safety stakeholders with more comprehensive, informative, and... safety performance of a greater segment of the motor carrier industry and allow it to intervene earlier...; and (3) A new safety fitness determination (SFD) methodology based more on performance data and not...

  6. Achieving ethanol-type fermentation for hydrogen production in a granular sludge system by aeration. (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying; Pan, Yu-Ting


    To investigate the effects of aeration on hydrogen-producing granular system, experiments were performed in two laboratory-scale anaerobic internal circulation hydrogen production (AICHP) reactors. The preliminary experiment of Reactor 1 showed that direct aeration was beneficial to enhancing hydrogen production. After the direct aeration was implied in Reactor 2, hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen content were increased by 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, mixed-acid fermentation was transformed into typical ethanol-type fermentation (ETF). Illumina MiSeq sequencing shows that the direct aeration did not change the species of hydrogen-producing bacteria but altered their abundance. Hydrogen-producing bacteria and ethanol-type fermentative bacteria were increased by 24.5% and 146.3%, respectively. Ethanoligenens sp. sharply increased by 162.2% and turned into predominant bacteria in the system. These findings indicated that appropriate direct aeration might be a novel and promising way to obtain ETF and enhance hydrogen production in practical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems (United States)

    Belz, S.


    Hydrogen is very flexible in different fields of application of energy conversion. It can be generated by water electrolysis. Stored in tanks it is available for re-electrification by fuel cells. But it is not only the power system, which benefits from use of hydrogen, but also the life support system, which can contain hydrogen consuming technologies for recycling management (e.g. carbon dioxide removal and waste combustion processes). This paper points out various fields of hydrogen use in a human spaceflight system. Depending on mission scenarios, shadow phases, and the need of energy storage, regenerative fuel cell systems can be more efficient than secondary batteries. Here, different power storage concepts are compared by equivalent system mass calculation, thus including impact in the peripheral structure (volume, thermal management, etc.) on the space system. It is also focused on the technical integration aspect, e.g. which peripheral components have to be adapted when hydrogen is also used for life support technologies and what system mass benefit can be expected. Finally, a recommendation is given for the following development steps for a synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems.

  8. Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume I. Gas blends flow in distribution system, mixing points, and regulatory standards. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [10 and 20% hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume of the subject study ''Blending of Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes studies on the determination of gas distribution system flows with hydrogen - natural gas blends, potential hydrogen admission points to gas distribution systems, and the impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on regulatory standards for gas distribution systems. The studies resulted in the following principal findings: (1) Most existing natural gas distribution systems could adequately transport 20% blends of hydrogen by volume with little or no modification. (2) The best point of admission of the hydrogen into a natural gas distribution system would be at the meter and regulating stations supplying a particular distribution system. (3) The impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on state regulatory standards appears to be minimal for PSE and G, but requires further study for various National Codes and for other states.

  9. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ...

  10. Efficiency of Small Autonomous Wind/Diesel/Hydrogen Systems in Russia


    Marchenko, Oleg; Solomin, Sergei


    The possibility of storing energy in the form of hydrogen in the small autonomous wind/diesel/hydrogen power systems that include wind turbines, diesel generator, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank and fuel cells are analyzed. The paper presents the zones of economic efficiency of the system (set of parameters that provide its competitiveness) depending on load, fuel price and long-term average annual wind speed.At low wind speed and low price of fuel it is reasonable to use only diesel generator to...

  11. The Origin of the Non-Additivity in Resonance-Assisted Hydrogen Bond Systems. (United States)

    Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong


    The concept of resonance-assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB) has been widely accepted, and its impact on structures and energetics can be best studied computationally using the block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and able to derive strictly electron-localized structures self-consistently. In this work, we use the BLW method to examine a few molecules that result from the merging of two malonaldehyde molecules. As each of these molecules contains two hydrogen bonds, these intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be cooperative or anticooperative, depended on their relative orientations, and compared with the hydrogen bond in malonaldehyde. Apart from quantitatively confirming the concept of RAHB, the comparison of the computations with and without π resonance shows that both σ-framework and π-resonance contribute to the nonadditivity in these RAHB systems with multiple hydrogen bonds.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for systemic gas embolism after hydrogen peroxide ingestion. (United States)

    Byrne, Brendan; Sherwin, Robert; Courage, Cheryl; Baylor, Alfred; Dolcourt, Bram; Brudzewski, Jacek R; Mosteller, Jeffrey; Wilson, Robert F


    Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly available product and its ingestion has been demonstrated to produce in vivo gas bubbles, which can embolize to devastating effect. We report two cases of hydrogen peroxide ingestion with resultant gas embolization, one to the portal system and one cerebral embolus, which were successfully treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), and review the literature. Two individuals presented to our center after unintentional ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide solutions. Symptoms were consistent with portal gas emboli (Patient A) and cerebral gas emboli (Patient B), which were demonstrated on imaging. They were successfully treated with HBO and recovered without event. As demonstrated by both our experience as well as the current literature, HBO has been used to successfully treat gas emboli associated with hydrogen peroxide ingestion. We recommend consideration of HBO in any cases of significant hydrogen peroxide ingestion with a clinical picture compatible with gas emboli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method. (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O


    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.


    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...

  15. Timing Metrics of Joint Timing and Carrier-Frequency Offset Estimation Algorithms for TDD-based OFDM systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, F.W.; Srinivasan, R.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.


    In joint timing and carrier offset estimation algorithms for Time Division Duplexing (TDD) OFDM systems, different timing metrics are proposed to determine the beginning of a burst or symbol. In this contribution we investigated the different timing metrics in order to establish their impact on the

  16. Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Cyanobacterial System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyman, Philip D [J. Craig Venter Institute; Smith, Hamillton O.


    Photobiological processes are attractive routes to renewable H2 production. With the input of solar energy, photosynthetic microbes such as cyanobacteria and green algae carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using sunlight energy to extract protons and high energy electrons from water. These protons and high energy electrons can be fed to a hydrogenase system yielding H2. However, most hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases are inhibited by O2, which is an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The rate of H2 production is thus limited. Certain photosynthetic bacteria are reported to have an O2-tolerant evolving hydrogenase, yet these microbes do not split water, and require other more expensive feedstocks. To overcome these difficulties, the goal of this work has been to construct novel microbial hybrids by genetically transferring O2-tolerant hydrogenases from other bacteria into a class of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria. These hybrid organisms will use the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterial hosts to perform the water-oxidation reaction with the input of solar energy, and couple the resulting protons and high energy electrons to the O2-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase, all within the same microbe (Fig. 1). The ultimate goal of this work has been to overcome the sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme to O2 and address one of the key technological hurdles to cost-effective photobiological H2 production which currently limits the production of hydrogen in algal systems. In pursuit of this goal, work on this project has successfully completed many subtasks leading to a greatly increased understanding of the complicated [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. At the beginning of this project, [NiFe] hydrogenases had never been successfully moved across wide species barriers and had never been heterologously expressed in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the idea that whole, functional genes could be extracted from complicated, mixed-sequence meta-genomes was not

  17. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo


    The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

  18. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton


    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  19. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)


    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  20. Hydrogen Generator (United States)


    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  1. Feasibility analysis of a hydrogen backup power system for Russian telecom market (United States)

    Borzenko, V. I.; Dunikov, D. O.


    We performed feasibility analysis of 10 kW hydrogen backup power system (H2BS) consisting of a water electrolyzer, a metal hydride hydrogen storage and a fuel cell. Capital investments in H2BS are mostly determined by the costs of the PEM electrolyzer, the fuel cell and solid state hydrogen storage materials, for single unit or small series manufacture the cost of AB5-type intermetallic compound can reach 50% of total system cost. Today the capital investments in H2BS are 3 times higher than in conventional lead-acid system of the same capacity. Wide distribution of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles, development of hydrogen infrastructure, and mass production of hydrogen power systems will for sure lower capital investments in fuel cell backup power. Operational expenditures for H2BS is only 15% from the expenditures for lead acid systems, and after 4-5 years of exploitation the total cost of ownership will become lower than for batteries.

  2. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (TIAX, LLC)


    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  3. The Assessment of Hydrogen Energy Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Principal Componenet Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun


    Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation...... to verify the correctness and accuracy of the principal components (PCs) determined by PCA in this paper. A case including 11 different hydrogen energy systems for fuel cell vehicles has been studied in this paper, and the system using steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production, pipeline...... for transportation of hydrogen, hydrogen gas tank for the storage of hydrogen at refueling stations, and gaseous hydrogen as power energy for fuel cell vehicles has been recognized as the best scenario. Also, the clustering results calculated by CA are consistent with those determined by PCA, denoting...

  4. Hourly energy management for grid-connected wind-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)


    This paper is a complete technical-economic analysis of the hourly energy management of the energy generated in wind-hydrogen systems. Wind power generation depends on the unpredictable nature of the wind. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will be necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve, consisting of the generation of hydrogen and storing it in a hydrogen tank during off-peak (low demand) hours, while during the rest of the hours (peak hours, high demand) the stored hydrogen can be used to generate electricity. After revising the results obtained in this paper, for the current values of efficiency of the electricity-hydrogen-electricity conversion (approximately 30%) and due to the high cost of the hydrogen components, for a wind-hydrogen system to be economically viable the price of the sale of the energy generated by the fuel cell would be very high (approximately 171 cEUR/kWh). (author)

  5. [The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on the Spectrum of HPAM in Various Systems]. (United States)

    Zhai, Zheng


    IR and UV-Vis was employed to analyzed the spectrum effect of hydrogen bonding on the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer(HPAM). The study reveals that, the characteristic absorption peak of free amino group moves to the low frequency due to the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding between amide group and carboxyl group. In the water solution, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is the main factor that shifted maximal absorption towards long wavelength. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding and intermolecular hydrogen bonds exist at the same time in the water solution contains intermediate sodium and calcium ions. While in the high concentration solution, the main form between amide group and carboxyl group is intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The effect of hydrogen bonding on the spectrum of HPAM demonstrates different extent in various systems. In the water solution, the maximum absorption wavelength red shifts 8 nm. In the system contains sodium ions, this shift is 4 nm. And this shift is only 2 nm in the solution contains both sodium ions and calcium ions.

  6. Analysis Method for Licensing Application of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner System as a Hydrogen Mitigation System of OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhyun; Sung, Jejoong; Ha, Sangjun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Inseon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    As a result, for some plants, dual hydrogen mitigation systems are prepared with a combination of PARs and igniters that each system has a 100% of full capacity for hydrogen control for postulated severe accident conditions. In the original design of OPR-1000, hydrogen mitigation systems consist of a thermal recombiner and twenty glow-type igniters, which are used for design basis accident and severe accident, respectively. This paper presents an analysis method for licensing application in Korea to determine the capacity and locations of PARs for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A licensed analysis method of OPR-1000 has been presented to determine the capacity and locations of PAR for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A lumped parameter code of MAAP 4.0.6+ has been adopted to simulate various severe accident scenarios with a 26 multi-compartment containment model. Hydrogen generations were analysed and required capacity and locations of PAR were determined for six accident scenarios selected from a combination of probabilistic and deterministic considerations. A total of twenty-four PARs in the containment dome, steam generator rooms, annulus and adjacent areas was designed and the adequacy of this system has been confirmed through detailed analyses including sensitivity analyses with/without operations of safety systems such as containment heat removal systems, reactor coolant depressurization system and safety injection by accumulator, etc. Through the assessment on the possibility of global FA and DDT, it has been concluded that new PAR system with twenty-four recombiners can remove hydrogen effectively in the containment atmosphere and prevent from global FA and DDT. Further works are required in the future to develop a well-balanced analysis methodology with a combination of lumped and CFD tools focusing on the optimum locations of recombiners and local hydrogen behaviour in containment compartments.

  7. Nanofibrillar cellulose-alginate hydrogel coated surgical sutures as cell-carrier systems (United States)

    Somersalo, Petter; Pitkänen, Irina; Lou, Yan-Ru; Urtti, Arto; Partanen, Jouni; Seppälä, Jukka; Madetoja, Mari; Laaksonen, Timo; Mäkitie, Antti; Yliperttula, Marjo


    Hydrogel nanomaterials, especially those that are of non-human and non-animal origins, have great potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences due to their versatility and inherent soft-tissue like properties. With the ability to simulate native tissue function, hydrogels are potentially well suited for cellular therapy applications. In this study, we have fabricated nanofibrillar cellulose-alginate (NFCA) suture coatings as biomedical devices to help overcome some of the limitations related to cellular therapy, such as low cell survivability and distribution out of target tissue. The addition of sodium alginate 8% (w/v) increased the NFCA hydrogel viscosity, storage and loss moduli by slightly under one order of magnitude, thus contributing significantly to coating strength. Confocal microscopy showed nearly 100% cell viability throughout the 2-week incubation period within and on the surface of the coating. Additionally, typical morphologies in the dual cell culture of spheroid forming HepG2 and monolayer type SK-HEP-1 were observed. Twelve out of 14 NFCA coated surgical sutures remained intact during the suturing operation with various mice and rat tissue; however, partial peeling off was observed in 2 of the coated sutures. We conclude that NFCA suture coatings could perform as cell-carrier systems for cellular based therapy and post-surgical treatment. PMID:28829830

  8. Binary systems of Brij® surfactants with Pluronic® F127 as griseofulvin carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethanielda de L. Coelho

    Full Text Available The binary mixtures of Brij® surfactant and Pluronic® F127 were studied as carriers of griseofulvin. The F127 systems and Brij® 78 (C18H37E20, Brij® 98 (C18H35E20 and Brij® 700 (C18H37E100 were prepared in the proportions 10/90, 30/70, 50/50 and 70/30, respectively. The characterizations were carried out by tube inversion, rheology, particle size, and theoretical cmcs. The griseofulvin solubilization tests were performed at 25 and 37 ºC in micellar solutions of 1 wt. % and quantified by UV/Vis. According to the rheological data, the presence of F127 make the F127/Brij 78 70/30 and F127/Brij 98 70/30 mixtures thermoresponsive at concentrations of 30 and 35 wt.%, with transition fluid/gel in the range of 28-30 ºC, ideal for topical use. All of the F127 / Brij 700 mixtures showed moderate distribution polydisperse (PDI 0.4. The optimal mixing for oral application would be of F127/Brij 78 because it exhibits greater solubilizing capacity (Scp of griseofulvin at temperatures of 25 to 37 ºC when compared to F127 alone.

  9. A Novel Power-Saving Transmission Scheme for Multiple-Component-Carrier Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Liang Chung


    Full Text Available As mobile data traffic levels have increased exponentially, resulting in rising energy costs in recent years, the demand for and development of green communication technologies has resulted in various energy-saving designs for cellular systems. At the same time, recent technological advances have allowed multiple component carriers (CCs to be simultaneously utilized in a base station (BS, a development that has made the energy consumption of BSs a matter of increasing concern. To help address this concern, herein we propose a novel scheme aimed at efficiently minimizing the power consumption of BS transceivers during transmission, while still ensuring good service quality and fairness for users. Specifically, the scheme utilizes the dynamic activation/deactivation of CCs during data transmission to increase power usage efficiency. To test its effectiveness, the proposed scheme was applied to a model consisting of a BS with orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based CCs in a downlink transmission environment. The results indicated that, given periods of relatively light traffic loads, the total power consumption of the proposed scheme is significantly lower than that of schemes in which all the CCs of a BS are constantly activated, suggesting the scheme’s potential for reducing both energy costs and carbon dioxide emissions.

  10. Preparation and characterization of textile-based carrier systems for anal fissure treatment. (United States)

    Sarıışık, A M; Karavana, S Y; Türkoğlu, G C; Rençber, S; Önder, T


    Anal fissure is common and painful disease of anorectum. In this study, microparticles containing nifedipine and lidocaine HCl were prepared by spray drying and applied to bio-degradable and bio-stable tampons. Characterization of microparticles was determined by visual analyses, mass yield, particle size measurement, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release. Mass yield was between 5.5 and 45.9%. The particle size was between 15.1 and 26.8 µm. Encapsulation efficiency were 96.142 ± 5.931 and 85.571 ± 3.301; drug loading were 65.261 ± 3.914% and 37.844 ± 4.339% of L2 and N1, respectively. Well-separated, mainly spherical microparticles with suitable properties were obtained. Optimum microparticles were applied to tampons. Physical properties and visual characteristics of tampons were investigated before and after binder application. In vitro drug release from tampons were also examined. According to the results, textile-based carrier systems loaded microparticles containing nifedipine and lidocaine HCl will be an effective and promising alternative for current anal fissure treatment.

  11. Blind Estimation of the Phase and Carrier Frequency Offsets for LDPC-Coded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcke Sebastien


    Full Text Available Abstract We consider in this paper the problem of phase offset and Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO estimation for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC coded systems. We propose new blind estimation techniques based on the calculation and minimization of functions of the Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLR of the syndrome elements obtained according to the parity check matrix of the error-correcting code. In the first part of this paper, we consider phase offset estimation for a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK modulation and propose a novel estimation technique. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very effective and outperforms many existing algorithms. Then, we modify the estimation criterion so that it can work for higher-order modulations. One interesting feature of the proposed algorithm when applied to high-order modulations is that the phase offset of the channel can be blindly estimated without any ambiguity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the problem of CFO estimation and propose estimation techniques that are based on the same concept as the ones presented for the phase offset estimation. The Mean Squared Error (MSE and Bit Error Rate (BER curves show the efficiency of the proposed estimation techniques.

  12. Hydrogen production with CO 2 capture by coupling steam reforming of methane and chemical-looping combustion: Use of an iron-based waste product as oxygen carrier burning a PSA tail gas (United States)

    Ortiz, María; Gayán, Pilar; de Diego, Luis F.; García-Labiano, Francisco; Abad, Alberto; Pans, Miguel A.; Adánez, Juan

    In this work it is analyzed the performance of an iron waste material as oxygen carrier for a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. CLC is a novel combustion technology with the benefit of inherent CO 2 separation that can be used as a source of energy for the methane steam reforming process (SR). The tail gas from the PSA unit is used as fuel in the CLC system. The oxygen carrier behaviour with respect to gas combustion was evaluated in a continuous 500 W th CLC prototype using a simulated PSA off-gas stream as fuel. Methane or syngas as fuel were also studied for comparison purposes. The oxygen carrier showed enough high oxygen transport capacity and reactivity to fully convert syngas at 880 °C. However, lower conversion of the fuel was observed with methane containing fuels. An estimated solids inventory of 1600 kg MW th -1 would be necessary to fully convert the PSA off-gas to CO 2 and H 2O. An important positive effect of the oxygen carrier-to-fuel ratio up to 1.5 and the reactor temperature on the combustion efficiency was found. A characterization of the calcined and after-used particles was carried out showing that this iron-based material can be used as oxygen carrier in a CLC plant since particles maintain their properties (reactivity, no agglomeration, high durability, etc.) after more than 111 h of continuous operation.

  13. Slurry-Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Semelsberger, Troy; Simmons, Kevin L.; Van Hassel, Bart A.


    In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80 kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE developed set of system level targets for on-board storage. While most of the DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry is majority of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance of plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.

  14. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC


    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  15. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael


    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  16. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael


    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  17. A structured and qualitative systems approach to analysing hydrogen transitions: Key changes and actor mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh, Michael J.; Yetano Roche, Maria [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (IDMEC), Pav. De Mecanica 1-2, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bennett, Simon J. [Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology (ICCEPT), Imperial College London, Fourth Floor RSM Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)


    A number of 'roadmapping' activities are being carried out internationally with the aim of planning and facilitating transitions to hydrogen energy systems. However, there is an evident discrepancy between the treatment of quantitative and qualitative information in the majority of roadmapping efforts. Whilst quantitative information is frequently analysed in numerical and computational models, conversely qualitative information tends to be incorporated on a significantly more ad hoc basis. Previous attempts at incorporating qualitative considerations have not usually been systematised. In this paper we present a methodology aimed at increasing the rigour with which qualitative information is treated in hydrogen roadmapping activities. The key changes and actor mapping (KCAM) methodology was developed as the primary qualitative component of the European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap project 'HyWays'. KCAM, developed from a well known general systems development model, constitutes a means of qualitatively analysing variable hydrogen supply chains that is structured, systematic and flexible. (author)

  18. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage. (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter


    An integration of CO2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Feasibility of high-speed power line carrier system to Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines; Teiatsu haidensen hanso no kosokuka no kanosei (hanso sningo denpa purogram no kanosei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Takeshita, K.; Ishino, R.


    The high-speed distribution line carrier systems on underground distribution lines are being developed in Germany. To estimate these systems on Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines, the Carrier Propagation Program has been developed and applicability of OFDM system was roughly estimated. 1. Carrier Propagation Program Carrier Propagation Program that calculates the carrier propagation characteristics of any line structure was developed. 2. Carrier propagation characteristics Carrier propagation characteristics on typical Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines were calculated 3.Rough estimation of OFDM system Electric fields caused by carrier at near point were calculated on the basis on carrier propagation characteristics. Results of rough estimation are as follows: - Electric field caused by carrier of more than 2Mbps system exceeds the value of the regulation. (author)

  20. Hydrogen sulphide in cardiovascular system: A cascade from interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules. (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Jie; Cai, Wen-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Chun


    As a gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulphide exerts its extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects in mammals. The interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules forms a cascade that modulates cellular functions and homeostasis. In this review, we focus on the signalling mechanism underlying the effect of hydrogen sulphide in the cardiovascular system and metabolism as well as the biological relevance to human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage (United States)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.


    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  2. Preparation of open porous polycaprolactone microspheres and their applications as effective cell carriers in hydrogel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingchun [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Tan, Ke; Ye, Zhaoyang [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 China (China); Zhang, Yan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Tan, Wensong [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 China (China); Lang, Meidong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)


    Common hydrogel, composed of synthetic polymers or natural polysaccharides could not support the adhesion of anchorage-dependent cells due to the lack of cell affinitive interface and high cell constraint. The use of porous polyester microspheres as cell-carriers and introduction of cell-loaded microspheres into the hydrogel system might overcome the problem. However, the preparation of the open porous microsphere especially using polycaprolactone (PCL) has been rarely reported. Here, the open porous PCL microspheres were fabricated via the combined emulsion/solvent evaporation and particle leaching method. The microspheres exhibited porous surface and inter-connective pore structure. Additionally, the pore structure could be easily controlled by adjusting the processing parameters. The surface pore size could be altered from 20 {mu}m to 80 {mu}m and the internal porosities were varied from 30% to 70%. The obtained microspheres were evaluated to delivery mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed the improved cell adhesion and growth when compared with the non-porous microspheres. Then, the MSCs loaded microspheres were introduced into agarose hydrogel. MSCs remained alive and sustained proliferation in microsphere/agarose composite in 5-day incubation while a decrement of MSCs viabilities was found in agarose hydrogel without microspheres. The results indicated that the microsphere/hydrogel composite had a great potential in cell therapy and injectable system for tissue regeneration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The open porous polycaprolactone microspheres were fabricated using paraffin as a porogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microspheres exhibited porous surface and inter-connective pore structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and internal pore size and porosity of microsphere could be controlled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porous microspheres exhibited an improved cell adhesion and proliferation. Black

  3. Silk fibroin based carrier system for delivery of fibrinogen and thrombin as coagulant supplements. (United States)

    Teuschl, Andreas H; Zipperle, Johannes; Huber-Gries, Carina; Kaplan, David L


    The control of bleeding is one of the most important interventions after a traumatic injury. Hemostatic devices delivering blood clotting accelerating agents such as fibrinogen are increasingly used due to their efficacy and their ease of application. In the present study, we describe a method to incorporate the coagulant supplements fibrinogen and thrombin in silk protein sponges by mixing the coagulants with an aqueous silk solution, followed by molding, freeze-drying, and water annealing. In this combination system, we demonstrate the delivery of fibrinogen while maintaining its hemostatic potential. Concentration ratios of silk to fibrinogen of 1.0%/2.8%, 2.3%/1.5%, and 3.0%/0.8% were used. The thrombin-induced fibrin polymeric network filled the space in and next to the silk spongy structure but also remained interconnected to the silk, providing an intact network. The mechanical characterization of the fibrinogen-releasing silk sponges before and after the induction of the fibrinogen polymerization demonstrated that the fibrin network resulted in reduced permanent deformation from 21.1% to 6.5%, 19.6% to 5.7%, and 12.7% to 9.4% for the 2.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% fibrinogen-containing silk sponges, respectively. Moreover, the fibrin formation lead to a more linear elastic behavior over longer strain ranges. In combination, the Calcein-AM/PI staining and MTT assay results indicate uniform cell adhesion on the surface and cytocompatibility of the silk/fibrin sponges, respectively. Moreover, the co-delivery of thrombin with fibrinogen via silk as carrier material is described, offering a more mechanically robust and durable system while preserving hemostatic features of the coagulant substances for the generation of hemostatic devices. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 687-696, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH{sub 4}-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.H. [Department of Materials and Engineering, Zhejiang University (China); Li, Z.P.; Chen, L.L. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH{sub 4} gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH{sub 4} concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl{sub 2} catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH{sub 4} gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution. The NaBH{sub 4} gel also successfully powered a NaBH{sub 4}-air battery. (author)

  5. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH 4-air battery (United States)

    Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.; Chen, L. L.

    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH 4 gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH 4 concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl 2 catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH 4 gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH 4 solution. The NaBH 4 gel also successfully powered a NaBH 4-air battery.

  6. OH stretching frequencies in systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens; Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Hansen, Poul Erik


    OH stretching wavenumbers were investigated for 30 species with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded hydroxyl groups, covering the range from 3600 to ca. 1900 cm-1. Theoretical wavenumbers were predicted with B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional theory using the standard harmonic approximation, as well....... This is significant in view of the fact that the full anharmonic PT2 analysis requires orders-of-magnitude more computing time than the harmonic analysis. νOH also correlates with OH chemical shifts....

  7. Tethered Transition Metals Promoted Photocatalytic System for Efficient Hydrogen Evolutions

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    The present invention is directed, at least in part, to a process for improving the efficiency of a photocatalyst (a semiconductor photocatalyst) by tethering (depositing) a metal (e.g., metal ions of a late transition metal, such as nickel) to the semiconductor (photocatalyst) surface through the use of an organic ligand. More specifically, 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) functions as an excellent molecular linker (organic ligand) to attach a transition metal complex (e.g., nickel (Ni.sup.2+ ions)) to the semiconductor surface, which can be in the form of a cadmium sulfide surface. The photocatalyst has particular utility in generating hydrogen from H.sub.2S.

  8. Separation of gaseous hydrogen from a water-hydrogen mixture in a fuel cell power system operating in a weightless environment (United States)

    Romanowski, William E. (Inventor); Suljak, George T. (Inventor)


    A fuel cell power system for use in a weightless environment, such as in space, includes a device for removing water from a water-hydrogen mixture condensed from the exhaust from the fuel cell power section of the system. Water is removed from the mixture in a centrifugal separator, and is fed into a holding, pressure operated water discharge valve via a Pitot tube. Entrained nondissolved hydrogen is removed from the Pitot tube by a bleed orifice in the Pitot tube before the water reaches the water discharge valve. Water discharged from the valve thus has a substantially reduced hydrogen content.

  9. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.


    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  10. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P. Y.

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality

  11. Control analysis of renewable energy system with hydrogen storage for residential applications (United States)

    Bilodeau, A.; Agbossou, K.

    The combination of an electrolyzer and a fuel cell can provide peak power control in a decentralized/distributed power system. The electrolyzer produces hydrogen and oxygen from off-peak electricity generated by the renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic array), for later use in the fuel cell to produce on-peak electricity. An issue related to this system is the control of the hydrogen loop (electrolyzer, tank, fuel cell). A number of control algorithms were developed to decide when to produce hydrogen and when to convert it back to electricity, most of them assuming that the electrolyzer and the fuel cell run alternatively to provide nominal power (full power). This paper presents a complete model of a stand-alone renewable energy system with hydrogen storage controlled by a dynamic fuzzy logic controller (FLC). In this system, batteries are used as energy buffers and for short time storage. To study the behavior of such a system, a complete model is developed by integrating the individual sub-models of the fuel cell, the electrolyzer, the power conditioning units, the hydrogen storage system, and the batteries. An analysis of the performances of the dynamic fuzzy logic controller is then presented. This model is useful for building efficient peak power control.

  12. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.


    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Single Carrier Cyclic Prefix-Assisted CDMA System with Frequency Domain Equalization for High Data Rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Francois


    Full Text Available Multiple-access interference and interfinger interference limit the capacity of conventional single-carrier DS-CDMA systems. Even though multicarrier CDMA posses the advantages of conventional CDMA and OFDM, it suffers from two major implementation difficulties such as peak-to-average power ratio and high sensitivity to frequency offset and RF phase noise. A novel approach based on single-carrier cyclic prefix-assisted CDMA has been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of single-carrier CDMA and multicarrier modulation. The usefulness of the proposed approach for high-speed packet access with simplified channel estimation procedures are investigated in this paper. The paper also proposes a data-dependent pilot structure for the downlink transmission of the proposed system for enhancing pilot-assisted channel estimation in frequency domain. The performance of the proposed pilot structure is compared against the data-independent common pilot structure. The proposed system is extensively simulated for different channel parameters with different channel estimation and equalization methods and the results are compared against conventional multicarrier CDMA systems with identical system specifications.

  14. Hydrogen production from biopolymers by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and stabilization of the system by immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Galina [Department of Biotechnology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Rakhely, Gabor; Kovacs, Kornel L. [Department of Biotechnology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary)


    The biopolymers agarose and alginic acid, and hemicellulose-rich pine tree wood shavings, frequently discarded as waste, proved to be utilized as energy sources for hydrogen production by the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. The addition of 0.5% (w/v) pine wood shavings to the growth medium yielded a 14-fold increase in hydrogen production over a period of 55 days relative to cultures grown in the same medium without wood shavings (average rate was about 0.45 ml H{sub 2} ml culture{sup -1} day{sup -1}). The shavings were also shown to be degraded by C. saccharolyticus in the absence of any other carbohydrate source. A study on storage of the cells at 42 C in the presence of either agarose or alginic acid cultures immobilized on granulated activated carbon, wood shavings or perlite revealed that the immobilization improved both the storability and hydrogen evolving capacity of the cells. From these carriers the soft wood shavings showed the best performance. The relevance of these findings for biohydrogen production is discussed. (author)

  15. Lateral carrier diffusion in InGaAs/GaAs coupled quantum dot-quantum well system (United States)

    Pieczarka, M.; Syperek, M.; Biegańska, D.; Gilfert, C.; Pavelescu, E. M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Misiewicz, J.; Sek, G.


    The lateral carrier diffusion process is investigated in coupled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot-quantum well (QD-QW) structures by means of spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy at low temperature. Under non-resonant photo-excitation above the GaAs bandgap, the lateral carrier transport reflected in the distorted electron-hole pair emission profiles is found to be mainly governed by high energy carriers created within the 3D density of states of GaAs. In contrast, for the case of resonant excitation tuned to the QW-like ground state of the QD-QW system, the emission profiles remain unaffected by the excess kinetic energy of carriers and local phonon heating within the pump spot. The lateral diffusion lengths are determined and present certain dependency on the coupling strength between QW and QDs. While for a strongly coupled structure the diffusion length is found to be around 0.8 μm and monotonically increases up to 1.4 μm with the excitation power density, in weakly coupled structures, it is determined to ca. 1.6 μm and remained virtually independent of the pumping power density.

  16. Gas-Phase Reaction Pathways and Rate Coefficients for the Dichlorosilane-Hydrogen and Trichlorosilane-Hydrogen Systems (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Walch, Stephen P.


    As part of NASA Ames Research Center's Integrated Process Team on Device/Process Modeling and Nanotechnology our goal is to create/contribute to a gas-phase chemical database for use in modeling microelectronics devices. In particular, we use ab initio methods to determine chemical reaction pathways and to evaluate reaction rate coefficients. Our initial studies concern reactions involved in the dichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H2--H2) and trichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H-H2) systems. Reactant, saddle point (transition state), and product geometries and their vibrational harmonic frequencies are determined using the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) electronic structure method with the correlation consistent polarized valence double-zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ). Reaction pathways are constructed by following the imaginary frequency mode of the saddle point to both the reactant and product. Accurate energetics are determined using the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Using the data from the electronic structure calculations, reaction rate coefficients are obtained using conventional and variational transition state and RRKM theories.

  17. Materials for hydrogen storage and the Na-Mg-B-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphiny Pottmaier


    Full Text Available This review on materials for hydrogen storage in the solid state gives a brief discussion underlying reasons and driving forces of this specific field of research and development (the why question. This scenario is followed by an outline of the main materials investigated as options for hydrogen storage (the what exactly. Then, it moves into breakthroughs in the specific case of solid state storage of hydrogen, regarding both materials (where to store it and properties (how it works. Finally, one of early model systems, namely NaBH4/MgH2 (the case study, is discussed more comprehensively to better elucidate some of the issues and drawbacks of its use in solid state hydrogen storage.

  18. Carrier-envelope-phase stable, high-contrast, double chirped-pulse-amplification laser system. (United States)

    Jullien, Aurélie; Ricci, Aurélien; Böhle, Frederik; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Grabielle, Stéphanie; Forget, Nicolas; Jacqmin, Hermance; Mercier, Brigitte; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo


    We present the first carrier-envelope-phase stable chirped-pulse amplifier (CPA) featuring high temporal contrast for relativistic intensity laser-plasma interactions at 1 kHz repetition rate. The laser is based on a double-CPA architecture including cross-polarized wave (XPW) filtering technique and a high-energy grism-based compressor. The 8 mJ, 22 fs pulses feature 10⁻¹¹ temporal contrast at -20  ps and a carrier-envelope-phase drift of 240 mrad root mean square.

  19. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua


    , electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates......In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines...

  20. Hydrogen Purification and Recycling for an Integrated Oxygen Recovery System Architecture (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Wall, Terry; Nur, Mononita; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Preston, Joshua; Molter, Trent


    The United States Atmosphere Revitalization life support system on the International Space Station (ISS) performs several services for the crew including oxygen generation, trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, and oxygen recovery. Oxygen recovery is performed using a Sabatier reactor developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, wherein CO2 is reduced with hydrogen in a catalytic reactor to produce methane and water. The water product is purified in the Water Purification Assembly and recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) to provide O2 to the crew. This architecture results in a theoretical maximum oxygen recovery from CO2 of approx.54% due to the loss of reactant hydrogen in Sabatier-produced methane that is currently vented outside of ISS. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) technology, developed by Umpqua Research Company, provides the capability to further close the Atmosphere Revitalization oxygen loop by recovering hydrogen from Sabatier-produced methane. A key aspect of this technology approach is the need to purify the hydrogen from the PPA product stream which includes acetylene, unreacted methane and byproduct water and carbon monoxide. In 2015, four sub-scale hydrogen separation systems were delivered to NASA for evaluation. These included two electrolysis single-cell hydrogen purification cell stacks developed by Sustainable Innovations, LLC, a sorbent-based hydrogen purification unit using microwave power for sorbent regeneration developed by Umpqua Research Company, and a LaNi4.6Sn0.4 metal hydride produced by Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. Here we report the results of these evaluations to-date, discuss potential architecture options, and propose future work.

  1. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system. (United States)

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan


    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  2. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik


    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  3. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction. (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R


    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  4. Close-form expression of one-tap normalized LMS carrier phase recovery in optical communication systems (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo


    The performance of long-haul high speed coherent optical fiber communication systems is significantly degraded by the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). In this paper, the analysis of the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) carrier phase recovery (CPR) is carried out and the close-form expression is investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical fiber communication systems, in compensating both laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise. Numerical simulations have also been implemented to verify the theoretical analysis. It is found that the one-tap normalized least-mean-square algorithm gives the same analytical expression for predicting CPR bit-error-rate (BER) floors as the traditional differential carrier phase recovery, when both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise are taken into account.

  5. Hydrogen Energy by Means of Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    If we dare to take serious what we know today about climate issues the challenges to our energy systems are immense. If we really chose - also in practice - to phase out the fossil fuels major changes to the way we handle energy are required. The renewable energy resources are by far sufficient......, but matching supply and demand in time as well as in form calls for new engineering solutions. Hydrogen as energy carrier and energy storage medium has often been mentioned as an option for the future. A protons is an elementary particles, but at the same time the ion of hydrogen. When hydrogen (H2......) is extracted from water (H2O) it can happen via formation of protons (hydrogen ions, H+) which must be transported away by proton conducting materials to form molecular hydrogen (H2). This process is called electrolysis and converts electrical energy into the chemical energy of a fuel. The reverse process...

  6. A Feasibility Study of A Persistent Monitoring System For The Flight Deck of U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers (United States)


    Greyhound , present a significant hazard to personnel on the flight deck. When turning, the propeller blades are virtually invisible. Also, with corporation on the flight deck is currently being actively pursued by many programs. 36 The Unmanned Combat Aircraft System - Carrier...geology [47], and atmospheric study [18]. The construction of receivers is the domain of corporations and businesses. Ma- jor manufacturers design and

  7. High-efficient nano-carrier gel systems for testosterone propionate skin delivery. (United States)

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Guo, Jing; Li, Miao; Li, Jianxin


    The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate the skin delivery potential of the different nano-carrier gels including liposomal gel, ethosomal gel and microemulsion gel bearing testosterone propionate (TP) as a testosterone deficient therapy. The prepared nano-particles were characterized for their shape, particle size distribution and zeta potential. In vitro skin permeation and in vivo transdermal delivery of nano-carrier gels were studied with the Franz diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all of nano-particles were almost spherical with low polydispersity and nano-metric size range from 40 to 200 nm. TP ethosomal gel also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 7.64 ± 1.4 μg/cm(2)/h and a decreased lag time of 0.69 h across rat skin as compared with the other two formulations. The skin penetration efficiency of TP nano-carrier gels also revealed that TP ethosomal gel would enhanced penetration of rhodamine red (RR)-loaded formulation to the deeper layers of the skin (268 µm) than the liposomal gel (192 µm) and microemulsion gel (228 µm). This study demonstrated TP ethosomal gel is a promising nano-carrier for delivering TP through the skin.

  8. 75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems (United States)


    ... may allow vehicle operators to remove mufflers and still meet the Federal inspection requirements if... are operated by interstate motor carriers to be ``* * * equipped with a muffler or other noise... ``* * * equipped with either a muffler or other noise dissipative device, such as a turbocharger (supercharger...

  9. Plasmonic hot carrier dynamics in solid-state and chemical systems for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narang Prineha


    Full Text Available Surface plasmons provide a pathway to efficiently absorb and confine light in metallic nanostructures, thereby bridging photonics to the nano scale. The decay of surface plasmons generates energetic ‘hot’ carriers, which can drive chemical reactions or be injected into semiconductors for nano-scale photochemical or photovoltaic energy conversion. Novel plasmonic hot carrier devices and architectures continue to be demonstrated, but the complexity of the underlying processes make a complete microscopic understanding of all the mechanisms and design considerations for such devices extremely challenging.Here,we review the theoretical and computational efforts to understand and model plasmonic hot carrier devices.We split the problem into three steps: hot carrier generation, transport and collection, and review theoretical approaches with the appropriate level of detail for each step along with their predictions.We identify the key advances necessary to complete the microscopic mechanistic picture and facilitate the design of the next generation of devices and materials for plasmonic energy conversion.

  10. Enhanced solubility of piperine using hydrophilic carrier-based potent solid dispersion systems. (United States)

    Thenmozhi, Kathavarayan; Yoo, Young Je


    Piperine alkaloid, an important constituent of black pepper, exhibits numerous therapeutic properties, whereas its usage as a drug is limited due to its poor solubility in aqueous medium, which leads to poor bioavailability. Herein, a new method has been developed to improve the solubility of this drug based on the development of solid dispersions with improved dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers such as sorbitol (Sor), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP) by solvent method. Physical mixtures of piperine and carriers were also prepared for comparison. The physicochemical properties of the prepared solid dispersions were examined using SEM, TEM, DSC, XRD and FT-IR. In vitro dissolution profile of the solid dispersions was recorded and compared with that of the pure piperine and physical mixtures. The effect of these carriers on the aqueous solubility of piperine has been investigated. The solid dispersions of piperine with Sor, PEG and PVP exhibited superior performance for the dissolution of piperine with a drug release of 70%, 76% and 89%, respectively after 2 h compared to physical mixtures and pure piperine, which could be due to its transformation from crystalline to amorphous form as well as the attachment of hydrophilic carriers to the surface of poorly water-soluble piperine. Results suggest that the piperine solid dispersions prepared with improved in vitro release exhibit potential advantage in delivering poorly water-soluble piperine as an oral supplement.

  11. Continuous hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage cheese whey fermentation system. (United States)

    Cota-Navarro, C B; Carrillo-Reyes, J; Davila-Vazquez, G; Alatriste-Mondragón, F; Razo-Flores, E


    The feasibility of integrating biological hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage process using mixed cultures and cheese whey powder (CWP) as substrate was studied. The effect of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on the volumetric hydrogen (VHPR) and methane (VMPR) production rates was assessed. The highest VHPR was 28 L H2/L/d, obtained during stable operation in a CSTR at HRT and OLR of 6 h and 142 g lactose/ L/d, respectively. Moreover, hydrogen (13 L/L/d) was produced even at HRT as low as 3.5 h and OLR of 163 g lactose/L/d, nonetheless, the reactor operation was not stable. Regarding methane production in an UASB reactor, the acidified effluent from the hydrogen-producing bioreactor was efficiently treated obtaining COD removals above 90% at OLR and HRT of 20 g COD/L/d and 6 h, respectively. The two-stage process for continuous production of hydrogen and methane recovered over 70% of the energy present in the substrate. This study demonstrated that hydrogen production can be efficiently coupled to methane production in a two-stage system and that CWP is an adequate substrate for energy production.

  12. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.


    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  13. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen


    ) porosity test. The performance of the prepared materials was first evaluated in a TGA reactor through a CO reduction and subsequent steam oxidation process. Then a complete redox process was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor, where the NiFe2O4 oxygen carrier was first reduced by simulated biomass pyrolysis...... with the characterization results. Furthermore, compared to individual nickel ferrite particles, the mixture of NiFe2O4 and SiO2 presented remarkably higher stability during 20 cycles in the fixed-bed reactor. The structural and morphological stability of samples after reactions was also examined by XRD, XPS, and SEM...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B


    It is recognized that detailed models of proposed hydrogen storage systems are essential to gain insight into the complex processes occurring during the charging and discharging processes. Such insight is an invaluable asset for both assessing the viability of a particular system and/or for improving its design. The detailed models, however, require time to develop and run. Clearly, it is much more efficient to begin a modeling effort with a good system design and to progress from that point. To facilitate this approach, it is useful to have simplified models that can quickly estimate optimal loading and discharge kinetics, effective hydrogen capacities, system dimensions and heat removal requirements. Parameters obtained from these models can then be input to the detailed models to obtain an accurate assessment of system performance that includes more complete integration of the physical processes. This report describes three scoping models that assess preliminary system design prior to invoking a more detailed finite element analysis. The three models address the kinetics, the scaling and heat removal parameters of the system, respectively. The kinetics model is used to evaluate the effect of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the loading and discharge kinetics. As part of the kinetics calculations, the model also determines the mass of stored hydrogen per mass of hydride (in a particular reference form). As such, the model can determine the optimal loading and discharge rates for a particular hydride and the maximum achievable loading (over an infinite period of time). The kinetics model developed with the Mathcad{reg_sign} solver, runs in a mater of seconds and can quickly be used to identify the optimal temperature and pressure for either the loading or discharge processes. The geometry scoping model is used to calculate the size of the system, the optimal placement of heat transfer elements, and the gravimetric and volumetric capacities for a particular

  15. A Theoretical Study of two Novel Concept Systems for Maximum Thermal-Chemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Chung


    Full Text Available Two concept systems that are based on the thermochemical process of high-temperature steam gasification of lignocellulosic biomass and municipal solid waste are introduced. The primary objectives of the concept systems are 1 to develop the best scientific, engineering, and technology solutions for converting lignocellulosic biomass, as well as agricultural, forest and municipal waste to clean energy (pure hydrogen fuel, and 2 to minimize water consumption and detrimental impacts of energy production on the environment (air pollution and global warming. The production of superheated steam is by hydrogen combustion using recycled hydrogen produced in the first concept system while in the second concept system concentrated solar energy is used for the steam production. A membrane reactor that performs the hydrogen separation and water gas shift reaction is involved in both systems for producing more pure hydrogen and CO2 sequestration. Based on obtaining the maximum hydrogen production rate the hydrogen recycled ratio is around 20% for the hydrogen combustion steam heating system. Combined with pure hydrogen production, both high temperature steam gasification systems potentially possess more than 80% in first law overall system thermodynamic efficiencies.

  16. Electrical system for pulse-width modulated control of a power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods (United States)

    Welchko, Brian A [Torrance, CA


    Systems and methods are provided for pulse-width modulated control of power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals. An electrical system comprises an energy source and a motor. The motor has a first set of windings and a second set of windings, which are electrically isolated from each other. An inverter module is coupled between the energy source and the motor and comprises a first set of phase legs coupled to the first set of windings and a second set of phase legs coupled to the second set of windings. A controller is coupled to the inverter module and is configured to achieve a desired power flow between the energy source and the motor by modulating the first set of phase legs using a first carrier signal and modulating the second set of phase legs using a second carrier signal. The second carrier signal is phase-shifted relative to the first carrier signal.

  17. Economic Efficiency Assessment of Autonomous Wind/Diesel/Hydrogen Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Marchenko


    Full Text Available The economic efficiency of harnessing wind energy in the autonomous power systems of Russia is analyzed. Wind turbines are shown to be competitive for many considered variants (groups of consumers, placement areas, and climatic and meteorological conditions. The authors study the possibility of storing energy in the form of hydrogen in the autonomous wind/diesel/hydrogen power systems that include wind turbines, diesel generator, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank, and fuel cells. The paper presents the zones of economic efficiency of the system (set of parameters that provide its competitiveness depending on load, fuel price, and long-term average annual wind speed. At low wind speed and low price of fuel, it is reasonable to use only diesel generator to supply power to consumers. When the fuel price and wind speed increase, first it becomes more economical to use a wind-diesel system and then wind turbines with a hydrogen system. In the latter case, according to the optimization results, diesel generator is excluded from the system.

  18. Conceptual design of an extraction system for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Bornea, A.; Balteanu, O.; Bidica, N.


    One of the main problems of the hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation is represented by the extraction of the heavy fraction from a distillation column. This can be achieved by an optimal design of the cycle scheme. The main problem consist of the possibility to make an extraction from a distillation column when the mixture that feed the column is made from one prevalent isotope as hydrogen and small amounts of other two isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). Another problem that affects the design of the extraction system is the relation between the hold-up of the cryogenic distillation column and the extraction flow rate. The present study is focused on the realization of the conceptual design for the extraction system from a cryogenic distillation column used in the hydrogen isotopes separation process. In the hydrogen distillation process by cryogenic distillation, the heavy fraction (DT,T{sub 2}) is separated and increase in the bottom of the distillation column. The extraction will be made in gas phase in the bottom of the column. The extraction system from a cryogenic column is used for the temporary extraction inside a vessel filled with adsorption material, and also the system has the possibility to provide samples to a gas chromatographer. The paper presents the conceptual design of the extraction system, and also the connection to all the process systems as automatization, gas analysis devices and storage. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogen as aviation fuel: a comparison with hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. [UNED Ciudad Universitaria, Quimica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Dept., Madrid (Spain); Yigit, S.; Ozay, K.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States)


    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental considerations have led engineers and scientists to anticipate the need to develop a clean, renewable and sustainable energy system. In general, they agree that in such a system hydrogen will be used as an energy carrier. One of the areas in which hydrogen will be replacing fossil fuels is air transportation, an area that has been under research for several decades. Hydrogen as an energy carrier for use in airplanes has some unique attributes like global availability, safety, minimum pollution and light weight, making it an ideal fuel. This paper briefly reviews hydrogen as a fuel in aviation, compares it with other aviation fuels, and discusses the possible future developments and the goals in this field. (Author)

  20. Study of degenerate parabolic system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a nuclear waste repository

    KAUST Repository

    Caro, Florian


    Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.

  1. Effect of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of lactoperoxidase system (LP-system) in temporary preservation of raw milk has been found useful particularly in places where refrigeration is not feasible. The activity of this system, however, varies from species to species and there are no reports on its effect in camel milk. This study was conducted to investigate ...

  2. Sputtered Pd as Hydrogen Storage for a Chip-Integrated Microenergy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Slavcheva


    Full Text Available The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AMF. The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis and discharging (fuel cell operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  3. Sputtered Pd as hydrogen storage for a chip-integrated microenergy system. (United States)

    Slavcheva, E; Ganske, G; Schnakenberg, U


    The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AMF). The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis) and discharging (fuel cell) operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  4. The Assessment of Hydrogen Energy Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis


    Ren, Jing-Zheng; Tan, Shi-yu; Dong, Li-chun


    Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation and analysis of the hydrogen systems is meaningful for decision makers to select the best scenario. principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to evaluate the integrated performance of different hydroge...

  5. 3DEEM spectroscopy analysis to assess the EPS composition in different carriers in HMBR systems. (United States)

    Sun, Meixiang; Wu, Man; Liu, Wen; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Yezhong; Dai, Jie


    A hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) with biological band carriers (Reactor A) and an HMBR with suspended honeycomb carriers (Reactor B) were conducted in parallel to investigate the effects of different carriers on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Composition and concentration of EPS were examined by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). 3DEEM spectra demonstrated that the main organic substances of the EPS in two reactors were protein-like, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances. The fluorescence intensity (FI) indicated that the protein-like composition was dominant in EPS, and its intensity in reactor B was stronger than that in A (392.94 > 250.25). Results of the FI identified from the 3DEEM by PARAFAC showed that the EPS in two reactors included two humic acid-like compositions C1 (230, 320/406 nm), C2 (250, 360/440 nm) and one protein-like C4 (230, 280/340 nm), while C3 was fulvic acid-like (220/429 nm) and protein-like (230/357 nm) in reactor A and B, respectively. The proportion and FI of protein-like substances in reactor B were higher than that in A. Consequently, it was concluded that reactor A could control the membrane fouling effectively, compared with reactor B.

  6. Model for energy conversion in renewable energy system with hydrogen storage (United States)

    Kélouwani, S.; Agbossou, K.; Chahine, R.

    A dynamic model for a stand-alone renewable energy system with hydrogen storage (RESHS) is developed. In this system, surplus energy available from a photovoltaic array and a wind turbine generator is stored in the form of hydrogen, produced via an electrolyzer. When the energy production from the wind turbine and the photovoltaic array is not enough to meet the load demand, the stored hydrogen can then be converted by a fuel cell to produce electricity. In this system, batteries are used as energy buffers or for short time storage. To study the behavior of such a system, a complete model is developed by integrating individual sub-models of the fuel cell, the electrolyzer, the power conditioning units, the hydrogen storage system, and the batteries (used as an energy buffer). The sub-models are valid for transient and steady state analysis as a function of voltage, current, and temperature. A comparison between experimental measurements and simulation results is given. The model is useful for building effective algorithms for the management, control and optimization of stand-alone RESHSs.

  7. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  8. Shared symmetries of the hydrogen atom and the two-bit system (United States)

    Rau, A. R. P.; Alber, G.


    The hydrogen atom is the simplest system of atomic and molecular physics, while a two-qubit system is the simplest of quantum information. Remarkably, they share common symmetry aspects which are described in this paper, based on a correspondence between the four-dimensional unitary group and the six-dimensional rotational group with its non-compact extensions. Both systems involve 15 basic operators. Reductions to Lorentz and Poincare space–time group symmetries of a free particle are also discussed.

  9. Modification and development of the external tank hydrogen vent umbilical system for the space shuttle vehicle (United States)

    Tatem, Bemis C., Jr.


    The design and development of a new T-O lock and secondary release mechanism which is being introduced to the ET Hydrogen Vent Umbilical System for the next launch of the Space Shuttle Vehicle is described. Critical analysis of the system in early 1986 indicated the need for an improvement in the secondary release system. The new T-O lock increases the clearance with the vehicle during secondary disconnect and is described.

  10. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  11. Entropic uncertainty measures for large dimensional hydrogenic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Puertas-Centeno; N.M. Temme (Nico); I.V. Toranzo; J.S. Dehesa


    textabstractThe entropic moments of the probability density of a quantum system in position and momentum spaces describe not only some fundamental and/or experimentally accessible quantities of the system but also the entropic uncertainty measures of Rényi type, which allow one to find the most

  12. A design study of hydrogen isotope separation system for ITER-FEAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Preliminary design study of the hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS) for the fuel cycle of the ITER-FEAT, a fusion experimental reactor, was carried out based on the substantial reduction of hydrogen flow to the ISS resulting from the design study for scale reduction of the formerly-designed ITER. Three feed streams (plasma exhaust gas stream, streams from the water detritiation system and that from the neutral beam injectors) are fed to the ISS, and three product streams (high purity tritium gas, high purity deuterium gas and hydrogen gas) are made in it by the method of cryogenic distillation. In this study, an original four-column cascade was proposed to the ISS cryogenic distillation column system considering simplification and the operation scenario of the ITER-FEAT. Substantial reduction of tritium inventory in the ISS was found to be possible in the progress of investigation concerning of the corresponding flow rate of tritium product stream (T>90 %) for pellet injector which depends upon the operation condition. And it was found that tritium concentration in the released hydrogen stream into environment from the ISS could easily fluctuate with current design of column arrangement due to the small disturbance in mass flow balance in the ISS. To solve this problem, two-column system for treatment of this flow was proposed. (author)

  13. Construction and commissioning of a hydrogen cryogenic distillation system for tritium recovery at ICIT Rm. Valcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, George, E-mail: [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Cristescu, Ion [Karlsruhe Istitute for Technologies, Tritium Laboratory, Eggenstein-Leopoldshaffen (Germany); Draghia, Mirela [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania); Bucur, Ciprian; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Vijulie, Mihai; Popescu, Gheorghe; Costeanu, Claudiu; Sofilca, Nicolae; Stefan, Iulia; Daramus, Robert; Niculescu, Alina; Oubraham, Anisoara; Spiridon, Ionut; Vasut, Felicia; Moraru, Carmen; Brad, Sebastian [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Pasca, Gheorghe [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania)


    Highlights: • Cryogenic distillation (CD) process is being employed for tritium separation from tritiated hydrogen mixtures. • Process control and safety phylosophy with the detritiation plant from Rm. Vâlcea. • Tests undertaken prior to commissioning of the CD system from Rm. Vâlcea. • Preliminary experiments with the CD system (non-radiological). - Abstract: Cryogenic distillation (CD) of hydrogen in combination with Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) or Combined Electrolytic Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is used for tritium removal/recovery from tritiated water. Tritiated water is being obtained after long time operation of CANDU reactors, or in case of ITER mainly by the Detritiation System (DS). The cryogenic distillation system (CDS) used to remove/recover tritium from a hydrogen stream consists of a cascade of cryogenic distillation columns and a refrigeration unit which provides the cooling capacity for the condensers of CD columns. The columns, together with the condensers and the process heat-exchangers are accommodated in a vacuumed cold box. In the particularly case of the ICIT Plant, the cryogenic distillation cascade consists of four columns with diameters between 100–7 mm and it has been designed to process up to 10 mc/h of tritiated deuterium. This paper will present the steps undertaken for construction and commissioning of a pilot plant for tritium removal/recovery by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen. The paper will show besides preliminary data obtained during commissioning, also general characteristics of the plant and its equipments.

  14. Understanding the build-up of a technological innovation system around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Smits, R.E.H.M.


    This study provides insight into the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the Netherlands (1980-2007). This is done by applying a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach. This approach takes the perspective that a technology is shaped by a surrounding network of actors,

  15. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud


    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate t...... to a storage capacity four times larger than a tube-in-tube solution of the same size. The volumetric and gravimetric densities of the shell and tube are 2.46% and 1.25% respectively. The dehydriding ability of this solution is proven to withstand intense discharging conditions....

  16. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik


    A dynamic fueling model is built to simulate the fueling process of a hydrogen tank with an integrated passive cooling system. The study investigates the possibility of absorbing a part of the heat of compression in the high latent-heat material during melting, with the aim of saving the monetary...... temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank, but its influence on the hydrogen peak temperature that occurs at the end of refueling is modest. The heat transfer from the gas...

  17. A compressed hydrogen gas storage system with an integrated phase change material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Jørgensen, Jens Erik


    A dynamic fueling model is built to simulate the fueling process of a hydrogen tank with an integrated passive cooling system. The study investigates the possibility of absorbing a part of the heat of compression in the high latent-heat material during melting, with the aim of keeping the walls...... below the critical temperature of 85 °C, while filling the hydrogen at ambient temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank. The heat transfer from the gas to the phase...

  18. Development strategies for solar power supply systems. The role of hydrogen in Germany; Entwicklungsstrategien fuer solare Energiesysteme. Die Rolle von Wasserstoff in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Dienhart, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Langniss, O. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik


    Hydrogen can serve as a solar energy storage medium and, thanks to its clean burning, as the energy carrier of the future - if it can be produced economically. In connection with the development of renewable energy sources, hydrogen plays an important role in the introduction of emission-free energy systems. However, in its production more energy is used than the product contains. At the moment hydrogen is not yet competitive. Nevertheless, under certains conditions its appearance in various market niches is resaonable. In the long run a greater market share is expected. [Deutsch] Wasserstoff gilt als Sonnenenergie-Speicher und dank sauberer Verbrennung als Energietraeger der Zukunft - so er wirtschaftlich erzeugt werden kann. In Verbindung mit der Entwicklung regenerativer Energiequellen kommt dem Wasserstoff eine wichtige Rolle zur Einfuehrung emissionsfreier Energiesysteme zu. Doch zur Wasserstoffgewinnung wird mehr Energie benoetigt als das Produkt enthaelt. Derzeit ist Wasserstoff noch nicht Konkurrenzfaehig. Dennoch - unter bestimmten Bedingungen ist sein Einsatz in Marktnischen sinnvoll. Langfristig werden groessere Marktanteile erwartet. (orig.)

  19. Inactivation of duck hepatitis B virus by a hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization system: laboratory and 'in use' testing. (United States)

    Vickery, K; Deva, A K; Zou, J; Kumaradeva, P; Bissett, L; Cossart, Y E


    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important cause of nosocomial infections and can be transmitted by contaminated instruments. However, tests of the efficacy of sterilization of materials and equipment contaminated by HBV are difficult to perform because the virus cannot be cultured in the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the capability of a low temperature, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilizer (Sterrad, Advanced Sterilization Products, Irvine California,) to inactivate duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). In laboratory efficacy studies using DHBV dried on to glass filter carriers and exposed to one-half of the hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process, there was a 10(7) or greater decrease in the viral titer, with no infectivity detected on the carriers after treatment. In-use studies were performed using a laparoscope that was experimentally contaminated with DHBV to mimic the possible transmission of infection between successive patients. Following exposure to the hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process no transmission of DHBV infection from the laparoscope occurred despite obvious visual soiling with blood (N = 8) while the transmission rate for the unprocessed laparoscope (positive control) was 100% (26/26), and that for instruments after a water wash was 63% (7/11). In conclusion the hydrogen gas plasma sterilization process completely inactivates DHBV a representative of the hepadna group of viruses.

  20. Carrier Screening (United States)

    ... pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have screening ... caused by a change in genes or chromosomes. Hemoglobinopathies: Any inherited disorder caused by changes in the ...

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy......, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide...

  2. Method of Hydrogenous Fuel Usage to Increase the Efficiency in Tandem Diverse Temperature Oxidation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimation energy efficiency, the collation data of thermodynamic calculations and data on material balance for an assessment of electric and thermal components in considered ways to use convention products, performance enhancement in the tandem system containing the high-temperature fuel cell and the low-temperature fuel cell with full heat regeneration for hydrogenous fuel (CH4. The overall effective efficiency (ηΣef. making full use of the recovered heat considered tandem system depends on the efficiency of its constituent fuel cells. The overall effective efficiency of the tandem installation including the fuel converter, separating system, high-temperature oxidation system, and hydrogen disposal system in case of fuel use in the low-temperature fuel cell, is higher than for each of the fuel cell elements separately.

  3. High pressure in situ diffraction studies of metal-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yartys, V.A., E-mail: [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO 7491 (Norway); Denys, R.V. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, NAS of Ukraine, Lviv 79601 (Ukraine); Webb, C.J. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University (Australia); Maehlen, J.P. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Gray, E. MacA.; Blach, T. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University (Australia); Isnard, O. [Institute Neel, CNRS/UJF, 38042 Grenoble (France); Barnsley, L.C. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University (Australia)


    Research highlights: > CeNi{sub 5}-D{sub 2} and Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2}-D{sub 2} systems were studied by in situ NPD at P up to 1000 bar. > In the hexagonal CeNi{sub 5}D{sub 6.3} deuterium atoms fill three types of interstices. > In the Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2}-based deuterides D atoms occupy the Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2} tetrahedra only D/Zr(Fe,Al){sub 2}, hysteresis and hydrides stability systematically change with Al content. - Abstract: 'Hybrid' hydrogen storage, where hydrogen is stored in both the solid material and as a high pressure gas in the void volume of the tank can improve overall system efficiency by up to 50% compared to either compressed hydrogen or solid materials alone. Thermodynamically, high equilibrium hydrogen pressures in metal-hydrogen systems correspond to low enthalpies of hydrogen absorption-desorption. This decreases the calorimetric effects of the hydride formation-decomposition processes which can assist in achieving high rates of heat exchange during hydrogen loading-removing the bottleneck in achieving low charging times and improving overall hydrogen storage efficiency of large hydrogen stores. Two systems with hydrogenation enthalpies close to -20 kJ/mol H{sub 2} were studied to investigate the hydrogenation mechanism and kinetics: CeNi{sub 5}-D{sub 2} and ZrFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x} (x = 0.02; 0.04; 0.20)-D{sub 2}. The structure of the intermetallics and their hydrides were studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction at pressures up to 1000 bar and complementary X-ray diffraction. The deuteration of the hexagonal CeNi{sub 5} intermetallic resulted in CeNi{sub 5}D{sub 6.3} with a volume expansion of 30.1%. Deuterium absorption filled three different types of interstices, Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2} and Ni{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 3} half-octahedra and was accompanied by a valence change for Ce. Significant hysteresis was observed between deuterium absorption and desorption which profoundly decreased on a second absorption cycle. For the Al

  4. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  5. Integration and dynamics of a renewable regenerative hydrogen fuel cell system (United States)

    Bergen, Alvin Peter


    This thesis explores the integration and dynamics of residential scale renewable-regenerative energy systems which employ hydrogen for energy buffering. The development of the Integrated Renewable Energy Experiment (IRENE) test-bed is presented. IRENE is a laboratory-scale distributed energy system with a modular structure which can be readily re-configured to test newly developed components for generic regenerative systems. Key aspects include renewable energy conversion, electrolysis, hydrogen and electricity storage, and fuel cells. A special design feature of this test bed is the ability to accept dynamic inputs from and provide dynamic loads to real devices as well as from simulated energy sources/sinks. The integration issues encountered while developing IRENE and innovative solutions devised to overcome these barriers are discussed. Renewable energy systems that employ a regenerative approach to enable intermittent energy sources to service time varying loads rely on the efficient transfer of energy through the storage media. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the hydrogen energy buffer under a range of dynamic operating conditions. Results indicate that the operating characteristics of the electrolyser under transient conditions limit the production of hydrogen from excess renewable input power. These characteristics must be considered when designing or modeling a renewable-regenerative system. Strategies to mitigate performance degradation due to interruptions in the renewable power supply are discussed. Experiments were conducted to determine the response of the IRENE system to operating conditions that are representative of a residential scale, solar based, renewable-regenerative system. A control algorithm, employing bus voltage constraints and device current limitations, was developed to guide system operation. Results for a two week operating period that indicate that the system response is very dynamic but repeatable are

  6. Messengers from the Early Solar System - Comets as Carriers of Cosmic Information (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.


    Viewed from a cosmic perspective, Earth is a dry planet yet its oceans are enriched in deuterium by a large factor relative to nebular hydrogen. Can comets have delivered Earth s water? The question of exogenous delivery of water and organics to Earth and other young planets is of critical importance for understanding the origin of Earth s water, and for assessing the possible existence of exo-planets similar to Earth. Strong gradients in temperature and chemistry in the proto-planetary disk, coupled with dynamical models, imply that comets from the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Disk reservoirs should have diverse composition. The primary volatiles in comets (ices native to the nucleus) provide the preferred metric, and taxonomies based on them are now beginning to emerge [1, 2, 3]. The measurement of cosmic parameters such as the nuclear spin temperatures for H2O, NH3, and CH4, and of enrichment factors for isotopologues (D/H in water and hydrogen cyanide, N-14/N-15 in CN and hydrogen cyanide) provide additional important tests for the origin of cometary material.

  7. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  8. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.


    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  9. Downlink Radio Resource Management for LTE-Advanced System with Combined MU-MIMO and Carrier Aggregation Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan


    In this paper we study the performance enhancement of a downlink LTE-Advanced system with a combination of the multi-user MIMO and carrier aggregation transmission techniques. Radio resource management for the systems with the combined features are proposed, and the system performance is evaluated....... Extensive simulations with various traffic load condition from full buffer with fixed number of UEs to finite buffer with bursty traffic were considered in order to find out when and how these two features can support each other to improve the overall performance gain of the LTE-Advanced system. It is shown...... that MU-MIMO transmission technique can help to enhance the cell-edge performance of the CA system by 10%-40% depending on traffic load....

  10. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.


    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Seasonal energy storage system based on hydrogen for self sufficient living (United States)

    Bielmann, M.; Vogt, U. F.; Zimmermann, M.; Züttel, A.

    SELF is a resource independent living and working environment. By on-board renewable electricity generation and storage, it accounts for all aspects of living, such as space heating and cooking as well as providing a purified rainwater supply and wastewater treatment, excluding food supply. Uninterrupted, on-demand energy and water supply are the key challenges. Off-grid renewable power supply fluctuations on daily and seasonal time scales impose production gaps that have to be served by local storage, a function normally fulfilled by the grid. While daily variations only obligate a small storage capacity, requirements for seasonal storage are substantial. The energy supply for SELF is reviewed based on real meteorological data and demand patterns for Zurich, Switzerland. A battery system with propane for cooking serves as a reference for battery-only and hybrid battery/hydrogen systems. In the latter, hydrogen is used for cooking and electricity generation. The analysis shows that hydrogen is ideal for long term bulk energy storage on a seasonal timescale, while batteries are best suited for short term energy storage. Although the efficiency penalty from hydrogen generation is substantial, in off-grid systems, this parameter is tolerable since the harvesting ratio of photovoltaic energy is limited by storage capacity.

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  13. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems


    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  14. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsalus, Robert


    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  15. Impact of tunable laser wavelength drift in a base-band and sub-carrier multiplexed system (United States)

    Connolly, E.; Kaszubowska-Anandarajah, A.; Perry, P.; Barry, L. P.


    The potential use of very densely spaced wavelengths in FTTx systems to carry modest bit rate broadband connections can be implemented either with conventional base-band (BB) intensity modulation or using sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) using Radio carriers. Such systems will typically use a long time frame time-sharing system to share a transmitting laser between a number of users. The impact of the adjacent channel interference due to wavelength drift of a tunable laser (TL) in such a system has been characterised for both the BB and SCM approaches. In the experiments described, a laser operating on a fixed wavelength represents the desired channel and an interferer is produced by using a TL that switches periodically between two other channels, one of which is adjacent to the desired channel. Although the TL output is blanked during the main switching transient, some wavelength drift occurs after the end of the blanking period which can cause interference to the adjacent channel. The BER measurements on the desired channel show that SCM is more resistant to this interference, allowing for closer channel spacing. For the TL tested, the BB data shows an error floor >1e-4 while the SCM data gave error free performance with a power penalty of ˜1.2 dB at 1e-9 in comparison to the back-to-back case.

  16. Hydrogen isotope distillation for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.


    A system of four, interlinked, cryogenic fractional distillation columns has been designed as a prototype for fuel processing for fusion power reactors. The distillation system will continuously separate a feedstream of 360 g moles/day of roughly 50-50 deuterium-tritium containing approximately 1% H into four product streams: (1) a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal; (2) a stream of high-purity D/sub 2/ for simulated neutral beam injection; (3) a stream of DT for simulated reactor refueling; and (4) a stream of high purity T/sub 2/ for refueling and studies on properties of tritium and effects of tritium on materials.

  17. Compact fuel cell system utilizing a combination of hydrogen storage materials for optimized performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Jennifer P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Gross, Karl J.; Ng, Greg L.


    An entirely new class of light-weight reversible hydrides was recently discovered (the Ti-doped alanates)[1]. These NaAIH{sub 4}-based materials have demonstrated reversible hydrogen storage capacities of up to 5 wt%, nearly 4 times the gravimetrically density of commercial metal hydrides. For this reason, they have been considered a breakthrough for hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles. This project is the first to publish the use of alanates for the generation of electrical power and the first demonstration of a hydride-fueled elevated-temperature PEM Fuel Cell. Because the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release by the alanate improves with elevated temperatures, novel concepts were tested for the purpose of developing a highly efficient stand-alone power system. A major focus of this work was on the modeling, design, construction and testing of an integrated fuel cell stack and hydrogen storage system that eliminates the need of complicated heat transfer systems and media. After extensive modeling efforts, a proof-of-concept system was built that employs an integrated fuel cell stack and hydride beds that balancing the generation of fuel cell waste heat with the endothermic release of hydrogen from the alanates. Our demonstration unit was capable of greater than one hour of operation on a single charge of hydrogen from the integrated 173 gram alanate bed. In addition, composite hydride materials with synergistic reaction heats were evaluated and tested to enhance the operational performance of the alanates. The composites provide a unique opportunity to utilize the heat produced from hydriding classic metal hydrides to improve both absorption and desorption rates of the alanates. A particular focus of the mixed storage materials work was to balance the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydrides for start-up conditions. Modeling of the sorption properties proved invaluable in evaluating the optimum composition of hydrides. The modeling efforts were followed

  18. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia


    Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  19. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz


    Full Text Available Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  20. Modeling, simulation, and optimization of a front-end system for acetylene hydrogenation reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gobbo


    Full Text Available The modeling, simulation, and dynamic optimization of an industrial reaction system for acetylene hydrogenation are discussed in the present work. The process consists of three adiabatic fixed-bed reactors, in series, with interstage cooling. These reactors are located after the compression and the caustic scrubbing sections of an ethylene plant, characterizing a front-end system; in contrast to the tail-end system where the reactors are placed after the de-ethanizer unit. The acetylene conversion and selectivity profiles for the reactors are optimized, taking into account catalyst deactivation and process constraints. A dynamic optimal temperature profile that maximizes ethylene production and meets product specifications is obtained by controlling the feed and intercoolers temperatures. An industrial acetylene hydrogenation system is used to provide the necessary data to adjust kinetics and transport parameters and to validate the approach.

  1. Load control of a wind-hydrogen stand-alone power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miland, Harald; Gloeckner, Ronny [Institute of Energy Technology (IFE), P.O. Box 40, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Taylor, Phil [Econnect, 19 Haugh Lane Ind Est, Hexham NE46 3PU (United Kingdom); Jarle Aaberg, Rolf [Statkraft SF, PB 200 Lilleaker, 0216 Oslo (Norway); Hagen, Georg [Department of Materials Technology, NTNU, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)


    A new generation of load controllers enable stand-alone power systems (SAPS) to use one or many standard (grid connected) wind turbines. The controllers use fuzzy logic software algorithms. The strategy is to use the control loads to balance the flow of active power in the system and hence control system frequency. The dynamic supply of reactive power by a synchronous compensator maintains the system voltage within the limits specified in EN50160. The resistive controller loads produce a certain amount of heat that is exchanged down to the end user (hot water). It was decided to investigate the implementation of a hydrogen subsystem into the SAPS that can work in parallel with the Distributed Intelligent Load Controller (DILC). The hydrogen subsystem can then function as energy storage on long-term basis and an active load controller on short-term basis. (author)

  2. Renewable Energy and Hydrogen System Concepts for Remote Communities in the West Nordic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein; Moerkved, Andreas


    In 2003 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted the funding for the first of several studies on renewable energy and hydrogen (RE/H2) energy systems for remote communities in the West Nordic region. The objective with this report is to summarize the main findings from Phase II and III of the West Nordic project. The island Nolsoy, Faroe Islands, was selected as a case study. The main conclusion is that it makes sense to design a wind/diesel-system with thermal storage, both from a techno-economical and environmental point of view. Such systems can have close to 100% local utilization of the wind energy, and can cover up to 75% of the total annual electricity demand and 35% of the annual heat demand at a cost of energy around 0.07 - 0.09 euro/kWh. The introduction of a hydrogen system is technically feasible, but doubles the overall investment costs

  3. Drug delivery via lipoprotein-based carriers: answering the challenges in systemic therapeutics. (United States)

    Sabnis, Nirupama; Lacko, Andras G


    Plasma lipoproteins are transporters of lipids and other hydrophobic molecules in the mammalian circulation. Lipoproteins also have a strong potential to serve as drug-delivery vehicles due to their small size, long residence time in the circulation and high-drug payload. Consequently, lipoproteins and synthetic/reconstituted lipoprotein preparations have been evaluated with increasing interest towards clinical applications, particularly for cancer diagnostics/imaging and chemotherapy. In this review, past and current studies on lipoproteins and similar alternative drug carriers are discussed regarding their suitability as agents to deliver drugs, primarily to cancer cells and tumors. A lipoprotein-based delivery strategy may also provide a novel platform for improving the therapeutic efficacy of drugs that have previously been judged unsuitable or had only limited application due to poor solubility. An additional, and perhaps the most important aspect of the drug-delivery process via lipoprotein-type carriers, is the receptor-mediated uptake of the payload from the lipoprotein complex. Monitoring the expression of specific receptors prior to treatment could, thus, give rise to efficient selection of optimally responsive patients, resulting in a successful personalized therapy regimen.

  4. Carrier-mediated system for transport of biotin in rat intestine in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, H.M.; Redha, R.


    Transport of biotin was examined in rat intestine using the everted sac technique. Transport of 0.1 biotin was linear with time for at least 30 min of incubation and occurred at a rate 3.7 pmol g initial tissue wet wt/sup -1/ min/sup -1/. Transport of biotin was higher in the jejunum than the ileum and was minimum in the colon (85 +/- 6, 36 +/- 6, and 2.8 +/- 0.6 pmol x g initial tissue wet wt/sup -1/ x 25 min/sup -1/, respectively). In the jejunum, transport of biotin was saturable at low concentrations but linear at higher concentrations. The transport of low concentrations of biotin was 1) inhibited by structural analogues (desthiobiotin, biotin methyl ester, diaminobiotin, and biocytin), 2) Na/sup +/ dependent, 3) energy dependent, 4) temperature dependent, and 5) proceeded against a concentration gradient in the serosal compartment. No metabolic alteration occurs to the biotin molecule during transport. This study demonstrates that biotin transport in rat intestine occurs by a carrier-mediated process at low concentrations and by simple diffusion at high concentrations. Furthermore, the carrier-mediated process is Na/sup +/, energy, and temperature dependent.

  5. Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo Navarro, Jaime; Kakkar, Aditya; Pang, Xiaodan


    A novel two-stage n-PSK partitioning carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme for circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations is presented. The first stage of the algorithm provides an initial rough estimation of the received constellation, which is utilized in the second......-16QAM back-to-back transmission system. The computational complexity of the proposed CPR scheme is studied, and reduction factors of 24.5 | 30.1 and 59.1 | 63.3 are achieved for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, compared to single-stage BPS in the form of multipliers | adders....

  6. Bit Error Rate Approximation of MIMO-OFDM Systems with Carrier Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lu


    Full Text Available The bit error rate (BER of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems with carrier frequency offset and channel estimation errors is analyzed in this paper. Intercarrier interference (ICI and interantenna interference (IAI due to the residual frequency offsets are analyzed, and the average signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR is derived. The BER of equal gain combining (EGC and maximal ratio combining (MRC with MIMO-OFDM is also derived. The simulation results demonstrate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis.

  7. Proton and hydrogen atom detection efficiency of resistance strip magnetic electron multiplier particle-counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrenberg, P.J.; Clark, K.C.


    The absolute detection efficiency for protons and for hydrogen atoms in the energy range 5--60 keV is determined for a resistance strip magnetic electron multiplier particle-counting system. Significant history-dependent gain variations are discussed. The detector system is suitable for use in coincidence experiments requiring particle-counting rates to 1.0 MHz and timing accuracies of 3.0 nsec. (AIP)

  8. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)


    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  9. Final Technical Report for GO15056 Millennium Cell: Development of an Advanced Chemical Hydrogen Storage and Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Oscar [Millennium Cell Inc., Eatontown, NJ (United States)


    The objectives of this project are to increase system storage capacity by improving hydrogen generation from concentrated sodium borohydride, with emphasis on reactor and system engineering; to complete a conceptual system design based on sodium borohydride that will include key technology improvements to enable a hydrogen fuel system that will meet the systembased storage capacity of 1.2 kWh/L (36 g H2/L) and 1.5 kWh/kg (45 g H2/kg), by the end of FY 2007; and to utilize engineering expertise to guide Center research in both off-board chemical hydride regeneration and on-board hydrogen generation systems.

  10. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian


    Novel developments regarding materials for solid-state hydrogen storage show promising prospects. These complex hydrides exhibit high mass-related storage capacities and thus great technical potential to store hydrogen in an efficient and safe way. However, a comprehensive evaluation of economic competitiveness is still lacking, especially in the case of the LiBH4 / MgH2 storage material. In this study, an assessment with respect to the economic feasibility of implementing complex hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is presented. The cost structure of hydrogen storage systems based on NaAlH4 and LiBH4 / MgH2 is discussed and compared with the conventional high pressure (700 bar) and liquid storage systems. Furthermore, the properties of LiBH4 / MgH2, so-called Li-RHC (Reactive Hydride Composite), are scientifically compared and evaluated on the lab and pilot plant scale. To enhance the reaction rate, the addition of TiCl3 is investigated and high energy ball milling is evaluated as processing technique. The effect of the additive in combination with the processing technique is described in detail. Finally, an optimum set of processing parameters and additive content are identified and can be applied for scaled-up production of the material based on simple models considering energy input during processing. Furthermore, thermodynamic, heat transfer and kinetic properties are experimentally determined by different techniques and analysed as a basis for modelling and designing scaled-up storage systems. The results are analysed and discussed with respect to the reaction mechanisms and reversibility of the system. Heat transfer properties are assessed with respect to the scale-up for larger hydrogen storage systems. Further improvements of the heat transfer were achieved by compacting the material. In this regard, the influence of the compaction pressure on the apparent density, thermal conductivity and sorption behaviour, was investigated in detail. Finally, scaled

  11. Simulating pH and hydrogen sulfide in a distributed collection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Le Guennec, Anne; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning


    A concept for modeling the pH in distributed sewer systems is presented. The concept is an extension of the existing sewer process model WATS, which simulates physical, chemical and biological processes in wastewater, biofilms, sediments, and sewer headspace, as well as water flow, gas flow...... was calibrated to the conveyance system of Tangier, Morocco, and was able to simulate the observed variation in pH as well as the observed levels of hydrogen sulfide in the network. For the sewer system of Tangier, the most important buffer system was the carbonate system, followed by ammonia and amino groups...

  12. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)


    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  13. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook


    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  14. Biochemical and genetic engineering strategies to enhance hydrogen production in photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Pyne, Michael E; Perry Chou, C


    As an energy carrier, hydrogen gas is a promising substitute to carbonaceous fuels owing to its superb conversion efficiency, non-polluting nature, and high energy content. At present, hydrogen is predominately synthesized via chemical reformation of fossil fuels. While various biological methods have been extensively explored, none of them is justified as economically feasible. A sustainable platform for biological production of hydrogen will certainly impact the biofuel market. Among a selection of biological systems, algae and cyanobacteria have garnered major interests as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical systems. This article reviews recent advances of biochemical, bioprocess, and genetic engineering strategies in circumventing technological limitations to hopefully improve the applicative potential of these photosynthetic hydrogen production systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A head-to-head comparison of hydrogen peroxide vapor and aerosol room decontamination systems. (United States)

    Holmdahl, T; Lanbeck, P; Wullt, M; Walder, M H


    New technologies have emerged in recent years for the disinfection of hospital rooms and equipment that may not be disinfected adequately using conventional methods. There are several hydrogen peroxide-based area decontamination technologies on the market, but no head-to-head studies have been performed. We conducted a head-to-head in vitro comparison of a hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) system (Bioquell) and an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) system (Sterinis). The tests were conducted in a purpose-built 136-m(3) test room. One HPV generator and 2 aHP machines were used, following recommendations of the manufacturers. Three repeated tests were performed for each system. The microbiological efficacy of the 2 systems was tested using 6-log Tyvek-pouched Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs). The indicators were placed at 20 locations in the first test and 14 locations in the subsequent 2 tests for each system. All BIs were inactivated for the 3 HPV tests, compared with only 10% in the first aHP test and 79% in the other 2 aHP tests. The peak hydrogen peroxide concentration was 338 ppm for HPV and 160 ppm for aHP. The total cycle time (including aeration) was 3 and 3.5 hours for the 3 HPV tests and the 3 aHP tests, respectively. Monitoring around the perimeter of the enclosure with a handheld sensor during tests of both systems did not identify leakage. One HPV generator was more effective than 2 aHP machines for the inactivation of G. stearothermophilus BIs, and cycle times were faster for the HPV system.

  16. Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems


    Christian Pötzinger; Markus Preißinger; Dieter Brüggemann


    This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of co...

  17. Hydrogen production by model systems including hydrogenases from phototrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotov, I.N.; Zorin, N.A.; Serebriakova, L.T. (AN SSSR, Pushchino (SU). Inst. of Soil Science and Photosynthesis)


    Hydrogenases of purple (Rhodobacter capsulatus, Thiocapsa roseopersicina) and green (Chlorobium limicola, Chloroflexus aurantiacus) bacteria catalyse the reactions of H{sub 2} evolution (uptake) and isotopic exchange in the system D{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at a high rate (20-60 units mg{sup -1} protein; 30{sup o}C). The enzyme active center includes a proton-accepting group, an (FeS) cluster and nickel. The data proving the direct participation of nickel in H{sub 2} activation are obtained. The hydrogenases from phototrophic bacteria are characterized by a high stability to denaturing factors. Thiocapsa roseopersicina hydrogenase absorbed at the carbon electrode accelerates electrochemical H{sub 2} oxidation and evolution. Biocatalytic systems containing chloroplasts, ferredoxin and hydrogenase produce H{sub 2} at a rate up to 100{mu}mol (h mg Chl){sup -1} but exhibit low stability. Thiocapsa roseopersicina hydrogenase adsorbed on the particles of inorganic semiconductor TiO{sub 2} carries out H{sub 2} photoproduction. (author).

  18. Study of Systems and Technology for Liquid Hydrogen Production Independent of Fossil Fuels (United States)

    Sprafka, R. J.; Escher, W. J. D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Shingleton, J.; Moore, J. S.; Baker, C. R.


    Based on Kennedy Space Center siting and logistics requirements and the nonfossil energy resources at the Center, a number of applicable technologies and system candidates for hydrogen production were identified and characterized. A two stage screening of these technologies in the light of specific criteria identified two leading candidates as nonfossil system approaches. Conceptual design and costing of two solar-operated, stand alone systems, one photovoltaic based on and the other involving the power tower approach reveals their technical feasibility as sited as KSC, and the potential for product cost competitiveness with conventional supply approaches in the 1990 to 1210 time period. Conventional water hydrolysis and hydrogen liquefaction subsystems are integrated with the solar subsystems.

  19. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein


    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems; L'hydrogene electrolytique comme moyen de stockage d'electricite pour systemes photovoltaiques isoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, J


    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  1. {beta}-TCP porous pellets as an orthopaedic drug delivery system: ibuprofen/carrier physicochemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradari, Hiba; Damia, Chantal; Dutreih-Colas, Maggy; Champion, Eric; Chulia, Dominique; Viana, Marylene, E-mail: [SPCTS-Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges CEDEX (France)


    Calcium phosphate bone substitute materials can be loaded with active substances for in situ, targeted drug administration. In this study, porous {beta}-TCP pellets were investigated as an anti-inflammatory drug carrier. Porous {beta}-TCP pellets were impregnated with an ethanolic solution of ibuprofen. The effects of contact time and concentration of ibuprofen solution on drug adsorption were studied. The ibuprofen adsorption equilibrium time was found to be one hour. The adsorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, suggesting that the interaction between ibuprofen and {beta}-TCP is weak. The physicochemical characterizations of loaded pellets confirmed that the reversible physisorption of ibuprofen on {beta}-TCP pellets is due to Van der Waals forces, and this property was associated with the 100% ibuprofen release.

  2. On the Estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset and DC Offset for OFDM Systems (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Nakao, Takeshi; Lu, Weiming; Yamashita, Katsumi

    In an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) receiver with direct-conversion architecture, carrier frequency offset (CFO) and direct-current offset (DCO), which cause severe performance degradation, need to be estimated and compensated. Recently, by investigating the subspace of OFDM signal after coarse DCO cancellation using timedomain average, we have proposed a nullspace-based estimator (NSE), for blind CFO and DCO estimation. In this paper, based on an analysis of the cost function of the NSE, we propose a common nullspace based estimator (CNSE). It is shown that by matching the frequency occupation of the received OFDM signal with CFO and DCO, the CNSE can achieve the full performance potential of the NSE. Also, the performance analysis reveals that the CNSE can asymptotically approach the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) of OFDM CFO estimation in the presence of DCO. Finally the analysis results are confirmed by simulations.

  3. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.


    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  4. Development of a Hydrogen Energy System as a Grid Frequency Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewan, Mitch [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Rocheleau, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen [U.S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Virji, Meheboob [GRandalytics, Honolulu, HI (United States); Randolph, Guenter [Hydrogen Renewable Energy System Analysis, Pickering, ON (Canada)


    The Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is conducting research to assess the technical potential of using an electrolyzer-based hydrogen (H2) production and storage system as a grid demand response tool using battery data from a 200 MW grid to show the kind of response required. The hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer is used for transportation. A 65 kg/day hydrogen energy system (HES) consisting of a PEM electrolyzer, 35 bar buffer tank, 450 bar compressor, and associated chiller systems was purchased and installed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Laboratory Hawaii Authority (NELHA) to demonstrate long-term durability of the electrolyzer under cyclic operation required for frequency regulation on an island grid system. The excess hydrogen was stored for use by three fuel-cell buses to be operated at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) and by the County of Hawai‘i Mass Transit Agency (MTA). This paper describes the site selection and equipment commissioning, plus a comprehensive test plan that was developed to characterize the performance and durability of the electrolyzer under dynamic load conditions. The controls were modified for the operating envelope and dynamic limits of the electrolyzer. While the data showed these modifications significantly improved the system response time, it is not fast enough to match a BESS response time for grid frequency management. The electrolyzer can only be used for slower acting changes (1 to 0.5 Hz). A potential solution is to design an electrolyzer/BESS hybrid system and develop a modeling program to find the optimum mix of battery and electrolyzer to provide the maximum grid regulation services at minimum cost.

  5. Deactivation and Regeneration of NaTaO3 Photocatalyst in Co-operating Dehydrogenation Coupling of Isopropanol and Hydrogenation Coupling of Acetone Reaction System. (United States)

    Cao, Baoyue; Yu, Yan; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xiangting; Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhijian; Wang, Shumin; Zhang, Guochun


    Photocatalyst activity is influenced by many factors, such as adsorption of by-products, runoff of surface hydroxyl groups, and carriers. In this study, a simple and efficient photocatalyst regeneration method was developed. Results indicated that NaTaO3 photocatalyst lost its photo-activity after three cycles of reaction that involves coupling of isopropanol and hydrogenation coupling of acetone reaction system. Runoff of Na on the surface was the main reason for the deactivation of NaTaO3 photocatalyst. After hydrothermal treatment of the deactivated NaTaO3 with 10 M NaOH at 180 °C for 12 h, its photocatalytic activity was restored to the original level. The photocatalytic activity remained stable even after 10 cycles This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Algal Hydrogen Production -- Stand Alone or Integrated System?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; Maness, Pin Ching; Kosourovo, Sergey


    Photosynthetic bacteria and green algae photoproduce H2. but do so utilizing different catalysts and substrates. Green algae use reductant generate mostly by water oxidation to catalyze the reduction of protons to H2 gas, while photosynthetic bacteria catalyze H2 production from organic acids using the nitrogenase enzyme. Moreover, these two organisms utilize different regions of the solar spectrum to perform photosynthesis: green algae's light harvesting antenna is comprised of chlorophyll molecules that absorb mostly blue and red light; photosynthetic bacteria harvest blue and far-red light through their light-harvesting pigments to run its non-oxygenic photosynthetic reactions. There is thus an opportunity to increase the range of solar spectrum used to photoproduce H2 by combining the light-harvesting and catalytic properties of these two organisms in a single process. In the current manuscript, we describe an experimental system that validates this hypothesis and demonstrates quantitatively the advantages of a two organism process for production of higher amounts of H2 and thus achieving solar light conversion efficiencies.

  7. Continuous immobilized yeast reactor system for complete beer fermentation using spent grains and corncobs as carrier materials. (United States)

    Brányik, Tomás; Silva, Daniel P; Vicente, António A; Lehnert, Radek; e Silva, João B Almeida; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, José A


    Despite extensive research carried out in the last few decades, continuous beer fermentation has not yet managed to outperform the traditional batch technology. An industrial breakthrough in favour of continuous brewing using immobilized yeast could be expected only on achievement of the following process characteristics: simple design, low investment costs, flexible operation, effective process control and good product quality. The application of cheap carrier materials of by-product origin could significantly lower the investment costs of continuous fermentation systems. This work deals with a complete continuous beer fermentation system consisting of a main fermentation reactor (gas-lift) and a maturation reactor (packed-bed) containing yeast immobilized on spent grains and corncobs, respectively. The suitability of cheap carrier materials for long-term continuous brewing was proved. It was found that by fine tuning of process parameters (residence time, aeration) it was possible to adjust the flavour profile of the final product. Consumers considered the continuously fermented beer to be of a regular quality. Analytical and sensorial profiles of both continuously and batch fermented beers were compared.

  8. A Self-Supported Direct Borohydride-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Shukla


    Full Text Available A self-supported direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell system with internal manifolds and an auxiliary control unit is reported. The system, while operating under ambient conditions, delivers a peak power of 40 W with about 2 W to run the auxiliary control unit. A critical cause and effect analysis, on the data for single cells and stack, suggests the optimum concentrations of fuel and oxidant to be 8 wt. % NaBH4 and 2 M H2O2, respectively in extending the operating time of the system. Such a fuel cell system is ideally suited for submersible and aerospace applications where anaerobic conditions prevail.

  9. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri


    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  10. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen boost/vane pump for the advanced orbit transfer vehicles auxiliary propulsion system (United States)

    Gluzek, F.; Mokadam, R. G.; To, I. H.; Stanitz, J. D.; Wollschlager, J.


    A rotating, positive displacement vane pump with an integral boost stage was designed to pump saturated liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen for auxiliary propulsion system of orbit transfer vehicle. This unit is designed to ingest 10% vapor by volume, contamination free liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The final pump configuration and the predicted performance are included.

  11. Carrier: Interference ratios for frequency sharing between satellite systems transmitting frequency modulated and digital television signals (United States)

    Barnes, S. P.


    Results are presented of subjective and quantitative tests describing the results of interference to a particular digital television system from a frequency modulated (FM) television system, and for interference to an FM television system from a digital television system.

  12. Start Up of Biohydrogen Production System and Effect of Metal Ions on Hydrogen Production (United States)

    Jiao, An-ying; Li, Yong-feng; Yue, Li-ran; Yang, Chuan-ping


    Fermentative hydrogen production is a promising biochemical route to produce renewable H2. The effect of organic loading rate on the biohydrogen production during the start-up phase and effect of Fe2+ and Mg2+ concentration on biohydrogen production of a continuous stirred tank reactor using molasses wastewater as substrate were investigated. It was found that an initial biomass of 14.07 gVSS/L and an organic loading rate of 6.0 kgCOD/m3ṡd, an equilibrial microbial community in the butyric-type fermentation could be established with in 30 days. It was demonstrated that both Fe2+ and Mg2+ were able to enhance the hydrogen production capacity of microorganism flora. Different concentration of Fe2+ was added to the biohydrogen producing system (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 500 mg/L), the maximum biogas production yield of 6.78 L/d and the maximum specific hydrogen production rate of 10.1 ml/gVSSṡh were obtained at Fe2+ concentration of 500 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. The maximum biogas production yield of 6.84 L/d and the maximum specific hydrogen production rate of 10.2 ml/gVSSṡh were obtained at Mg2+ concentration of 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively.

  13. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.


    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  14. Hydrogen Production Enhancement Using a Stratified Catalyst Bed in Reforming Systems (United States)

    Richards, Nadia Olivia

    An investigation was conducted for a stratified catalyst arrangement for methanol reforming. The motivation for the stratified system is to strategically place different catalysts within the reactor so that the reaction will progress according to the catalyst selectivity. This will allow the reduction of the unwanted intermediates and serves to improve the overall hydrogen product concentration. The stratified arrangement consisted of a platinum group metal (PGM) catalyst, along with a commercially available Cu/ZnO/Al2O 3 water gas shift (WGS) catalyst. The system was experimentally investigated under different test conditions by varying the flow rate, oxygen-to-methanol ratio, and the packed length of the downstream WGS section. From these experiments the effects of each variable were quantified for their influence on the conversion and hydrogen yield. The oxidation reactions were carried out on the PGM catalyst, causing internal heating of the downstream WGS packed bed. The supplied heat keeps the WGS catalyst active to reform and shift the final products into a hydrogen-rich composition. Conversion increases of 30% were possible within one added section of WGS catalyst, with two sections achieving full conversion. This behavior can be modeled as a first order response from which a characteristic WGS length can be determined and used as a descriptive parameter to compare stratified systems. Overall, this study is expected to provide a basic analysis, and contribute to the improvement of reformer design for better fuel processing system performance.

  15. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.


    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  17. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Nanostructures for Solar Fuels (United States)

    Baxter, Jason B.; Richter, Christiaan; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.


    Sunlight can be used to drive chemical reactions to produce fuels that store energy in chemical bonds. These fuels, such as hydrogen from splitting water, have much larger energy density than do electrical storage devices. The efficient conversion of clean, sustainable solar energy using photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic systems requires precise control over the thermodynamics, kinetics, and structural aspects of materials and molecules. Generation, thermalization, trapping, interfacial transfer, and recombination of photoexcited charge carriers often occur on femtosecond to picosecond timescales. These short timescales limit the transport of photoexcited carriers to nanometer-scale distances, but nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios can enable both significant light absorption and high quantum efficiency. This review highlights the importance of understanding ultrafast carrier dynamics for the generation of solar fuels, including case studies on colloidal nanostructures, nanostructured photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes sensitized with molecular chromophores and catalysts.

  18. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik


    A dynamic fueling model is built to simulate the fueling process of a hydrogen tank with an integrated passive cooling system. The study investigates the possibility of absorbing a part of the heat of compression in the high latent-heat material during melting, with the aim of saving the monetary...... and energy resources spent at the refueling station to cool the gas prior to tank filling. This is done while respecting the technical constraint of keeping the walls below the critical temperature of 85 C to ensure the mechanical stability of the storage system even when the gas is fueled at ambient...... temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank, but its influence on the hydrogen peak temperature that occurs at the end of refueling is modest. The heat transfer from the gas...

  19. Control of systems with asymmetric bounds using linear programming: application to a hydrogen reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper studies controller design for feedback systems in the presence of asymmetrically bounded signals, using a case study. An asymmetric objective functional is used to consider the asymmetrically bounded signals, which makes possible to derive a linear programming problem. Solving this LP makes possible to design controllers that minimize certain outputs, fulfilling at the same time hard constraints on certain signals. The method is presented by application to a hydrogen reformer, a system in petrochemical plants that produces hydrogen from hydrocarbons: a mixed sensitivity problem is stated and solved, with an additional constraint given by the asymmetric limitations on the magnitude and rate of the control signal, and the asymmetricity in the disturbances.

  20. Interdependent multi-objective sizing and control optimisation of a renewable energy hydrogen system


    Human, Gerhardus; Schoor, George van; Uren, Kenneth R.


    This paper presents a sizing and control optimisation architecture for the design and evaluation of a small-scale stand-alone hybrid PV-wind-battery system for the production of hydrogen (H2) using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Three objectives are considered simultaneously namely cost, efficiency and reliability. For this task an optimisation approach is developed combining a single objective genetic algorithm (GA) with a multiobjective GA (MOGA) to optimise nine ...